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Social Science 1A Principles in the Social Sciences Fall 2012 Study Guide Exam II Exam II is scheduled for Monday

y November 19, 2012 at 10:00am will cover lecture material, films, handouts, and chapters 4, 8, 9, 37, 38, 40, 44, 45, 47, 52, 53, 55 of the text. Please bring a Scantron Form F288-Par-L From the lectures, please know the following: Modernism/Postmodernism How did we define postmodernism? What countries are postmodern countries? What is considered to be the most postmodern country? What kind of economic system is most influenced by postmodernism? What is postmodern art? Who did we discuss in lecture as a postmodern artist? What is modern architecture? What is postmodern architecture? On what date did modernism in architecture end? What happened on that date? What does the phrase death of the author mean? What is an important implication for current society of the concept of the death of the author? What does postmodernism reject in social science? What social sciences are likely to accept postmodernism? What social sciences are not likely to be influenced by postmodernism? What was the promise of the enlightenment (modernism) to humanity in the 18th century? Why was Frederick Nietzsche skeptical of the promise of the enlightenment? What did Nietzsche predict for the promise of the enlightenment? What did Nietzsche mean by the saying will to power? What did Nietzsche mean by the saying God is dead? Why was Nietzsche against religion? What is Nietzsches doctrine of eternal recurrence? How did Hitler view Nietzsches superman? What did Hitler think of objective science? Why is Spenglers book Decline of the West important for later attacks upon science from postmodern commentators? How do societies change according to Spengler? How did the Nazis use the World-Ice Theory to promote their belief systems? What did science think of this theory?

All postmodern commentators agree that current society does not accept grand narratives. What are grand narratives? Who said there are no more grand narratives? What has replaced grand narratives? What did Lyotard predict about knowledge in the future? What did Baudrillard mean by the term simulacra? What does it mean to say something is hyperreal? What does the term ecstasy of communication mean? Baudrillard duplicated Alexis de Tocqueville trip to America. What did de Tocqueville conclude from his trip in the 19th century? What did Baudrillard conclude from his trip to America in the 20th century? How did Frederic Jameson say we should deal with postmodernism? What groups in society oppose postmodernism? We saw a film about a manufacturing company that was completely wiped out when they lost their computerized records. We will have at least one question on this film. How does this compare with Lyotards prediction that eventually all knowledge will be stored on computers? What is the message from Postmodernism to science? Economics: According to lecture, what is the definition of economics? What are the goals of economic policies? What was economic life like before 1800? What are the definitions of the Market System and the Command System for economic policy? How has Chinas economic system changed in recent years? What is the difference between economic analysis and econometrics as branches of economics? Why was usury once considered a sin? What was Aristotles view of usury? What are the contributions of John Maynard Keyes to contemporary economic theory? What are supply and demand curves; what does the point of equilibrium indicate? What factors will cause shifts in these curves? What is meant by the terms aggressive accounting and rolling revenue? What is meant by the term corporate culture? What are the main provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to combat corporate crime?

We will view portions of a documentary on the Enron scandal. The following questions are regarding that film and our discussion of the film. Exam questions from the film will be on film content and not limited to these questions. What were the characteristics of the corporate culture at Enron under Lay and Skilling and Fastow? How did their personalities contribute to the corporate culture? What does the term mark to market mean? What was the process called rank and yank? Andy Fastow created a scheme to hide Enrons debts which violated Enrons ethical code. How did Enron deal with this? When it became clear that Enrons stock value was in decline, why were the employees not able to sell their stock? What did the Enron executives tell their employees so they would not worry about falling stock prices that were jeopardizing their retirement funds? In addition to Enron executives, the filmmaker believes others are equally responsible for the losses to Enron employees and investors. Who are these others? Know the lessons from the Enron scandal as discussed in lecture. Psychology: What is the definition of the science of psychology? What are the contributions of Freud, Piaget, Watson, Skinner and George Miller to the development of psychology? What is the mind-body problem? What is the problem of other minds? What is the issue raised with the mind-body problem about empirical research? Chapter 4: What is the definition of the science of psychology? What are the five areas of research and theory within psychology? Know the behaviorist approach to the study of psychology. The behaviorists concentrated on what area of research? Know the cognitive approach to the study of psychology. The cognitive psychologists have concentrated on what areas of research? What research problems are studied within developmental psychology? How did Piaget view human development? What do social psychologists do? How does the research of the social psychologists differ from the research of the sociologist? What is self-actualization according to Carl Rogers? What is necessary to achieve selfactualization? What do clinical psychologists do?

Regardless of the type of therapy, what is the most important requirement of the person seeking therapy? (See Box 4.1) Chapter 8: What is the definition of economics? What is the difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics? What do the following terms mean in economics: commodities, land, labor and capital. What is the fundamental problem studied in economics? Please know the characteristics of the market economy, the command economy and the mixed economy. According to this chapter, what is unfair about globalization? (See box 8.2) Chapter 9: What is the definition of history? What two ancient Greeks started the field of history? What events did these two Greeks study? What causes people to misinterpret the meaning of a historical even or even question whether the event took place? Why is history important for the understanding of current events? How can the study of history help us avoid making mistakes in social policy? Chapter 37: What did Freud emphasize as the causes for human behavior? What did Skinner emphasize as the causes for human behavior? What are Freuds id, ego and superego constructs for personality? What is the function of each construct? What is the message of Freuds book, Civilization and Its Discontents? Is this message consistent with Nietzsches interpretation of the world? Did Skinner believe that behavior in a society should be controlled by reward or by punishment? What reasons did Skinner give for his position on this issue? Chapter 38 : What is Eriksons attitude toward Freuds work? Focus on the conflicts of the different ages according to Erikson. Know the exact terms and what the terms mean that express the conflicts of these age periods. What is the purpose of psycho-historical investigation developed by Erikson? According to Erikson, how can a crisis or an episode in a persons life then give purpose or meaning to the future life of that individual? Know the example of Martin Luther given in the text (pp 432-433).

Chapter 40: Please know the case of Anna reviewed in the chapter. What happened to Anna in the first six years of her life? Describe her physical condition at age 6. After age 6, when she was given proper care, how did Anna develop mentally? Did she learn to talk after her rescue? Compare Annas case to the similar case of Isabelle. What was the prognosis for Isabelles future mental development when she was evaluated at age 6.5 years old? What was Isabelles actual progress regarding her mental development up to age 14? According to Box 40.1, is there are critical period for language development? If so, when does this critical period end? According to Box 40.2 who was Genie and what happened to her? What hypothesis was offered as to why Genie never attained the normal use of language? According to Box 40.3 who was the Wild Boy of Aveyron. According to Itard, what prevented this boy from acquiring the use of language? Chapter 44: Were the federal programs initiated by Presidents Kennedy and Johnson effective in reducing the poverty rate in America between 1960 and 1970? Since 1970, the poverty rate for children has been increasing. What is the poverty rate for children in the United States in the year 1998? How does the poverty rate in the United States compare to the poverty rate in other industrialized countries? Is poverty in the United States related to race? If so, what groups seem to suffer the highest rates of poverty? Based on ethnographic studies, what is life like for a person in poverty in the United States? Know the three main reasons why the poverty rate in the United States remained constant over the decade of the 1990s despite a robust economy. For a child raised in poverty, what are the dangers to that childs mental and physical health? Why is it that having a full-time job is not a guarantee that someone will be able to move out of poverty? Chapter 45: What is meant by a non-standard work schedule? In 1997, what percentage of employed American citizens had a standard work schedule?

What is one positive effect upon the family due to parents having non-standard work schedules? How are divorce rates affected when the husband and/or wife have non-standard work schedules? Chapter 47: Why has work disappeared from the ghetto (i.e., inner city) during the 1990s? How has inner city life affected the family structure? What are the four proposals offered by the author to help alleviate social injustice in the United States, especially in the inner cities? Chapter 52: What was the human population of the world in 1998? By 2050, the worlds population could climb to what level? After reading this chapter, are you optimistic or pessimistic about the human condition on this planet in the year 2050? From Box 52.1 on page 598, what are the three steps of demographic transition proposed by Frank Notestein? What is meant by demographic fatigue? Chapter 53: The median age of Americans is rising. By the year 2050, how many people out of 5 will be 65 years old? As the median age of Americans climbs, several social changes are likely to occur. How will senior citizens use computer technology? Are seniors a powerful force politically? Chapter 55: According to Francis Fukuyama, what is the political and economic future of the world? Do you believe that everyone who has political and /or economic power shares Fukuyamas view? According to the chapter, what threats do multi-national corporations pose to democracy and the attempt to reduce poverty on the planet? Should there be a social obligation between consumers (often found in rich countries) with workers (often found in poor countries) who receive very meager wages from multi-national businesses. Next page is sample exam from previous quarter the exam is not part of the study guide except to give you an idea of the type of questions asked. Note: The second exam this Fall 2012 will have 50 questions.

Exam No._____

Name _______________________________________________ Social Science 1A: Principles Sample Exam 2 1. The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche proposed that humans seek the ability to control their own lives and destinies. Nietzsche called this view: a. b. c. d. will to live. will to believe. will to power. will to happiness.

2. Which of the following statements best represents the predictions of Nietzsche for the 20th century? a. The 20th century will witness the elimination of poverty due to the success of capitalism. b. The 20th century will witness the end of the human species since evolution will produce a super-human race of people. c. The 20th century will fulfill the dreams of the enlightenment philosophers by producing the best of all possible worlds. d. The 20th century will be filled with misery and sadness due to the misuse of science. 3. Andy Warhol is considered to be a postmodern artist. What did Warhol try to accomplish in his art? a. He attempted to show how miserable the lives of most of us are in the postmodern age. b. He attempted to represent the influence of the media and advertisement in his art. c. He attempted to create strange geometrical shapes in his art in order to capture the attention and imagination of his audience. d. He celebrated the achievements of science in his art. 4. Modern architecture strives for: a. b. c. d. simplicity using basic geometric forms. elegance and a mixture of styles. a return to the Gothic style of architecture. a return to the ancient Greek style of architecture.

5. Postmodern architecture strives for:

a. b. c. d.

a return to the Roman style of architecture. a return to the ancient Chinese style of architecture. playfulness and a mixture of styles. basic geometric design using glass, steel and reinforced concrete.

6. Which event of the 20th century is often considered by postmodern theorists as the one which indicated that the Enlightenment promise to future generations could not be kept? a. b. c. d. World War I the bombing of Japan in World War II the sinking of the Titanic the great San Francisco earthquake

7. Jean Baudrillard, a French philosopher and critic of postmodernism, wrote the following: The only real beauty is created by plastic surgery, the only urban beauty by landscape surgery, the only opinion by opinion poll surgery...and now, with genetic engineering, comes plastic surgery for the whole human species. This quote indicates that: a. b. c. d. the real has been replaced by simulation. society has produced people that are vain and self-centered. people feel alienated from one another in society. technological advancement is the force holding society together.

8. According to Baudrillard, the postmodern emphasis upon using models and simulations to replace real objects and real situations has created a world described as: a. b. c. d. unreal. hyperreal. artificial. satirical.

9. Another philosopher, Jean-Francois Lyotard, has commented on the postmodern condition. He has concluded that grand narratives no long exist in postmodern societies. What does Lyotard mean by this? a. People have very different opinions about what constitutes good writing. Therefore, no universally recognized great novels will be written in the future. b. Although the promise of the Enlightenment has suffered a setback, science still represents the best hope for improving the human condition.

c. There is no knowledge base that represents absolute truth. Postmodernism recognizes a series of small narratives that all represent different forms of truth. d. Government should ban the practice of science since science is responsible for the most of the miseries in the world. 10. Postmodernism has been opposed by the cyberpunk movement. Which of the following statements best represents the cyberpunk movement? a. The cyberpunk movement advocates that society should depend more upon computer science and depend less upon natural science. b. The cyberpunk movement involves computer hacking in an attempt to break postmodern societys dependence upon computer technology. c. The cyberpunk movement has argued that computer technology should be used to provide virtual reality entertainment for society. d. The cyberpunk movement has claimed that major corporations such as Microsoft should replace national governments since national government support traditional values that no longer operate in the postmodern world. 11. Which of the following is not a representation of postmodern society? a. b. c. d. Professional Wrestling. Madonna. Union of Concerned Scientists. MTV.

12. Which of the following lists of characteristics best describes the postmodern society? a. b. c. d. optimistic, rational and scientific. materialistic, optimistic, and scientific. pessimistic, selfish, and scientific. exhausted, disillusioned, and pessimistic.

13. In addition to capital, economics studies how _________________ are controlled. a. b. c. d. labor natural resources information all of the above.

14. What does economic freedom mean?

a. Economic freedom means that a person is able to choose an occupation that matches ones skills. b. Economic freedom means having all the money one needs to live happily. c. Economic freedom means that there is full employment in the nations economy. d. Economic freedom means that there is little or no inflation in the nations economy. 15. Before 1800, economies tended to be linked to _______________; today, in the United States, the single largest contribution to the economy comes from______________. a. b. c. d. agriculture; production of information and services. agriculture; manufacturing. manufacturing; the production of information and services. military power; manufacturing.

16. What does the point of equilibrium mean in economics? a. The point of equilibrium means that a country is supplying its citizens with all the goods necessary to sustain life. b. The point of equilibrium is the price that satisfies both the supply and the demand for a product. c. The point of equilibrium means that a person has enough money for retirement. d. The point of equilibrium means that there is just enough regulation of the economy to prevent a depression. 17. Who considered charging interest (usury) to someone who wants to borrow money a sin because money by itself fulfills no natural need? a. b. c. d. Friedrich Nietzsche Adam Smith John Maynard Keynes Aristotle

18. John Maynard Keynes was the most distinguished economist of the 20th century. Keynes advocated a revolution for economic theory by claiming that: a. b. c. d. government should have a role in stabilizing economic activity. all capitalistic economies should be abolished and replaced by communist economies. the central government of a country should control all aspects of the economy. the goal of economics should be to improve the lives of all citizens.

19. Which of the following statements presented in lecture best describes the lessons learned from the Enron scandal? a. b. c. d. Success does not equal excellence. Humility and self-assessment are important qualities in a corporate executive. Both character and competence are necessary in a corporate executive. All of the above.

20. The Sarbanes-Oxley act of 2002 is meant to fight corporate crime such as the Enron, WorldCom and Tyco scandals. The most important provision of this new law is which of the following? a. Individuals who commit corporate fraud can be directly sued by stockholders and employees to recover stolen assets. b. American companies must pay 20% of profits in taxes and all corporate executives must take a course in business ethics. c. An independent board now oversees the financial audits of all public companies. d. The federal government will seize the assets of any company that is guilty of major corporate crime. 21. Which of the following statements provides the best definition of the science of psychology? a. Psychology studies the behavior and mental processes found in humans and animals. b. Psychology is the study of the conscious and unconscious processes that control the human mind. c. Psychology is the study of how the individual influences the group. d. Psychology is the study of the origin and development of the human species.

22. Sigmund Freud was one of the first to develop the science of psychology. He tried to connect the psychological and the biological natures of humans together. For example, which part of the human personality is controlled by biological factors? a. b. c. d. the ego the superego the conscious mind the id

23. Which psychologist started Behaviorism by attempting to make psychology a natural science, proclaiming psychologists would study only observable behavior and not study mental processes? a. b. c. d. John Watson Sigmund Freud George Miller Jean Piaget

24. According to the psychologist, B.F. Skinner, the most important factor controlling behavior is: a. b. c. d. the desire for achievement. reinforcement or reward. avoidance of pain. money.

25. B.F. Skinner wrote a book called Beyond Freedom and Dignity. In this book he promoted his ideas for improving human society by saying that: a. the problems of the world can be solved by controlling human behavior according to his theory. b. the problems of the world today can only be solved by creating more universities and colleges to improve human intellect. c. the science of psychology has produced enlightening experiments, like those done by Milgram and Zimbardo, to show how humans have lost their free will and personal dignity. d. selective breeding of humans would improve society and weed out inferior people.

26. The psychologist _____________ is credited for starting the cognitive revolution in modern psychology that replaced Behaviorism. a. b. c. d. Erik Erikson B.F. Skinner Carl Rogers George Miller

27. According to Chapter 4 of the readings, which of the following statements is the best description of social psychology? a. Social psychology studies how authority emerges in a group structure. b. Social psychology studies how the group influences the behavior and mental activity of the individual. c. Social psychology studies how the organization of groups is maintained. d. Social psychology studies why the group is more important than the individual in determining the welfare of a society.

28. According to Chapter 8, economics is known as the dismal science because: a. b. c. d. the science tries to represent all its important concepts in mathematical terms. the science reminds us that much of human life is filled with unavoidable miseries. the science reminds that, for every benefit, there is a cost. the science is often considered the most difficult of all the social sciences.

29. According to Chapter 9 of the readings, the study of history is extremely important for the understanding of contemporary society. Which of the following statements best characterizes the study of history according to the chapter? a. Historians have been very successful in listing important events; however, historians often disagree on how to interpret these events. b. Historians have been successful in detailing the events of the past and what causes those events to occur. c. The study of history allows one to make accurate predictions about the future. d. The study of history has revealed that the progress of human society has reached its high point at the beginning of the 20th century and has been in decline ever since. 30. According to Chapter 37 of the readings, what was the major message in Freuds book Civilization and Its Discontents?

a. Humans are often in a state of conflict caught between the demands of their biological nature and the demands of society. b. Humans tend to be depressed due to the demands made upon the by their biological natures. c. Humans often become frustrated if they are blocked by society from reaching their selfpotentials (self-actualization). d. Humans have two powerful biological drives, love and aggression. These two biological drives led to the development of society, since it is the job of society to satisfy these drives. 31. According to Chapter 38, what was Erik Eriksons attitude toward Freuds scientific work? a. Erikson claimed that Freud had the best understanding of human personality and that no modifications of Freuds theory were necessary. b. Erikson claimed that Freud had the worst understanding of human personality and that his theory should be totally abandoned. c. Erikson claimed that the only important contribution Freud made was his therapeutic treatments for young adults in distress. Other than that, the rest of Freuds work is unimportant. d. Erikson claimed that Freuds theory was a beginning to the understanding of human personality but more scientific work is needed to perfect this understanding. 32. Also, in Chapter 38, Eriksons theory of social development is presented. According to Erikson, the major challenge of the young adult is: a. b. c. d. generativity versus self-absorption. integrity versus despair. happiness versus sadness. intimacy versus isolation.

33. Chapter 40 of the readings reviews the interesting case of the Wild Boy of Aveyron. Which of the following statements best explains this case? a. The wild boy was apparently raised by animals and was later found by French hunters when he was 11 years old. With proper training, the wild boy was able to function in society when he reached age 18. b. The wild boy was apparently raised by animals and was later found by French hunters. Despite intensive training, the wild boy never learned to socialize with other humans and never learned to talk. c. The wild boy presented the missing link between the evolution of humans and apes. Although the wild boy has the appearance of a human, his mentality was that of an ape.

d. The wild boy was the victim of abuse by his parents . Upon his rescue from the abuse, he was given intensive schooling which resulted in his attainment of normal mental and physical development by age 18. 34. Based upon the information presented in Chapter 44 of the readings, which of the following is not true regarding poverty in the United States? a. In the year 1998, the poverty rate for children in the United States was 18.9% b. The United States has one of the highest poverty rates of all industrialized countries. c. In the United States, based upon statistics available in 1998, the ethnic group with the highest poverty rate is Hispanic. d. The poverty rate in the United States is related to race, gender. family structure and the level of parental education. 35. According to Chapter 45 of the readings, what percentage of American citizens worked a standard work week in 1997? a. b. c. d. 29.1% 45.6% 56.2% 83.4%

36. According to Chapter 52 of the readings, several countries are now experiencing demographic fatigue. Demographic fatigue refers to: a. countries that have very low birth rates. Such countries are not able to sustain their populations at their current levels. b. countries that do not practice birth control to manage the size of their population. c. countries who have a high birth rate and a falling death rate that are running short of economic resources to combat social, health and environmental problems. d. countries who encourage their citizens to leave the cities and return to an agricultural way of life. 37. Chapter 53 of the readings reviews the social and political consequences as the median age of Americans increases. The aging of America is important since by the year 2050, _____ of the American population will be 65 years or older. a. b. c. d. 10% 20% 30% 40%

38. Also according to Chapter 53, senior citizens are a powerful demographic group when they cast their votes in elections. Which of the following is not a reason for this? a. More than two-thirds of senior citizens over age 65 vote, according to census records, compared to one-third of citizens age 25-44. b. Senior citizens would like to spend more time traveling and thus vote for increased social security benefits c. Senior citizens are interested in current events and are more informed than younger voters. d. Senior citizens are more likely to watch the news than younger citizens.. 39. Chapter 55 of the readings explores the consequences of the global economy. According to the chapter, what is the threat to democracy posed by powerful multinational corporations? a. Multinational corporations have the power to select the leaders of many nations, including democratic nations. b. Multinational corporations will try to control the politics of the world by controlling the United Nations organization. Therefore, democracies will disappear. c. Multinational corporations may exercise their power to override the will of voters in democracies. These voters will have no ability to undo the decisions made by such multinational corporations. d. Multinational corporations determine the amount of money in circulation. Therefore, multinational corporations can bankrupt any nation that opposes their policies, including democratic nations. 40. The overriding theme of this course is How shall we live and who decides? In this second module of the course, we have studied several entities and persons who believe they are capable of deciding for us. Some of these are: a. b. c. d. the philosophers of the enlightenment. postmodernists. Enron executives. all of the above.