• A floppy disk or a diskette is a round flat removable piece of plastic plate coated with a Ferric Oxide layer, and

encased in a protective plastic cover, called the disk jacket. The Ferric Oxide layer is capable of holding a magnetic field. capacities range from a few hundred megabytes to many gigabytes. The speed of a hard drive is measured in terms of average access time, the speed at which the hard drive finds data. The average access time is measured in milliseconds (1/1000 of a second). • Magnetic Tape Magnetic tapes are similar to audiotapes and store data in a serial manner (i.e. data is stored one after the other on the tape). • Digital Versatile Discs (DVD) •

• Data Hierarchy Data in storage can be organized into a hierarchy of categories. • Character : a single letter, number or a special character. • Field : Typically, a sequence of characters. • Record : Collection of related fields • File : Collection of related records • Databases : Collection of interrelated files. • light-emitting diode (LED) • digital signal processing (DSP) • Optical character recognition (OCR) • visual display unit or VDU. • The quality of a computer monitor is based on the following properties: • Resolution: Resolution is the number of pixels, which the screen can display. A ‘pixel’ is the ‘picture element’ and refers to the smallest area of the screen that the computer can change. • The number of colours it can display (dependent on the computer as well) • Radiation output. • CRT monitor – A cathode-ray tube

• Larger monitors with high resolution are used for specialised application such as desktop publishing and CAD. • Main differences of LCDs as compared with CRT monitors are : 1

o Is the manual clearly written? o Does it explain the main functions of the software? o Does it provide examples? • Input/Output Interfaces o Do the input and output of the software meet your requirements? • Test the system with your own data sets to see its performance. • A device connected to a network is called a node. • • • POST= Power on self test BIOS= Basic input output system Software Evaluation Software evaluation is the process of checking the software for suitability for the required function. o Time periods to wait between successive screens are acceptable. o Error messages are clear.• Take s very little space • Small energy consumption • Sharp pictures • No flicker or geometric distortion • Fairly expensive • Limited viewing angle • Slower response time • . • Inspect the manual or instructions supplied with the software. • Advantages of Networks Networks offer several advantages over stand along systems. Some examples of utility software are Norton Utilities and Download Accelerator. • Reliability o Is the system consistent? .Does it give consistent answers to similar or the same problems? • User Friendliness o User interface is easy to use. The major steps involved in software evaluation are: • Identify clearly the problem or application for which the software is required. • Adaptability: To what extent the original problem be has to be modified without affecting the functionality of the software. Some of these advantages are listed below: 2 .

• Common Network Elements The different types of components that you can find in a network are: • Servers: Computers that provide shared resources to the network users • Clients: Computers that access shared network resources provided by the users • Communication Media: The media through which data is being transmitted. • Modem: used to connect a computer to another computer over phone lines. Such programs can be shared over a network. • Sharing of programs and data: Some programs may be expensive. file server or a host computer. and it may not be possible to purchase multiple copies. • Better communications: Networks can be used to establish communication such as email. • Star Topology In a star network all computers and other communications devices are connected to a central point such as a hub. ring. • Network Operating system: Software that manages the activities of a network • Shared resources: Any service or resource made available for use by the members of the network. and bus. • All these different media types can 3 .• Sharing of peripheral devices: Expensive resources can be shared by connecting them to the network. • Hub: • Switch: An enhanced version of the hub. There is no central computer and the communications devices transmit messages to the other devices. • Bus Topology In a bus network communications devices are connected to a common channel. • Ring Topology In a ring network all communications devices are connected in a continuous ring. • Access to databases: Users can access numerous databases by making them available on the network. The basic network topologies are star. • The physical layout of a network is called its Topology. Messages are passed around the ring until they reach the right destination. Typically a switch can distribute the communication load so all the computers connected to the switch can communicate effectively.

be grouped into two categories: guided media and radiated media.  Parallel Data Transmission: Bits are transmitted through separate channels simultaneously. • Fiber-Optical Cable: consists of hundreds of thin glass wires that transmit pulsation beams of light. which is known as the propagation delay. below the visible spectrum. to transmit data through the air. The standard unit of measure used to specify the speed of the data flow through a network is bits per second (bps). Often many coaxial cables are bundled together. • Network Interface Card (NIC) 4 • • . which is then wrapped in an outer external cover. serial transmission and in parallel transmission. • Satellite Transmission: In satellite transmission.000 miles is space. • Radiated Media • Radio Transmission: Radio transmission use the same basic principle as standard radio Transmission • Infrared Transmission: Infrared transmission uses low-frequency light wave. • Communication Media • Guided Media • Twisted-pair wire A twisted-pair wire consists of two insulated copper wires.  One disadvantage of satellite transmission is the delay that occurs in transmission. The Guided media are those in which the data flows through physical media and the radiated media are those in which the data is broadcast through the air. Microwave can be transmitted over a direct line-of-sight path between any two points. In a network data can be transmitted in two different ways.  Serial Data Transmission: Bits are transmitted sequentially. • Microwave Transmission: Microwave is a high-frequency beam with short wave length. one after the other. twisted around each other and covered in another layer of plastic insulation • Coaxial cable A Coaxial cable consists of insulated copper wire wrapped in a metal shield. singles are transmitted to a satellite 500 to 22. Infrared transmitters are seldom used to transmit data to and from portable or handheld computers.

Typically servers are the devices that manage shared devices such as printers. instead all devices communicate directly with each other. a WAN is made up of a number of interconnected LANs. and devices that request services from servers. WANs can use either analog (telephone lines) or digital signals or a combination of both. In a peer-to-peer LAN there is no server. • Router: A router is a special device that enables the connection of two or more networks so that the computers in different networks can communicate with each other. Local area networks are of two types: client server and peer-to-peer. IPX/SPX. A Client server LAN consists of devices that provide services called servers. • Bridge: A Bridge is an interface that enables similar networks to communicate.25 and SNA. In general. The physical addresses (MAC addresses) are utilized to • • • • 5 .• Types of Networks There are two primary types of networks. Peer-to-peer networks are also called workgroups. A network protocol is “an agreement on how to converse”. Each protocol performs essentially the same functions. TCP/IP protocol uses 3 different types of addressing to move data between computers: physical. In a peer-to-peer network there is no hierarchy among the computers. Typically the number of computers in a peer-to-peer network would be less than 10. • A backbone network is a network that connects many networks in a single site. logical and port addresses. A WAN may span hundreds or thousands of miles. • Gateway: A Gateway is an interface that enables dissimilar networks to communicate. but each protocol is incompatible with others unless there is a special device to translate between them. The four most commonly used network protocols are TCP/IP. called clients. Local Area Networks (LAN) • Wide Area Networks (WAN): WAN is a communications network that has no geographical limit. X.

Currently there are more than 14. The International network information centre (InterNIC) assigns to companies blocks of IP addresses based on the size of their networks. was written in 1986 by two brothers in Pakistan.EXE. "D:". the virus appends several commands to the end of the "c:\autoexec. the virus will also cause a general slowdown of the computer and make a part of the screen scroll up two lines. • Arab : The virus counts programs being executed on an infected system.move data within a single LAN.000 known viruses.EXE and . called “Brain” virus. After starting. logical addresses (IP addresses) are used to move data from one LAN to another LAN across the network and the port address is used to transmit data to the intended application. the extension of the document will become RTF but internally the file is still a DOC. the virus checks for existence of "c:\minny. These commands attempt to remove everything from "C:". • SCOLD. if a document is saved as an RTF file. "E:" and "F:" drives when the system is restarted.log" file. Some of the known viruses and their effects are given below. • The first common computer virus. • Blaster : Every 17th day of each month. The majority of viruses are written by hackers.COM files. It will infect both . When the counter exceeds 256 the virus makes the hard disk unbootable • Bin Laden : This virus does not have a destructive effect. • 6 . 30 minutes after an infected program is run. regardless of the format you choose. Jerusalem activates on every Friday the 13th. • Nimda : Nimda is a complex virus with a mass mailing worm component which spreads itself in attachments named README. it sometimes displays a message. For example.A : Send simple e-mails.bat". • Computer Virus A computer virus is a program or piece of code designed to hide in the background and to perform one or more of the following activities • Replicate itself • Attach to other programs or instructions • Perform unintended actions • A program needs not to perform outright damage in order to be called a “Virus”. • Jerusalem : This is one of the oldest and most common viruses around. • CAP : One effect of CAP is that all documents are saved in the Word DOC format. If the file does not exist. deleting programs run on that day.

These specific conditions may be the arrival of a particular date. • Programs act erratically. time. • Main Phases of Virus Activity The main phases a virus generally follows are. • The safeguard : prevents the detection and the removal of the virus • The trigger monitor : Monitors for a specific condition to deliver payload. • Files have strange names you do not recognize." • A virus comprises of four general components • The replicator (or engine): replicates the virus. etc. • The floppy disk drive or hard drive runs when you are not using it.Some of the main reasons for writing viruses are. • Strange sounds or beeping noises come from the computer or keyboard. • Unable to access the hard drive when booting from the floppy drive. This action may be an amusing action or malicious action resulting in distraction from the current work or destruction of data. • Programs take long time to load than normal. • New files keep appearing on the system and you don not know where they came from. • Program sizes keep changing. • Computer's hard drive constantly runs out of free space. • Virus Symptoms Some of the symptoms that a computer will show up when infected with a virus are listed below. keyboard stroke. • Hacking • To prevent copying software • • • • • Revenge : Employees may plant “Time Bombs” in programs Fraud : Viruses may allow access to an otherwise secure system Political and terrorist motives Commercial sabotage : Damage the reputation of a competitor Warfare : Incorporate a virus to an enemy’s computer. • The payload : the action it does apart from propagation. • Conventional memory is less than it used to be and you cannot explain it. • Gains access to the system • Lies dormant • Propagates • Virus is triggered by some event • Virus Action • There are three main types of viruses 7 . • Strange graphics are displayed on your computer monitor.

• On-demand scanners: Executes only on users demand and can be scheduled to run at various times • Trojan Horse A program that performs unsolicited actions. recognized to exist in virus programs.• Boot Virus • File Virus(Parasitic Virus) • Macro Virus • Macro Virus A macro is a collection of application specific instructions coded to automate some manual process such as formatting a word document. • On-access scanners: automatically check the hard disk and diskette each time the system starts up. they do not replicate and neither do 8 • . Some of these precautions are listed below. usually 16 bytes. These anti-virus scanners work by searching for fingerprints: short patterns. Macro Viruses are either complete macros or macro segments embedded as parts of legitimate macros. Once a computer is infected with a macro virus the following actions may result. which look for viruses. • Verbal Warning • Use of anti-virus software • Avoiding the use of unchecked disks • Avoiding the use of unauthorized or unchecked software • Write protecting all standard software • Use only CD-ROM versions of software whenever possible • Using firewalls Anti-virus software contains anti-virus scanners. • Unusual messages • Unknown macros listed in macros list • Save data in unintended formats • Lost data • How to Protect a Computer from Computer Viruses There are many ways of preventing a computer from virus attack. There are two types of virus scanners. However. They may come straight from the software manufacturer’s original disks.

including electronic shopping malls. and short movie clips. Internet • The Internet grew out of a United States Department of Defense project. On the Internet information is available mainly through three mediums: the World Wide Web (WWW). business information. An URL is simply a collection of text segments that identifies an item in a computer network.ucsc.ac.cmb. Every page on the Web can by uniquely identified by using its URL. research organizations and remote computer centers. • Types of resource available on the Internet. Some of the common types of information available on the Internet are: • Different types of information such as text. Here is an example of a typical URL: Computer Fundamentals Faculty of Information Technology-University of Moratuwa http://www.they attach to other programs. • a nongovernmental international volunteer organization called the Internet Society (ISOC) controls the standards and the future of the Internet. sounds. university course materials. in the File menu). pictures. You can retrieve a page by typing its URL in the Location field of the browser and pressing Enter (or by using Open Page. Its main objective was to provide network links between universities. Usenet News (News) and Electronic Mail (e-mail).storybooks and games for children. • Actual business information -. • What is an URL? To understand how a singe page is kept distinct from millions of other pages available on the web. • Games that you can play alone or with other people all over the world.lk/centre/csc/index. • Information at all levels -. Programs to help you find the information that you want. the ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) started in late 1960s... and lots of things that are just plain fun. fine art. you should learn to recognize its URL (short for Uniform Resource Locator).htm • 9 . Different types of resources are available on the Internet.

For example. and Gopher (a protocol that was briefly popular.htm The path name identifies the location of an item on the server. but then supplanted by Netscape-type products). http: A colon follows the protocol.cmb.ac.g. JPG. as well as the names of the folders and sub-folders that store the file. files are normally used for pictures and GIF files are normally used for graphics and drawings. Each segment of a path name is preceded by a single slash. and the path name of the item. You might also come across ftp (another way used to transfer files). //www.g. the server (the computer that holds the item). or the server machine is not currently working then you will see a different message. then you will receive a message saying that the file was missing.Within the URL text are components that specify the protocol (the format that Netscape can expect the information to be in). The path name e. Component Meaning The protocol e. The server name is preceded by two slashes. JPG and GIF. You can often tell what country the server is in by its address. /centre/csc/index. The server e. Each server on the Internet has a unique address. This is called "Error 404 • File not found" If you have typed the name of the server incorrect.html page is stored in the ‘csc’ folder that is stored in the ‘centre’ folder (Refer to Page number49) If you try to go to a page that is not there. • • 10 . Many Internet pages use http (short for HyperText Transfer Protocol). possibly like "Error 204 DNS Name Lookup Failure. This path name usually tells you the name of the file containing the page.ucsc. in this URL the index." There are two standard picture formats used in the Web. or you have typed in an incorrect URL for a page. news (the protocol used by the Usenet news groups).g.lk The server identifies the computer system that stores the information you see. or jpeg.

comprised of the coding. or tags. • HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol. • Browsers are often referred to as "client software.com). or may allow you to log on via "anonymous ftp. FTP servers usually require user Ids and passwords. because each movie takes up large amount of storage space. known by its French acronym CERN. a method of transferring files from one computer to another via the Internet." • Client Any computer linked to Internet and capable of receiving information from a server. as well as how documents and files are to be linked.• The Internet also contains brief videos that you can see. yahoo. Some Internet sites specialize in just this kind of transfer.. • Modem A modem converts digital signals from your computer into audible tones that can be transmitted over regular analog phone lines.g. Users can sign on to this type of server and copy files to their own computers. • 11 . that indicate how text and images are to be displayed. • Domain The top-level identifier for a particular Internet server (e. stored as QuickTime (Macintosh) or AVI (IBM compatible) format movies. The modem on the other end then transfers those same audible tones back (or Demodulates) into its original digital signals. HTML was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland.(Plese read page number 51 of GIT book) • FTP The abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol. The basic computer rules and language that allow for the linking and transferring of Web pages and graphics. They have to be brief. Domains are of various types and they are categorized by one or more extensions. This conversion process is called Modulation." HyperText Markup Language. Users often can learn much about an Internet site by studying its domain name. The computer "language" of the World Wide Web.

Downloaded files are either viewed or copied by the client using "client software." such as a Web browser. It is usually referred to simply as "the Web." The Web is differentiated from Gopher and other text-only protocols by its "Graphic User Interface" (GUI) that allows the joining of text and images on individual Web pages. POP stands for Post Office Protocol. You 12 . then forwards it to the recipient's mail server. • Server A computer directly linked to the Internet that holds files ready for downloading by a "client" machine.A proxy server is a computer that provides access to the Internet. short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. • World Wide Web That part of the Internet operating under the HTTP protocol and using the HTML language. • URL Uniform Resource Locator. and Lycos. However. • E-Mail The standard protocol used for sending Internet e-mail is called SMTP. When you send an e-mail message. It works in conjunction with POP servers. it is a menudriven system for retrieving and accessing information. proxy server may also have a firewall An automated Web Site that uses advanced searching software to locate other Web Sites and Internet files based on search criteria entered by the user is called a Search Engine. Infoseek. The server looks at the e-mail address (similar to the address on an envelope). HotBot. The standard "address" format used by a server and the specific files that make up the document or Web Site. where it is stored until the addressee retrieves it. Engine. Web Site URLs always start "http://". your computer routes it to an SMTP server. such as a home PC is called a Server. like the earlier Gopher Protocol. Examples of such sites include Alta Vista.

2 = 16 (2 to the power of the number of bits) • EBCDIC (Extended Binary – Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Please Read GIT BOOK Page number 73 for Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates. Communication – connection between computers to share data and information • Generally computer hardware can be divided into five categories: (1) input devices. (4) output devices.can send e-mail anywhere in the world to anyone who has an e-mail address. Bytes. Nibbles and Word Length • Nibble A nibble is a group of FOUR bits. This gives a maximum number of 16 possible 4 different values. almost all Internet service providers and all major online services offer at least one e-mail address with every account. • Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • A computer will not be useful without making a computer system. they hold the data and 13 . 3. memory addresses and the intermediate results of calcula tions. instructions. (3) storage devices. The top-level domain=TLD (Refer to E-Mail) • Data Structures Bits. Software – instruction to hardware 3. Procedures or instructions – guidelines to use software and hardware 5. (2) processors. People –Those Operating the computer system 6. 2. Remember. Hardware – basic electronic and electro -mechanical parts in a computer 2. Please Read Chapter 1 Page number 25 of 1. A computer system is a combination of six elements: 1. and (5) communications. They hold various types of information such as data. Data and Info rmation – data as input and information as processed data 4. Registers • Control Unit and ALU are connected by a kind of electronic roadway called a bus Registers: Registers store very small amounts of data and instructions for short periods of time. Essentially. • The CPU consists three main parts: Control Unit Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU).

• It stores intermediate results of processing • The flow of information within the computer can be described as follows • All information that the computer possesses must be entered via the Input function (except in special cases where some of the computer’s information may be permanently contained within the machine) • Depending on the type of information. it may be used either to instruct the computer what to do (instructions) or it may be used as data in arithmetic or logical operations (data). 4. As soon as a particular instruction or piece of data is finished with. The ALU works on the data held in the registers acting on the instructions that are also held there. the next ones immediately replace it and information that results from CPU Control Unit Arithmetic/Logic Unit Bus Memory BUS Registers 27 the processing is returned to main memory. • The output function displays the results of the internal processing of information when called upon by the control function. The The The The The • Basic Operations of a Computer input Function : accepts data or instructions by way of input storage function : stores data and instructions processing function : processes data as required by the user output function : gives results in the form of output control function : controls all operations inside the computer • The storage unit performs the following major functions: • It stores all data and instructions before and after processing. 2. • Main memory of the computer and it stores three type of information for 14 . Please read chapter 1 page number 33 in order to get knowledge about the VON Neumann Architecture. 1. it will be routed to the Arithmetic/Logic function for processing and back to await its next use. • As an instruction.instructions that the CPU is currently working with and they can be thought of as being the CPU's workspace. Data and instructions do not go into either the Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) or the Control Unit (CU). • All instructions and data are placed in the memory (storage) • Instructions and data are processed sequentially as required by the stored program and the intermediate/final results are returned to storage. the information tells the computer where the next information is stored or what to do with the next packet of information obtained. 3. • As data. 5.

Testing 7. Software Development 6. Maintenance • During design. managers. Cache Memory • A computer-based information system involves six interdependent components: hardware (machines). Problem Definition 2. The three traditional levels of management are 1) Lower or Operational Management 2) Middle or Tactical Management 3) Upper or Top or Strategic Management 1) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) = Data Processing Systems (DPS). System Design 5. • There are number of types of information systems corresponding to various levels of management. 2) Management Information Systems (MIS) 3) Decision Support Systems (DSS) 4) Executive Information Systems 5) Expert Systems (ES) • Management uses several basic types of information systems: =(EIS) Executive Support System (ESS). Linear Sequential Model or Water Fall Model. software (instructions or programs).very brief periods of time: • Data to be processed by the CPU • Instructions for the CPU as to how to process the data • Operating System programs that include instructions for computer how to function (details can be found in Section 1. SDLC is also known as Classic Life Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Cycle Model. Implementation 8. data and information. the analyst: 15 . people (programmers. or users). Feasibility Study 3. procedures (rules). Following are the different phases of the SDLC: 1. System Analysis 4.3) • There are four main types of primary storage: Registers Random Access Memory (RAM) Read-Only Memory (ROM).

Defines the detailed data requirements with a data dictionary. Writes program specifications. and inputs.Draws a model of the new system. Develops a method for collecting and/or inputting data. database. Specifies control techniques for the system’s outputs. • Problems in Systems Development The following are generally recognized as possible problems in systems development: Estimating cost and time Selecting a project team Capturing user requirements Using standards Choosing design approaches Coding programs Testing programs Maintaining systems 16 . using data flow diagrams (DFD) and entity-relationship (ER) diagrams. Devises formats for all the reports that the system will generate.

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