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An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey

Orhan Batman Lecturer, Sakarya University, Adapazari, Turkey H. Hseyin Soybali Researcher, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, UK

Keywords
Germany, Organizational structure, Travel agencies, Turkey

Introduction
Today hundreds of millions of people participate in travel and tourism activities as a result of changes in life style and improvements in working conditions and living standards. According to preliminary statistics of the World Tourism Organisation, the number of international tourists reached a high of 567.3 million in 1995, reecting a 97 per cent increase since 1980 (287.8 million). The increase in world tourism receipts was even higher, showing an increase of 235 per cent, from US $103.4 billion in 1980 to US $346.7 billion in 1994 (World Tourism Organisation, 1996). One of the unique characteristics of the tourism industry is that tourism products are consumed where they are produced. Therefore, the performance of the service requires the active participation of the producer and the consumer together (Middleton, 1988). To consume these products, which are nontransportable and inseparable, tourists, as consumers, agree to travel to places where those products are available. Inseparability of tourism products makes it necessary for consumers to travel to and from places where tourism services and products are produced. This causes the role of tour operators and other travel establishments to be quite signicant in the tourism industry Today in many . countries which are generators of tourism, tour operation is the dominating feature of the holiday market (Burkart and Medlik, 1981). Tour operators and travel agencies, as intermediaries between suppliers and customers, have played an important role in the marketing and distribution of tourism products. These organisations full the function of serving their customers in tourist-generating countries by packaging and selling holidays, as well as helping destinations in the promotion and marketing of their attractions. Therefore, the success or failure of tour operators and travel agencies affects both destinations, as suppliers, and tourists or holidaymakers, as consumers of the tourism industry . The signicance of travel companies has been felt strongly in the German tourism industry, since Germany is the second

Abstract
Tour operators have played an important role in the marketing and distribution of tourism products to customers. As one of the major tourist-generating countries, the signicance of the tour operator industry has been felt strongly in Germany. When one considers that about 30 to 40 per cent of German holidaymakers travelling abroad buy their holidays directly from tour operators or via travel agencies, the importance of these travel establishments in Germany becomes obvious. The dominance of tour operators in the marketing of tourism destinations worldwide in Germany suggests their great importance to the tourism industries of destination countries in terms of the steady and balanced development of tourism. Consideration of the main functions of tour operators in the tourism industry, and understanding the working environment in which they operate and their experience in the industry, may provide very useful benets to other tour operators and the tourism industry as a whole, as they all operate in a similar environment and work with each other frequently. Therefore, this survey among eight tour operators and ten German travel agencies aims to examine and identify the basic managerial and organisational structure of German tour operators and travel agencies in Turkey

highest tourism spender in the world. When one considers that about 67.2 per cent of the German population took 65.7 million domestic or international holidays in 1994 and 28.2 million of these holidays, 43 per cent (Deutsche Reisebro Verband, 1995), were packaged and sold by tour operators and travel agents, the importance of these travel establishments both in Germany and Europe becomes obvious. In fact German company groups account for 12 of the top 50 but with over a third of combined turnover that is about twice as much as the top ten UK groups. Consequently the European tour operator industry is now dominated by large German companies which occupy ve out of the top ten slots (Bywater, 1992). In view of the excellent record of successful German travel companies and their dominance in the European tourism industry, understanding the working environment in which they operate and their experience in the industry may provide very useful benets to travel companies throughout Europe and the wider tourism industry Therefore, the . Germany-based tour operators and travel agencies which have demonstrated the best performance in Europe were chosen as the subject of this study The German tourist . markets importance to Turkish tourism and its contribution to the Turkish tourism boom in recent years was also an inuential factor in choosing German tour operators.

Organisational structure and management in travel establishments


The principles of management in the travel industry are basically not so different from those of general management. However, the signicant difference between them stems from the unique characteristics of tourism products and the tourism industry, which make management in the tourism industry more complex and important. In addition, human behaviour and relations and, in particular, direct contact and close interaction between employees and the customers at the time of simultaneous production and consumption also manifest the signicance of

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350 MCB University Press [ISSN 0959-6119]

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

management in the industry Management, . especially of tour operators, is a process of harmonisation and co-ordination with different organisations, the people and all available resources, and this is fundamental for successful operations. The eventual success or failure of a service industry establishment depends on its organisational structure, which must be designed to meet the service production and consumption process, customers needs and to provide a high level of service quality and efficiency . To achieve the desired goals, organisations may be structured in different ways from each other depending on the products, cultural settings, economic situations, size and working environment of the organisation. Organisations are forced to decide on decision-making mechanisms, the distribution of authority, the division of labour, rules, regulations and procedures to be followed and the level of exibility to be able to adapt themselves to a changing business environment. In travel establishments, the organisational design and structuring involves the integration and harmonisation of all activities performed to realise specied objectives. The processes of planning, organisation, leading and controlling are performed by the important specialised functions of these travel organisations such as management, operations, marketing/promotion, sales, nance, purchasing, personnel. The common objectives of travel organisations in terms of management can be outlined as follows: To prepare soft and exible management plans with sound nancial resources and better utilisation of resources. To practise principles of management as much as possible and to get employees involved in management and decision making. To develop effective promotion, marketing and sales techniques. To obtain and have all necessary professional skills, ability and efficiency as required. Innovation and adaptability to new conditions in the tourism industry are of vital importance in terms of survival in a highly competitive environment. However, sometimes, especially under the present economic conditions, successful management is more important than innovation for some organisations. Nevertheless, open-minded, innovative, risk taking and compatible management will undoubtedly help travel organisations to survive in the future. The travel organisations success depends partly on how well

they understand dynamic tourism markets and partly on their business experience. Human factors determine the foundation of management in the travel industry It is very . difficult to predict human behaviour and expectations, and these are, therefore, very difficult to manage and manipulate. In service industries, the larger the organisation, the greater the number of employees and customers there are and, consequently, the greater the number of problems to be resolved. Greater emphasis and attention is required as regards the human factor in service industries. Managers, in particular, should systematically motivate and encourage staff to be involved in management to achieve better results. Ultimately, as in other tourism organisations, there is no standard organisational structure, type of management, or manager. This is mainly due to the human factor in the industry, the variety of working conditions and the changing and competitive environment. However, the most important attributes managers in travel organisations should possess are cited as good leadership ability and expertise in human relations.

Methodology
This study aims to examine and identify the basic managerial and organisational structure of eight tour operators and ten travel agencies based in Germany and provide some suggestions to other travel companies in the light of the results of the study Organisa. tional aspects which will be examined include: Characteristics of the tour operators and travel agencies. Organisational functions and principles. Staffing. The position of the travel companies in the tourism industry . Tour operators who specialise in Turkish holidays were chosen, based on the recommendation of the Frankfurt Turkish Tourist Office. Travel agencies were chosen from those which sell Turkish tourism products, based in different parts of Germany, and were medium-size companies. In the main, questionnaire survey techniques were employed in order to obtain data, although in some cases face-to-face interviews were also used to gain detailed information on the subject. Despite detailed introduction of researchers and the research, some respondents, in particular travel agents, refused to participate in the study . Eighteen out of 30 travel companies agreed to

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

participate in the research eight tour operators and ten travel agencies.

Evaluation of results
Characteristics of establishments Legal constitution of companies
Mixed liability companies and collective/ mutual partnerships are described as personal/individual partnership companies and limited and joint-stock limited companies are dened as capital partnership companies which involves only nancial liability (Tosun, 1990). All tour operators studied were legally constituted as limited companies, whereas only 60 per cent of travel agents were limited companies and the remaining 40 per cent were divided between joint-stock limited companies and collective/mutual partnership companies (Table I). The limited liability company form has had a crucial role in the development and success of large scale enterprise (Clark et al., 1993) and it is an ideal model to keep partners responsibility at a limited or restricted level in high-risk businesses like travel companies, which are rather sensitive to economic and political changes. In addition, this model is suitable for sales, consultation and research organisations of large companies. Despite its resemblance to joint-stock limited companies, the major characteristics of a limited company are as follows: it is more formal compared to other types of companies; it is a legal entity separate from the proprietors and can have an independent ongoing existence; the shareholders have a limitation on their liability which limits the risk of loss; shares can easily be transferred (Clark and et al., 1993). These main characteristics attract more investors and capital to limited companies. Because of these crucial advantages, it can be said that most of the travel establishments prefer being, legally, limited liability companies in the high-risk travel business, although travel agencies prefer other types of companies as well because of their relatively

small size and different working environment compared to tour operators. It is observed that the majority of travel agencies capital is quite small compared to tour operators. Tour operators need higher capital to purchase and package all the elements of the travel product before sale. In contrast, as travel agencies sell tour operators packaged products in return for a percentage commission and engage small operations, they do not require high levels of working capital.

Number of employees
According to 1994 gures, approximately 50,000 staff are employed in more than 17,500 travel organisations across Germany (Deutsche Reisebro Verband, 1995). These gures indicate a 90 per cent increase in the number of companies and a 13 per cent increase in the number of employees over 1989 gures (Deutsche Reisebro Verband, 1989). Table II indicates that half of the tour operators employ between 20 and 30 personnel. Most travel agencies (90 per cent), employ a smaller number of staff, i.e. between three and ten. A directly proportional relationship is observed between the size of a travel company and the number of staff employed. Table II indicates that tour operators which employ more than 40 staff are large companies, namely TUI and ITS, which are the top travel industry leaders in Europe. However, there were also some small-size tour operators (25 per cent), who employed the same number of employee between three and ten as did 90 per cent of travel agencies.

Services provided by travel companies


As tour operators and travel agencies (Table III) are clearly distinguished from each other by the activities and services they provide in Germany, they avoid the specialist business areas of each other. While package and outbound tours are produced and served by tour operators, travel agencies provide other services such as ticketing and excursions. As in the rest of Europe and the USA, as a result of the rapid development in tourism movements and the expansion in tourism types, tour operators in Germany have preferred specialising in certain tourism products, destinations and touristgenerating regions. In some cases, operators specialise in more than one product or destination depending on the scale of the organisation and operations. As indicated in Table III, all tour operators engage in outbound tour operations and hotel reservations and 25 per cent of them in ticketing. While all travel agencies give ticketing and hotel reservation services,

Table I Legal constitution of companies Tour operators Number Percentage Limited company Joint-stock limited company Collective/mutual company Total 8 8 100 100 Travel agents Number Percentage 6 2 2 10 60 20 20 100

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

50 to 70 per cent of them organise daily and weekly small national tours and engage in incoming tour operations, car rental and seminar/conference organisation.

Organisational structure, functions and decision-making mechanisms Existence of organisational charts


Although 75 per cent of all tour operators had organisation charts, in contrast, 90 per cent of all travel agencies did not have any organisation charts. According to directors of the travel agencies, despite the non-existence of a tangible organisation chart, all staff in the organisation were told exactly what each one of them should do as their daily routine duties and the staff practised what the management expected from them. The organisation chart is thought to be unnecessary for small organisations where the structure is so simple, only a few personnel are employed and relations between them are more informal. Specialisation is observed between the departments of 75 per cent of all tour operators in terms of division of tasks and responsibilities. However, in the majority of the travel agencies, 90 per cent, which are mainly small- and medium-sized travel companies, which supply a range of services, there was not a clear division of labour and distribution of duties. Departments in these organisations undertake other departments tasks and

responsibilities as and when necessary It is . worth noting that these types of travel agencies are generally managed by an ownerdirector. As a result of supplying a wide variety of services, the managers of tour operators are forced to determine and clarify the specic tasks that have to be fullled by various departments and individuals. Managers realise the functional grouping which is a classication of all activities, services and tasks according to their characteristics and status in the whole operation by using their managerial experience and skills. These functional groups in travel companies usually include administration, operations, marketing/promotion, sales, nance, purchasing and personnel departments. In travel agencies, functional groups emerge in only certain types of activities and tasks. Since all activities were related to each other and there was a specialisation in the organisation, 80 per cent of travel agencies only had functional grouping in some areas of their operations.

Delegation and decentralisation of authority


In the majority of the tour operator companies the decision-making mechanisms are highly centrifugal (decentralised) or semicentrifugal (semi-decentralised). In contrast, centralised and semi-centralised authority empowerment in decision making is employed in travel agencies. This indicates that the staff at the lower levels of the companies are not empowered and each one of them has to ask their supervisor in decision making, or decisions will be made by the management. In relation to the type of management employed, the degree of empowerment changes in the organisations (Table IV). While 88 per cent of tour operators practise the empowerment process, 90 per cent of the travel agencies do not practise it. Flexibility was observed in all tour operators and 80 per cent of travel agencies. The main reasons for this were that the tourism industry relies heavily on human resources and human relations and the effect of constantly changing, vulnerable and sensitive working environments. Put another way, companies in the tourism industry have to be exible to adapt themselves to a changing environment and advanced technology .

Table II Number of employees Tour operators Number Percentage 3-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Over 40 Total 2 4 2 8 25 50 25 100 Travel agents Number Percentage 9 1 10 90 10 100

Table III Services provided Activities engaged in Daily excursion for German nationals Weekly national tours Incoming tour operations Outbound tour operations Ticketing Car rental Conferences, congresses, seminars Hotel reservations Tour operations [ 46 ] Tour operators (percentage) 100 25 100 100 Travel agents (percentage) 70 70 50 100 60 60 100

Principles of departmentalisation
Work or individuals are usually grouped into manageable units in many organisations so that they can be successful in the dynamic working environment. The most common departmentalisation types are by function, sequence, product, geography and customer

Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

process. Regions, customers and type of services provided are selected as the main principle bases for departmentalisation of the tour operator organisations (Table V). Tour operators, in general, divide their marketplace into two broad regions: 1 Europe-Mediterranean region: this region includes four different sub-regions according to the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). These are (Hacioglu, 1989); Western European and North Mediterranean region, which also includes Turkey . Eastern European Iron-Curtain countries. The Middle East. Southern Mediterranean (North African) region. 2 Intercontinental region which includes all other countries in the USA, Africa, Asia and Australia. This division of the marketplace is accepted by many tour operators in Germany and most of them establish their departments on the basis of the above internationally accepted regions. Conversely, travel agencies structure their organisations by customers and type of services provided.

Decision-making organs and decision-making techniques


The style and type of management employed in travel companies is usually determined by the organisational features of these companies. When centralisation of authority is employed in an organisation, the decisionmaking mechanism is controlled and practised by the managing director or the senior management team, which is exactly the opposite of the principles of the decision-making mechanism in a decentralised organisation. Eighty per cent of decisions are made by the manager or owner-manager in travel agencies, while this is 50 per cent in tour operators. The other 50 per cent of decisions in tour operators are made by the department managers and supervisors on the shop oor. This indicates the domination of centralisation in travel agencies which is heavily inuenced by the size, functions and ownership type of these companies in contrast to tour operators which have more decentralised decisionmaking mechanisms. In modern and large travel establishments, decisions are made in a logical and hierarchical order from bottom to top within the staff s framework of responsibility Because of the variety of activities . and functions, tour operators use their managerial and personal experience, practicality, perception, conviction and creativity as well as numerical and statistical information in decision making. However, although they follow the same path on decisionmaking, travel agents ignore or use little numerical and statistical information. They seem to prefer practical ways in tackling problems and predicting the future business environment.

Table IV Delegation and decentralisation of authority and empowerment Tour operators Number Percentage Travel agents Number Percentage 9 1 10 1 9 10 90 10 100 10 90 100

Delegation and decentralisation Centralised Decentralised Semi-centralised (close to centralised) Semi-decentralised (close to decentralised) Total Empowerment Being practised Not being practised Total

2 2 4 8 7 7

25 25 50 100 88.5 88.5

Staffing Level of education


To be able to work in a travel agency in Germany, a high school degree and some occupational training is sufficient qualication. After the tenth year at school, German students have to choose a subject which they are interested in for a career and they are given one years theoretical education in beruf schule (occupational school) and one years practical placement training in the industry . In addition, there are specic university programmes on tour and travel operations in Germany providing qualied professionals to the travel industry . Travel agents tend to be contented with mainly high school leavers and students and graduates of beruf schule due to the simple nature and small size of their operations and restricted nancial circumstances. Thirty per cent of travel agencies employ only high school graduates and 70 per cent of them

Table V Criteria for division of organisation Tour operators Number Percentage Travel agents Number Percentage 1 5 4 10 10 50 40 100

Organisational division based on Functions Customers Regions Type of services Total

1 2 3 2 8

12.5 25 37.5 25 100

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

employ university graduates of subjects outside tourism as well as high school graduates. Tour operators, however, prefer and employ highly qualied staff, most of whom hold a university degree either in the eld of tourism or other subjects. Six out of eight tour operators in the study have only employed university graduates, although the number of people who received education in tourism at a university level represents only a quarter of all personnel of tour operators. The other quarter of tour operators employ a mixture of university graduates from other disciplines and high school graduates.

Type of incentives used for motivation


Although travel agents only use salary rewards and improvement of the working environment, together with morale boosting measures, they were observed to be aware of the importance of staff motivation in their organisations. As they are small organisations and operate in a usually close and informal environment, 70 per cent of the travel agencies tend to improve job satisfaction and productivity by improving the working environment and maintaining the morale of the staff. Only 10 per cent of travel agencies practise salary-reward point systems. However, tour operators show some difference as the majority, 75 per cent, prefer utilising all possible and practical means where applicable to motivate their staff and increase productivity The other 25 per cent believe in . the improvement of working conditions and morale boosting to increase staff motivation and job satisfaction. The signicance of the working environment and the morale of staff are especially emphasised by all tour operators. In summary, it can be said that improving the working environment and the level of morale play key role in motivation in all travel organisations, large or small. Better working conditions and higher staff morale have clearly affected the success of the travel organisations as, in the same way, they affect all other organisations in other industries. However, high staff morale is of particular importance to organisations in service industries since the nature of the business requires close face-to-face contact with customers. In contrast, it is interesting to see that monetary incentives and promotion are identied as the least applied means of motivation.

problems in their organisations. The reason for having this problem is explained by the high salaries demanded by qualied staff. The second most important problem concerns staff working hours, experienced by some 25 per cent. The main reason given for this kind of problem is the overload of work as a result of the concentration of tour operations and tourism season in certain times of the year, long overtime hours and, nally, working continuously 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Social problems and educational and training problems are experienced by some 12 per cent of tour operators and travel agencies. As noticed, the problems are mainly associated with money and working hours, which both directly affect the living standards, social life, physical health and comfort of the staff. Conict arises where the self-interest of staff and company clash with each other.

Place of travel companies in the tourism industry


Table VI aims to provide information on how the managers of travel companies perceive the tourism industry and management in the industry The majority of travel companies, 88 . per cent of tour operators and 60 per cent of travel agencies, accept the human factor as the most important single inuential factor which shapes both supply and demand sides of operations in the tourism industry Travel . companies are dened as the intermediaries between the producers and the consumers and the sector which provides services to the tourism industry by forming demand, and packaging and delivering the products to customers at all stages of the production and consumption, including after-sales services. The human factor organises, co-ordinates and realises all these vital functions and services. Successful operations and productivity almost completely depend on high morale, and motivation of staff in a travel company As a result of direct contact with . customers, all positive or negative results are reected to customers directly Therefore, the . human factor is the most important production factor in travel companies. According to the managers of the travel companies, organisation and entrepreneurship come second to the vital human factor as another important production factor in travel companies. No respondent mentioned the importance and effect of technology and natural factors.

Staffing problems
It was observed that both German tour operators and travel agents experienced the same staff-related problems on a similar scale. As the most commonly experienced problem, around 56 per cent experienced staff salary

Promotion and advertising activities


Tour operators participate in tourism fairs and exhibitions in particular, as well as advertising (Table VII) in newspapers,

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

magazines and other publications on tourism and publishing, distributing and displaying posters, brochures and information leaets at appropriate and relevant places in their marketing efforts. Both tour operators and travel agents benet very little from audiovisual facilities such as video, TV and radio as it is quite expensive to make promotional lms, programmes and commercials. Tour operators use audiovisual means even if it is to a very limited extent, but travel agencies do not pay any attention to this means, as they sell tour operators products and tour operators promote their products by using audiovisual techniques as well as others. Although travel agents employ all promotional facilities, except for audiovisual, they generally concentrate on window dressing, brochure and poster publishing and advertising in the press. Depending on the type and quality of the product and characteristics of the target markets, the share of marketing and promotional expenses in relation to total production costs ranges from 2 to 8 per cent. Marketing and brochure expenses are stated by Yale (1995) as 112 per cent of the total cost of traditional Mediterranean sea-sun-sand holiday packages.

Conclusions
Tour operators and travel agents are the dynamic tourism establishments which prepare the base for tourism movements and then activate and organise them. Although

Table VI Most important factors for production Tour operators Number Percentage Human factor Organisation and entrepreneurship Capital Total 7 1 8 87.5 12.5 100 Travel agents Number Percentage 6 3 1 10 60 30 10 100

Table VII Means of marketing and promotion Tour operators Number Percentage Press Audiovisual Tourism magazine, publications and press Tourism fairs and exhibitions Window dressing and display Complimentary materials Posters and brochures 5 7 8 7 62.5 87.5 100 87.5 Travel agents Number Percentage 4 3 2 67 2 6 40 30 20 60 20 60

they primarily act as intermediaries between suppliers and consumers in the distribution of services, they also act as marketers and promoters of the tourism industry They . acquire the status of producers and suppliers due to the preparation of package tour products. Today, people in Europe and in particular in Germany use the travel companies to buy or book many of their holidays, travel seats and accommodation. The high rate of holiday taking and the substantial use of travel companies have increased the German tour operators ability to compete in the international tourism markets which enables them to buy more seats, beds and other services at cheap rates. Travel establishments like TUI, ITS and NUR, which are among the largest tour operators in Germany and Europe, are formed by mergers which give them extra competitive opportunity For example, ITS was formed by . the horizontal merger of ve different tour operators: Kaufhof Reisen, Hertie Reisen, ADAC Reise, Glucks Reisen, and Prima Reisen. In addition, in some cases, tour operators merge with charter ight companies. These vertical mergers help them to exclude the intermediaries in order to keep their prices low and exible. In this way, they capture the opportunity to expand their market share in the existing markets and penetrate new markets. They strengthen their ability to compete in highly competitive marketplaces by reducing the expenses paid for services purchased from other companies (seat, bed, commission, etc.), by easy co-ordination between companies, which results in high effectiveness and productivity in operations, and by reducing the operational risks to a minimal level (overbooking, compensation problems, etc.). Legally clear and precise denitions of status, outlining the specic activities and operations of tour operators and travel agents in Germany, encourages specialisation in certain products and activities which provides many advantages and benets to the travel companies. Specialisation of companies by type of products, by national and international regions and countries give them the chance to merge vertically or horizontally so that they can easily co-operate with each other and compete condently in the international marketplace. This also prevents unfair competition between tour operators and travel agencies. Although there are no serious problems experienced by travel companies in nding appropriately qualied staff for the job, in accordance with the occupational education system in Germany, they have difficulties in

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Orhan Batman and H. Hseyin Soybali An examination of the organisational characteristics of selected German travel companies in Turkey International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11/1 [1999] 4350

employing them. The problem as regards the employment of qualied staff arises primarily from the high cost of qualied labour and the unattractive heavy work load and the length of working hours, especially in peak season. Principles of contemporary management are practised by large organisations, especially by large tour operators. For example, job allocation, specialisation and empowerment are exercised in these types of large travel organisations. However, they tend to prefer semi-centrifugal management and they are productive as a result of well-motivated staff s successful output.

References
Burkart, A.J. and Medlik, S. (1981), Tourism: Past, Present and Future, Heinemann, London. Bywater, M. (1992), The European Tour Operator Industry, The Economist Intelligence Unit, Special Report No. 2141, Business International Limited, London.

Clark, D., Ross, L. and Shackleton, J.R. (1993), Organisational Framework (1994 ed.), ACCA Textbooks: Paper 4, Certied Accountants Educational Projects Limited, London. Deutsche Reisebro Verband (1989), Fakten und Zahlen zum Deuschen Reisemarkt 1988, Frankfurt. Deutsche Reisebro Verband (1995), Fakten und Zahlen zum Deuschen Reisemarkt 1994, Frankfurt. Hacioglu, N. (1989), Seyahat Acentaciligi ve Tur Operatorlugu, Uludag Universitesi Basimevi, Bursa. Middleton, V .T.C. (1988), Marketing in Travel and Tourism, Heinemann, Oxford. Tosun, K. (1990), Isletme Yonetimi, Istanbul Universitesi, Isletme Fakultesi Yayini, Yon Ajans, Istanbul. World Tourism Organisation (1996), Compendium of Tourism Statistics 1990-1994, Madrid, Spain. Yale, P. (1995), The Business of Tour Operations, Longman Group Limited, Harlow.

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