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cu hi v Bi tp chn lc ho hc trung hc c s

Phn I

Ho V c
Dng 1: iu ch cc cht, vit phng trnh theo s 1. Cc phng php iu ch n cht 1.1. iu ch kim loi a. Dng cc cht CO, H2 , Al, C tc dng vi oxit kim loi nhit cao.
t V d: CO + CuO Cu + CO2
o

b. Dng kim loi ng trc (tr K, Na, Ca) y kim loi ng sau ra khi dung dch mui. V d: Zn + CuCl2 ZnCl2 + Cu c. in phn mui nng chy (ca kim loi mnh)
DienPhan V d: 2NaCl(nng chy) 2Na(cc m) + Cl2(cc dng)

1.2. iu ch phi kim - iu ch X2 (Halogen) Vi Cl2: Trong PTN, dng KMnO4, MnO2 tc dng vi HCl, cn trong cng nghip in phn dung dch NaCl (c mng ngn) V d: MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 +2H2O + Cl2 2KMnO4 + 16HCl 2MnCl2 + 2KCl + 8H2O + 5Cl2
DienPhan 2NaCl+2H2O Cl2(cc dng) + H2(cc m) + 2NaOH(cc m)

- iu ch O2 Trong PTN: Nhit phn cc hp cht giu oxi v d gii phng ra oxi (KMnO4, KClO3 ) V d:
t 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 t MnO2
0 o

2KMnO4

K2 MnO4 + MnO2 + O2

Trong CN: Chng phn on khng kh lng hoc in phn nc (c pha mt t H2SO4)

- iu ch H2 Trong PTN: Ho tan Zn, Fe, Al kim loi bng dd axit HCl, H2SO4 Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2 Trong CN: in phn nc (c pha mt t H2SO4) hoc dng than kh oxi ca nc.
t H2O + C H2 + CO
0

2. iu ch cc hp cht 2.1. iu ch oxit: 1) Oxiho kim loi, phi kim hoc hp cht V d: C + O2 CO2 ; hoc 2CO + O2 2CO2 ; hoc CO2 + C 2CO ; 4P + 5O2 2P2O5 S + O2 SO2 4FeS + 7O2 2Fe2 O3 + 4SO2
t , xt 2SO2 + O2 2SO3
0

2) Nhit phn mui


t V d: CaCO3 CaO +CO2
o

2Cu(NO3)2 2CuO + 4NO2 + O2 - Nhit phn baz khng tan


t V d: 4Al(OH)3 2Al2O3 + 6H2O
o

2.2. iu ch baz 1) Kim loi mnh + H2O baz (tan) + H2 V d: Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2

2) Oxit baz + H2O baz (tan) V d: BaO + H2O Ba(OH)2 3) Baz(tan) + Mui (tan)

Mui (mi) + Baz (mi);

sau phn ng thu c cht hoc 3

V d: 2NaOH + CuCl2

2NaCl + Cu(OH)2

4) in phn dung dch mui clorua ca kim loi mnh (c vch ngn) baz (tan) + H2 + Cl2 V d: BaCl2 + 2H2O Ba(OH)2 + H2 + Cl2 2.3. iu ch Axit: 1) Hidro + Phi kim V d: H2 + Cl2 2HCl 2) Oxit axit + H2O Axit H2SO4 V d: SO3 + H2O

3) Axit + Mui Axit (mi) + Mui (mi) sau phn ng thu c cht hoc V d: 2HCl + FeS FeCl2 + H2S 4) in phn dung dch mui c oxi ca kim loi yu V d: 2CuSO4 + 2H2O 2Cu + O2 + 2H2SO4 2.4. iu ch mui: 1) Kim loi + phi kim Mui V d: 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 2) Kim loi (ng trc H) + dd axit Mui + H2 V d: Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 3) Kim loi ng trc y kim loi ng sau ra khi dd mui V d: Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu 4) Cl2 ; Br2 tc dng vi dd kim V d: Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H2O 5) Axit V d: + baz Mui + H2O H2SO4 + NaOH NaHSO4 + H2O

Hoc H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O 6) Axit + oxitbaz Mui + H2O

V d: 2HCl + CaO CaCl2 + H2O 7) Axit + Mui Axit (mi) + Mui (mi) V d: H2SO4 + Na2S Na2SO4 + H2S 8) Baz + oxit axit Mui + H2O V d: NaOH + CO2 NaHCO3 Hoc 2 NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O 9) Baz(tan) + Mui (tan) Mui + Baz sau phn ng thu c cht hoc V d: 2NaOH + CuCl2 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2 10) Oxit axit + oxitbaz Mui V d: Na2O + SO2 Na2SO3 11) dd mui + dd mui 2 Mui
(mi)

(sau phn ng c )

V d: NaCl + AgNO3 NaNO3 + AgCl 12) Mui axit + baz Mui + H2O V d: NaHCO3 + NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O 2NaHCO3 + Ba(OH)2 Na2CO3 + BaCO3 + 2 H2O Cu hi t lun 1. T dung dch CuCl2 nu cc phng php iu ch CuO, vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 2. T dung dch FeSO4 nu cc phng php iu ch Fe, vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 3. T dung dch NaHCO3, vit phng trnh ho hc iu ch CO2. 4. T Na nu cc phng php iu ch NaOH, vit cc phng trnh ho hc 5. T S vit cc phng trnh ho hc iu ch H2SO4 6. iu ch CaCl2 t mi cht sau: Ca, CaSO4 , CaO, CaS (cc ho cht cn thit c ). 7. T Fe v cc ho cht cn thit hy vit cc phng trnh ho 5

hc thu c cc oxit ring bit: Fe3O4 , Fe2O3 v ghi r iu kin phn ng nu c. 8. T mi cht: Mg, MgO, Mg(OH)2 ; MgCO3 v dung dch axit sunfuric long, hy vit cc phng trnh ho hc iu ch magi sunfat. 9. Nhng oxit no di y c th iu ch: a) Ch bng phn ng ho hp ? Vit phng trnh ho hc b) Bng c phn ng ho hp v phn ng phn hu ? Vit phng trnh ho hc CuO ; Na2O ; CO2 ; P2O5 ; Fe2O3 ; CO. 10. T nhng cht c sn l Na2O, CaO, H2O, v cc dung dch CuCl2 FeCl3 , Mg(NO3)2, hy vit cc phng trnh iu ch: a) Cc dung dch baz b) Cc baz khng tan. 11. T nhng cht sau: CaO (vi sng), Na2CO3 (s a), H2O. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc iu ch NaOH. 12. Vit t nht 5 phng trnh ho hc iu ch FeCl2 13. Vit t nht 5 phng trnh ho hc iu ch CuSO4 14. Vit t nht 6 phng trnh ho hc iu ch Na2SO4 15. Cho 4 cht sau: Fe, FeCl3, Fe(OH)3, Fe2O3. Hy sp xp 4 cht ny thnh 3 dy chuyn ho (mi dy gm 4 cht) v vit cc phng trnh ho hc tng ng thc hin dy chuyn ho . 16. C cc cht sau: FeCl3, Fe2 O3, Fe, Fe(OH)3, FeCl2. Hy lp thnh mt vng bin ho khp kn v vit cc phng trnh ho hc. Ghi r iu kin phn ng. 17. Vit phng trnh ho hc theo s chuyn ho sau: a)
(2)

D B E
(5)

S (l u hunh)

(1)

(3)

(6)

(4)

b)

(1)

SO2
(2)

(3)

(4)

H2SO4
(9)

(5)

SO2

(6)

(7)

(8)

SO2

NaHSO3

Na2SO4
(1)

c)

CaCO3

A
(2)

(3)

B
(4)

(5)

CaCO3

(6)

CO2

CaCl2
d)
(1) (2) (4) (3) (5)

Ca(HSO3)2
(6)

FeCl3

FeCl3

B
e)
(2)

Fe

(1)

(3) (4)

(5) (6)

g)

(2)

(3)

D E F

B
h)
(1)

(1)

Al (nhm)

(4)

(5)

Al (nhm)
i)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Al (nhm)

(6)

(5)

NaNO3

Na

(1)

(2)

(3)

D
(4)

NaOH

k)
(5)

NaClO

Fe(OH)3

(2)

(1)

Cl2
(3)

(4)

Cl2

m)

D
(6) (1)

(7)

CO2
(5) (8)

CO2
(2) (3)

(4)

CaCO3

Ca(HCO3)2

B
18. Cho s chuyn ho sau: Phi kim oxitaxit (1) oxitaxit (2) axit mui sunfat tan mui sunfat khng tan a) Tm cng thc cc cht thch hp thay cho tn cht trong s b) Vit cc phng trnh ho hc biu din chuyn ho trn 19. Cho s chuyn ha sau: Cl2 A B C A Cl2 Trong A, B, C l cht rn v u cha nguyn t Na. Xc nh cc cht A, B, C ? 20. C nhng cht: Na2O, Na, NaOH, NaHCO3 , Na2SO4 , Na2CO3 , NaCl, NaClO. a) Da vo mi quan h gia cc cht, hy sp xp cc cht trn thnh mt s chuyn ho khng nhnh. b) Vit cc phng trnh ho hc theo s trn. 8

21. Cho s chuyn ha sau:

CuCl2 Cu A B
22. Cho s chuyn ha sau:

CuCl2 + H2O D CuCl2 + H2O

Xc nh cc cht A, B, D v vit cc phng trnh ho hc ?

A XCO3 B XCO3

G XCO3 XCO3

Xc nh cc cht X; A; B; D; G; E v F v vit cc phng trnh ho hc minh ho. 23. Cho cc cht: photpho, khng kh, nc, ng (II) oxit, axit sunfuric, xt. Vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch: H3PO4, Cu(OH)2, CuSO4, HNO3, Na3PO4, Cu(NO3)2. 24. T cc cht sau: NaCl, MnO2, H2SO4 c v nc c th c iu ch bao nhiu kh. Vit phng trnh phn ng. 25. T KNO3, H2O, P v Fe, iu ch: - Cc oxit ca Fe - Cc mui: Fe3(PO4)2, FePO4, Fe(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3, K3PO4. 26. Cho cc ho cht NaCl(r), NaOH(dd), KOH(dd), H2SO4(c), Ca(OH)2(r). T cc ho cht , c th iu ch c cc cht sau y hay khng? a) Nc Gia-ven b) Kali clorat c) Clorua vi d) Oxi e) Lu hunh ioxit Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra. 27. iu ch kali clorat vi gi thnh h ngi ta thng lm nh 9

sau: Cho kh clo i qua nc vi un nng, ly dung dch thu c trn vi KCl v lm lnh. Khi kali clorat s kt tinh. Hy vit phng trnh cc phn ng xy ra v gii thch v sao kali clorat kt tinh. 28. Trong phng th nghim, ngi ta c th iu ch kh clo bng nhng phn ng sau:

a) Cho MnO2 tc dng vi dung dch HCl c. b) Cho KMnO4 tc dng vi dung dch HCl c. c) Dng H2SO4 c tc dng vi hn hp NaCl v MnO2.
Hy vit cc phng trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra. 29. Nu t Mg trong khng kh ri a vo bnh ng kh lu hunh ioxit, nhn thy c 2 cht bt c sinh ra: bt A mu trng v bt B mu vng. Bt B khng tc dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long, nhng chy c trong khng kh, sinh ra kh C lm mt mu dung dch thuc tm. a) Hy cho bit tn cc cht A, B, C v gii thch cho s khng nh ny. b) Vit tt c nhng phng trnh phn ng xy ra. 30. Vit phng trnh phn ng ca nhng bin i sau: - Sn xut vi sng bng cch nung vi. - Cho vi sng tc dng vi nc (ti vi). 31. Glixerin trinitrat l cht n inamit. l mt cht lng c cng thc phn t C3H5O9N3, rt khng bn, b phn hy to ra CO2, H2O, N2 v O2. a) Vit phng trnh phn ng phn hy glixerin trinitrat. 32. Hy nu th d v phn ng phn hy to ra: a) Hai n cht. b) Hai hp cht. c) Mt n cht v mt hp cht. 33. Hy nu th d v phn ng to ra mui: a) T hai n cht. b) T hai hp cht.

10

c) T mt n cht v mt hp cht. 34. Khi b nung nng, kali clorat ng thi phn hy theo 2 cch: a) Ti ra oxi v kali clorua. b) To ra kalipeclorat v kali clorua. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra. Cu hi trc nghim khch quan 35. Chn cht thch hp in vo mi s phn ng v lp phng trnh ho hc: Na2O + ......

Na2SO4 +..... NaCl + .....

Na2SO4 + ...... NaCl CO2 CO2 CO2 + ..... + ..... + ...... + ......

NaNO3 +...... NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + ....... CO

36. Cu hi nh cu 23 ........ H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 + ..... + ..... + .....


t
o

FeO + H2O NaHSO4 Na2 SO4 + ..... ZnSO4 + ..... CO2 + .....+ .......

BaCO3 + .....

37. Cu hi nh cu 23 ... ... ... ... ... + + + + + ... ... ... ... ...

NaCl HCl

+ +

... ... ... ... ...

Fe(OH)3 + Ba(OH)2 + CuSO4 +

38. Cu hi nh cu 23 11

... ... ... ... ...

+ HCl + NaOH + MgO + CuO + CO

MgCl2 + ... Mg(OH)2 + ... MgCl2 + ... Cu(NO3)2 + ... Fe + ...

Khoanh trn vo mt trong cc ch ci A, B, C, D... ch p n ng cc cu t 39 41: 39. Cho cc phng trnh ho hc sau:
t (1) 2 HgO 2 Hg + O2
0

(2) 2KClO3

xt t0

2KCl + O2

DienPhan (3) 2H2O 2H2 + O2

(4) 2Al2O3

dfnc
0

4Al

+ 3O2

t (5) 2KMnO4 K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2

Phng trnh biu din phn ng iu ch O2 trong PTN l: A. (1), (4) D. (1), (5) B. (2), (5) C. (2), (4) E. (2), (3) v (5)

40. Cho cc phng trnh ho hc sau:


t (1) C(r) + H2O (h) CO (k) + H2 (k)
0

(2) Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2


DienPhan (3) 2H2O 2H2 + O2
DienPhan MangNgan

(4) 2NaCl + 2H2O


0

2NaOH + H2 + Cl2

t (5) 2HI H2 + I2

Phng trnh biu din phn ng iu ch H2 trong cng nghip l: A. (4), (5) D. (1), (3), (4) 12 B. (1), (5) E. (2), (3) v (4) C. (2), (4)

41. Nhng oxit ch c th iu ch bng phn ng ho hp l: A. CuO ; CO2 ; NO2 C. Na2O ; P2O5 ; CO B. Na2O ; P2O5 ; Fe2O3 D. CuO ; CO2 ; P2O5

42. Ghp mt trong cc ch ci (ch cp cht) vi mt trong cc ch s (ch cht iu ch c) sao cho hp l: A B C D Fe, H2SO4 long, KClO3 Cu, H2SO4 , CuO KMnO4, KClO3, H2O Fe, Mg, H2SO4 long 1 2 3 O2 H2 c O2 v H2

Hng dn gii 1. Phng php 1: CuCl2 + Fe FeCl2 + Cu


t 2Cu + O2 2CuO
o

Phng php 2:

CuCl2 + 2NaOH 2NaCl + Cu(OH)2


t Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O
o

2. Phng php 1: FeSO4 + Zn ZnSO4 + Fe Phng php 2: FeSO4 + 2NaOH 2Na2SO4 + Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)2
t FeO + H2O
o o

t FeO + H2 Fe + H2O

DienPhan Phng php 3: 2FeSO4 + 2H2O 2Fe + O2 + H2SO4

3.

NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O + CO2


t NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
0

4. Phng php 1: 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 Phng php 2: 4Na + O2 2Na2O Na2O + H2O 2NaOH Phng php 3: Na + H2SO4 long Na2SO4 + H2 13

Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2

2NaOH + BaSO4

Phng php 4: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl


DienPhan 2NaCl + 2H2O Cl2+ H2 + 2NaOH

5.

S + O2

SO2
o

t , xt 2SO2 + O2

2SO3

SO3 6.

+ H2 O

H2SO4
CaCl2 + H2 CaCl2 CaCl2 + H2O

Ca + 2HCl Ca + Cl2 CaSO4 + 2HCl

CaSO4 + BaCl2 CaCl2 + BaSO4 CaO + 2HCl CaS + 2HCl 7. - iu ch Fe3O4


t 3Fe + 2O2
o

CaCl2 + H2O
CaCl2 + H2S

Fe3O4

- iu ch Fe2O3 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3

FeCl3 + 3NaOH Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl 2Fe(OH)3


t
o

Fe2O3

+ 3H2O

8. Mg + H2SO4 (long) MgSO4 + H2 MgO + H2SO4

MgSO4 + H2O

Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4 MgSO4 + 2H2O MgCO3 + H2SO4

MgSO4 + CO2

+ H 2O

9. a) iu ch ch bng phn ng ho hp: Na2O ; P2O5 ; CO 4Na + 4P 14 + O2 5O2 2Na2O 2P2O5

CO2 + C

2 CO

b) iu ch bng phn ng ho hp v phn ng phn hu: H2O; CuO ; CO2 2H2 + O2 2H2O v 2Fe(OH)3 v Cu(OH)2
o

t t
o

Fe2O3 + 3H2O CuO + H2O

2Cu + O2 2CuO C + O2 CO2 v

CaCO3

CaO + CO2

10. a) Cc dung dch baz Na2O + CaO + H2O

2NaOH Ca(OH)2

H 2O

b) Cc baz khng tan. CuCl2 + FeCl3 + 2NaOH 3NaOH

Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl Mg(OH)2 + 2NaNO3

Mg(NO3)2 + 2NaOH 11. CaO + H2O

Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + 2NaOH

Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 12. Fe + 2HCl Fe + CuCl2 FeO + 2HCl Fe(OH)2 + 2HCl FeSO4 + BaCl2 13. Cu + Ag2SO4 CuO + H2SO4 CuO + SO3

FeCl2 + H2 FeCl2 + Cu FeCl2 + H2 O FeCl2 + 2H2 O FeCl2 + BaSO4

CuSO4 + 2Ag CuSO4 + H2 O CuSO4 CuSO4 +2H2 O CuSO4 + 2AgCl

Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4 CuCl2 + Ag2 SO4

15

14.

Na + H2SO4 (long) Na2O + H2SO4 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2O + SO3 2NaOH + CuSO4 NaOH + NaHSO4

Na2SO4 + H2 Na2SO4 + H2O Na2SO4 + 2H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4 + Cu(OH)2 Na2SO4 + H2O

15.

Ba s chuyn ho: a) Fe FeCl3, Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3.

Fe2O3. FeCl3, Fe c) FeCl3, Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 Fe


b) Fe(OH)3 Phng trnh ho hc: a) 2Fe + 3Cl2 FeCl3 + 3NaOH
t 2Fe(OH)3
o

2FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl + + 3H2O 3H2O

Fe2O3 Fe2O3

b)

2Fe(OH)3

Fe2O3 + 6HCl FeCl3 + Al c) FeCl3 + 3NaOH 2Fe(OH)3


t
o

2FeCl3 + 3H2O
AlCl3 + Fe

Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl + 2Fe 3H2O + 3CO2

Fe2O3
o

Fe2O3 + 3CO 16.

FeCl2
+HCl

+Cl2

FeCl3

+NaOH

Fe(OH)3
t
0

Fe

+H2,t0

Fe2O3

16

17. a)
(2)

CaSO3
(3)

(L u hunh)
b)

(1)

SO2

H2SO3 Na2SO3

(5)

Na2SO3

(6)

SO2

(4)

(1) S + O2 (2) SO2 + NaOH (3) 2SO2 + O2 (4) SO3

SO2

xt ,t
0

NaH SO3 2SO3

+ H2 O

H2SO4

(5) H2SO4 (,n) + Cu (6) SO2 + H2O

CuSO4 + SO2 + H2O


H2SO3

(7) H2SO3 + 2NaOH

Na2 SO3 + 2H2O

(8) Na2SO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + SO2 (9) H2SO4 + NaOH (10) NaH SO4 + NaOH c)

NaH SO4 + H2O Na2 SO4 + H2O

CaCO3

(1)

CaO

(3) (2)

Ca(OH)2

(5) (4)

CaCO3

(6)

CO2

CaCl2
(1) CaCO3
t
o

Ca(HCO3)2

CaO + CO2 CaCl2 + H2O

(2) CaO + 2HCl (3) CaO + H2O

Ca(OH)2 (4) Ca(OH)2 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O


(5) Ca(OH)2 + CO2

CaCO3 + H2O CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

(6) CaCO3 + 2HCl d)

17

FeCl3

Fe(OH)3 Fe(NO3)3

Fe2O3

FeCl3

(1) FeCl3 + 3NaOH (2) Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl


o

Fe(OH)3 + 3 NaCl FeCl3 Fe2O3 + 3H2O + 3H2O

(3) 2Fe(OH)3

(4) FeCl3 + 3AgNO3

Fe(NO3 )3 + 3AgCl

(5) Fe(NO3)3 + 3NaOH (6) Fe2O3 + 6HCl e)


(2)

Fe(OH)3 + 3 NaNO3
2 FeCl3 + 3H2O

Fe

(1)

FeCl2

(3)

Fe(OH)2

(5) (6) (4)

FeSO4 FeO

(1) Fe + 2 HCl (2) Zn + FeCl2

FeCl2 + H2 ZnCl2 + Fe

(3) FeCl2 + 2NaOH (4) Fe(OH)2


t
o

Fe(OH)2 + 2 NaCl FeO + H2O

(5) Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 (long) FeSO4 + 2H2O (6) FeSO4 + 2NaOH g) (1) 2Al + 6HCl (2) 2Al + 3S

Fe(OH)2 + Na2SO4
2AlCl3 + 3H2

Al2S3

(3) 2Al + 3H2SO4 (long) Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2 (4) 2Al (5) 4Al + 3Cu(NO3)2 + 3O2 2Al(NO3)3 + 3Cu

2Al2O3

18

h)

(1) 4Al

+ 3O2

2 Al2O3 2AlCl3 + 3H2O

(2) Al2O3 + 6 HCl

(3) AlCl3 + 3NaOH (khng d) (4) 2Al(OH)3 (5) 2Al2O3 (6) 2Al + 6HCl i) (1) 4Na + O2 (2) Na2O + H2O (3) NaOH + HCl
t dfnc
o

Al(OH)3 + 3NaCl

Al2O3 + 3H2O 4Al + 3O2

2AlCl3 + 3H2 2Na2O 2NaOH NaCl + H2O


dfdd mn

(4) 2NaCl + 2H2O (5) NaCl k) + AgNO3

2NaOH + H2 + Cl2 NaNO3 + AgCl

(1) 3Cl2 + 2Fe

2FeCl3

(2) FeCl3 + 3NaOH (3) Cl2 + H2

2HCl

Fe(OH)3 + 3 NaCl

(4) 4HCl + MnO2 (5) Cl2 + 2NaOH m)

MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O NaCl + NaClO + H2O


(8) (7)

(1)

CO2
(2) (3)

(5) (4) (6)

CaCO3 Na2CO3

Ca(HCO3)2 CO2

CO
(1) C + O2

CO2 2CO

(2) CO2 + C

(3) 2CO + O2 2CO2 (4) CO2 + Ca(OH)2

CaCO3 + H2O

19

(5) CaCO3 + 2HCl (6) CO2 + 2NaOH (7) Na2CO3 + 2HCl

CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O 2NaCl + H2O + CO2

(8) CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 18. a)

Ca(HCO3)2

S
b)

SO2
S + O2 2SO2 + O2

SO3

H2SO4

CuSO4

BaSO4

SO2
t , xt
0

2SO3

SO3 + H2O H2SO4 H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O CuSO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + CuCl2 19. A: NaCl ; B: NaOH v C: Na2co3 Phng trnh ho hc: Cl2 + 2Na

2NaCl
dfdd mn

2NaCl + 2H2O

2NaOH + H2 + Cl2

2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + 2HCl

Na2CO3 + H2O 2NaCl + H2O + CO2


DienPhan 2Na + Cl2

2NaCl (nng chy) 20. a) S chuyn ho:

Na Na2O NaOH NaHCO3 Na2CO3 Na2SO4 NaCl NaClO b) Phng trnh ho hc 4Na + O2 Na2O + H2O NaOH + CO2 NaOH 2Na2O

2NaOH NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O

+ NaHCO3

20

Na2CO3

H2SO4

Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2

Na2SO4 + BaCl2 NaCl + H2O 21. 2 Cu + O2 CuO + 2HCl Cu

BaSO4 + 2NaCl
dfdd khong mn

NaClO + H2

Cu + Cl2 CuCl2 2CuO (A)

CuCl2 + H2O + Ag2SO4 CuSO4 (B) + 2Ag


Cu(OH)2 (D) + Na2SO4 CuCl2 + 2 H2O + 2HCl
o

CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 22.

A: CaO; B: CO2; C: Ca(OH)2; D: KHCO3; E: CaCl2; F: K2CO3


t (1) CaCO3

CaO + CO2

(2) CaO + CO2 CaCO3 (3) CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 (4) CO2 + KOH KHCO3 (5) Ca(OH)2 + 2KHCO3

CaCO3 + K2CO3 + 2H2O

(6) KHCO3 + KOH K2CO3 + H2O (7) Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl CaCl2 + 2H2O (8) CaCl2 + K2CO3 CaCO3 + 2KCl 23. iu ch H3PO4 : 4P + 5O2 2P2O5 P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 iu ch Na3PO4 : H3PO4 + 3NaOH Na3PO4 + 3H2O iu ch CuSO4 : CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O iu ch Cu(OH)2 : CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 iu ch HNO3 :
TiaLuaDien 2NO N2 + O2

2NO + O2 2NO2

21

4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 4HNO3 iu ch Cu(NO3)2 : CuO + 2HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + H2O 24. iu ch c 4 kh: H2 ; O2 ; HCl ; Cl2 .
DienPhan 2H2O 2H2 + O2 t 2NaCl + H2SO4 (c) Na2SO4 + 2HCl t MnO2 + 4 HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O DienPhan 25. a) 2H2O 2H2 + O2 t 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 t 4Fe3O4 + O2 6Fe2O3 t Fe3O4 + H2 3FeO + H2O
0 0 0 0 0

b)

4P + 5O2 2P2O5 P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 3FeO + 2H3PO4 Fe3(PO4)2 + 3H2O Fe2O3 + 2H3PO4 2Fe(PO4) + 3H2O

26. a) 2NaCl + 2H2O

dfdd mn

2NaOH + H2 + Cl2

Cl2 + 2NaOH NaClO + NaCl + H2O b) c) d) 27. 3Cl2 + 6KOH KClO3 + 5KCl + 3H2O Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 CaOCl2 + H2O
t 2KClO3 2 KCl + 3O2
0

Cl2 + Ca(OH)2 CaOCl2 + H2O 3CaOCl2 + KCl KClO3 + 3CaCl2

t 28. a) MnO2 + 4 HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

b)

t 2KMnO4 + 16 HCl 2MnCl2 + 2KCl + 5Cl2 + 8H2O


0

t c) 2H2SO4 + 4NaCl + MnO2 MnCl2 + 2Na2SO4 + Cl2 + 2H2O

22

t 29. 2Mg + O2 2MgO

MgO + SO2 MgSO3


t 2Mg + SO2 2MgO + S (mu vng)
0

S +

t O2 SO2

5SO2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 2H2SO4 30.


t CaCO3 CaO + CO2
0

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2


t 31. 4C3H5O9N3 12CO2 + 10H2O + 6N2 + O2 t 32. a) 2HgO 2 Hg + O2 t b) CaCO3 CaO + CO2 t c) 2KClO3 2 KCl + 3O2 t 33. a) 2Na + S Na2S
0 0 0 0 0

b) CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 c) Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu


t 34. a) 2KClO3 2 KCl + 3O2 t b) 4KClO3 KCl + 3KClO4
0 0

35.

Na2O

+ H2SO4

Na2SO4 + H2O 2NaCl + BaSO4

Na2SO4 + BaCl2 NaCl CO2 CO2 + AgNO3

NaNO3 + AgCl + NaOH NaHCO3 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O


t t
o 0

CO2 + C 36. Fe(OH)2

2CO

FeO + H2O 23

H2SO4 + NaOH H2SO4 + 2NaOH H2SO4 long + BaCO3 + 2HCl 37. NaOH + HCl

NaHSO4 + H2O

Zn

Na2 SO4 + 2H2O ZnSO4 + H2 CO2 + BaCl2 + H2O NaCl + H2O 2HCl + Na2SO4

H2SO4 (c)+ 2NaCl(khan) FeCl3+ 3NaOH Ba + 2H2O Cu(OH)2 38. + H2SO4

Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl Ba(OH)2 + H2

CuSO4 + 2H2O

Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + 2NaOH 2HCl + MgO 2HNO3 + CuO Fe3O4+ 4CO

MgCl2 + H2

Mg(OH)2 + 2NaCl

MgCl2 + H2O Cu(NO3)2 + H2O


t 3Fe + 4CO2
0

39. nghip 40. trong PTN

B v (1) ho cht t; (3) v (4) l cch iu ch cng D v (5) phn ng thun nghch; (2) l cch iu ch

41. C v A, B, D c CuO, CO2, Fe2O3 iu ch c bng phn ng phn hu 42. A-3 ; C-1; D-2

24

Dng 2: Bi nhn bit cc cht A. L thuyt c bn v thuc th ho hc THCS 1. Mt s thuc th thng dng: Thuc th 1 Qu tm 2 Phnolphtalin (khng mu) 3 Nc (H2O) Dng nhn -Axit -Baz kim -Baz kim - Cc kim loi mnh (Na, K, Ca, Ba) Ring Ca cn to dd c Ca(OH)2 - Cc oxit Kl mnh (Na2O, K2O, CaO, BaO) - P2O5 - Cc mui Na, K, NO3 - CaC2 dch - Kim loi Al, Zn - Al2O3, ZnO, Zn(OH)2 Hin tng qu tm ha qu tm ha xanh Ha mu hng

H2 Tan, to dd lm
hng Phenoltalein Ring CaO dd c Tan+dd lm qu Tan Tan + C2H2 bay ln

4 Dung Kim

Tan + H2 bay ln Al(OH)3, Tan

5 Dung dch Axt - Mui CO3, SO3, Sunfua HCl, H2SO4 HNO3, H2SO4,n'

HCl

H2SO4 HNO3

- Tan + KhCO2, SO2, H2S bay ln - Kim loi ng trc H Tan + H2 bay ln - Hu ht Kim loi k c Tan + Kh NO2, Cu, Hg, Ag SO2 bay ln (Ring Cu cn to dd mui Cl2 bay ln ng mu xanh) AgCl kt ta - MnO2 dd mu xanh - Ag2O BaSO4 k.ta - CuO Kh NO2, SO2, - Ba, BaO, mui Ba

25

- Fe, FeO, Fe3O4, FeS, FeS2, CO2 bay ln FeCO3, CuS, Cu2S 6 Dung dch mui BaCl2, Ba(NO3)2, - Hp cht c gc SO4 (CH3COO)2Ba - AgNO3 - Hp cht c gc Cl Cd(NO3)2, - Hp cht c gc S Pb(NO3)2

BaSO4 trng AgCl trng CdS vng PbS en

2. Thuc th cho mt s loi cht:


Cht cn nhn bit 1 Cc Kim loi kim ho tr 1) Ba (ha tr 2) Ca (ha tr 2) Na, K (Kim loi + H2O Thuc th Hin tng

- Al, Zn

tan + dd trong + H2 + t chy, quan st mu vng (Na) mu ngn la mu tm (K) + H 2O tan + dd trong + H2 + H 2O + t chy, quan st tan + dd c + H2 mu ngn la mu lc (Ba) mu (Ca) + dd kim NaOH, tan +H2
Ba(OH)2

Al khng tan, cn Zn Zn tan NO2 nu tan + H2 + ring - Cc kim loi t + dd HCl Mg n Pb Pb c PbCl2 trng tan + dd xanh + - Kim loi Cu + HNO3 c NO2 nu - Kim loi Hg + HNO3 c, sau tan + NO2 nu trng bc ln cho Cu vo dd
Phn bit Al v + HNO3 c, ngui 26

- Kim loi Cu () + AgNO3 - Kim loi Ag 2 Mt s phi kim I2 (mu en) - S (mu vng) - P (mu ) - C (mu en) 3 Mt kh - NH3 - NO2 - NO - H2S - O2 - CO2 - CO - SO2 - SO3 - Cl2 - HCl - H2 4 Oxit th rn - Na2O, K2O, BaO + H 2O +Qu tm t s cht

tan + dd xanh +
trng bc ln

+ HNO3, sau cho tan + NO2 nu + NaCl vo dd tm + H tinh bt

trng

mu xanh thng hoa ht + un nng mnh + t trong O2, khng SO2 mi hc


kh + t chy + t chy
P2O5 tan trong H2O+

dd lm qu tm vi trong

CO2 lm c nc

- Mi khai, ho xanh - c mu nu

+ Khng kh hoc O2 NO2 mu nu (trn) + Cd (NO3)2 dd + Pb (NO3)2 dd + Tn m + Nc vi trong + t trong khng kh + Nc vi trong + Nc Br2 (nu) + ddBaCl2 (c H2O) + dd KI v h tinh bt + AgNO3 dd + AgNO3 dd + t chy

Mi trng thi
CdS vng, PbS en

Bng chy Vn c CaCO3 CO2 Vn c CaSO3


BaSO4 trng

Lm mt mu Br2 I2 + mu xanh AgCl AgCl git H2O

dd trong sut, lm 27

xanh qu tm - CaO + H 2O + dd Na2CO3 - P2O5 - SiO2 - Al2O3 - CuO - Ag2O - MnO2 5 Cc dung dch mui a, Nhn gc axit + AgNO3 Cl
-

Tan + dd c kt ta CaCO3 , BaCO3 dd lm qu tm

+ H 2O trong cc axit khc) + Tan c trong axit v kim

+ dd HF (Khng tan Tan to SiF4

+ dd axit HCl, HNO3, dd mu xanh H2SO4long + dd HCl un nng + dd HCl un nng AgCl trng Cl2 mu vng

AgCl en Br2 lng mu nu Mu xanh do I2 Pb CdS vng, PbS en BaSO4 trng Br2 mt mu

BrIS
2-

+ Cl2 + Br2(Cl2) + tinh bt + Cd (NO3)2 hay (NO3)2

SO42SO
23

+ dd BaCl2, Ba (NO3) 2

+ dd HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 SO2mi hc v lm + dd axit HCl, H2SO4, CO2 lm c nc vi HNO3 (trong + dd AgNO3 + H2SO4 c + Cu Ag3PO4 vng dd xanh + NO2

CO32PO4
3-

mui) NO3b, Nhn kim loi trong mui: Kim loi kim - Mg 28
2+

+ t chy v quan st mu vng (Na) mu ngn la + NaOH dd mu tm (K) Mg(OH)2 trng

Fe2+

+ NaOH dd Fe(OH)2 trng+kh.kh Fe(OH)3 nu

Fe(OH)2 trng

Fe Al

3+

+ NaOH dd + NaOH n d + Na2CO3 dd + Na2S dd (hoc H2S) s cht

Fe(OH)3 nu Al(OH)3 trng, tan CaCO3 PbS en

3+ 2+

Ca 6 Mt

Pb2+ hu c Etylen Axetilen

v + Dung dch brom (mu mt mu nu nu) + Dung dch KMnO4 mt mu tm H2 ho CO2 AgNO3 (trong Ag mu xanh (mu tm)

Ru etylic Axit axetic dd Glucoz Tinh bt Cu hi t lun

+ Na + qu tm + CaCO3 + dd amoniac) + dd I2

43. Bng phng php ho hc hy nhn bit tng cht trong mi dy cht sau: a) Hai cht rn mu trng l CaO v Na2O b) Hai cht kh khng mu l CO2 v O2 c) Hai dung dch khng mu l H2SO4 v HCl d) Hai dung dch khng mu l Na2SO4 v NaCl e) Hai dung dch khng mu l NaOH v Ba(OH)2 Vit cc phng trnh phn ng 44. Nhn bit tng cht trong mi nhm cht sau: a) CaO, CaCO3 b) CaO v CuO 29

c) CaO v P2O5 d) Hai cht kh khng mu SO2 v O2 Vit cc phng trnh phn ng 45. Hy nhn bit tng cp cht sau y bng phng php ho hc:

a) Dung dch H2SO4 v CuSO4 b) Dung dch HCl v FeCl2 c) Bt vi CaCO3 v Na2CO3 . Vit cc phng trnh ho hc
(nu c) 46. C cc bnh kh ring bit l: CO2 , Cl2 , CO, H2 . Hy nhn bit cc kh trn bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 47. C 4 l khng nhn, mi l ng mt dung dch khng mu sau: NaCl, Ba(OH)2 , NaOH v Na2SO4 . Ch c dng qu tm, lm th no nhn bit dung dch ng trong mi l bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 48. C 3 l khng nhn, mi l ng mt trong cc cht rn sau: NaOH, Ba(OH)2 , NaCl. Hy trnh by cch nhn bit cht ng trong mi l bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc (nu c) 49. Chn mt ho cht thch hp dng phn bit dd natri sunfat v dd natri cacbonat. Gii thch v vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 50. C 3 l khng nhn, mi l ng mt cht rn mu trng: CaCO3 , CaO, Ca(OH)2. Hy nhn bit cht ng trong mi l bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 51. C 3 l khng nhn, mi l ng mt dd mui sau: CuSO 4, AgNO3 , NaCl. Hy nhn bit dd ng trong mi l bng phng php ho hc. Vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 52. Ch c dng mt ho cht thch hp, phn bit 2 mui trong cc cp cht sau: a) dd CuSO4 v dd Fe2(SO4 )3

a) dd Na2SO4 v dd CuSO4
30

b) dd NaCl v dd BaCl2
53. C 3 mu phn bn ho hc khng ghi nhn l: phn kali KCl, phn m NH4NO3 v phn supephotphat (phn ln) Ca(H2PO4)2. Hy nhn bit mi mu phn bn trn bng phng php ho hc. 54. a) C 3 kim loi ring bit l nhm, st, bc. Hy nu phng php ho hc nhn bit tng kim loi. Cc dng c ho cht coi nh c . Vit cc phng trnh ho hc. b) Ch dng nc v kh cacbonic c th phn bit c 5 cht bt trng sau y khng? NaCl, Na2CO3 , Na2SO4 , BaCO3 , BaSO4 . Nu c hy trnh by cch phn bit. 55. C 4 cht lng trong sut, khng mu: dung dch NaCl, dung dch H2SO4, dung dch NaOH, H2O. Ch dng mt thuc th hy nu cch phn bit 4 cht lng trn. 56. C 4 bnh cha ring bit mi kh sau: oxi, hidro, nit, cacbonic. Hy nu cc phn ng phn bit cc kh trn, vit phng trnh ho hc. 57. Ch dng qu tm, nhn bit cc dung dch c sau: HCl; Na2CO3; AgNO3; BaCl2. 58. Khng dng ho cht khc, nhn bit: HCl, K2CO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 v Ba(NO3)2 59. C bn bnh khng dn nhn, mi bnh cha mt trong cc dung dch HCl, HNO3, KCl, KNO3. Hy trnh by phng php ho hc nhn bit dung dch cha trong mi bnh. 60. C 3 l (khng nhn) ng dung dch khng mu l: AgNO3, HCl, NaOH. Hy nhn bit mi dung dch trn bng phng php ho hc vi iu kin ch c dng kim loi lm thuc th. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra. Cu hi trc nghim khch quan Khoanh trn vo mt trong cc ch ci A, B, C, D... ch p n ng cc cu t 61 - 64: 61. Trong cc cht sau y, cht lm qu tm chuyn mu xanh l: 31

A. H2O C. dung dch KOH

B. dung dch H2SO4 D. dung dch Na2SO4

62. Cho 3 kim loi magie, ng, nhm. Phn bit 3 kim loi ny bng A. mu sc C. dung dch NaOH 63. Trong cc thuc th : (1) dung dch AgNO3; (3) dung dch Ba(NO3)2; A. (4) D. (1), (2) v (4) E. (1) v (3) 64. Trong cc cht hu c sau, cht lm mt mu dung dch brom l: A. metan B. etylen C. benzen D. ru etylic 65. Ghp mt trong cc ch ci (ch phn ng) vi mt trong cc ch s (ch s i mu) sao cho ng: A B Dung dch axit tc dng vi qu tm lm cho qu tm Dung dch baz tc dng vi qu tm lm cho qu tm 1 2 3 Hng dn gii 43. a) Cho tng cht vo dd Na2CO3 Hin tng: cht no cho kt ta trng l CaO Phng trnh phn ng: CaO + H2O + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaOH i mu xanh khng i mu i mu (1) v (2) B. (2) giy qu tm; (4) dung dch Na2CO3. (2) v (3) C. (2) v B. dung dch HCl D. c 2 dung dch NaOH v HCl

Dng nhn bit dung dch HCl l:

b) Cho hai kh qua dd Ca(OH)2 d 32

Hin tng: kh no cho qua dd to kt ta trng l CO2 Phng trnh phn ng: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 d

CaCO3 + H2O

c) Cho BaCl2 vo hai dd Hin tng: cht no cho kt ta trng l ddH2SO4 Phng trnh phn ng: H2SO4 + BaCl2

BaSO4 + 2HCl

d) Tng t trng hp c) e) Cho Na2SO4 vo hai dd Hin tng: cht no cho kt ta trng l Ba(OH)2 Phng trnh phn ng: Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 BaSO4 + 2NaOH 44. a) cho tng cht vo dd HCl Hin tng: cht no cho kh bay ln l CaCO3 Phng trnh phn ng CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O b) Cho tng cht vo nc Hin tng: cht no tan trong nc l CaO, cht khng tan l CuO Phng trnh phn ng CaO + H2O

Ca(OH)2

c) Cho tng cht vo nc c 2 dung dch Cho qu tm vo 2 dung dch Hin tng: dung dch no lm qu tm chuyn mu th cht ban u l P2O5 Dung dch no lm qu tm chuyn mu xanh th cht ban u l CaO Phng trnh phn ng P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 33

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 d) Cho tng kh sc qua dd Ca(OH)2 Hin tng: cc no thy xut hin kt ta trng th kh l SO2 Phng trnh phn ng Ca(OH)2 + SO2

CaSO3 + H2O

45. a) Dung dch H2SO4 v CuSO4 . Dng dd NaOH cho vo 2 dd, dd no xut hin kt ta mu xanh l dd CuSO4 . Phng trnh phn ng: CuSO4 Na2SO4 b) Dung dch HCl v FeCl2 Dng dd NaOH cho vo 2 dd, dd no xut hin kt ta mu trng xanh l dd FeCl2 Phng trnh phn ng: FeCl2 2NaCl c) Bt vi CaCO3 v Na2CO3 Cho ho tan vo nc, cht no khng tan trong nc l CaCO3 , cht no tan l Na2CO3 . 46. S nhn bit. Cht th mu sc dd nc vi trong d t chy, cho sn phm qua dd nc vi trong d Phng trnh ho hc: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 34 CO2 Khng mu trng trng Cl2 Vng nht CO Khng mu H2 Khng mu + 2NaOH Fe(OH)2 trng xanh + + 2NaOH

Cu(OH)2 xanh

CaCO3 + H2O

2CO

+ O2 2CO2

Ca(OH)2 + CO2

CaCO3 + H2O

47. lm nhng th nghim ta chia cc dung dch ban u thnh nhiu phn nh. - Trc ht ta cho qu tm vo 4 dung dch, c hin tng sau: + C 2 dung dch lm qu chuyn sang mu xanh l NaOH v Ba(OH)2 (nhm 1) + Hai dung dch khng lm qu i mu l NaCl v Na2SO4 (nhm 2) - Ln lt ly tng dung dch nhm 1 vo tng dung dch nhm 2 ta c kt qu nh sau: + Nu dung dch vo l NaOH Hin tng: C hai dung dch u khng c hin tng g + Nu dung dch vo l Ba(OH)2 Hin tng: dung dch khng c hin tng g th dung dch l NaCl; dung dch xut hin kt ta trng th dung dch l Na 2SO4 . Phng trnh ho hc: Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 BaSO4 + 2NaOH Nh vy da vo hin tng th nghim ta nhn bit c 4 dung dch trn. 48. Cch 1: Ta c s nhn bit: Cht th dd Na2SO4 dd AgNO3 NaOH Ba(OH)2 NaCl -

trng

trng

Phng trnh ho hc: Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 AgNO3 + NaCl

2NaOH + BaSO4 trng


NaNO3 + AgCl trng
35

Cch 2: Ta c s nhn bit: Cht th NaOH Ba(OH)2 tm Qu mu chuyn xanh NaCl

H2O + giy qu Qu tm chuyn xanh dd Na2SO4 -

tm Khng i mu mu qu tm

trng

Phng trnh ho hc: Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 2NaOH + BaSO4 trng 49. Cch 1: dng dd MgCl2 cho vo 2 dd, dd no xut hin kt ta trng l dd Na2CO3 dd cn li khng c hin tng g l Na2SO4. Phng trnh ho hc: MgCl2 + Na2CO3 MgCO3 ( trng) + 2NaCl

Cch 2: dng dd HCl cho vo 2 dd, dd no xut hin kh mu trng l dd Na2CO3 dd cn li khng c hin tng g l Na2SO4. Phng trnh ho hc: 2HCl + Na2CO3 H2O + CO2 + 2NaCl 50. Cho 3 cht rn trn vo nc s c cc hin tng sau: + C mt cht khng tan trong nc, l CaCO3 . + C mt cht tc dng mnh vi nc, to nhiu nhit, l CaO. Phng trnh ho hc: CaO + H2 O Ca(OH)2 + Cht cn li tan trong nc, l Ca(OH)2 . 51. Ta c s nhn bit Cht th Ba(NO3)2 AgNO3 Phng trnh ho hc: CuSO4 AgNO3 NaCl -

trng

trng

36

Ba(NO3)2 + CuSO4 BaSO4 ( trng) + Cu(NO3)2 AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl ( trng) + NaNO3 52. a) Cho dd NaOH vo tng dd s c hin tng sau: - Mt dd xut hin kt ta mu xanh, l dd CuSO4. - Mt dd xut hin kt ta mu nu , l dd Fe2(SO4 )3 Phng trnh ho hc: CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 ( xanh) + Na2SO4 Fe2(SO4 )3 + 6NaOH 2Fe(OH)3 ( nu ) + 3Na2SO4 b) Cho dd NaOH vo tng dd s c hin tng sau: - Mt dd xut hin kt ta mu xanh, l dd CuSO4 - Mt dd khng c hin tng g, l dd Na2SO4 Phng trnh ho hc: CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 ( xanh) + Na2SO4 c) Cho dd Na2SO4 vo tng dd s c hin tng sau: - Mt dd xut hin kt ta mu trng, l dd BaCl2 - Mt dd khng c hin tng g, l dd NaCl Phng trnh ho hc: Na2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 ( trng) + 2NaCl 53. Cht th Ca(OH)2 KCl NH4NO3 NH3 Ca(H2PO4)2. trng

Phng trnh ho hc: Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH4NO3 Ca(OH)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH3 + 2H2O

Ca(H2PO4)2. Ca3 (PO4)2 + 2H2O

54. a) Cho tng kim loi tc dng vi dd NaOH d, Al b tan hon ton cn st v bc khng b tan. 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O 2NaAlO2 + 3H2 - Ly 2 kim loi cn li cho tc dng vi dd HCl, kim loi khng tan l 37

Ag. Phng trnh ho hc: b) Ta c s nhn bit: Cht th H2O CO2 d dd (1) CO2 d tan NaCl tan Na2CO3 tan

Fe + 2HCl

FeCl2 +

H2

Na2SO4 tan

BaCO3 tan (dd 1)

BaSO4 khng tan

khng tan

Phng trnh ho hc: CO2 + H2O + BaCO3 Ba(HCO3)2 Ba(HCO3)2 + Na2CO3 BaCO3 + 2NaHCO3 Ba(HCO3)2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaHCO3 CO2 + H2O + BaCO3 Ba(HCO3)2 55. Thuc th duy nht c dng l qu tm, theo bng sau: dd NaCl Qu tm c cn tm c cn trng dd H2SO4 dd NaOH xanh H2O tm khng c cn

56. Cho mi kh i qua dung dch nc vi trong, lm c nc vi trong l kh cacbonic: CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O Dng kim st cm mu than hng a vo ba kh cn li, lm bng chy than hng l kh oxi: C + O2 CO2 Cho 2 kh cn li i qua CuO nung nng, lm xut hin mu ca ng l kh H2: H2 + CuO Cu + H2O 57. Dng qu tm nhn ra dung dch HCl lm qu tm ho . Dng dung dch HCl va nhn c phn bit ba dung dch cn li: Na2CO3 HCl CO2 HCl 38 K2CO3 AgNO3 AgCl NaCl BaCl2

58. mt dung dch bt k vo 4 dung dch cn li v quan st: Na2SO4 Ba(NO3)2

HCl K2CO3 NaCl Na2SO4 Ba(NO3)2

CO2 -

CO2

BaCO3 BaSO4

BaCO3

BaSO4

Dung dch khng to hin tng g l NaCl Dung dch to CO2 vi mt dung dch khc l HCl Dung dch to kt ta trng vi mt dung dch khc l Na2SO4 Dung dch to kt ta trng vi hai dung dch khc l Ba(NO3)2 Dung dch va to CO2 va to kt ta trng vi hai dung dch khc l K2CO3 59. Dng hai thuc th l qu tm v dung dch AgNO3 theo bng sau: HCl qu tm AgNO3 AgCl AgNO3 Cu () Fe Ag trng bc HNO3 KCl tm AgCl HCl H2 Cu hi trc nghim khch quan 61. C 64. B 62. D 63. D 65. A,3 v B,1 KNO3 tm -

60. Hai kim loi c dng lm thuc th l Cu v Fe NaOH -

39

Dng 3: Bi tp tch hn hp 66. Dung dch ZnSO4 c ln tp cht l CuSO4 . Dng kim loi no lm sch dung dch ZnSO4 ? Hy gii thch v vit phng trnh phn ng. 67. Bt kim loi st c ln nhm. Hy nu phng php lm sch st. 68. Sau khi lm th nghim c nhng kh thi c hi sau: HCl, H2S, CO2, SO2, c th dng cht no sau y loi b chng l tt nht ? a) Nc vi trong ; b) dd HCl ; c) dd NaCl ; d) nc Gii thch v vit cc phng trnh ho hc (nu c) 69. Bc dng bt c ln tp cht ng, nhm. Bng phng php ho hc, lm th no thu c bc tinh khit. Cc ho cht coi nh c . 70. Trong phng th nghim, ngi ta lm kh cc kh m bng 40

cch dn kh ny i qua cc bnh c ng cc cht ho nc nhng khng phn ng vi kh cn lm kh. C cc cht lm kh sau: H2SO4 c, CaO. Dng ho cht no ni trn lm kh mi kh m sau y: kh SO2, O2, CO2. Hy gii thch s la chn . 71. Hy tch Al2O3 ra khi hn hp gm Al2O3, Fe2O3 v SiO2 72. Tch ring tng cht ra khi hn hp gm:

a) N2; CO2; NH3.


b) Fe; Cu v Au. 73. Lm th no tch cc cht sau y ra khi hn hp: a) Du ho ra khi hn hp vi nc b) Mui n ra khi hn hp vi du ho c) Mui n ra khi hn hp vi ct d) ng knh ra khi hn hp vi ct 74. Nu cch tch ru etylic ra khi hn hp gia n vi axit axetic. 75. Dung dch mui AlCl3 ln tp cht l CuCl2 . Cht c th lm sch mui nhm l: A. AgNO3 ; B. HCl ; C. Mg ; D. Al ; E. Zn Hy khoanh trn vo ch ci ng trc mt cht ng v vit phng trnh ho hc gii thch. Hng dn gii 66. Dng kim loi Zn d cho vo dung dch ta thu c 1 dung dch mi l ZnSO4 v hn hp rn l Zn v Cu tch ra khi dung dch. Phng trnh phn ng: Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu ( trng thi rn bm vo ming km) 67. Cho hn hp bt vo dung dch NaOH d, Al tan hon ton trong dd, cn li Fe nguyn cht. 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O 2NaAlO2 + 3H2 68. Dng dung dch nc vi trong loi b l tt nht, v khi cho cc kh trn qua dd nc vi trong: Ca(OH)2 s c nhng phn ng ho 41

hc xy ra: Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl + H 2S + CO2 + SO2

CaCl2 CaS CaCO3

+ 2H2O + 2H2O + H2O

CaSO3 + H2O

Gii thch: ton b kh c trn u c chuyn ho sang dng mui tan hoc khng tan, khng c kh nng gy c na. 69. - Cho hn hp bt vo dd HCl d, Al b ho tan hon ton theo phng trnh ho hc: 2Al + 6HCl

2AlCl3 + 3H2

- Hn hp cn li mang t trong oxy d, ta c phng trnh ho hc: 2Cu + O2 Ag khng phn ng Sau khi t ta thu c hn hp rn l: CuO v Ag - Cho hn hp rn trn vo dd HCl d, CuO b tan hon ton, cn li Ag tinh khit. Phng trnh ho hc: CuO + 2HCl

2CuO

CuCl2 + H2O

70. - Kh SO2: dng H2SO4 c lm kh v H2SO4 c ho nc v khng tc dng vi SO2 . - Kh O2: c th dng H2SO4 c v CaO lm kh v chng khng tc dng vi oxy. - Kh CO2: dng H2SO4 c lm kh v H2SO4 c ht nc v khng tc dng vi CO2 . 71. Ho tan hn hp bng dung dch NaOH d, un nng ri lc b Fe2O3 khng tan. Al2O3 + 2NaOH 2NaAlO2 + H2O SiO2 + 2NaOH Na2SiO3 + H2O Sc kh CO2 d i qua nc lc NaAlO2 + CO2 + H2O Al(OH)3 + NaHCO3
t lc ly kt ta em nung: 2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O
0

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72. a) Cho hn hp kh i qua dung dch H2SO4 hp th NH3 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 un nng dung dich thu c vi KOH NH3 (NH4)2SO4 + 2KOH K2SO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O Cho 2 kh cn li i qua dung dch kim d, tch c N2 CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O lc ly kt ta em ho tan bng axit thu CO2 CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O b) Dng HCl ho tan th Cu, Au khng tan: Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 iu ch li Fe theo s :

FeCl2

+Cl2

FeCl3

+NaOH

Fe(OH)3

Fe2O3

+CO

Fe

Hn hp Cu, Au c t chy trong oxi: 2Cu + O2 2CuO Cht rn sau phn ng l CuO v Au c ho tan bng dd axit CuO + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O lc tch Au v iu ch li Cu theo s : CuCl2 Cu 73. a) Dng phu chit tch du ra khi nc b) Dng nc ho tan mui, chit tch du ra khi dung dch mui, c cn dung dch mui. c) Ho tan trong nc mui tan, lc tch ct khng tan v cui cng em c cn mui kt tinh. d) Ho tan trong nc ng tan, lc tch ct khng tan v cui cng em c cn ng kt tinh 74. Cho hn hp tc dng vi dung dch NaOH: CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O Chng ct dung dch sau phn ng thu ly C2H5OH 75. Cht ng l Al (D) Dng kim loi Al d cho vo dung dch ta thu c 1 dung dch mi l AlCl3 v hn hp rn l Al v Cu tch ra khi dung dch. 43

Phng trnh phn ng: 2Al + 3CuCl2 2AlCl3 + 3Cu ( trng thi rn bm vo ming nhm)

Dng 4: Gii thch hin tng Cu hi t lun 76. C nhng cht sau: CuO, Mg, Al2O3, Fe(OH)3, Fe2O3 .Hy chn mt trong nhng ho cht cho tc dng vi dd HCl sinh ra: a) Kh nh hn khng kh v chy c trong khng kh b) Dung dch c mu xanh lam c) Dung dch c mu vng nu d) Dung dch khng c mu Vit cc phng trnh phn ng

44

77. C nhng cht sau: CuO, BaCl2, Zn, ZnO. Hy chn mt trong nhng ho cht cho tc dng vi dd HCl v dd H2SO4 long sinh ra: a) Cht kh chy c trong khng kh b) Dung dch c mu xanh lam c) Cht kt ta mu trng khng tan trong nc v axit d) Dung dch khng mu Vit cc phng trnh phn ng 78. Ngm mt ming km sch trong dd CuSO 4. Cu tr li no sau y l ng nht cho hin tng quan st c ? a) Khng c hin tng no xy ra. b) Kim loi ng mu bm ngoi ming km, ming km khng c s thay i. c) Mt phn ming km b ho tan, kim loi ng bm ngoi ming km v mu xanh ban u ca dd nht dn. d) Khng c cht mi no c sinh ra, ch c mt phn ming km b ho tan. 79. mt mu NaOH trn tm knh trong khng kh, sau vi ngy thy c cht rn mu trng ph ngoi. Nu nh vi git dd HCl vo cht rn trng thy c kh thot ra, kh ny lm c nc vi trong. Cht rn mu trng l sn phm phn ng ca NaOH vi: a) xy trong khng kh b) Hi nc trong khng kh c) Cc bon ioxit v oxy trong khng kh d) Cc bon ioxit v hi nc trong khng kh e) Cc bon ioxit trong khng kh. Hy chn cu ng. Gii thch v vit phng trnh ho hc minh ho. 80. D on hin tng xy ra v vit phng trnh phn ng ho hc khi: a) t dy st trong kh clo b) Cho mt inh st vo dd CuCl2 c) Cho mt vin km vo dd CuSO4 45

81. Cho bit hin tng xy ra khi cho: a) Zn + dd CuCl2 b) Cu + dd AgNO3 c) Zn + dd MgCl2 d) Al + dd CuCl2 Vit cc phng trnh ho hc (nu c). 82. a) Cho mt mu natri kim loi vo dung dch CuCl2 , nu hin tng v vit cc phng trnh ho hc. b) A, B, C l cc hp cht v c ca mt kim loi. Khi t nng t 0 cao cho ngn la mu vng. Bit A + B C
t B C + H2O + D (D l hp cht ca cacbon)
0

D + A B hoc C - Hi A, B, C l cc cht g? Vit phng trnh ho hc gii thch qu trnh trn ? - Cho A, B, C tc dng vi CaCl2 vit cc phng trnh ho hc. 83. Nu hin tng v gii thch bng phn ng ho hc khi cho:

a) Dung dch Na2S vo mi dung dch sau: NaCl, KNO3, Pb(NO3)2,


CuSO4.

b) Kh H2S i vo mi dung dch trn.


84. a) Axit sunfuric c c dng lm kh nhng kh m, hy ly mt th d. C mt s kh m khng c lm kh bng axit sunfuric c, hy ly mt th d. V sao? b) Axit sunfuric c c th bin nhiu hp cht hu c thnh than, c gi l s ho than. Ly th d v s ho than ca glucoz, saccaroz. Vit s phn ng. c) S lm kh v s ho than ni trn khc nhau nh th no? 85. C mt ng nghim cha dung dch xt. Cho mu giy qu tm vo dung dch. Sau cho t t tng git dung dch HCl vo dung dch ni trn. Mu ca giy qu s bin i nh th no. Gii thch th nghim trn.

46

86. Cho 100ml nc vo cc thu tinh. Sau cho thm 40g mui n vo khuy u cho n khi cn mt t mui khng tan, lng xung y. Sau un nh, thy ton b mui trong cc u tan. ngui dung dch n nhit phng, th thy mui kt tinh tr li. Gii thch hin tng nu trn. 87. Kh H2 thu c bng phng php in phn dung dch NaCl, i khi b ln tp cht l kh Cl2. kim tra xem kh H2 c ln Cl2 hay khng, ngi ta thi kh qua mt dung dch c cha kali iotua v tinh bt. Hy gii thch v sao phi lm nh vy? Cu hi trc nghim khch quan 88. C nhng t, cm t sau: ht nhn, ntron, ht v cng nh b, proton, s proton bng ntron, trung ho v in, nhng electron. Hy chn t, cm t thch hp in vo ch trng trong cu sau: Nguyn t l............................. v ................................... T nguyn t to ra mi cht. Nguyn t gm.................. mang in tch dng v v to bi ................. mang in tch m". Ht nhn dc to bi ................. v............... 89. Hy ghp mi ch ci (ch cht ho hc) vi mi ch s (ch hin tng xy ra) sao cho hp l: lm qu tm ho A B C D E Dung dch NaOH Dung dch HCl Dung dch H2SO4 H 2O Dung dch Na2SO4 90. nh du vo trng xc nh cu ng hoc sai: 1 2 3 Cht v c gm n cht cn cht hu c ch c hp cht Cht hu c thng t tan trong nc Trong phn t cht hu c, cacbon lun c ho tr IV 47 S 1 2 3 4 xanh tm Td vi dd BaCl2 to kt ta trng khng kt ta to kt ta trng khng kt ta

4 5

Hidrocacbon gm cc nguyn t cacbon, oxi v hidro Cng thc cu to cho bit thnh phn phn t v trt t lin kt gia cc nguyn t trong phn t

Khoanh trn vo mt trong cc ch ci A, B, C, D... ch p n ng cc cu t 91 95: 91. Kh oxi c ln hi nc. Cht tt nht lm kh oxi l: A. nhm oxit C. nc vi trong E. dung dch natri hidroxit 92. Cho cng thc ho hc ca cc cht sau: NaCl, KOH, HCl, MgO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, Cu(OH)2. Nhng cht u lm i mu qu tm l: A. KOH, Cu(OH)2, HCl C. MgO, KOH, Cu(OH)2 B. KOH, NaCl, CaCO3 D. KOH, Ca(OH)2, HCl B. ng (II) sunfat khan D. axit sunfuric c

93. Cht X c cng thc phn t C3H6O2 tc dng vi dung dch NaOH to thnh cht Y c cng thc C3H5O2Na. Cht X thuc loi: A. ru B. hidrocacbon C. axit D. polime 94. Trong cc cp cht sau y, cp cht khng tc dng c vi nhau l: A. H2SO4 v KHCO3 C. CaCl2 v Na2CO3 E. MgCO3 v HCl 95. Trong cc cht sau y, cht khng tc dng c vi nc brom l: A. CH2=CH2 C. CH3 CH3 hng dn gii Cu hi t lun 76. a) Mg + 2HCl b) CuO + 2HCl 48 B. CH CH D. CH2=CH CH=CH2 B. K2CO3 v NaCl D. Ba(OH)2 v K2CO3

MgCl2 + H2
CuCl2 + H2O

(H2 l cht kh nh hn khng kh v chy c trong khng kh)

(dd CuCl2 c mu xanh lam) c) Fe2O3 + 6HCl

2FeCl3 + 3H2O Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl FeCl3 + 3H2O


2AlCl3 + 3H2O ZnCl2 + H2

(dd FeCl3 c mu vng nu) d) Al2O3 + 6HCl

(dd AlCl3 khng mu) 77. a) Zn + 2HCl

Zn + H2SO4 (long) ZnSO4 + H2 (H2 l cht kh chy c trong khng kh) b) CuO + 2HCl

CuCl2 + H2O

(dd CuCl2 c mu xanh lam) CuO + H2SO4 CuSO4 + H2O (dd CuSO4 c mu xanh lam) c) BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl (BaSO4 l cht kt ta mu trng khng tan trong nc v axit) d) ZnO + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2O (dd ZnCl2 khng mu) 78. Cu tr li ng nht l cu c) Phng trnh ho hc: Zn + CuSO4 Cu + ZnSO4

79. Cht rn mu trng l sn phm phn ng ca NaOH vi cacbon ioxit trong khng kh. V: 2NaOH + CO2

Na2CO3 + H2O

cht rn mu trng ph ngoi l Na2CO3 Na2CO3 + 2HCl Ca(OH)2 + CO2

2NaCl + H2O + CO2

CaCO3

+ H 2O

80. a) Dy st chy sng 2Fe + 3Cl2

2FeCl3

b) Mt phn inh st b ho tan, kim loi ng bm ngoi inh 49

st v mu xanh ban u ca dd nht dn. Fe + CuCl2 Cu + FeCl2 c) Mt phn ming km b ho tan, kim loi ng bm ngoi ming km v mu xanh ban u ca dd nht dn. Zn + CuSO4 Cu + ZnSO4

81. a) Mt phn ming km b ho tan, kim loi ng bm ngoi ming km v mu xanh ban u ca dd nht dn. Zn + CuCl2

Cu + ZnCl2

b) Mt phn ming ng b ho tan, kim loi bc bm ngoi ming ng v dd c mu xanh. Cu + 2AgNO3

Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag

c) khng phn ng d) Mt phn ming nhm b ho tan, kim loi ng bm ngoi ming nhm v mu xanh ban u ca dd nht dn. 2Al + 3CuCl2

3Cu + 2AlCl3

82. a) Hin tng: ming natri tan dn, c kh mu trng bay ln, mu xanh ca dd nht dn, c kt ta mu xanh xut hin. Phng trnh ho hc: 2Na + 2H2O

2NaOH

+ H2

2NaOH + CuCl2

Cu(OH)2 (xanh) + 2NaCl

b) A, B, C l cc hp cht ca Na v khi t nng cho ngn la mu vng. tho mn iu kin ca u bi: A l NaOH; B l NaHCO 3 v C l Na2CO3 Phng trnh ho hc: NaOH + NaHCO3 Na2CO3
t NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
0

CO2 + Hoc: CO2 +

NaOH NaOH

NaHCO3 Na2CO3

- Cho A, B, C tc dng vi CaCl2 Na2CO3 + CaCl2 CaCO3 + 2NaCl 83. a) Na2S khng phn ng vi NaCl v KNO3 50

Na2S phn ng vi Pb(NO3)2 v CuSO4 u cho kt ta en Pb(NO3)2 + Na2S PbS + 2NaNO3 CuSO4 + Na2S CuS + Na2SO4 b) Phn ng ca H2S: CuSO4 + H2S CuS + H2SO4

H2S phn ng vi Pb(NO3)2 to ra HNO3 c tnh oxiho nn c phn ng tip vi PbS kh NO Pb(NO3)2 + H2S PbS + 2HNO3 3PbS + 8HNO3 3PbSO4 + 8NO + 4H2O 84. a) V d: CO2, SO2, H2, N2 ... Nhng kh khng c lm kh bng H2SO4 c do c th tc dng vi H2SO4 . V d: 2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 H2S + 3H2SO4 4SO2 + 4H2O
H2SO4dac b) C6H12O6 6C + 6H2O H2SO4dac C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O

c) S lm kh phn ln l phn ng ho hp S ho than l phn ng phn hu 85. Mu qu tm ho xanh, sau li tr v tm v cui cng chuyn sang . Do kim lm xanh qu tm, khi axit trung ho ht kim th mu qu tr v tm v axit d lm qu tm ho . 86. Ho tan d NaCl to ra dung dch bo ho, phn khng tan c s lng xung. Khi tng nhit tan ca mui tng nn NaCl tan thm. Khi gim nhit tan ca mui gim nn phn khng tan c kt tinh tr li. 87. Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2 (lm xanh tinh bt) Cu hi trc nghim khch quan 88. Nguyn t l ht v cng nh b v trung ho v in. T nguyn t to ra mi cht. Nguyn t gm ht nhn mang in tch dng v v to bi nhng electron mang in tch m". Ht nhn dc to bi proton v ntron. 89. C ; 90. A-2 , B-4 , C-1, E-3 51

91. 1-S, 2-, 3-, 4-S, 5- 92. D ; 93. C ; 94. B ; 95. C

52