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(Estd. u/s 3 of the UGC Act 1956, GOI vide notification No. F.9.21/2000.U.3 dt. 20-06-2002)

D. Y. Patil Vidyanagar, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400 706.


DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINFORMATICS Plot No. 50, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614.

B. Tech (Biotechnology)
Sem I Sem II Sem III Sem IV Sem V Sem VI Sem VII Sem VIII

Paper I

Cell Biology

Concept of Biotechnology


Intermediary Metabolism I Enzymology & Enzyme Technology Molecular Biology of Prokaryotes

Molecular Cell Signalling Intermediary Metabolism II

Neurobiology and Behavioral Sciences Environmental Technology

Paper Biomathematics II Paper III Engineering Mechanics

Genetics & Evolution

Molecules of life

Principles of Drug Action, Modelling & Design Biotechnology Management

Engineering Drawing

Biological & Biochemical Techniques

Commercial Aspects of Biotechnology

Bioprocess Technology

Down stream Processing

Paper IV

Ecology & Biodiversity

Developmental Biology

Mammalian Anatomy

Molecular Biology of Eukaryotes

Plant Biotechnology

Animal Biotechnology

IPR , Biosafety, Bioethics & Enterpreunership

PROJECT 6 Months

Paper V

Applied Physics

Electronics Engineering

Mammalian physiology

Advanced analytical techniques

Paper VI

Applied chemistry



Immunology & Virology

Applied Functional Genetic Genomics / High Engineeringthroughput II Research Tools (Application) Bioinformatics Bioinformatics Research I II Methodology (Principles) (Application) & Scientific writing

Genetic Engineering- I (Principles)


B.Tech. (Biotechnology)
BBT - 101 CELL BIOLOGY 40hrs

UNIT 1: Introduction, History and general concepts Levels of Organization, Limits & Dimensions,History


UNIT 2: General Structure of Cells Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic , Plant, Animal


UNIT 3: Ultra structure of Cell membrane and Cell wall Chemical Composition, Models, Functions


UNIT 4: Ultra structure of Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic organelles


Cytosol, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic retch, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Nucleus, Cytoskeleton, Cilia, Flagella, Chloroplast

UNIT 5: Cell division Mitosis, Meiosis


UNIT 6: Apoptosis


Recommended Books:1. 2. 3. Cell and Molecular biology, Gerald Karp, John Wiley and sons Inc Cell Biology by C.B. Powar. Cell and Molecular Biology; DeRobertis; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 8th Edition (2001) 4. Molecular Biology of the Cell and the Hypercell with CDROM; Alberts, Bray; Garland Publishing 1st Edition (1999)



Molecular Biology of the Cell with CDROM Alexander; Lewis, Julian 4th Edition (2005).

Alberts, Bruce; Johnson,


Molecular Cell Biology , H. Lodish, A. Berk, S. L. Zipursky, W. H. Preeman and Company.


BBT 102



UNIT 1: Set, Functions and Limit


Definition, Types of Set: Null Set, Universal Set. Operations on Set: Union, Intersection, Complementation, Relative Difference, De-Morgans Law.

Problems of each. Functions definitions: Types of Functions.Limit of Simple Algebraic Function UNIT 2 Derivative and Integration 10

Derivatives of :Simple Function,Logarithmic Function, Trigonometric Functions, (u +v , u-v, uxv, and u/v).Integration of :Simple Function, Logarithmic Function, Trigonometric Functions, (u +v , u-v, uxv, and u/v)

UNIT 3 :Theory of Probability


Definitions of various terms, Mathematical or Classical Probability, Statistical or Empirical Probability, Axiomatic Probability. Problems ; Mathematical Notions of Probability,General Addition Law of Probabilities,General Multiplication Law of Probabilities, Conditional Probability, Theorem of Total Probability with proof, Bayes Theorem with proof. Proble 10 Continuous Distribution.

UNIT 4:Random Variable and Probability Distribution Frequency Distribution: Discrete Distribution,

Conversion from discrete to continuous. Random Variable, Probability Mass Function, Probability Density Function.Problems.Definition, Problems of: Binomial Distribution, Situations and Normal

Poisson Distribution,

Distribution.Recurrence Relations and Fitting of: Binomial Distribution, Poisson Distribution, Normal Distribution, Expectation of R.V, ( expectation of a function of a r.v. should be defined. For all the above distributions using these definitions mean & variance should be obtained).Problems UNIT 5: Curve Fitting 07

Curve Fitting: Discussion,Fitting of straight line, Fitting of second degree parabola, Fitting of kth degree, Change of origin, Conversion of data to Linear Form, Problems wherever required, Fitting of Power Curve, Fitting of Exponential Curve 20

Recommended Books: 1. Fundamentals of mathematical Statistics. 2. Fundamentals of Applied l Statistics. 3. Statistical Method. 4. Probability and Random Process


BBT- 103 UNIT 1: Basics


40hrs 03

Introduction - Units and Dimensions - Laws of Mechanics - Vectors - Vectorial representation of forces and moments - Vector operations.

UNIT 2: Statics of particles


Coplanar Forces - Resolution and Composition of forces - Equilibrium of a particle - Forces in space - Equilibrium of a particle in space - Equivalent systems of forces - Principle of transmissibility - single equivalent force.

UNIT 3: Equilibrium of rigid bodies


Free body diagram - Types of supports and their reactions - requirements of stable equilibrium - Equilibrium of rigid bodies in two dimensions - Equilibrium of rigid bodies in three dimensions.

UNIT 4: Properties of surfaces and solids


Determination of Areas and Volumes - First moment of area and the centroid second and product moments of plane area - Parallel axis theorems and perpendicular axis theorems - Polar moment of inertia Principal moments of inertia of plane areas - Principal axes of inertia - Mass moment of inertia - relation to area moments of inertia.

UNIT 5: Friction


Frictional Force - Laws of Coloumb friction - Simple Contact friction - Rolling Resistance - Belt Friction.

UNIT 6: Dynamics of particles


Displacement, Velocity and acceleration their relationship - Relative motion Curvilinear motion - Newton's Law - Work Energy Equation of particles Impulse and Momentum - Impact of elastic bodies. 22

UNIT 7: Elements of rigid body dynamics


Translation and Rotation of Rigid Bodies - Velocity and acceleration - General Plane motion - Moment of Momentum Equations - Rotation of rigid Body - Work energy equation. Recommended Books: 1. Beer and Johnson, " Vector Mechanics for Engineers ", Vol. 1 " Statics " and Vol. 2 " Dynamics ", McGraw Hill International Edition, 1995. 2. Merriam, " Engineering Mechanics ", Vol.1 " Statics " and Vol.2 " Dynamics 2/e ",Wiley International, 1988. 3. Rajasekaran S. and Sankara Subramanian, G., " Engineering Mechanics - Statics and Dynamics ". 4. Irving, H., Shames, " Engineering Mechanics - Statics and Dynamics ", Thrid Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1993. 5. Mokoshi, V.S., " Engineering Mechanics ", Vol.1 " Statics " and Vol.2 " Dynamics ", Tata McGraw Hill Books, 1996. 6. Timoshenko and Young, " Engineering Mechanics ", 4/e, McGraw Hill, 1995. 7. McLean, " Engineering Mechancis ", 3/e, SCHAUM Series, 1995.





UNIT 1:Introduction and the science of biology


Characteristics of living organisms, the biological hierarchy, organizing concepts and common themes in biology, Size and time scales, Evolutionary biology, Darwin and descent with modification- Natural selection, Macro-evolution, the origin of species, The fossil record,. Phylogeny and systematic, tree of life

UNIT 2:The evolution of diversity


Prokaryotes - diversity and ecological impact, The origin of eukaryotic diversity Protists, algae and fungi with emphasis on their evolution and symbiosis, role of fungi in colonization of land by plants, role of soil microbiota in plant protection and ecosystem restoration, Predators-microbial food webs and their interactions with metazoans, Plant evolution- adapting to life on land, Vascular plants with and without flowers, Fungi - diversity and ecological impact, Animal evolutionPhylogeny and diversity, Invertebrates- pathogenicity and drug resistance and evolutionary significance, Vertebrates: Evolution and diversity, The scope of ecology. Energy and nutrients flows. Ecological interactions and biocomplexity. Communities and ecosystems

UNIT 3: Molecular ecology


Molecular markers in population and systematic biology, genetic identity at the molecular level, paternity analysis, genetic structure of populations,

phylogeography, natural hybridization, conservation genetics

UNIT 4: Evolutionary ecology

Planning and conducting of experimental studies, data analysis, writing research report and its, Evaluation: Population ecology, Community ecology, Ecosystem ecology. Recommended Books 1. Environmental Science- Towards a suistanable Future; Richard T. Wright, benard J. Nebel; Prentice, Hall Indi, 9th Edition (2004). 24

2. Ecology Principles of Applications; J. L. Chapman, M. J. Reiss, Cambridge Press University, 2nd Edition (1999). 3. Ecology Theories & Application; Peter Stiling; Prentice, Hall India, 4th Edition (2001) 4. Biological Science; D. J. Taylor, n. P. P. Grcen, G. W. Stout; Cambridge Press University, 3rd Edition (2003). 5. Biology; Neil Campbell & Jane Reece; Benjamin Cummings, 7th Edition (2004). 6. A Textbook on Biotechnology; H. D. Kumar; Affiliated East West press Private Ltd, 2nd Edition (2003).
7. From DNA to Diversity- Sean B. Carroll, Jennifer K. Grenier, Scott D. Weatherbee.

8. Animal diversity by Earl D. Hanson 9. Biodiversity - Kevin J. Gaston, John I. Spicer, Private Ltd, 2nd Edition. 10. Origin of species by means of natural selection - Mark Ridley, Don E. Wilson


BBT - 105



UNIT 1: Acoustics and ultrasonics


Classification of sound, Properties of sound, Factors affecting acoustics of building, Ultrasonic production-Magnetostriction & Piezoelectric methods, Detection of ultrasonic sound, Applications-SONAR, Velocity of blood flow, movement of heart UNIT 2: Oscillations and waves 06

Simple Harmonic motion, Damped and forced oscillations, LCR circuit, Resonance, Superposition UNIT 3: Wave Optics Interference, Diffraction, Polarization UNIT 4: Electrostatics 06 06

Vector field, Electric flux, Statements of Gausss divergence and Stokes theorem UNIT 5: Laser and Fibre optics 07

Laser production-principle and examples, Light emitting diodes, Semiconductors, Optical fibres, Applications UNIT 6: Semiconducting materials 08

Origin of gap bands in solids, n-type and p-type semiconductors, Compound Semiconductors, Light Emitting diodes, Superconductivity Recommended Books: 1. Waves and Oscillations: A.P.French. 2. Physics of Waves:W.C.Elmore & M.A.Heald. 3. Introduction to Electrodynamics: D.J.Griffith 4. Electrodynamics:Gupta,Kumar & Singh 5. Optics by A.K.Ghatak 6. Engineering Physics by Satya Prakash.


BBT 106



UNIT 1: Atomic Structure


Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, Schrodinger Wave equation for Hydrogen Atom, Atomic orbitals and their energy, Structure of ofMultielectron atoms

UNIT 2: Chemical Bonding


Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Linear Combination of Atomic orbitals, Comparative study of VB and MOT, Metallic Bond

UNIT 3: Chemical Kinetics


Average and instantaneous rate of a reaction, Integrated rate expressions of zero and first order reactions and their derivations, Half life and time constants, Determination of rate constant/ order of reaction (Graphical Method and Ostwald Isolation method), Temperature dependence of rate constant- Arrhenius equation, Mechanism of reaction- Elementary and complex reaction Effect of solvents (aqueous and nonaqueous), pH, pressure, salts (osmatic) on chemical reactions, Balance of chemical reactions and factors influencing reaction equilibrium.

UNIT 4: Surface Chemistry


Adsorption-physical and chemical, Factors affecting adsorption-Pressure and Temperature, Colloids-Definition, types and classification, Applications of surface chemistry-, Enzyme Catalysis-surface reaction kinetics, Multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles)

UNIT 5: Thermodynamics


Laws of Thermodynamics, Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, Standard entropies and free energy of formation, Free energy change and chemical equilibrium


UNIT 6: Stereochemistry


Geometrical isomerism, conformation and configuration, Optical activity and specific rotation, Chirality-chiral centre, Enantiomers, Racemisation,

Diastereomers, Importance of Stereochemistry

UNIT 7:Contemporary Chemistry Chemistry and warfare, Chemistry and new materials


Recommended Books: 1.Textbook of Physical Chemistry:P.L.Soni, O.P.Dharmarha,U.N.Dash.Sultan Chand & Sons,First Edition(2006). 2.Adventures Edition(2008). 3.Organic Chemistry:R.T.Morrison,R.N.Boyd.Pearson Education.Sixth Edition(2003) 4.Physical Chemistry:Peter Atkins,Julio De Paula.Eighth edition(2006) in Chemistry:Julie T.Millard.Houghton Mifflin Company.First


Practical I: 1. Study of Microscope 2. Mitosis in an onion root tip. 3. Metaphase arrest and chromosome analysis 4. Meiosis in Tradenscantia pollen grains 5. Giemsa staining 6. Histochemical localization of DNA and RNA in onion peel. 7. Histochemical localization of mitochondria - Jannus Green stain. 8. Study of cell inclusion bodies and starch granules 9. Study of plasmodesmata 10. Study of Paramecia /Cyanobacteria cell with heterocyst


Practical II: 1. To determine the specific rotation of sugar by Biquartz or Laurent half shade polarimeter 2. To determine the width of a narrow slit using diffraction. 3. To determine the wavelength of sodium light by Newtons ring method. 4. To determine the value of g using bar pendulum. 5. Determinaton of surface tension in Liquid 6. Application of surface tension in mixture analysis 7. Application of distribution law in the determination of equilibrium constant 8. Plant pigment separation by paper chromatography 9. Practicals of Engineering Mechanics 10. Practicals of Engineering Mechanics


BBT - 201



UNIT 1: Introduction to biotechnology Biotechnology as an interdisciplinary science, Historical developments


UNIT 2: Industrial biotechnology Fermentation techniques (solid state, submerged), Generalized design of Bioreactor (stirred tank), Downstream processing an over view.


UNIT 3: Enzyme biotechnology Enzymes - an Introduction, Immobilization of enzymes.(methods, effects, advantages and disadvantages), Applications of enzymes. (Analytical uses, industrial uses), Enzyme therapy, Biosensors- an over view, Biochips and bioelectrical devices.


UNIT 4: Fuel and Material biotechnology


Biofuels an introduction, Biogas production, Bioethanol production, Tanning of leather, Biodeterioration and preservation of food and textiles.

UNIT 5: Products and services based on biotechnology


Beer production, Citric acid production, Micro propagation an over view, Protoplast fusion, Somatic cell fusion, Hybridoma technology, Polymerase chain reaction and its applications, Vaccines.

UNIT 6: Environmental biotechnology


Biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds, Biosurfactants, Microbial enhanced oil recovery, Soil remediation, Bio control agents.

Recommended Books: 1. Biotechnology expanding horizons; B.D. Singh; Kalyani publishers; 2004. 2. Enzyme biotechnology; G.Tripath; A.B.D. publishers; 2003. 31

3. Enzymes- Biochemistry, biotechnology, clinical chemistry; Trevor Palmer; Harwood publishing Ltd; 2004. 4. Environmental Biotechnology; M.H. Fulekar; Oxford and I.B.H publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 5. An introduction to gene cloning; T.A.Brown; Oxford publications; third edition. 6. Advances in biotechnology; S.N.Jogdand; Himalaya publishing house.


BBT 202



UNIT 1: History and Disciplines A brief overview of the History of Genetics, An outline about the various disciplines in Genetics.


UNIT 2: Classical Genetics Mendelian Genetics: Mendels Law of inheritance, Chromosome theory of


hereditary, Linkage and crossing over, Allelic variation, Multiple alleles, Gene interaction.---Nonmendelian inheritance: Maternal effects, cytoplasmic inheritance. ------------UNIT 3: Population genetics 04

Allelic and genotypic frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, Changes in allelic frequencies, Inbreeding and out breeding.---------------------------------------UNIT 4: Mechanism of Sex determination 04

Factors influencing sex determination, Dosage compensation, Sex limited and Sex influenced traits--------------------------

UNIT 5: Evolution Theories of Origin of life, Classical experiments, Theories of Evolution,


Evidences for evolution, Molecular evolution, Evolution and speciation--------------------------------------------------

UNIT 6: Techniques


Karyotyping and Banding techniques, Physical and genetic mapping, Tetrad analysis and somatic cell hybridization, Pedigree analysis and genetic counseling, Population statistics. ----------------------------------------------------UNIT7: Genetics and social Issue Human Genome Project,-Eugenics,-Sociobiology 33 04

Recommended books : 1. Gardner EJ, Simmons MJ, Snustard DP,(2004).Principles of Genetics.8th Ed,John Wily & sons Inc 2. Jain H K, (2004), Genetics: Principles, Concepts & Implications. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.P.Ltd 2. Robert.R.H,(2002),Principles of Genetics,7th Ed.Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.Ltd 4. Sambamurthy AVSS, (1999).Genetics.Narosa Publishing House 5. Winter P C, Hickey G I, Fletcher H L, (2003).Instant notes of Genetics, 2nd Ed, Viva Books Pvt Ltd 6. Verma PS, Agarwal VK.(2007).Cell Biology,Genetics,Molecular Bioloy,Evolution and Ecology.S.Chand




45 hours

Unit 1: Principles Of Graphics


Two dimensional geometrical construction - Conic sections, involutes and cycloids Representation of three dimensional objects - Principles of projections - standard codes of principles. Unit 2: Orthographic Projections 26hrs

Projections of points, straight line and planes - ' Auxiliary projections '- Projection and sectioning of solids Intersection of surfaces - Development of surfaces. Unit 3: Pictorial Projections Isometric projections - ' Perspectives '- Free hand sketching. Unit 4: Computer Graphics Hardware - Display technology - Software - Introduction to drafting software. 4hrs 5hrs

TEXT BOOKS: 1. Narayanan, K.L., and Kannaiah, P., " Engineering Graphics ", Tata McGraw-Hill Publishers Co., Ltd., 1992. REFERENCES: 1. William M. Neumann and Robert F.Sproul, " Principles of Computer Graphics ",McGraw Hill, 1989. 2. Warren J. Luzzadder and John M. Duff, " Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing ",Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd., Eastern Economy Edition, 1995. 3. Natarajan K.V., " A Text Book of Engineering Drawing ", Private Publication, Madras, 1990. 4. Mathur, M.L. and Vaishwanar, R.S., " Engineering Drawing and Graphics ", Jain Brothers,New Delhi, 1993.





UNIT 1: Introduction to the Embryology:


Ontogenic development as the subject matter of embryology, Phases of ontogenic development, Trends of embryology: Descriptive, Comparative, Experimental, Analytical UNIT 2: Frog Embryology 05

Cleavage, Blastula, Gastrula: Dorsal lip of blastopore, Organizer (Chemical composition) UNIT 3: Mammalian Embrology: 20

Differentiation of Sex, Mechanism of fertilization. Cleavage pattern: Peculiarities of cell division in cleavages, Chemical changes during cleavage, Patterns of cleavage, Morula and Blastula, Gastrulation. Implantation:Types of

Implantation, Biochemical and Physical aspects of Implantation, Endocrine Mechanism of Implantation, Relation between the embryo and the maternal body in mammals. Placentation in Mammals:- Development of Placenta, Types of Placenta, Physiology of placenta UNIT 4:Experimental Embryology 10

Multiple Ovulation, IVF in human, Cryopreservation of Human sperms, ova and embryo.

Recommended Books: Balinsky, B. I. (1975) An Introduction to Embryology, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders, pub. Philadelphia


Browder, L. W., C. Erickson and W.R. Jeffrey (1991) Developmental Biology, 3rd ed. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.

Patten, B. M. and B.M. Carlson (1974) Foundations of Embryology, 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, pub. New York.

Wolpert, L. et al., (2001) Principles of Development 2nd ed., Oxford U. Press. Development Biology, T Subramoniam, Narvosa Publication 1st (2002) Edition

Development at Biology, S.F. Gilbert, Sinawer Ass. Inc. Human Embryology , Churchill.


BBT- 205



UNIT 1: Semiconductor Materials and Diodes


Review of Semiconductor Materials and Properties, The PN Junction, Introduction to Semiconductor Diode Theory Diode Circuits: DC Analysis and Models, AC Equivalent Circuits, other Diode Types Solar Cell, Photodiode, Light Emitting Diode, Schottky Barrier Diode, Zener Diode, Temperature Effects, Understanding Manufacturers Specifications.

UNIT 2: Diode Circuits


Design of Rectifier Circuits, Half Wave Rectification, Full Wave Rectification, Filter, Ripple Voltage and Diode Current, Voltage Doubler Circuit, Zener Diode Circuits, Clipper and Clamper Circuits, Multiple Diode Circuits, photodiode and LED Circuits.

UNIT 3: The Bipolar Junction Transistor


Basic Bipolar Junction Transistor, Transistor Structures, NPN Transistor : Forwardactive mode Operation, PNP Transistor : Forward active Mode Operation, Circuits Symbols and Conventions, Current Voltage Characteristics, Non ideal Transistor Leakage Current and Breakdown, DC Analysis of Transistor Circuits, Common- Emitter Circuits, Load Line and Modes Of Operation, Common Bipolar Circuits: DC Analysis, Basic Transistor Applications Switch, Amplifer, Bipolar Biasing and Bias Stability, Integrated Circuit Biasing, Multistage Circuits.

UNIT 4:The Field Effect Transistor


Junction Field- Effect Transistor, MOS Field- Effect Transistor, MOSFET DC Circuit Analysis, Basic MOSFET Applications: Switch, Digital Logic Gate and Amplifier. Temperature effects in MOSFETs, Input Protection in MOSFET. The power FET (VMOS).


Recommended Books: Donald Schilling & Charles Belove, Electronic Circuits Discrete and Integrated, Third edition, McGraw Hill International edition, 1989.


BBT 206



UNIT 1: Data Presentation


Graphs: Histogram, Bar Charts: Simple and Multiple, Pie Chart , Problems and Interpretations of each.Tables: Simple Table; Two Way and Multiway Table ; Problems elaborating each.

UNIT 2: Measure of Central Tendency, Dispersion, Skewnwss and Kurtosis 06 Measure of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median, Mode. Measure of Dispersion: Variance, standard Deviation, Standard error, Coefficient of

variation. Skewness: Discussion, Karl Pearsons co-efficient of Skewness. Kurtosis: Discussion. Note: Discussion of uses and interpretations is expected.

UNIT3: Exact Sampling Distribution I


Chi Square Test. Definition: Applications of Chi Square Test. Chi Square Test for population variance. Chi Square Test for Goodness of Fit. Chi Square Test for independence of attributes (2 x 2 contingency table only). Yates Correction method. ( Problems on Chi-Square with Yates correction need to be covered in practical session). Note on degrees of freedom. Problems on each.

UNIT4: Exact Sampling Distribution II Parametric Test: t-test. Definition: Simple t- Test

14 for mean and variance.

Independent t-Test for Mean and Variance. Paired t- Test for mean and variance. Problems on each. Z-test. Definition: Z- Test for significance of difference for sample mean and Population Mean. Z- Test for significance of difference for sample variance and Population Variance. Z- Test for significance of difference for sample means of two group. Z- Test for significance of difference for sample variance of two group. Problems on each. ANOVA, One Way

ANOVA, Two Way ANOVA, Problems on each. Non Parametric Test: Test of Randomness, Median Test, Sign Test, Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U Test, Problems


UNIT 5: Testing of Hypotheses


Introduction: Assumption of Parametric test, General Hypotheses, Statistical Hypotheses, Simple and Composite Hypotheses, Null Hypotheses, Alternative Hypotheses, Critical Region, Two Types of Error, Level of Significance, Steps in Solving Testing of Hypotheses problem.

UNIT 6: Correlation and Regression Definition of Correlation


for Bivariate Distribution. Types of Correlations,

Positive Correlation, Negative Correlation, No Correlation. Methods for Identifying Types and Degree of correlation, Scatter Diagram, Karl Pearsons Correlation Coefficient, Problems , Interpretations of Results, Rank Correlation, Limitations of correlations, Regression for Bivariate Distribution, Line of regression, Regression Curves, Regression Coefficients, Properties of regression Coefficients.

Recommended Books:

1. Fundamentals of mathematical Statistics. 2. Fundamentals of Applied l Statistics. 3. Statistical Method. 4. Probability and Random Process


Practical - I 1. 2. Dissection of salivary glands Preparation of polytene chromosomes from salivary glands of Chiromonas/ Drosophila/ Mosquito 3. 4. 5. 6. Induction of polyploidy in onion root tips Study of simple and complex tissue by maceration Abnormal secondary growth in carrot and Bignonia Study of permanent slides: 7. T. S. of dicot stem T. S. of monocot stem

Study of permanent slides: Types of ovule T. S. of anther T. S. of ovule Embryo sac

8. 9. 10.

Pollen viability test Study of Barr body from buccal epithelium Exercises on population genetics and linkage


Practical - II 1. Creating Charts with Excel and /or SPSS for different types of DATA. 2. Creating Tables with Excel and /or SPSS for different types of DATA. 3. Calculation of Mean, Median and Mode with excel and SPSS. 4. Calculation of Variance, Coefficient of variation and Skewness and Kurtosis with excel and SPSS. 5. Chi Square Test with Excel and/or SPSS 6. Correlation Analysis with Excel and/or SPSS. 7. Regression Analysis with Excel and/or SPSS 8. Fitting of Regression Line with Excel and/or SPSS. 9. Analyzing data for Normality assumption. 10. t- test with Excel and/or SPSS. 11. ANOVA with Excel and/or SPSS . 12. Analysis of Non Parametric data with Non Parametric tests with Excel and/or SPSS. 13. Study of diode characteristics 14. Study of clipper and clamper circuit. 15. Study transistor characteristics (i.e. input, output characteristics of CE configuration


BBT - 301



UNIT 1: History of microbiology : Landmark discoveries in microbiology, Scope of microbiology


UNIT 2: Microscopic observation of micro-organisms


Microscopy Light microscope and its parts, Principle behind staining of microorganisms

UNIT 3: Classification of micro-organisms Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, different methods of classification of micro-organisms


UNIT 4: The morphology and ultra-structure of bacteria:


Pure culture techniques. Nutritional requirements of bacteria and methods of cultivation, Growth of bacteria, Growth cycle, Measurement of bacterial growth. Differentiation pattern among prokaryotes

UNIT 5: Control of micro-organisms using physical and chemical agents


UNIT 6: Microbial diversity


Photosynthetic microorganisms, Chemolithotrophs, Gliding bacteria, Budding and appendaged bacteria, Archaebacteria - Archae as earliest life forms, introduction to thermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles, alkalophiles, acidophiles,

hyperthermophiles, Introduction to viruses, fungi and protozoa.

UNIT 7: Microbial Genetics


Methods of gene transfer: Bacterial transformation, conjugation and transduction.

Recommended Books: 1. Microbiology; Michael J. Pelczar, E. C. S. Chan, Noel R. Krieg;;Tata Mc Graw Hills; 5th edition (1993) 44

2. Microbiology; Lansing M Prescott, John P.Harley, Donald .A.Klein; McGraw Hills 5th edition (2005) 3. General Microbiology; Roger Y. Stanier, John L. Ingraham, Mark L. Wheelis, Page R Painter; MacMillan Press ltd; 5th edition (1986) 4. Microbiology A.J.Salle 5. Microbiology, Tortora, Funke and Chase, Benzamin & Cummings


BBT 302



UNIT 1: Nature of biological materials Introduction to biochemistry, importance, general properties of organic


molecules, functional groups, suitability of organic molecules for generation of structures. Water-Structure, properties and physiological importance.

UNIT 2: Carbohydrates Classification, structures, properties and

08 functions of monosaccharides,

disaccharides (lactose, maltose & sucrose) ,polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose, pectin, dextrin, chitin, heparin, cell wall polysaccharides),biological importance of carbohydrates.

UNIT 3: Lipids


Classification, nomenclature, structure of fatty acids. Chemical properties of fatssaponification number, iodine number, acid number,rancidity,RM number.Chemical properties and functions of of phospholipids-lecithin,cephalin, phosphotidyl serine, phosphotidyl ethanolamine , glycolipids, isoprenoids and sterols(cholesterol).Biological importance of lipids.

UNIT 4: Proteins


Amino acids-classification based on polarity, structure and properties, essential and nonessential. Classification of proteins (ASBC and APS),functional classification, peptide bond. Protein structure-primary, secondary ,tertiary and quaternary, forces stabilizing protein structure, protein denaturation, biological importance.

UNIT 5: Nucleic acids


Structure of purines ,pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleoides. Properties of nucleic acids(denaturation, annealing, buoyant density),Structure of DNA, forms of DNA(A,B,Z)Structure and function of different RNAs (m,r,t), biological role.


UNIT6: Vitamins and minerals


Fat soluble vitamins(A,D,E,K) and water soluble(B complex series and Vit. C)sources, RDA, role, deficiency disorders(no structures). MineralsMacro(Na,P,K,S,Ca,Mg &Cl), Micro(Fe, I, Cu, Zn, Mn,Co, Mo, Se, Cr, F)sources and role.

Recommended Books 1.Practical Biochemistry-Plummer,D,3rd Edn.,Tata McGraw Hill publishing Co.,1988 2.Laboratory Manual of Biochemistry-Jayaraman J,New age international publication,1981. 3. Practical Biochemisty-Swahney, Singh, Narosa Publication,2005. 4. Practical Clinical Biochemistry-Varley;H,CBS publications.


BBT - 303



UNIT 1: Solutions and buffers


Nature and preparation of buffers, Determination of pH, Instrumentation-pH meter, Applications of pH measurement

UNIT 2: Centrifugation


Principle and instrumentation, Types of centrifugation, Sedimentation coefficient, Applications

UNIT 3: Chromatography


Principles and instrumentation, Types-Paper, Ion-exchange, affinity, Applications

UNIT 4: Electrophoresis


Principles and instrumentation, Types of electrophoresis-Free & Zone, Paper and Gel electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis, Applications of electrophoresis technique

UNIT 5: Radioisotope technique


Nature of radioactivity, Detection and measurement, Advantages and limitations of radiotracer experiments, Applications of radioisotope in biological sciences, Safety aspects

UNIT 6: Polarimetry


Polarization of Light, Plane of polarization, Optical activity, ORD and CD effects, Instrumentation, Applications of CD and ORD

UNIT 7: Spectroscopy Region and properties of EM radiations, Principles, photoelectric effect,



absorptionspectrum, emission spectrum, Instrumentation, Types of absorption spectroscopy (overview), Types of absorption spectroscopy, Applications of absorption spectroscopy.

Recommended Books 1. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis.B.K. Sharma, Goel Publishing House, 25th edition 2. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology, Wilson and Walker, Cambridge University Press, 6th edition 3. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, Chatwal and Anand, Himalaya Publishing House, 5th Edition 4. Tools and techniques of biotechnology, Mousumi Debnath, Pointer Publishers, 1st edition 5. Biophysical chemistry-Principles and techniques, Upadhyay; Upadhyay and Nath, H Himalaya Publishing House, 3rd Edition 6. Physical biochemistry- applications to biochemistry and molecular biology, David Freifelder, Freeman and Co., 2nd edition.


BBT - 304



UNIT 1: Basic Tissues


Epithelial Tissue. Connective Tissue: Structural elements: Extracellular components, fundamental cell types and mononuclear wandering cells. Types of connective tissues: Loose connective tissue, Dense connective tissue, Fluid connective tissue: Blood. Supporting connective tissue: Cartilages. Bones: Macroscopic and Microscopic structure, submicroscopic structure and

composition of bone matrix. Muscle tissue: Structural and molecular organization of muscles. Nervous tissue: Neurons, supporting cells, synaptic junction.

UNIT 2: Excretory System


Kidneys: Gross anatomy and histology, Blood and nervous supply. Nephron: Parts of a Nephron, Histology of the Nephron and collecting duct.

UNIT 3: Circulatory System


External and internal anatomy of: Heart, Blood vessels: Arteries, veins, arterioles, venules and capillaries.

UNIT4: Male reproductive system:


Testes, Epididymis, Ductus deferens, Seminal vesicles, Prostate, Bulbo-urethral gland, External genitalia.

UNIT 5: Female reproductive system: Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Vagina, External genitalia.



UNIT 6: Respiratory system


External and internal anatomy of: Nose, Pharynx, Trachea, Lungs and pleurae. Recommended Books: 1. Text Book of Medical Physiology; Arthur Guyton and John Hall;; Elsevier, Reed Elsevier, India Pvt. Ltd. 10th Edition (2000). 1. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology; Tortora Gerard J. Grabowski; John Wiley and Sons Incubator. New Jersey,10th Edition; (2003). 2. Human Anatomy and Physiology; Elaine N. Marieb;; Benjamin/ Cummings Science Publishing, California, 4th Edition (2004). 3. Histology; W.A. Ham,Philadelphia& Montream, J.B. Lippincott comp.,5th Edition. (1965) 4. Concise Histology; Bloom and Flawcett, Ronald P. Jensh , Arnold Publication,2nd Edition (2002) 5. Textbook of Histology; Bloom and Flawcett, Chapman & Hall , 12th Edition (1994)


BBT - 305



UNIT1: Physiology of muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission


UNIT 2: Excretion


Types of body fluids and maintenance of osmotic equilibrium between extracellular and intracellular fluids, Formation of urine by kidney: Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion.

UNIT3: Circulation


Biophysics of blood flow, haemodynamics, capillary dynamics and exchange of fluid between the blood and interstitial fluid, lymphatic system, Blood pressure, measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output and venous return, Pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation, coronary circulation, blood flow through specific areas of the body.

UNIT 4: Reproduction


Spermatogenesis, Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis, Testosterone and its functions, Oogenesis, Menstrual cycle, Hormonal regulation of oogenesis and menstrual cycle, Oestrogen, progesterone and their functions.

UNIT 5: Respiration


Pulmonary ventilation: Inspiration and Expiration, Physical principles of gaseous exchange, diffusion of O2 and CO2 between the alveoli and the blood, Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood and body fluids.

Books recommended 1. Text Book of Medical Physiology; Arthur Guyton and John Hall; Elsevier, Reed Pvt. Ltd. 10th Edition; (2000). 2. Human Physiology Volume Elsevier, India I and II; C.C. Chatterjee; Medical Allied Agency 10th Edition;(2004). 52

3. Human anatomy and Physiology; Elaine N. Marieb; Pearson, Benzamin cummings,6th edition(2004). 4. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology; Tortora Gerard J. Grabowski; John Wiley and sons .New Jersey, 10th edition (2003). 5. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology; Fredric H. Martini, Prentice Hall international editions, 7th edition (2006). 6. Anatomy and Physiology ,Thibodeau ,Patton ,Mosby publications ,Third edition (1996).


BBT 306


40 hrs

UNIT 1: Biophysical Principles


Diffusion: Principles and mechanism, Diffusion across membranes. Osmosis: Principles and mechanism, Osmoregulation in plants. surface tension: Principle and mechanism, Biological importance in living cells and human body. Ultrafiltration: Principle & mechanism, Biological importance in body. Hydrophobic effect

UNIT 2: Biological Macromolecules


General principles: Configuration & Conformation, Interaction of biomolecules with water, Stabilising interaction. The structure of proteins: Helical symmetry, H bonding in secondary structures. Effect of peptide bond on protein conformation, Ramachandran plot. The structure of nucleic acid: Helical structure of Polynucleic acid, Base pairing, base stacking and torsional angles.

UNIT 3: Thermodynamics & Biophysics


Laws of thermodynamics and living organisms, Living body as a thermodynamic system, Biosphere as a thermodynamic system, Evolution as a thermodynamic process

UNIT 4: Membrane Biophysics


Membrane Structure: Lipid bilayer, Micelle, Physico chemical properties of membrane, Modification of cell membrane and change in biophysical properties, Conformational/Dynamic properties of membranes

Recommended Books 1.A textbook of biophysics, R.N.Roy, New Central Publication, 1st edition. 2. Elementary biophysics. P.K.Srivastava Narosa Publication, 1st edition. 3. Biophysical Chemistry.Upadhyay & Nath, Himalaya publications 3rd edition.


4. Biological thermodynamics.Donald T.Haynie,Cambridge University Press, 1st edition. 5.Principles of Physical Biochemistry.Kensl E.van Holde, W.Curtis Johnson, P.Shing Ho, Pearson Prentice Hall,2nd edition. 6. Biophysical chemistry Part I: The conformation of biological macromolecules. Biophysical chemistry Part III: The behavior of biological macromolecules.Cantor and Schimmel, W.H.Freeman and Company, 10th edition.


Practical - I 1. Preparations of solutions molar,normal,ppm,percent. 2. pH meter and preparation of buffers. 3. Qualitative tests for a) Proteins-ninhydrin,biuret b) Carbohydrates-Molischs, Benedicts, Fehlings, Bials, Barfoeds, Iodine. c) Lipids-solubility tests, Sudan III 4. Iodine value/ Saponification value of oils. 5. Determination of max and verification of Beer & Lamberts law 5. Estimation of maltose by DNSA method 6. Estimation of proteins by Biuret method 7. Separation of amino acids by paper chromatography 8. Separation of lipids by TLC 9. Isolation of starch from potato - casein from milk 10. Separation of plant pigments by column chromatography


Practical II 1. Staining Techniquesa) Basic : Monochrome/ negative b) Differential :- Gram stain, Spore, Capsule, Cell Wall 2. Aseptic transfer Techniques a) Flask to flask b) Tube to plate c) Pipetting from Flask to tube/ Tube to tube 3. Preparation of microbial suspension in saline and serial dilution 4. Preparation of nutrient media- broth and agar ( Nutrient and Macconkeys) 5. Isolation of microorganism by- Streak plate, T method, Pentagonal Streaking 6. viable count of bacteria- Pour plate, Spread plate 7. Isolation of antibiotic producers: crowded plate, wilkins overlay 8. Routine analysis of blood-RBC count,Differential WBC count 9. Permanent slides of reproductive system- Spermatozoan, V.S. of testis, T.S. of seminiferous tubeles, ovary, uterus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pineal gland. 10. Observation of chart and models Respiratory system, Models of lymphatic system


BBT - 401



UNIT 1: Introduction to metabolism


Introduction to intermediary metabolism the basic metabolic pathways: Anabolic, catabolic, amphibolic pathways. Approaches to biochemical investigationsperfusion of isolated organs, slice technique, Tracer techniques and mutant studies for elucidation of metabolic pathways.

Unit 2: Bioenergetics


Study of equilibrium in aqueous solution- concept of free energy, standard free energy, endergonic, exergonic and coupled reactions, steady state and non equilibrium systems. Nature and generation of phosphate bond energy. Energy currencies of the cell. The ATP cycle, other high energy compounds. Redox potentials and redox reactions,. Relation between reduction potentials and frequency change. Donnan Membrane equilibrium Passive, Active and Facilitated Transport. Examples H+, Cl- ,Na+ / K+ gradients, role of energy conversion Mitchell hypothesis. Transformation of diffrerent energy forms; e.g. chemical and mechanical. Efficiency of interconversion of various forms of energy.

UNIT 3: Biological Oxidation


The electron transport chain organization and role in electron capture, electron transport complexes, oxidative phosphorylation, the chemiosmotic theory. Mechanism of action of ATP Syntheses (FoF1 ATPase). Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, uncouplers,ionospheres, mitochondrial transport system, ATP/ ADP exchange malate/ glycerophosphate shuttle.

Unit 4: Photosynthesis


Chloroplast -Pigment Systems, Light harvesting complex, Hill Reaction, light reaction- cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation, Dark Reaction-Calvin cycle, Hatch Slack pathway, CAM pathway, photorespiration.


Unit 5: Carbohydrate metabolism & disorders Glycolysis anaerobic, aerobic, pyruvate oxidation,TCA

12 cycle,glycogen

metabolism Cori cycle, HMP Shunt, Gluconeogenesis, Glyoxalate Cycle, Metabolisms of galactose and mannose. Role of Fructose 2,6 biphosphate, regulation of glycolysis, gluconecogenesis and glycogen metabolism, pivotal role of TCA cycle in metabolism. Disorders- Blood Sugar levels, Diabetes mellitus, metabolic complications, glucose tolerance tests, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycogen storage diseases, galactosemia, fructosemia, pentosemia,

mucopolysaccharidosis, ketone bodies.

Recommended Books: 1.Biochemistry- Stryer,Berg,6th Edition,W.H.Freeman and Co.,2007. 2.Biochemistry-Metzler;DE,2nd Edn.,Academic press,2001. 3.Lehninger Principles of biochemistry-Nelson,Cox,4th Edn., W.H.Freeman and Co.,2005. 4 Biochemistry Voet;D,Voet;J,3rd Edn.John Wiley and sonsInc.,2004. 5 Outlines of Biochemistry-Conn;E,Stumpf,5th Edn. ,Tata-McGraw Hill,1988. 6 Harpers Principles of Biochemistry-Murray,Gardener,Mayes,Rodwell,27th Edn.McGraw Hill Education,206 7 Biochemistry- Rawn,D,Pamina publications,2004 8.Textbook of biochemistry-West,Todd,Mason,VanBrergen,4th edn. Oxford&IBH,1966. 9.Biochemistry-Satyanarayan.U,Books &Allied(P) Ltd.,2003. 10. Biochemistry-Champe;P,3rd Edn.,Lippincott Willams&Wilkins,2005. 11. Biochemistry-Zubay;G,3rdEdn.,Pearson Education P.Ltd,2003


BBT - 402


40hrs 09

UNIT 1: Introduction to enzymes

Chemical nature, apoenzyme, coenzyme ,cofactor ,prosthetic group.Nomenclature IUB system of classification -Six main classes with examples. Activation energy, isoenzymes (LDH) Ribozymes, Metalloenzymes, Zymogen, multienzyme Complex (PDH) ,factors affecting enzyme activity

UNIT 2: Mechanism of enzyme action and regulation


Specificity, type of enzyme specificity, Active site,Models of enzyme action Lock and key, induced fit, transition state theory. Mechanism of enzyme action covalent catalysis, metal ion catalysis, acid base catalysis, proximity & orientation effect. Regulation covalent modification, regulatory enzymes ,allosteric

regulation (ATCase), Feedback inhibition ,Zymogen activation.

UNIT 3: Enzyme Kinetics & Inhibition


Steady state Kinetics, Derivation and significance of Michaelis Menten equation, Line werver-Burke Plot, Single and double Displacement Reactions, Cooperatively with respect to oxygen binding by hemoglobin. Inhibition Reversible and Irreversible Competitive, non-competitive, uncompetitive inhibition (characteristics and examples)

UNIT 4: Enzyme purification ,characterization and assay


Isolation and purification of enzymes intracellular localization homogenization techniques,dialysis, salt precipitation, centrifugation, lyophilization, criteria of purity SDS PAGE, Zymograph. Characterization of active site- use of substrate analogs, modification by chemical methods, treatment by proteases, site directed mutations, enzyme assay coupled, continuous, end point, immuno and kinetic assays. Enzyme units ,specific activity, Katal, International units

UNIT 5: Applications of Enzymes



Immobilized enzymes, Biosensors, diagnostic enzymes & enzyme therapy, industrial enzymes,designer enzymes, Abzymes.

Recommended Books 1. Enzymes-Palmer;T,Affiliated East West Press Pvt.Ltd.,2004. 2. Biochemistry- Stryer,Berg,6th Edition,W.H.Freeman and Co.,2007. 3. Biochemistry-Metzler;DE,2nd Edn.,Academic press,2001. 4. Lehninger Principles of biochemistry-Nesson,Cox,4th Edn., W.H.Freeman and Co.,2005. 5. Biochemistry Voet;D,Voet;J,3rd Edn.John Wiley and sonsInc.,2004. 6. Outlines of Biochemistry-Conn;E,Stumpf,5th Edn. ,Tata-McGraw Hill,1988. 7. Harpers Principles of Biochemistry-Murray,Gardener,Mayes,Rodwell,27th

Edn.McGraw Hill Education,206 8. Enzyme Biotechnology- Tripathi;G,ABD Publishers,2003. 9 Enzyme Technology, M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press

10 Industrial Enzymes & their applications, H. Uhlig, John Wiley and Sons Inc


BBT - 403


40 hrs

UNIT 1 :


Nucleic acids structure, Identification of DNA as genetic material, Types of DNA (A, B and Z DNA), Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA).



Structure and organization of prokaryotic genome, Properties of DNA, Chemical and physical properties, Spectroscopic and Thermal properties, DNA supercoiling



DNA recombination, Molecular mechanism and models of recombination, Homologous recombination, Site-specific recombination, Transposition

UNIT 4: Mutagens and mutagenic agents, DNA damage and repair




Central dogma of molecular biology: DNA replication, Strategies of replication, Mechanism and the enzymes involved, Lagging and leading strands, Models of replication (Theta, Rolling circle). Transcription: Mechanism and steps involved (Initiation, Elongation and Termination), Regulation of transcription, Lac operonPositive and negative control, Trp operon- Repression, attenuation and antitermination, Regulon, Viral strategies for transcription control. Translation: Cell components involved (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA), Ribosomes (structure and composition), Genetic code and wobble hypothesis, Steps Involved (Initiation, Elongation and Termination), Translational control and post translational modifications.


Recommended Books: 1) Molecular Biology; David Freifelder, Narosa Publishing House,2nd edition (2004) 2) Microbial Genetics; David Freifelder, edition(2004) 3) Principles of Gene Manipulations; S. B. Primrose, R. M. Twyman, R. W. old, Blackwell Science,6th Edition (2003). 4) Gene VIII; Benjamin Lewin; Oxford Univ. Press ,8th edition (2004) 5) Advanced Molecular Biology ;R. M. Twyman, 1st Edition , (2003) 6) Instant Notes on Molecular Biology; P.C. Turner, A. G. Mclennan, A. D. Bates & M. R. H. White, 2nd Edition (2002) Narosa Publishing House, 2nd


BBT - 404:



UNIT 1: Eukaryotic chromosomes


Structure, Banding patterns Specialized structures lampbrush and Polytene chromosomes.

UNIT 2: Concept of chromatin


Heterochromatin and Euchromatin - properties and functions, Factors involved in heterochromatin formation.

UNIT 3: Nucleosomes and higher order chromatin


Types and assembly of histone proteins, Formation of higher order chromatin, Regulation of chromatin structure.

UNIT 4: Eukaryotic genome complexity


C value paradox, Cot analysis and coding potential, repetitive/satellite DNA , Gene clusters, pseudogenes, Short and Long Interspersed Elements(SINES & LINES), alu families and their significance, split genes, introns/exons and overlapping genes.

UNIT 5: Modification of DNA Methylation of DNA and its role, Invitro modification of DNA.


UNIT 6: RNA processing


Maturation of untranslated RNAs, End-modification and methylation of mRNA, RNA splicing, RNA editing, Post-processing regulation. 64

UNIT 7: Catalytic RNA


Group-I Introns, Ribozymes, Group- II Introns, Viroids, RNA editing by guide RNAs, Autocatalytic protein splicing

UNIT 8: Homologous recombination in Eukaryotes


Homologous recombination during meiosis, Mating type switching, Genetic consequences

UNIT 9: Gene regulation in Eukaryotes


Role of Eukaryotic activators, Signal integration and combinatorial control, Transcriptional regulators by signal transduction, Histone modifications and DNA, Post-transcription initiation, Role of RNA

Recommended Books: 1) Molecular Biology; David Freifelder, Narosa Publishing House,2nd edition (2004) 2) Molecular Biology of the Gene; James Watson 5th Edition (2006) Pearsons Education. 3) Gene IX; Benjamin Lewin; Oxford Univ. Press ,9th edition (2008) 4) Advanced Molecular Biology; R. M. Twyman, 1st Edition , (2003) 5) Instant Notes on Molecular Biology; P.C. Turner, A. G. Mclennan, A. D. Bates & M. R. H. White, 2nd Edition (2002) 6) Genetics; P.K.Gupta, Rastogi Publications, 2005.


BBT - 405



UNIT 1: Atomic absorption spectrometry


Introduction to Spectrometric Methods, Introduction to Optical Atomic Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Atomic Mass Spectroscopy, Atomic X-Ray

UNIT 2: Molecular absorption spectrometry


Introduction to UV/Visible Molecular Spectroscopy with application, Molecular Luminescence Spectroscopy, Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy with application, Raman Spectroscopy, NMR with applications such as MRI, Molecular Mass Spectroscopy and X ray crystallography.

UNIT 3: Separation Techniques: Chromatography


Introduction to Chromatographic Separations, Gas Chromatography, HPTLC, HPLC, GC-MS, LC-MS with applications

UNIT 4: Separation Techniques: Electrophoresis


Introduction to Electrophoretic separations, Acrylamide, Starch, Gelatin, agarose gels, IEF, capillary isoelectrofocussing, 2D electrophoresis, pulse fiend electrophoresis, Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography.

UNIT 5: Specialized techniques


MALDI-TOF-MS, Alternative methods for ionization such as SELDI, ESI, CI, FAB etc MS-MS analysis( Tandom MS).

Recommended Books

1. Principles of Instrumental Analysis Skoog, Holler, Nieman Thomson Brooks/Cole Publication.


2. Instrumental Methods Of Analysis Willard H. H. Cbs Publishers & Distributors. 3. Vogels Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis; Mendham J Dorling Kindersley (india) Pvt Ltd. 4. Analytical Chromatography by Chatwal GR, Himalaya Publishing house 5. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology by Wilson Keith- walker John, Cambrdge University press 6. Principles and techniques of practical Biochemistry by Wilson Keith- Golding, contemptory Biology 7. Biophysical chemistry by Upadhyaya and Nath


BBT 406


40 hrs

UNIT 1: Fundamentals of Immune System


Innate and adaptive immunity, Cyokines,Complement system, Organs and Tissues of Immune System- Primary and, Secondary lymphoid organs, Haematopoiesis, Cells of Immune system.

UNIT 2: Antigens and Immunoglobulins


Antigens-Definitions, Hapten, . Adjuvant, Chemical Nature, Types of Antigenic determinants. Immunglobulins- General Structure, Classes of Immunoglobulin and Isotypes, Functions, Affinity and Avidity

UNIT 3: Immune Response


Lymphocytes: T-Cells- Classes, Structure and organization of TCRs, B-CellsCell surface Receptors. APCs and Interaction and Mounting of Immune Response (Antigen presentation, processing Overview, overview of MHC class) T and

B cell activation overview. Overview of Auto immunity, Transplantation and Hypersensitivity

UNIT 4: Techniques in Immunology


Precipitation Reactions/ Tests, Agglutination Reactions, ELISA, RIA , FAT, Immunoprecipitation, Chemiluminiscence and Elisa spot assay.

UNIT 5: Introduction to virology


Distribution, Classification, Morphology and ultra structure of viruses, Cultivation of viruses, Virus purification and assays, Concepts of viroids and prions. Identification tools- Microscopic, Biochemical, CPE, serological test. UNIT 6: Mode of propagation 05

Adsorption and penetration, Viral replication:Nucleic acid synthesis (origin, priming, types of DNA and RNA replication), Protein synthesis, Assembly and release of virion, Life cycle of DNA and RNA Viruses


Recommended Books 1. Immunology; Richard A. Goldsby, Thomas J. Kindt, Barbara A. Osborne, Janis Kuby; W.H. Freeman & Company, 5th edition (2003) 2. Roitts Essential Immunology; Ivan M. Roitt, Peter J. Delves Blackwell Science Ltd., 10th Edition (2001) 3. An Introduction to Immunology; C.V. Rao; Narosa Publishing House,1st Edition (2004) 4. 4.Instant Notes in Immunology; P.M. Lydyard, A. Whelan, M.W. Fanger BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd, 1st Edition (2003) 5. Textbook of Microbiology ;R. Ananthnarayan, C. K. J. Panicker, Orient Longman , 6th Edition (2003) 6. Immunology: Introductory textbook;Nandini Shetty, New Age International pvt. Ltd. 1st Edition (2003) 7. Principles of Virology by SJ Flint, LW Enquist, RM Krug, VR Racaniello, AM Skalka ASM Press Washington 1st edition (2002) 8. An introduction to genetic engineering by ST Desmond and Nicholl Cambridge University Press 2nd edition(2004) 9. General Microbiology Vol. II by Powar and Daginawala Himalaya Publ. House 8th edition (2004)


Practical I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Estimation of glucose by O Toluidine method & Folin Wu method. Estimation of Calcium by EDTA method. Estimation of phosphorus by Friske-Subbarao method Estimation of lactose by Coles ferricyanide method. Tests for the presence of amylase, urease and catalase. Assay of amylase- Determination of Km and Vmax Effect of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and inhibitors on amylase enzymes activity. 8. Electrophoretic separation of proteins from various sources: native PAGE, SDS PAGE. 9. Immobilization of amylase and its assay

10. Isolation and separation of chloroplast by sucrose density gradient centrifugation


Practical II 1. Determination of the ABO blood group of the given sample and Rh typing, cross matching 2. Preparation of O and H antigen from Salmonella. 3. Qualitative widal test. (Dreyers technique) 4. Ag-Ab Interaction: by Oudins, ouctherlonys and okalayas immunodiffusion method. 5. Ag-Ab Interaction: by Double Immunodiffusion. (2 well method) 6. Isolation and enumeration of Bacteriophage from sewage 7. Normal and diauxic growth curve of E. coli 8. Enumeration of genomic DNA from onion 9. Isolation of cheek DNA 10. Isolation of DNA from Blood


BBT 501



UNIT 1 : Overview of cell signaling


Forms of cell signaling - Autocrine, Juxtacrine, Paracrine, Endocrine, Synaptic. Signaling machinery and pathways - Concept of signal / ligand (agonist and antagonist), Concept of receptor (extracellular / intracellular), Ligand Receptor interaction, Pathway operatives / cascades, Signal amplification, Regulation of inter and intra cellular signaling, Membrane anchoring

UNIT 2 : Cell cell interaction


Junctions - Tight, Anchoring, Communicating. Adhesion molecules Cadherins, Integrins, Selectins, Ig superfamily

UNIT 3 : Receptors and characterization


G-protein Structure, Mechanism of activation. Enzyme linked - Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase, Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Tyrosine Kinase Associated Receptor, Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatases, Receptor Serine Threonine Kinase, Hitidine Kinase ( Cell Adaptation). Steroids receptors, Channels and pumps - Na K ATPase, ABC transporters, Secondary Transporters, ACHR, Sodium, Potassium. Techniques of receptor characterization - Patch Clamp Techniques, Hormone Binding Assay

UNIT 4 : Secondary Messengers


cAMP, cGMP, Phosphoinositides, Ca2+ , DAG, Other lipid messengers, Nitric Oxide

UNIT 5 : Kinase Cascades


Division (MAPK), Differentiation (BOSS / Drosophila eye), Survival (PI3K), Development (NF-KB)


UNIT 6 : Inhibition of signal transduction pathways or targets of drugs


Cholera, Whooping Cough, Steroidal and Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Sidenafil citrate

UNIT 7 : Signaling in plants Ethylene, Phytochrome, meristem differentiation.


Recommended books:

1. Alberts et al. (1994) Molecular Biology of the Cell (3/e) Garland Science Publishing, UK 2. Alberts et al. (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell (4/e) Garland Science Publishing, UK 3. Helmreich (2005) The Biochemistry of cell signaling Oxford University Press, India 4. Lehninger et al. (2004) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (4/e) WH Freeman and Co., USA 5. Stryer et al, (2002) Biochemistry (5/e) WH Freeman and Co., USA


BBT 502



UNIT 1: Lipid metabolism and disorders


Oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, oxidation. role of a carnitine, ketogenesis and utilization. Biosynthesis of fatty acids, Metabolism of Triglycerides Phospholipids and Sphingolipids, cholesterol biosynthesis,

regulation, transport, excretion, reverse cholesterol transport, formation of bile acids, lipoprotein metabolism. Disorders of lipid metabolism plasma lipids and lipoproteins, abnormalities -hypo and hyper cholesterolemia, lipidosis, clinical inter relationship of lipids. Clinical inter-relations ships of lipids (sphigolipidosis, multiple sclerosis) ,lipoproteins and apolipopeoteins, Inherited metabolic lipid disorders Taysachs disease, Niemannpicks disease,ganglisidosis ,hypo and hyper lipo proteinemia.

UNIT 2: Protein Metabolism and disorders


General reactions transamination, deamination, decarboxylation, ammonia formation urea cycle, metabolic breakdown of aminoacids to amphibolic intermediates, conversion of aminoacids to specialized products serotonin, aminobutyric acid,dopamine, epinephrine ,norepinephnine ,melanin ,creatinine and creatine, biosynthesis of non-essential aminoacids, key role of glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism. Disorders of protein metabolism hperammonemia, phenylalaninemia, alkptonuria, phenylketonuria,

homocystinuria,cysteinemia,tyrosinemia and related disorders of aminoacidurias, Hartnups disease.

UNIT 3: Metabolism of Nucleotides and disorders


Purine and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis and catabolism regulation of purine and pyrimidone metabolism nucleotide biosynthesis. Disorders of nucleotide


UNIT 4: Metabolism of porphyrins


Biosynthesis and Degradation of porphyrins, heme , bile pigment formation, transport and excretion.Porphyrias.

UNIT 5: Integration of metabolism


Inter-relationship of carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism role of acetyl CoA. and TCA cycle in the inter-relationship, interconversion of major foodstuffs. Regulation of intermediary metabolism .

Recommended Books 1.Biochemistry- Stryer,Berg,6th Edition,W.H.Freeman and Co.,2007. 2.Biochemistry-Metzler;DE,2nd Edn.,Academic press,2001. 3.Lehninger Principles of biochemistry-Nelson,Cox,4th Edn., W.H.Freeman and Co.,2005. 4.Biochemistry Voet;D,Voet;J,3rd Edn.John Wiley and sonsInc.,2004. 5 Outlines of Biochemistry-Conn;E,Stumpf,5th Edn. ,Tata-McGraw Hill,1988. 6 Harpers Principles of Biochemistry-Murray,Gardener,Mayes,Rodwell,27th

Edn.McGraw Hill Education,206 7 Biochemistry- Rawn,D,Pamina publications,2004 8.Textbook of biochemistry-West,Todd,Mason,VanBrergen,4th edn. Oxford&IBH,1966. 9.Biochemistry-Satyanarayan.U,Books &Allied(P) Ltd.,2003. 10. Biochemistry-Champe;P,3rd Edn.,Lippincott Willams&Wilkins,2005. 11. Biochemistry-Zubay;G,3rdEdn.,Pearson Education P.Ltd,2003


BBT 503



UNIT 1: Food and Beverages Dairy products- cheese (Swiss, Cheddar and Camembert),


Beverages Bear & wine, Citric Acid, Mushroom, SCP Spirulina and Yeast, Glutamic Acid, Acetic Acid, Oriental fermented foods & beverages (Koji, Meso, Soy sauce), Bakery products (Bread), Sweetners, Microbial polysac charides (Xanthon, Gellan).

UNIT 2: Agricultural Biotechnology Biofertilizers: Types, process of manufacture and applications, Biopesticides: Bacterial, fungal and viral- production and applications, Aerobic and anaerobic treatment of agricultural wastes, Composting and Vermicomposting.


UNIT 3: Health related products


Vit. B12, Blood products- Factor VIII, Streptokinase, Anticoagulants, therapeutic proteins- Human GH, Interferons, Interleukins, insulin, erythropoietin, Nerve growth factor, synthetic Vaccines.

UNIT 4: Secondary Metabolites Antibiotics:- Penicillin, streptomycin, actinomycin, cephalorphorin


UNIT 5: Biotransformation Basic Concepts, Products , Steroids biotransformation.


UNIT 6: GMP , QC and Marketing aspects of biotechnology



Recommended Books:

1. Industrial Microbiology; L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley, D.A. Klein; McGraw Hill Pub. 5th Edition, (2005). 2. Biotechnology; B.D. Singh; Kalyani Pub., 1st Edition (2003). 3. Industrial Microbiology; L.E.Casida; New Age International Pub., 1st Edition, (2004). 4. Principles of Fermentation Technology; P.F. Stanbury, A. Whitaker and S.J. Hall; Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd., 2nd Edition, (1997). 5. Biotechnology: Text Book of Industrial Microbiology; Walf Crueger and A. Crueger; Panima Publishing Corp. 2nd Edition (2004).


BBT - 504



UNIT 1 : Plant Tissue Culture


Introduction, History, Concept of cellular totipotency. Morphogenesis, Culture conditions, medium & its constituents. Method of Sterilization

UNIT 2 : Applications of plant tissue culture- I


Callus culture. Cell Suspension culture. Somaclonal variation. Secondary metabolite production from plant cell cultures.

UNIT 3 : Applications of plant tissue culture-II


Micropropagation - Pathways and steps, Introduction to commercial micropropagation. Embryo culture, embryo rescue, meristem culture. Anther culture & Ovary culture. Protoplast Culture and Somatic hybridization. Somatic embryogenesis and Synthetic seeds

UNIT 4 : Methods of genetic engineering in plants


Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated genetic transformation. Direct methods of gene transfer

UNIT 5 : Genetic manipulation in plants for the following traits


Herbicide resistance. Male sterility. Virus resistance, resistance towards fungal pathogens. Insect resistance. Genetic engineering of plants for improvement of crop yield and quality. Genetic engineering for introducing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Genetic engineering of nitrogen fixing bacteria; nif genes and it control.


UNIT 6 : Molecular farming - Production of modified carbohydrate, oil and recombinant proteins, vaccines in plants. Molecular markers in crop


improvement - Detection of genetic diversity, Marker assisted selection and breeding.

Recommended Books :

1. Biotechnology: Fundamentals & Applications by S.S.Purohit, Agrobios Ltd. (2001) 2. Trends in Plant Tissue Culture & Biotechnology; L K Pareek and P L Swarnkar; Published by AgroBios India (2002).

3. Plant Tissue Culture- Theories and Practices; S. S. Bhojwani and M K Rajdhan; Published by Elsevier, (1996).
4. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture; U Kumar; AgroBios India, (2003)

5. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture Fundamental Methods; O L Gamborge; Published by Narosa, New Delhi (2004) 6. Plant Biotechnology: The genetic manipulation of plants; A. Slater, N. Scott, M. Fowler; Published by Oxford University press, New York (2003)
7. Transgenic Plants; V. Ranjan, Agrobios


BBT - 505



UNIT 1: Introduction to Genetic Engineering


Scope and history, Handling of DNA, RNA Restriction Enzymes, radioactive isotopes and other corrosive, carcinogenic and inflammable chemicals/ reagents

UNIT 2: Requirement of genetic engineering


Isolation and purification of nucleic acids from living cells. DNA isolation: Preparation of total cell DNA from animal and plant, Preparation of Plasmid DNA, preparation of Bacteriophage DNA. RNA isolation: Total Cellular RNA, Cytoplasmic and NuclearRNA, Poly ( A+) RNA

UNIT 3: Enzymes in recombinant DNA technology


Nucleases, Ligases, Poylmerases, DNA modifying enzymes, Topoisomerases, Restriction endonucleases

UNIT 4: Cloning Vectors:


Nomenclature, properties of good vector. Vectors for E. coli: Plasmid and plasmid based vectors: BAC, Phagemids, cosmids and expression, Virus based vectors: M-13, Lambda and PAC. Vectors for eukaryotes: Yeast based vectors : 2micro m plasmid, YEp, YAC, Vectors for plants : Ti plasmid and Ri Plasmid Ca MV, vectors for Animals - SV-40, Retrovirus vectors and Vaccinia/ Bacculo virus

UNIT 5: In Vitro construction of recombinant DNA molecules Creation of r-DNA, Gene Libraries Genomic DNA and c DNA Cloning


techiniques, Selection of clones based on antibiotic, insertional inactivation, hybridization, PCR and antibody.

UNIT 6: Methods of DNA transformation in bacteria, plants and animal cells:02 Salt based method, Electroporation, Genegun, Liposome mediated, Transfection


Recommended Books:

1. Genetic Engineering and its applications. (2004) 2/e, Joshi. P: Agrobios, India 2. Gene Cloning and DNA analysis: An introduction, (2006) 5/e . T. A. Brown, Black Well Publishing Company. 3. Principles of Gene Manipulation; S. B. Primrose, R. M. Twyman & R. W. old; Blackwell Science, 6th Edition (2001). 4. Essential Molecular Biology (volume I) Practical Approach; Edited By T. A. Brown; Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition (2001). 5. Molecular Cloning lab manual; Joseph Sambrook, David W. Russell, cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 3rd Edition (2001)


BBT- 506


40 hrs

UNIT1: Introductions to Biological Databases


Introduction- types, Biological databases, Information Retrieval from Biological Databases

UNIT 2: Data management of biological information.


Concepts, Data management concepts, Data management techniques, Challenges arising from biological data, Conclusions

UNIT 3: Mining gene expression data. Concepts, Data mining methods for gene expression analysis, Clustering, Classification, Conclusion and future research


UNIT 4: Protein databases

database, Secondary structure database, Structural classification database


Primary structure databases, Functional protein Databases, Composite sequence

UNIT 5: Analyzing DNA, RNA and protein sequences in databases


Introduction to biological databases, Genbank:organisms in Genbank, genomic DNA databases, cDNA databases corresponding to expressed genes, Expressed sequence tags, Sequence tagged sites, Genome survey sequences, High throughput genomic sequence

UNIT 6: NCBI: introduction, Pubmed, Entrez, Blast, OMIM, Books, Taxonomy, Structure, Locuslink


UNIT 7: Protein database Introduction,annotation,pattern ,family, Swissprot, Prodom, Prints, Pfam, SMART, MetaFam, iProClass, Popset



UNIT 8: Molecular modelling


Protein databank. accessing PDB entries from NCBI, SCOP: taxononomic system for protein structures, FSSP database, CATH database, Modelling simulation of protein structure in silico

Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to Bioinformatics Teresa Atwood and David J.Parry, Pearson smith publication (2003) 2. Introduction to Bioinformatics lesk, Oxford press (2003) 3. Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics - Dan E. Krane, Michael L. Raymer, Pearson education (2004) 4. Sequence structure and Database Des Higgins, Willice Taylor, oxford press (2003) 5. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome analysis by David W. Mount CBS Publishers & Distributors, 2004 reprint 6. Bioinformatics: Sequence, Structure and Databanks A Practical Approach, Higgins, ISBN: 0195667530, I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd 7. Bioinformatics: Theory and Practice, Chikhale NJ and Gomase VS,

ISBN:9788183188319, Himalaya Publication House 8. Proteomics: Theory and Practice, Gomase VS and Chikhale NJ, Himalaya Publication House 9. Discovering Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Campbell,

ISBN:9788131715598, Pearson Education 10. Bioinformatics: Databases, Tools, and Algorithms, Orpita Bosu, Simminder Kaur, Thukral , ISBN: 9780195676839, Oxford University Press


Practical I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Estimation of vitamin C Estimation of RNA by orcinol method Estimation of DNA by DPA method Estimation of protein by Folin- Lowry method Titration curve of amino acid - glycine Isolation of plasmid DNA Separation of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophores Bacterial transformation Bacterial conjugation

10. Restriction digestion of DNA


Practical II 1. Introduction to plant tissue culture laboratory and equipments 2. Preparation of plant tissue culture media 3. Establish the cultures from suitable explants to demonstrate various pathways of micropropagation: Axillary shoot bud proliferation In vitro adventitious shoot bud differentiation Callus induction and callus organogenesis 4. Inoculate the tissue culture raised shoots on suitable medium for in vitro and ex vitro rooting 5. Hardening and acclimatization of in vitro raised rooted shoots 6. Encapsulate the shoot buds/ seeds to demonstrate the production of synthetic seeds 7. Perform anther culture to demonstrate the production of haploid plants 8. Perform meristem culture to demonstrate the production of virus-free plants 9. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction : effect of harmone variation : effect of charcoals 10. Embryo Culture


BBT - 601


40 hrs

UNIT 1 : Overview of the Nervous system and anatomy of the Nervous system 02

UNIT 2: Introduction to Neurobiology


The neuron. Electrophysiology of the Neuron. Electrical signals. Membrane permeability. Channels and pumps. Synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitterneurotransmitter receptors and their effects. Synaptic plasticity.

UNIT 3 : Modulation of movement Construction of Neural Circuits. Modification of Brain Circuits.


UNIT 4 : Electrical Signaling and Neurons communication Electrical Signaling within the Neuron. The chemical senses. Spinal cord circuits and motor control. Descending control of spinal cord circuitry.


Introduction to Synaptic transmission. Synaptic integration & Modulation. Neurotransmitters and their release.

UNIT 5 : Neurophysiology and Cognition Sensory Systems, Motor Systems


UNIT 6 : Study of Behaviour Various approaches, innate behaviour, learned behaviour


UNIT 7 : Core Competency and

Building Positive Attitude


Self confidence, Self image. Meaning and nature of attitude. Components and Types of attitude. Importance and relevance of attitude

UNIT 8 :Thinking as a tool for Problem Solving and Plan of Action


What is thinking: The Mind/Brain/Behavior. Critical Thinking and Learning. Making Predictions and Reasoning. Construction of POA. Monitoring. Reviewing and analyzing the outcome. 86

UNIT 9 : Creative Thinking Definition and meaning of creativity. The nature of creative thinking -


Convergent and Divergent thinking, Idea generation and evaluation (Brain Storming).

UNIT 10 : Interpersonal Relationship Development


Importance of Interpersonal Relationships. Interpersonal Relationships Skills. Impression Management:Meaning & Components of Impression Management. Impression Management Techniques(Influencing Skills)

UNIT 11 : Teams


Meaning and nature of teams. External and internal factors effecting team. Leadership- styles in organization, Leadership in Teams

UNIT 12 : Managing Personal Effectiveness


Setting goals to maintain focus. Dimensions of personal effectiveness ( self disclosure, openness to feedback and perceptiveness). Time management. Identifying long-term goals.

Recommended Books: 1. Neurobiology:Molecules,Cell and Systems.(second-edition), GaryG.Matthews,Blackwell Science. 2. Vangelist L. Anita, Mark N. Knapp, Inter Personal Communication and Human Relationships: Third Edition. 3. Bates, A. P. and Julian, J.: Sociology - Understanding Social Behaviour. 4. Phil Lowe Koge Page: Creativity and Problem Solving. 87

5. Dick, Mc Cann & Margerison, Charles: Team Management, 1992 Edition. 6. Geoff Petty: How to be better at creativity? 7. Organizational Behaviour, Davis, K.


BBT - 602



UNIT 1 : Environmental Biotechnology: Vision and Development Biodiversity, ecology. Pollution control. Agriculture. Bioenergy


UNIT 2 : Biodiversity and Ecology


Biosphere. Ecosystem. Natural cycles (Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur). Energy flow.

UNIT 3 : Environmental Pollution and Control


Water pollution. Sources of pollutants. Waste water processing. Advanced waste water treatment in different industries (Brewery, Petroleum, paper and pulp). Soil pollution. Sources of pollutants. Bioremediation - In-situ (intrinsic, genetically engineered), Ex-situ (solid phase treatment slurry phase treatment, vermicomposting). Air pollution - Sources of pollutants, Removal and control. Hazardous waste management - Physical treatment, Chemical treatment, Biological treatment. Xenobiotic compounds and their degradation Characteristics of xenobiotic compounds, Examples of xenobiotic compounds, Mechanism of degradation

UNIT 4 : Environmental Impact Assessment


Need and objectives of EIA. Factors involved in EIA. Environmental attributes. Methods of EIA - Ad-hoc, Overlay, Network, Matrix, Checklist, Cost benefit, limitations and problems of EIA

UNIT 5 : Global Warming and Green House Effect


Reasons for global warming. Technique of Green house effect. Applications of Green house effect


UNIT 6 : Agricultural Biotechnology


Pesticides - Insecticides- types, mode of action and applications, Herbicidestypes, mode of action and applications, Fungicides- types, mode of action and applications. Biopesticides - B. thuringensis- mode of action and applications, Viral pesticides- example, mode of action and applications, Neem pesticidesmode of action and applications. Biofertilizers - Nitrogen fixing organismsexample, mode of action and applications, Phosphorus solublising organismsexample, mode of action and applications. Genetically modified organisms Need, Application, Stress tolerant plants

UNIT 7 : Bioenergy


Renewable sources of energy. Biomass as a source of energy. Energy crops Production, Applications

UNIT 8 : Integrated Environmental Management (overview)


Recommended Books:

1. Environmental Biotechnology; M. H. Fulekar; Oxford & IBH Publishing Company pvt ltd; 1st edition 2. Environmental Biotechnology; Dilipkumar Markandey; APH Publishing Corporation; 1st Edition 3. Environmental Biotechnology: theory and applications; G. Evans & J. Furlong; Wiley & Sons pvt ltd; 1st edition 4. Textbook of Environmental Engineering; P. Venugopal Rao; PHI pvt ltd; 1st edition 5. Environmental Biotechnology; Alan Sragg; Oxford University Press; 2nd edition 6. Biotechnology; B. D. Singh; Kalyani Publications; 1st edition 7. Water and Waste Water Technology; Hammer & Hammer Jr.; PHI pvt ltd; 4th edition 8. Green House Technology for controlled Environment; G N Tiwary; Narosa Publishing House; 1stedition


BBT - 603



UNIT 1: Introduction to Fermentation process.


Upstream Process, Downstream Process, Range of fermentation process, Component parts of fermentation process

UNIT 2: Media for Industrial fermentations


Medium Sterilization. Batch Sterilization: Continuous sterilization, Fermentor Sterilization, Feed Sterilization, Filter sterilization

UNIT 3: Bioreactor Design


Construction material, Aeration and agitation, Sampling/ Feed port, Valves and steam traps

UNIT 4: Growth kinetics and stoichiometry Batch Culture, Continuous culture, Fed Batch Culture Stoichiometric calcn: Elemental Balance,Yield coefficient.


UNIT 5: Types of Reactor


Stirred tank reactor, Acetators and Cavitators, Air Lift Reactor, Bubble Column Reactor, Packed Bed Reactor, Fluidized Bed Reactor, Photobioreactor

UNIT 6: Solid state Fermentation Bioreactors in solid state fermentation, Submerged Fermentation


UNIT 7: Process monitoring and control.


Physical and chemical sensors for medium and gases, Online/ Offline sensors

UNIT 8: Microbial interactions


Effluent treatment, Process Economics, Scale up procedure from lab scale to pilot scale


Recommended Books:

1. Biochemical Engineering (1997) Blanch HW and Clark DS, Marcel Dekker Inc., USA. 2. Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology (2007) Najafpour GD, Elsevier, Netherlands. 3. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals (1986) (2/e) Bailey JE and Ollis DF, McGraw-Hill International Editions CES, Singapore. 4. Bioprocess Engineering Principles (1995) Doran PM, Academic Press Ltd, USA. 5. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts (2002) Shuler ML and Kargi F, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., Singapore. 6. Biotechnology (1993) (2/e) Vols. 3 and 4 Rehm HJ and Reed G, VCH, Germany. 7. Comprehensive Biotechnology Vol. 2 (1985) Moo-Young M, Pergamon Press Ltd., UK. 8. Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology (1999) El-Mansi EMT and Bryce CFA, Taylor and Francis, USA. 9. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (1999) (2/e) Demain AL and Davies, ASM, USA. 10. Principles of Fermentation Technology (1995) (2/e) Stanbury PF, Whitaker A and Hall SJ, Butterworth-Hienemann Ltd., UK.


BBT 604



UNIT 1 : Introduction to animal cell culture


Historical Background. In-vitro and in-vivo cell metabolism. In-vitro growth promoting factors : Physiological and nutritional factors, Growth factors [EGF, FGF, PDGF, NGF, IGF, CSF, Erythropoietin], Hormones

UNIT 2 : Prerequisites of cell culture


Balanced salt solution. Media for culturing cells and tissues Natural, Artificial. Sterilization procedures. Bioethical issues related to animal biotechnology

UNIT 3 : Establishment of Cultures and their maintenance


Initiation of primary cultures from anchorage dependant and non- anchorage dependant cells. Routine maintenance of cultured cells. Detection and prevention of contamination. Established cell lines- origin and properties and cell-transformation. Commonly used cell lines- origin and characteristics. Organ Cultures

UNIT 4 : Analysis of cell growth


Growth kinetics of primary and established cultures. Characterization of cell lines. Measurement of cell death in-vitro

UNIT 5 : Specialized culture techniques


In-vitro generation of lymphocytes from embryonic stem cells. Isolation and culture of skeletal muscle myofibres as means to analyze satellite cells. Artificial Skin. Culture of human and rat Schwann cells. Long-term

preservation of animal cells/ cell lines.

UNIT 6 : Scaling up of animal cells


Bioreactors for monolayer cultures. Bioreactors for suspension cultures. Immobilized cultures - Immurement cultures, Entrapment cultures 93

UNIT 7 : Applications of animal biotechnology


Use of cell culture for production of a regulatory protein. Use of cell culture for production of a hormone (e.g. Insulin). Use of cell culture for production of vaccines. Cell hybridization and human hybridization. Use of cell culture in drug targeting and drug toxicity analysis. Transplantation of cultured cells

UNIT 8 : Stem cell Biotechnology


Types and characteristics of stem cells. Culture conditions/equipments essential for embryonic stem cell cultures. Use of stem cell cultures for treatment of genetic disorders

UNIT 9 : Transgenic animals


Methods of transgenesis. Vectors involved. Biopharmaceutical applications of transgenic animals.

Recommended books : 1. C. Helgasson; Basic cell culture protocols, 3rd edition, Human press 2. E. D. Rang, H.P. Dale, M.M. Ritter; Pharmacology, 5th edition 3. J. Mather and d. Barnes; Animal cell culture methods, Elsevier, vol 57 4. J.R.W. Masters; Animal Cell Culture- A practical approach, Oxford university press 5. J. Paul Basic Protocols in cell and tissue culture 6. M. Butler; Animal cell technology-Principles and products, Open University press 7. M. Butler and M. Dawson, Cell culture lab fax, Bios scientific Pvt. Ltd. 8. M. Cylnes; Animal cell culture techniques, Springer Verlag 9. M.M. Young; Animal Biotechnology, Pergamon press, Oxford 10. N. Jenkins; Animal cell biotechnology-Methods and protocols, Human Press 11. R.I. Freshney; Culture of animal cells: A manual of basic techniques, John Wiley and sons, 4th edition.


BBT - 605



UNIT 1: Production of therapeutic agents:


Engineering human interferon and human growth hormone, r-haematopoeitic growth factors, r-insulin, interleukins, interferon, r-tissue type plsminogen, rhuman deoxyribonuclease, Enzymes DNAase I and Alginate lyase against cystic fibrosis., Subunit vaccines Peptide vaccines, , Atteneuated vaccines Vector vaccines.

UNIT 2: Synthesis of commercial products:


Restriction endonucleases, Small biomolecules, Ascorbic acid, Biopolymers.

UNIT 3: Application of plant genetic engineering:


Developing insect-resistance, disease-resistance and herbicide resistance in plants and delaying fruit ripening. Developing stress and senescence-tolerance in plants oxidative, salt and submergence stress. Genetic manipulation of flower pigmentation. Developing quality of seed storage. Provitamin A. Modification of food plant taste and appearance, yield increase in plants, Wild plant relatives as a source of novel genes, Plants as bioreactor - antibodies, polymers, foreign

proteins in seeds. Genome mapping efforts in rice & maize and its potential applications

UNIT 4: Forensic medicine


Criminal investigation (personal identification), Immigration, Paternity dispute, Identification of missing children, bodies found in plane crash, road accidents etc, Varietal identification of plants


UNIT 5: Molecular Diagnostics: Importance and advantageous, Hybridization based methods,

07 Reverse

hybridization methods, Diagnostics based on DNA chips and Micro-arrays, PCR based methods, Diagnosis of Cystic fibrosis by multiplex PCR , Detection of Thalassemia mutation using ARMS-PCR, Detection of Fragile X syndrome by FMR-1 gene trinucleotide repeat analysis, To distinguish patient and donor cells as different using hypervariable tandem repeat polymorphic DNA markers, Identification of bacterial species based on the sequences of their 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Nucleic acid amplification-End-point PCR Qualitative. Real time PCR Qualitative and Quantitative. SNP based detection: Ligation assay by probe ligation and amplification (e. g. MLPA). Sequencing based detection

Recommended Books: 1. Comprehensive Biotechnology by Moo-Young, Murray 2. Plant biotechnology In Agriculture : K. Lindsey and M.G.K. Jones (1990), Prentice hall, New Jersey. 3. Agricultural Biotechnology by Arie Altman. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New. York, USA. 1998. 770 pp 4. Transgenic Plants Vol. 1 & 2 : S-d. Kung and R. Wu (1993), Academic Press, San Diego 5. Nano Materials by A k Bandyopadhyay, New age International Publisher 6. Plant Cell Culture, Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology. Anderson, L.A., 7. Human Molecular Genetics. Strachan & Read. 3rd Edition.

8. Genetic Engineering and its applications. (2004) 2/e, Joshi. P: Agrobios, India


9. Gene Cloning and DNA analysis: An introduction, (2006) 5/e . T. A. Brown, Black Well Publishing Company.

10. Principles of Gene Manipulation; S. B. Primrose, R. M. Twyman & R. W. old; Blackwell Science, 6th Edition (2001).


BBT - 606



UNIT 1: Introduction to Biological Databases


Database : Types, Overview of Biological Databases and Information retrieval from biological databases for example (Nucleic acid databases: Genbank, Protein DatabasesSwissprot) Sequence Formats, Sequence storage, Sequence

submission to sequence Database.

UNIT 2: Pairwise Sequence Alignment


Alignment Types: Local alignment, Global alignment, Scoring matrices- PAM, BLOSUM, Gaps, Types of Gaps. Dot Plots. Dynamic programming Approach: Needleman and Wunsch Algorithm, Smith and waterman Algorithm, Viterbi Algorithm, Heuristic Approach: BLAST, FASTA.

UNIT 3: Multiple Sequence Alignment:


Exhaustive Algorithm- Divide and Conquer alignment, Heuristic Algorithm: Progressive Alignment- ClustalW, Tcoffee, Iterative Alignment- PRRN, Block based method- Match-Box, DIALIGN2

UNIT 4: Introduction to Protein Structure Prediction


Secondary structure prediction for Globular and Trans-membrane proteins, 3DProtein Structure file format: PDB, mmCIF, MMDB, Methods of Tertiary structure prediction: Threading and fold recognition methods, Homology modeling, Fold recognition databases.

Recommended Books: 1. Introduction to Bioinformatics Teresa Atwood and David J.Parry, Pearson smith publication 1st edition (2003) 2. Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics - Dan E. Krane, Michael L. Raymer, Pearson education First edition (2004) 3. Sequence structure and Database Des Higgins, Willice Taylor, oxford press 1st edition (2003) 98

4. Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins, by Andreas D. Baxevanis, B. F. Francis Ouellette, Wiley-Interscience, 3rd Edition, 2004 5. Sequence and Genome Analysis by David W. Mount - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 1st edition ;2004 6. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics;by Jonathan Pevsner;Wiley-Liss 1st edition, 2003 7. Introduction to Bioinformatics; Arthur M. Lesk; Oxford University Press, 2003


Practical I 1. Lab design, sterilization procedures, media preparation for ATC and cryopreservation 2. Primacy culture from chick embryo 3. Characterization of cell line 4. Isolation & cultivation of lymphocytes 5. Estimation of BOD and COD of effluent water 6. DNA amplification using PCR: RAPD, Single locus 7. Cloning of genomic DNA or PCR product in the host bacterium 8. Separation and isolation of PCR product on/from agarose gel 9. Transfer of DNA fragments from agarose gel to nylon membrane and detection using chemiluminence (Southern blot) 10. Detection of genetic variation among the DNA using RFLP


Practical II 1. Study of Databases and Data retrieval: i. Genome Databases, ii. Sequence Database, iii. Secondary Databases, 2. Database Similarity Search BLAST AND FASTA PROGRAMS. 3. PSI/ PHI -BLAST 4. Multiple sequences Alignment using ClustalW. 5. Phylogenetic Analysis using Clustalw and Phylip software. 6. Profile Analysis, Motif searching against Motif databases. 7. Rasmol (3D structure visualisation) 8. Protein Manipulation using SPDBV 9. Introduction to modeller 10. Homology modelling using modeller, and swiss model 11. UNIX Commands 12. Different versions of Linux


BBT 701


UNIT 1 : Principle of Drug Action


Basic Principles Drug Action, Drug Interactions. Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics. Drug Metabolism. Drug Evaluation and Regulation. Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology. Cholinoceptor-Activating and Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Drugs. Cholinoceptor Blockers and Cholinesterase Regenerators. Sympathomimetics, Adrenoceptor Blockers.

UNIT 2 : Cardiovascular and Bronchodilators


Cardiovascular Drugs. Diuretic Agents. Histamine, Serotonin, and the Ergot Alkaloids. Vasoactive Peptides. Prostaglandins and Eicosanoids. Nitric Oxide, Donors, and Inhibitors. Bronchodilators UNIT 3 : CNS 07

Drugs That Act in the Central Nervous System. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs, Alcohols. Antiseizure Drugs. General Anesthetics, Local Anesthetics. Drugs Used in Parkinsonism & Other Movement Disorders. Antipsychotic Drugs & Lithium, Antidepressants. Opioid Analgesics & Antagonists. Drugs of Abuse

UNIT 4 : NSAIDS and Hormones


Agents Used in Anemia and Hematopoietic Growth Factors. Drugs Used in Coagulation Disorders. Drugs Used in the Treatment of Hyperlipidemias. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones. Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs. Corticosteroids and Antagonists. Gonadal Hormones and Inhibitors. Pancreatic Hormones, Antidiabetic Agents and Hyperglycemic Drugs. Drugs that Affect Bone Mineral Homeostasis

UNIT 5: Chemotherapeutic Agents


Beta-Lactam Antibiotics and Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors. Aminoglycosides. Antimycobacterial Drugs, Antifungal Agents. Antiviral Chemotherapy and 102

Prophylaxis. Antiparasitic Chemotherapy, Antiprotozoal Drugs. Anthelmintic Drugs. Cancer Chemotherapy. Immunopharmacology. Vaccines, Immune Globulins, and Complex Biologic Products. Vitamins, Heavy Metals and Chelating Agents

UNIT 6 : Modeling Methods MO Theory.


Empirical Methods. Geometric Optimization. Conformational

Space-searching Algorithms and FEP. Global minimum problem. Simulated Annealing. Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulation. Docking simulations of hostguest complexes

UNIT 7 : AI-based drug design support system


The Castlemaine Project. Role of AI techniques in Castlemaine project. Various Computational methods for drug design. Expert Systems. Computer Languages for AI applications. QSAR and Multivariate QSAR

Recommended books :

1. Medical Pharmacology at a Glance, Michael J. Neal, ISBN: 978-1-4051-3360-9, John Wiley and Sons India Pvt. Ltd. 2. Pharmacology: From Drug Development to Gene Therapy, Robert A. Meyers, ISBN: 978-3-527-32343-2, John Wiley and Sons India Pvt. Ltd. 3. Essentials of Pharmacotherapeutics, Barar FSK, ISBN: 8121904447, S Chand & Company Ltd 4. Current Trends in Pharmacology, Arunabha Ray and Kavita Gulati,

ISBN:8188237779, I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd 5. The Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine, International (P) Ltd., Publishers 6. An Introduction to Drug Design, S.N. Pandeya, ISBN : 978-81-224-0943-7, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 7. Medical Pharmacology at a Glance, M.J. Neal, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers 103 John P. Griffin, New Age

8. Katzung and Trevor's Review of Pharmacology, Anthony Trevor, Bertram Katzung, Susan Masters, ISBN13: 9780071488693, McGraw-Hill 9. Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications, Charles R Craig and Robert E Stitzel, ISBN-13: 978-0-7817-3762-3, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 10. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, ISBN-10: 0-7817-7155-2, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 11. Molecular Modelling and Drug Design, J. G. Vinter, Mark Gardner, ISBN-13: 978-0849377723, CRC presss.


BBT - 702



UNIT 1: Project Management in Biotechnology


Basic concepts and definations, steps in hi-tech BT-projects, Goal setting and establishing milestones for BT projects, Network analysis and generic quantitative techniques, Monitoring of project progress through self and peer assessment, Fundamentals of time value of money and cost management, Holistic approach to projects-technical and non technical dimensions, Planning communicationtechnical and non technical in projects management, Organization, coordination, integration of different activities in the project

UNIT 2: Regulatory affairs in Biotechnology


US regulatory authority, rules regulations, Europe regulatory authority, rules regulations, Compliance for Export.

UNIT 3: Concept of GLP and GMP Different GLP and GMP practices across US and Europe


Recommended Books: 1. Best Practices in Biotechnology Business Development: Valuation, Licensing, Cash Flow, Pharmacoeconomics, Market Selection, Communication, and Intellectual Property by Yali Friedman 2. Building Biotechnology: Business, Regulations, Patents, Law, Politics, Science by Yali Friedman 3. Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, and Understanding

Biotechnology Companies - Business Development, Entrepreneurship, Careers, Investing, Science, Patents and Regulations by Yali Friedman 4. The Business of Biotechnology by Yali Friedman 5. Best Practices in Biotechnology Education by Yali Friedman 6. Pocket Biotech Industry Primer by Yali Friedman 7. Project Management- Managerial approach by Jack R. Merediph, willey India ltd. 105

BBT - 703



UNIT 1 : Introduction to down stream processing


Role and Importance of downstream processing in Biotechnological processes, Characterization of Fermentation broth

UNIT 2 : Release of Intracellular Components


Mechanical Cell Disruption, Cell Disruption by bead Mill, Cell Disruption by Homogenizer, Nonmechanical Cell Disruption, Enzymatic Cell Lysis, Chemical Cell Lysis, Physical Cell Lysis

UNIT 3 : Solid Liquid Separation


Filtration, Introduction to filtration, filtermedia, Types of filters, Fundamentals for Pressure Filtration (Darcy Law), Sedimentation - Introduction to Sedimentation, Fundamentals of sedimentation Rate (Stokes Law).

Centrifugation - Introduction to Centrifugation, Types of Centrifuges, Fundamentals of centrifugation (Modified Stokes Law).

UNIT 4 : Concentration of Products I


Evaporation Introduction, Types of evaporators. Extraction - Introduction to Liquid liquid extraction, Extraction Fundamental, Phase Equilibrium and distribution, Aqueous Two Phase extraction, Supercritical fluid extraction. Membrane Processes - Fundamentals of membrane separation, Ultafiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Cross Flow Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration, Diafiltration.

UNIT 5 : Concentration of Products II


Precipitation - Fundamentals of protein precipitation, Precipitation Techniques Isoelectric precipitation, Salting Out/ Salting In, Precipitation with organic solvents, Precipitation with Organic Polymers, Dialysis, Electrodialysis.


UNIT 6 : Purification


General Chromatographic theory. Zone spreading, resolution, plate height Concept. Adsorption Chromatography, Ion Exchange chromatography, Gel Filtration Chromatography, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, Affinity Chromatography.

UNIT 7 :Crystallization


UNIT 8 : Drying Lyophilization, Spray drying, Tray Drying. UNIT 9 : Economics of downstream Processing



Recommended Books: 11. Comprehensive Biotechnology Vol. 2 (1985) Moo-Young M, Pergamon Press Ltd., UK. 12. Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology (1999) El-Mansi EMT and Bryce CFA, Taylor and Francis, USA. 13. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (1999) (2/e) Demain AL and Davies, ASM, USA. 14. Principles of Fermentation Technology (1995) (2/e) Stanbury PF, Whitaker A and Hall SJ, Butterworth-Hienemann Ltd., UK. 15. Biotechnology: Text Book of Industrial Microbiology; Walf Crueger and A. Crueger; Panima Publishing Corp. 2nd Edition (2004).

16. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts (2002) Shuler ML and Kargi F, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., Singapore. 17. Biotechnology (1993) (2/e) Vols. 3 and 4 Rehm HJ and Reed G, VCH, Germany.


BBT 704




General Overview of Intellectual Property Rights, WIPO, WTO, Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights. Patent- Basic requirements of Patentability, Patentable Subject Matter, Procedure For Obtaining Patent, Provisional and Complete Specification. Copyright-Objectives of copyright , Rights conferred by registration of copyright , Infringement of copyright. Trademarks-Basic Principles of Trademark , Rights conferred by Registration of Trademark , Infringement of Trademark. Geographical Indications-Objectives of

Geographical Indications , Rights conferred , Infringement of Geographical Indications , International Position , Indian Position, Bioprospecting and Biopiracy. GATT Farmers rights, plant breedeis right.

UNIT 2 : Biosafety and Bioethics


Biosafety and Bioethics Management-Key to environmentally responsible use of biotechnology. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Ethical implications of Biotechnological products and techniques. Contempory ethics of healthcare. Ethical aspects of hazardous worte and toxic substance. Ethical aspects of scientific publishing.

UNIT 3 : Entrepreneurship


Need, scope and characteristics of entrepreneurship management of self and understanding human behaviour, business ethics, performance appraisal, and (SWOT) analysis. Market survey techniques - Criteria for the principles of product selection and development. Elements of Marketing and Sales Management - Nature of product and market strategy, Packaging and advertising, After Sales Service, Pricing techniques. Financial institutions, financial incentives, books of accounts and financial statements. Technical feasibility of the project, plant layout & process planning for the product,


Quality Control, Critical Path Method (CPM) and Project Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT) as planning tools for establishing SSI.

Recommended Books: 1. Entrepreneurship: New Venture Creation, David H. Holt 2. Patterns of Entrepreneurship : Jack M. Kaplan 3. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management: C.B. Gupta, S.S. Khanka, Sultan Chand


BBT 705:

Functional Genomics / High throughput Research Tools


UNIT 1 : Genomics


History of Genomics. The Genomics project. Biotechnology and Genomics in Medicine. From Recombinant DNA to Molecular Medicine. The Human Genome Project. Genomics and the Challenge of Infectious Disease. Analyzing And Treating Genetic Diseases.

UNIT 2 : Transcriptomics


Introduction. History. The Human Transcriptome Project. Transcriptomics Strategies. Transcriptomics Technologies. Applications.

UNIT 3: Transgenomics


Introduction. History. Trans-NIH Mouse Initiatives. Transgenomics Strategies. Transgenomics Technologies. Applications

UNIT 4 : Toxicogenomics


Introduction. History. The Human Toxicogenome Project. Toxicogenome Strategies. Toxicogenome Technologies. Applications.

UNIT 5 : Proteomics


Introduction. History. Key Technologies. Prokaryotic Proteomics. Eukaryotic Proteomics. Current Strategies. Applications

Recommended Books: 1. Genomics: Applications in Human Biology, Sandy B. Primrose, Richard Twyman, ISBN: 978-1-4051-0819-5, Wiley-Blackwell. 2. Frontiers in Computational Genomics, Michael Y. Galperin and Eugene V. Koonin, ISBN: 978-0-9542464-4-0, Caister Academic Press. 3. The Dictionary of Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics, Guenter Kahl, ISBN: 978-3-527-32073-8, Wiley. 110

4. Transcriptomics, Somnath Tagore and Virendra S. Gomase, ISBN-10: 1848290217, Anshan Ltd & Ane Books India (April 2009). 5. Omics: An approach for drug targets, Virendra S. Gomase and Somnath Tagore, Himalaya Publication Pvt.Ltd (May 2009). 6. Introduction to Proteomics: Tools for the New Biology, Daniel C. Liebler, ISBN: 0 89603-991-9, Totowa, NJ:Humana Press, Inc. 7. Proteomics- Theory and Practice, Gomase V.S. And Chikhale N.J., Himalaya Publication House, India, 2008 8. An Introduction to Toxicogenomics, Michael E. Burczynski, ISBN: 0-8493-13341, FL:CRC Press.


BBT 706


UNIT 1 : Methodology and Literature collection Introduction to Research Methodology - Meaning of Research, Objective of Research, Significance, Type of Research: Basic, Applied, Research

Approaches, Research Methods versus Methodology, Research and Scientific method, Criterions of good Research, Problems / Bottlenecks faced by Researchers. Defining the Research Problem. Literature collection - Need of review of literature, Review process and Review Reading, Discriminative Reading, Consulting Source material. Literature citation - Different Systems of citing Reference:- Name Year System citation in the text, Name Year System List of Reference, Citing Reference in the text, Alphabet Number System, Journal Abbreviation.

UNIT 2 : Research, Data collection and Analysis. Research Design - Meaning, Need of Design, Feature of good Design, Different Principle of Experimental Design. Sample Collection - Step in Sampling Design, Criteria of Selecting a Sampling Procedure, Different types of Sample Design, Random Sample, Complex Random Sample. Data Collection - Primary Data Collection, Observation, Interview, Collection through Questionnaires/Schedules, Secondary data collection, Case study method. Processing and Analysis of data Processing operation, Type of Analysis, Simple Regression Analysis, Partial Correlation, etc.

UNIT 3 : Scientific Writing Interpretation and Report Writing. Meaning of Interpretation. Techniques of Interpretation. Precaution of Interpretation. Significance of Report Writing. Step in Report Writing. Types of Report Writing. Component of a Research Report Title, Authors, Abstract, Summary, Synopsis, Key Words, Introduction, MM, Result, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Appendixes, references, Plagiarism. Use of Table / Figures in Report Writing - Need, Introduction and Placement of 112

Table / figure, Numbering, Box Heading, Caption photographs. Formatting and Typing Introduction, Margins, Spacing, Alignment, Fonts, etc., Format of Thesis.

Recommended Books: 1. Research Methodology for Biological Sciences (2006), N. Gurumani MJP Publishers 2. Research Methodology : Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition C.R.Kothari, New age international Publishers 2004 3. Research methods for the bioscience: 2006 International Student Edition. Oxford University Press, Edition, D. Holmes, P. Moody, D. Dine. ISBN 13 : 978-0-19-568631-9


Practical I 1. Isolation of amylase from fungal source 2. Purification methods. a. Ammonium sulphate precipitation

b. Dialysis c. Gel Filtration 3. Electrophoresis of purified amylase 4. Data analysis and report writing of amylase purification 5. Study of Bioreactor a. Sterilization b. Working c. Preparation of Fermentation medium d. Run of any standard Fermentation


Practical II 1. Data analysis and data management tools in preclinical development 2. Statistical modeling in pharmaceutical research 3. Study of Secondary metabolites from Medicinal Plants 4. Pharmacophore Modeling 5. Ligand Libraries and Screening 6. High Throughput Screening for Pharmacogenetics 7. Clinical data collection and management 8. Databases of Chemical Structures 9. Databases on Chemical Reactions 10.Protein-ligand free energy predictions for drug discovery 11.Molecular libraries for synthesis 12.Computational optimization of biopharmaceutical properties 13.Computer simulations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics