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Full name Id student

NguyenBachThuy Trang L0144ndnd0210

Assignment Managing Human Capital

Subject Teacher Class Table of contents

David Hall MBA 2 Stages 3

Chapter title A) Introduction B) Excutive summary

Explaining and challegence the perspective of Collin Comparative between UK and Japan, some developing countries in various cointext
Challenges of organizations a variety of cultures

2 3 6 9

C) Conclusion D) Reference and appendix

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A successful HR transformation has increased the value human resources adds to the business . Each country has its own generic recipe for human resource and there are general approaches to the subject that draw universal conlusion about human resource management. As an international student, the author is going to explain and critically evaluate the claim of Ms. Audry Collins that the perspective of her work is British in chapter3 Beardwell J. & Calydon . This chapter indeed has a objective inclination towards Human Resource Management rather than being a British Perspective. It is not only a British Perspective but also it mostly illustrates how different contexts influnce the practice of Human Resource Management and makes us mainly understand why different cultures and complicated contexts will lead different to practices. This essay will critically measure the elements of the context in Human Resource Management that should be taken out from the stated perspective in the given chapter and introduce topics from the international viewpoint that should be included in the chapter. Investigation into the chapter will prove that it is a discussion into the complexity of context and human nature when considering it in the case of Human Resource Management Furthermore, this paper will consider to identify and assess the concepts of Human Resource Management from the international perspective. It will make further inspection on the difference between the concepts of Career Planning and Power Distance in the British context and the Japanese context of Human Resource Management and some developing countries context. The difference in each countrys culture, organizational structure, source of human resource practices, historical background of human resource management etc. will lead to different ways of doing things and Human Resource Management Practices. It is acknowledged that the differences in context of Human Resource Management between The Japanese, Vietnamese and The British Perspective are wide ranging and complex. The entire concept is interwoven with many layer and patterns just like a tapestry and this makes it very difficult to comprehend (Beardwell and Claydon 2010). This essay cannot cover all the issues such as recruitment, management style, structure of hierarchy, promotion, recruitment, appraisal, training, performance management, change management, job description, managing diversity etc. Therefore, it will mainly concentrate on the concepts of Career Planning and Power Distance in the UK and Japan, Vietnam and some countries in the world.

Moreover, the concept of context and its implication in Human Resource Management will be further investigated by analysing different contexts in different countries. The essay will explain the international perspective will be based on several examples.

Excutive summary:
Explaining and challegence the perspective of Collin:
The two world wars, though far away in time and changed from the area of activity of human resource management have nonetheless influenced it in clearly acknowledgeable and very important ways. These effects create some direct and some indirect in strategic in manging . This leads changing labour management practices the development of personnel. Therefore, Mrs Collin suggests that Her work is British as a only theoretical point of view in the UK. There are many reasons to her perspective in human resource management. This is because afterward the final of World War II, Britain spent extremly change in social. The country was bankrupt when the war stopped in 1945. Britain needed to take a long time to to get back something lost in many industries, electricity, gas, water, health from the cost of war. The 1980's were characterized by Mrs. Thatcher, who began very good, a strong leader full of good ideas to push through a number of completely potty laws such as Poll Tax, that finally brought many succesfull politics during this time. Futhermore, the history of human resource Britain drove its early development. In British orgin, according to Sir Frederic Barlett(1886-1969) , many theories about human resource mangament also explain about social relationship in three fundamental forms. The first is the tendency towards primitive comradeship, the second is the tendency of assertiveness, and the third is the tendency of submissiveness. Therefore, the perspective of Collin influenced in the tendency towards primitive comradeship. It is also one of the point from Theory X and Y from professor Douglas McGregor. The theory X believe that everything must end in blaming someone. Although this theory improve effective in humanresource management and organizational development. It can be seen that some theories orgin and history British have influenced by the perspective of Collin. However, every theory has advantage and disadvantage in organizational structure. This is because the workforce is changing nowadays in the UK, and the workplace is a dynamic mix of employees from different backgrounds, races and genders. Also, employees might have completely different motivations and goals for choosing to work within an organization. For this reason, the author try to challenge about the perspective of Collin in various context . Britain has total

population of around 59 million and and an employee rare of nearly 80%, whilst most men work full time, the proportion of women working part time is still high at over 40% which is significantly higher than the European. Union evarage British politics has been dominated by 2 parties since 1945. The conservative partys support is strong between the business and ethic communities. While the labour party is based on traditionally strong in Urban working class communities. Tow years ago, the labour party was replaced by a conseriative liberal democrat coalition with David Cameroon who became a prime minister. As a result, employement and industrial relation change a lot over ten years ago. The successful of conservative government from 1979-1997 creates the sound with their simple step by step improving of industrial relations law, labour market deregulation and attemps to foster a competitive enterprise culture. In 1997, Labour government have continued to promote increased private sector involment in the public sector through a many ideas with potentially important implications for employment relations. However, a with other broader socio-econie provided for the banking sector whether this s akin to nationalization is a moot point . Therefore, the landscape of British strategic human resource management has changed substaintially over the last year. For a example, 5 years ago, when a student graduated with master degree, they can continues apply visa Ter2 to stay in the UK during 2 years. However, with a financial crisis in the world, the politics has changed in more detail with those student who want to work in the UK. Ten years ago, the TAX is smaller than now. Therefore, the government want to change for creating a fair between richest and poorest people. Futhermore, according to Beardwell and Claydon state that the keys to the understanding of human affairs, such as HRM, lie within their context. . Although context is difficult to conceptualise and represent, readers can draw on their existing understanding of environmental issues to help them comprehend it. Awareness and comprehension of context are ultimately empowering because they sharpen critical thinking by challenging our own and others assumptions. (2010: p.102) Basically, the chapter focus on some strategies that managers have adopted to deal with these tensions in the UK and Wetstern country. It can be seen that, the perspective of Collin has a lot of limitations in Human resource mangament from Britsh perspective. The first is resprented by what is called scientific management, and human relations approach. The second is the human resource management approach. In Britain, they overlaid the norms of a complex, though changing , social classic system tham frames the relationships between managers and the other employess . In the UK, management thinking as a

response to growing labour tension. It tempered scientific management by its recognize that people differed from other resources that ig they were treated as clock numbers than as human beings they would not fully effective at work. For a example, since 1997 a significant proportion of these new comers were economicand temporary mirgrants from Eastern Europe such massive changes posed a real threat in relation to racial and ethnic discrimination at work and also new challenges for Britains trade unions in terms of recruiting black and ethic minority members and responding to competing visions of social inclusion. Therefore, in 2007, the equality and human right commission was established to docuting research on migrantss experience with inequality in Britain.

Comparative between UK and Japan, some developing countries in various cointext.

We live in an area in which national economies have become increasing interconnected. Dramtic events gripped the world economy after Lehmnan Brother field for bankcruptcy in 2008 . This was largest bankruty in US history, Lehman hold more than US 600 billion dollars in assets. In the UK, British Airway asked its staff to work for free a month. In China , more than 20 million factory workers lost their job as returned to the rural areas from which they had originally come. These example are repeated in other countries, they describe that the global financial crisis and its aftermath have potentially far reaching implications for employee relation in many countries .The author provides in the board range of factors that shape the relationship between employees and employers in structure organization and the similarities and differences in the these relationships over time and across countries such as : UK, EU and Japan, with China and Vietnam. Firstly, the author concentrate federal level in some countries such : UK , Japan and Vietnam for explaining about UK, Japan, Vietnam systems to this level and very different picture would emerge at other levels. Secondly, this essay apply my knowledge of the Japanese and Vietnamese system to compare with the UK, EU and USA, about employee relation with recruiting and pay issue. Finally, the author will use the term performance to all measurement of the result of government to explain challagences organisation structure in various culture, strategic, strcutual and technological. Before going to compare in some countries, i am going to demonstrate shortly the roles these various groups might join in shaping performance policies and practices

in human resource.

This model is very useful to compare the important difference in institution context about performance policies and practice human resource in difference communication.For example, in the UK the PSA(public service agreement) ebtasblish in 1998. It take a performance targets set by treasury, against which each government agency must describe. There were set during three years but have broaden to three years for the current round and new PSA are to be set in 2007. While in Japanese, the government policy evaluation act (GPEA) was gone through the KOKKAI in 2001 and using in 2002. Policy evaluation in this country includes both standard evaluation and performance reporting GPEA depends on the government agencies to increase their own approach about policy evaluation. Futhermore, performance accounting set on the core executive and legistation. However in Vietnam, the politics are defined by prime minister in one party system. Therefore, The parliament followed the current Constitution of Vietnam on 15 April 1992, it is Vietnam's fourth in current constitution. In Vietnam, The Judiciary is

independent of the executive. However, in USA the government performance and result act (GRPA) became fully operating in 1997. GRPA require government to procedure performance plans and performance reports with guidance from both the president and the States Congress. On the other hand, there are many different way in some countries in performance regime between executive and legislature. The picture bellows to explain about separation of powers and executive in USA, VIETNAM, JAPAN and UK.

It can be seen that there are a strong separation powers in USA , while Vietnam in the middle and Japan close to the UK than USA. This is because the KOKKAI(Japan's bicameral legislature) and The Central Committee in Vietnam go straight a important stronger position than paralimaent in the UK. Therefore, the question is can the variations in performance policies and practices be at least partly explained by institution context? Basically, the most evidence impact of differences way comes in the inital of the performance systems. While In Japan, Vietnam, the new system is legislatively While Brtiain is purely policy with no legislation. In highly executive system of the UK , the setting of performance targets in government goes directly by the core executive.

By understanding about policies in many countries, the author is going to explain about strategic human resource in developed countries and developing country. Firstly, the author compare about organization structure in some companies between Japan, Vietnam and UK .

Picture1 : The picture show aabout centralized and decentralized in organisation structure

In the UK, some companies focuss on decentralized structure such as super market. Every store market has one manager who make a decision for sale promotion and staffing. While in Vietnam, most of companies and politics in the government concentrate in centralized structre to control their organization.Because of the differences of decentralise and centralized , the conflict of the right in work has been different ways in comparative analysis such as : pay issues and collective particular. For example, in European conflict of interests are always very important ways between individual and collective disputes such as: Italy and France. While in Vietnam and china, Japan, the conflict of the right can lead to lawful strikes and conflict or right should be taken by a decision by a court in the governemtn.

Moreover, the union has different between in the UK , Japan and Vietnam. This is differences in the legal systems, which make it easier for UK employers to work . Multi uninion is popular in the architecture if union organisation In the UK . However,in Japan, the major Confederation called Rengo. It organize over 60 percent of unionized workers. The action of Rengo is based on the umbrella for enterprise. The function of human resource managing within business responsible for an organizational people is to deal with workforce planning, recruitment , training and pay issue. In the UK and Japan the recruitment does not depend on hierarchical, organized, disciplined. In some organization, It involves attracting the right standard of applications to aplly for vacancies. Therefore, Britain has total population of around 59 million people and an employment rare of nearly 80% . While the recruitment of Vietnam based on on hierarchical. Union Vietnam politics

has been dominated by one party. For this reason, it is very hard to know the real about employess and some secrect politics inside this country. A second comparative research design is difference in a number of respect except for the phenomenon understanding. While there may be a tendency in toward convergency on Japan and VietNam rather than UK. This is because the government of Japan began industrialise relative later than UK a century. For this reason, they could learn many experience from the countries. Therefore, they had already to take organization forms and institution more suited than some countries with industrialized early. However, Vietnam has become independent in 1975, and leading by one party in the government, therefore they have a tendency in toward convergency . Futhermore, in the environment of , every countries has many different way in organisation structure. If some companies in British have flexible time to working full time and part time with developing technology. Therefore, Some people are not only working in office but also working in house or another places. However, in Japanese is very hard working and strictly time than Vietnam. Therefore,everyone in many countries has different working habits, different acceptance time, a way of talking to people, during meetings. Finally, it can be seen that Culture is the answer for many different way in which national cultures experience the distance . Therefore, it create many difference thinking in workplace. For example, most Brtish like to be polite and explain ideas in conversation,while in some countries with chopstick economies such as Japan, Vietnam like to keep silent ideas within organisation structure. Morever, two companies have not the exact same human resource practice and policies. This is because there are different about vision, mission and culture in some organisation. For example, a low-cost leader will have different traning and pay policies than one thing makes expensive goods. The questions is What are high performance work systems in complicated context? For example, faced with financial crisis and many competition from some companies in Japan such as Toyota, Nissan, U.S companies create a way to improve quality , products and responsiveness.

3) Challenges of organizations a variety of cultures

By understanding in various context in some countries, the author try to find some solutions about challenges of organizations. The question is what should we recomemmend the team leader to work with organizations in various context? As a MBA student , If an employee work in various context, the author try to communicate indirect and subtle manner. This is very important because it is not to offend others and keeping a clever diplomatic. It means that through non-verbal

forms of communication to avoid losing face and keeping harmony in organisation. Hierarchy is an important part of Japanese and Vietnamese business culture and should respect in company. in some countires in East Asian such as: Japan, China, Vietnam, most decisions are made from the top by the senior members of staff, though often opinions and many consensus is found from subordinate employees. In various culture, keeping close personal relationships and building trust are important l components to contribute a successful working environment. This strategic human resource is very scientific management approach. In Britain, this approach addressed the tension within organisation through changing, social system in framed relationship between managers and other employess. However, In Japan, by understanding the disadvantage between theory X and Y, professor Ouchi wrote a theory Z to show how American companies can understand the Japanese challenges with highly human resource management. There are many secrect to Japanese company success in managing people. It is not only in technology but also in many special way.It can be seen that the lower turn over increase a job commitment and higher productivity Human resource practices depends on the strategic, organizational structure, and technological in different context. The way that people think that about human resource management and the way is understading employee relation in the regulation of work. Each manager will have their own approaches to managing their people each unit unique differently, as does each function with the company and each organizations of a similar size or in a particular sector tend, other things being equal to have similar forms of human resource management. On the other hand, the different way between traditional style management and modern style management create many challenges in organisation with many various context. Traditional management appear that the ability if management is often using the power of the position than soft skill in some countries such as : Japan , Vietnam. While, modern style focuss on soft skill and relationship employees with understanding and listening . As an international student , modern human management is the best way in organisation structure. This is because it create ethics social in matrix organization. Finally, the world is more and more linked with various culture.Therefore, managing change is very important in today;s challenging environment. Professor Edwars Lowler concluded that as more employers face the need to adapt to rapid competitive change , focusing on strategy organisation development. But it is always the line manager who want formulate the change programe and executive the changes today. The question is What should we do in different culture? And

what should we in culture change?. For example, IBM;S CEO in 1990 said the last thing IBM needs none is a vision what IBM was culture change tha belived IBMs employers has become too complacent. He instituted new incentive and other plans to focus them more on the competition. However, many economies European union also face with many financial crisis in the world in some countries. It can be clearly that how the economy of Europeane depends on together. The author can be seen that policy coordination across the EU can some problems and create growth and job creation in future. By understanding about strategic human management, in my opinion the EU can create a new rules to improve many problems earlier and keep surely to all financial players

In summary, understanding Human resource management in various context is very important to achieve these goals in organanisation. Besides choosing the right employees to manage and working in specific jobs, human resource managers create commitment and loyalty among the workforce by keeping them up to date about company plans. Especially, in some small companies with limited about opportunities, market. Human resource leads to improve firms. One of the consequences of globalization with increased levels of cross border trade and investment, is that industrial relation and human resource professtionals often need knowledge about employee relation practices in more than countries. It can be seen that, High performance Human resource policies and practice help some organisation structure to support human resource management proposals, decisions, practices and reaching a decision. Futhermore, strategic planning is very important to all leader and managers in some companies. This is because each manager need to take a decision within the context of the company plans. For this reason, it is very important to understand about the fundamentals of planning in human resource. A strategic plan need to match its internal strength and weakness as opportunites and threat in compettion.

References and Appendix

Derek Torrington, Stephen Taylor, Laura Hall and Dr Carol Atkinson, Human resource management, 2011 Charles Leatherbarrow, Janet A Fletcher and Donald Currie, A Guide to HR in Practice, prentice hall, 2011