You are on page 1of 38

Gender and Monitoring & Evaluation

Samantha Hung Senior Social Development Specialist (Gender and Development)

The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology

Outline of Presentation
Importance of gender M&E? Gender statistics cycle

Knowledge gaps
Using gender data to inform policy Challenges Linking to international initiatives

All our data are sexdisaggregated anyway. Whats the problem? Business statistics have nothing to do with gender.

Gender statistics is not a statistical field, what is special about it?

We do not want to overburden the respondents.

Nowadays women have the same opportunities as men. So where is the problem?

There is no issue.

The role of women is not an issue in our country. We have resource constraints and we need to concentrate on other areas.

Importance of Gender M&E?


To identify the problem: Gender policies can lack focus, remain vague, aspirational statements rather than actionable measures To inform economic development plans: Gender analysis & data often do not adequately inform economic planning. To provide strategic direction: from a baseline to achievement of a defined gender goal To increase awareness & accountability: Information about gender issues & policy commitments are often not well publicized, so people cant track implementation progress To track achievements: with verifiable indicators

International commitments
Beijing Platform for Action (1995) 2010 review found that after 15 years: Progress cannot be measured in critical areas limited or non-existent data; many data gaps remain; need for increased investment in data collection and analysis
Source: Commission on the Status of Women 2010 (E/CN.6/2010/CRP.5)

Recent International Commitments


Busan - 4th HLF on Aid Effectiveness Forum declaration commits countries & development partners to collect, disseminate, harmonize and make full use of sex-disaggregated data to inform policy Busan Action Plan for Statistics Commits to fully mainstreaming gender mainstreaming into national statistical systems Address weaknesses in sex-disaggregated data among others as a priority initiative

Evidence-based Policy Making & Budgeting for Gender Equality


National Gender Equality Goals formulated
Plan for Development Results for Men and Women

Evaluate Results

We need data & indicators for planning, budgeting monitoring & evaluation!

Budget for Results

Monitor Results

Implement for Results

Gender Statistics Cycle


Political will International commitments Legislation & policies in place National planning, monitoring and evaluation systems Culture of evidence-based policymaking Trust in official statistics Emphasis on developing national statistics strategies and systems Regular data collection (surveys, censuses, administrative records) Elimination of gender bias in collection instruments Compliance with international standards and methodologies Effective national statistical system coordination mechanisms Data quality frameworks in place and monitored

Demand exists

Data exists

Data are used


Good relationships between data users and producers Feedback mechanisms exist Users are confident in understanding & using statistics (statistical literacy)

Data are disseminated


Data user groups identified & needs determined Gender analysis of data Dissemination strategy in place and monitored Products meet user needs Methods for disseminating data are appropriate for user needs

Demand Exists: National & International level


Monitoring and Evaluation Public Policy International Reporting CEDAW Beijing Platform MDGs Gender Equality Laws Economic Growth Strategies

GRB
International commitments

Flow of data
National commitments Provincial

Data exists: MDG3


Gender Equality & Empowerment of Women
Gender parity in primary, secondary & tertiary education Data availability: Primary (65% of countries); Secondary (52% of countries); Tertiary (46% of countries) had data from 2009 onwards Even if achieved, often find that data: Incomplete coverage - Private schools often not covered Possible misreporting (over-reporting) of enrollments Unreliable or incomplete data on age of students Unreliable or incomplete estimates of sub-national level population provincial, ruralurban, etc. Differences between national & international data
10

Share of women in wage employment in


the non-agricultural sector
Only 30 % of ADB members have data for 2009 onwards

Problem of comparability due to varied concepts, classification, coverage & methods of data collection

Source: Millennium Indicators Database Online (UNSD 2011). Note: C=Country Data; E=Estimated, estimated by the international agency, when corresponding country data on a specific year or set of years is not available.

11

MDG3 - representation in parliament


Women continue to be underrepresented in national parliaments - slow upward movement.
16 14 12 10 percent 8 6 4 2 0
1990 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Average percent of seats held by women in National Parliament, Developed and Developing Member Economies: 1990 - 2011

Source. : Millennium Indicators Database Online (UNSD 2011) accessed 6 June 2012.

12

Challenges to national demand


Institutional support & mechanisms Explicit legislative requirement? Clear mandate in NSDS? Awareness on gender equality & womens rights, among decision-makers & public? Need for capacity building & training? Low priority for gender statistics, and as a result, insufficient financial & human resources ? Do these apply in Malaysian context?

Gender Statistics Cycle


Political will International commitments Legislation & policies in place National planning, monitoring and evaluation systems Culture of evidence-based policymaking Trust in official statistics Emphasis on developing national statistics strategies and systems Regular data collection (surveys, censuses, administrative records) Elimination of gender bias in collection instruments Compliance with international standards and methodologies Effective national statistical system coordination mechanisms Data quality frameworks in place and monitored

Demand exists

Data exists

Data are used


Good relationships between data users and producers Feedback mechanisms exist Users are confident in understanding & using statistics (statistical literacy)

Data are
disseminated
Data user groups identified & needs determined Gender analysis of data Dissemination strategy in place and monitored Products meet user needs Methods for disseminating data are appropriate for user needs

What is truly treasured is measured

Data exists: Sorting out terms


Sex-disaggregated data
Indicators & gender indicators

Goals, targets & indicators Assemble data into a large number of statistics They dont act as gender indicators until we use them

16

Data exists common challenges


Weak coordination between data-producing agencies Limited consultation between producers & users Obstacles to collecting gender-related data such as cultural issues, civil unrest, employing trained enumerators, reaching remote communities Sex-disaggregated statistics available in raw data but harder to collate into gender indicators Lack of baselines Timeliness & comparability of gender statistics

Which of the above apply in Malaysia? At National, State or Local level?

More numbers needed to complete HERstory common problem data


Major Data constraints to provide evidence for public policies related to gender equality: Violence against women Unpaid work, care economy & time use/poverty Household headship Intra-household allocation Occupation, wages, unemployment, informal employment, decision making in private sector Entrepreneurship Household decision making & ownership of assets Attitudinal change
18

Strategies to produce gender data


Regular multi-purpose household surveys: Sex -disaggregation on earnings, asset ownership, informal & self-employment Leverage Demographic & Health Surveys Key data source for many gender issues, including health, education, bargaining power, fertility & mortality Irregular time use surveys: Identify gender time constraints Universal vital registration & ID system Register all births & deaths Analyze this data
19

Strategies to produce gender data


Important to eliminate gender bias in data collection: compromises accuracy of data Sources of gender bias: Poorly worded questions Inappropriate definitions and concepts Interviewers not well recruited or trained to be gender-sensitive Who is asking? Who is answering? Whose voice is heard or unheard?
20

Gender Statistics Cycle


Political will International commitments Legislation & policies in place National planning, monitoring and evaluation systems Culture of evidence-based policymaking Trust in official statistics Emphasis on developing national statistics strategies and systems Regular data collection (surveys, censuses, administrative records) Elimination of gender bias in collection instruments Compliance with international standards and methodologies Effective national statistical system coordination mechanisms Data quality frameworks in place and monitored

Demand exists

Data exists

Data are used


Good relationships between data users and producers Feedback mechanisms exist Users are confident in understanding & using statistics (statistical literacy)

Data are disseminated


Data user groups identified & needs determined Gender analysis of data Dissemination strategy in place and monitored Products meet user needs Methods for disseminating data are appropriate for user needs

Data are disseminated


Dissemination & communication of gender data given less emphasis than collection & analysis Accessibility of gender statistics remains an issue: Limited capacity to analyse & present statistics Lack of resources - both human and financial Impact of new technologies Role of NSOs Communication skills Make data meaningful

World Bank Gender Stats http://datatopics.worldbank.org/gender/

Gender Statistics Cycle


Political will International commitments Legislation & policies in place National planning, monitoring and evaluation systems Culture of evidence-based policymaking Trust in official statistics Emphasis on developing national statistics strategies and systems Regular data collection (surveys, censuses, administrative records) Elimination of gender bias in collection instruments Compliance with international standards and methodologies Effective national statistical system coordination mechanisms Data quality frameworks in place and monitored

Demand exists

Data exists

Data are used


Good relationships between data users and producers Feedback mechanisms exist Users are confident in understanding & using statistics (statistical literacy)

Data are disseminated


Data user groups identified & needs determined Gender analysis of data Dissemination strategy in place and monitored Products meet user needs Methods for disseminating data are appropriate for user needs

Using gender data to inform policy


Example 1: Gender gaps in education due to son preference & cultural practices Policy solution = targeted scholarships/stipends for girls Example 2: Low representation of women in parliament Policy solution = quotas/reserved seats for women Example 3: Low fertility rates & low female labor force participation Policy solution = greater provision of child-care, parental leave, tax amendments to encourage women to work Then monitor and evaluate gender impacts of policy!
27

Gender trends in Education


More women enrolled studies considered feminine such as social sciences & education. Underrepresented in engineering, manufacturing, and construction . Percentage of Enrolled Women and Men in Engineering, Manufacturing and
50

Construction Fields, Latest Years

percentage of women enrolled in engineering, manufacturing and construction fields

40

30

20

Singapore Malaysia Viet Nam

10

Bangladesh

Nepal

0Cambodia 0

Mongolia Brunei Darussalam Philippines Kyrgyz Republic Hong Kong, China Lao PDR Georgia Tajikistan Thailand Azerbaijan Uzbekistan Australia Japan Armenia Samoa Bhutan

Korea, Rep of

10

20

30

40

50

percentage of men enrolled in engineering, manufacturing and construction fields

28
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) accessed 12 June 2012.

Labor Force Participation Rates


2011 or Latest Year
Kazakhstan Bhutan PRC Cook Islands New Zealand Mongolia Australia Thailand Kiribati Palau Vanuatu Tajikistan Georgia Taipei,China Hong Kong, China Singapore FSM Brunei Darussalam Maldives Tonga Kyrgyz Republic Armenia Korea, Rep. of Japan Bangladesh Solomon Islands Uzbekistan Philippines Turkmenistan Indonesia Malaysia Samoa Marshall Islands Timor - Leste Fiji Sri Lanka India FSM = Federated States of Micronesia, PRC = Peoples Republic of China. Pakistan Sources: ADB estimates based on data from Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 7th ed. (ILO) Afghanistan

1990 or Nearest Year


0.80 0.63 0.85 0.67 0.72 0.84 0.69 0.87 0.88 0.71 0.89 0.77 0.74 0.60 0.60 0.64 0.53 0.54 0.26 0.48 0.79 0.79 0.64 0.65 0.70 0.68 0.63 0.58 0.62 0.62 0.53 0.52 0.53 0.52 0.35 0.47 0.41 0.16 0.19 1.0

Gender parity in labor force participation remains a challenge for most economies in Asia

0.86 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.81 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.71 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.57 0.55 0.52 0.52 0.49 0.45 0.36 0.27 0.20 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Ratio 0.8 0.90

Employment-to-Population Ratio
Gender disparity evident in all countries
100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0

Employment-to-Population Ratio, Aged 15 years and over, Total, Female, Male, Latest Year

- 20.0
0.0

Total

Female

Male

Sources: Millennium Indicators Database Online (UNSD), accessed 03 July 2012; Institute for Statistics Data Centre (UNESCO), accessed 18 May 2012.

Economic costs of gender inequality

Source: Goldman Sachs (April 2007) Gender Inequality G rowth and Global Ageing .

Companies with a more gender balance in management boards, total shareholder returns 32.4% higher
(Source: Catalyst report Connecting Corporate Performance and Gender Diversity 2004. 353 of Fortune 500 companies 1996-2000)

Addressing costs of inequality policy informed by gender M&E


Target = women with children, who start working or increase work-hours, as they buy products and services. Need to understand if women respond to economic stimuli in the same way? Policy response = introduction of a job-tax-deduction favoring lower incomes more than higher: Supply in work force as a result of the "job deduction" projected increase in number of job hours:
Desired number of work hours
Change in %

Total
2.3

Women
2.9

Men
1.8

Change per annum

106000

59000

47000

Addressing costs of inequality policy informed by gender M&E


1 well-educated woman at home caring for 1.8 children costs more than 1 adequately educated person caring for 4-5 children Women spend 27 hrs on housework/week; Men spend 21 hrs Win-win if women buy child care services. Creates jobs while they return to employment. Government gets more taxes. Policy response = Tax deduction for purchase of home services Results emerging: 11,000 people work in household services

75% of them not previously working. Projected growth to 17000 jobs - based on statistics on increased demand over time.

Challenges to data being used


Too often, gender statistics not fully used for evidence-based policies Key challenge: limited capacity of users to access, understand, analyse, interpret & use gender statistics Enhance cooperation & partnerships (regular consultations & dialogue) between data producers and users, for discussing trends, issues and progress Need clear gender M&E mandate across all sectors Need to invest in gender statistics & M&E

Linking to International Initiatives (1)


Evidence & Data for Gender Equality (EDGE)

developing international gender indicator database; methodological development of standards/guidelines on entrepreneurship and asset ownership; presentation to UN Statistical Commission in 2015

Core UN IAEG-GS indicators in being developed


Economic structures, participation in productive activities & access to resources Education Health and related services Public life and decision-making Human Rights of women and girl child

Linking to International Initiatives (2)

UN Inter-Agency Expert Group on Gender Statistics Manual on mainstreaming gender in all official statistics under finalization Guidelines on VAW statistical surveys standard methodological guidelines on what, how, and special features of VAW surveys Initiatives at the regional commission level Mainstreaming gender into post-2015 Agenda

Thank you for your attention Please visit our website


www.adb.org/gender/

References*
Why Gender Statistics are important to monitor the progress in achieving MDGs - Numbers tell HERstory! , Presentation by Susann Roth, Social Development Specialist, ADB Numbers tell HERstory: Why gender statistics is important to monitor the progress in achieving MDGs?, Presentation of Kaushal Joshi, Senior Statistician, ADB Statistics as evidence for inclusive growth planning: Sweden, Presentation of Bonnie Bernstrm, President, Liberal Women Gender-Specific Statistics: Why they matter and what can be done, Presentation by Stephan Klasen, Universitt Gttingen

*Sourced from recent ADB-sponsored regional workshops/conference proceedings