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Phn II

ho hu c
Dng 1: Cng thc cu to hp cht hu c
Bi tp t lun
189. Hy vit cng thc cu to ca cc cht c cng thc phn t
sau:
C
2
H
5
Cl, C
2
H
6
O, C
3
H
8
, C
2
H
4
O
2
190. Hy vit cng thc cu to mch vng ng vi cc cng thc
phn t sau: C
3
H
6
, C
4
H
8
, C
5
H
10
191. Nhng cng thc cu to no sau y biu din cng mt
cht ?
a) O C C H H
H H
H H
b) O C C H H
H H
H H
c)
O
C C H H
H H
H H
d) O C C H H
H H
H H
192. Hy vit cng thc cu to ca cc cht sau:
Metan, etilen, axetilen, benzen, ru etylic, axit axetic.
- Hy cho bit s lin kt n, lin kt i, lin kt ba gia nhng
nguyn t cc bon trong phn t cc cht .
193. Trong cc cht sau y cht no c tnh axit? nu r c
im cu to ca cht .
a)
O b)
O
C H H c) CH
3
O
O
C H CH
3
O
C H CH
2
194. Khi xc nh cng thc ca cc hp cht hu c A v B, ngi
ta thy cng thc phn t ca A l C
2
H
6
O, cn cng thc phn t ca
B l C
2
H
4
O
2
. chng minh A l ru etylic, B l axit axetic cn phi lm
thm nhng th nghim no ? Vit phng trnh ho hc minh ho
(nu c).
1
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
195. Dy cng thc sau y biu din cc cht u l
hidrocacbon no:
A. C
2
H
4
, C
3
H
6
, C
4
H
8
, C
5
H
10
.
B. C
2
H
6
, C
3
H
8
, C
4
H
10
, C
4
H
12
C. C
2
H
2
, C
3
H
4
, C
4
H
6
, C
5
H
8
D. C
2
H
6
O , C
3
H
8
O, C
4
H
10
O, C
4
H
12
O
196. Mt hidrocacbon c cha 85,7% cacbon v 14,3% hiro theo
khi lng. Cng thc no di y l ph hp vi hidrocacbon ?
(I) CH
4
(II) C
2
H
4
(III) C
6
H
6
(IV) C
3
H
6
.
A. Cng thc (I)
B. Cng thc (II) v (I)
C. Cng thc (III)
D. Cng thc (IV) v (III)
D. Cng thc (II) v (IV)
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
189.
CH
3
CH
2
Cl ; CH
3 CH
3
O ; CH
3
CH
3
CH
2
OH ; CH
3
CH
2
v
CH
3 CH
2
COOH v H-COO CH
3
v
HO CHO
190.
CH
3
CH
2
v
H
2
C CH
2
;
H
2
C
H
2
C
CH
2
CH
2
;
CH
2
H
2
C CH
H
2
C
H
2
C
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
191. a, c v d
192.
2
H C
H
H
H
H
H
C C
H
H
C H C H
H C
H
H
H
C
H
H
O H C
H
H
H
C O
O
193. Cht (a) c tnh axit do phn t c nhm COOH
194. Chng minh A l ru etylic:
Cho A tc dng vi Na thy c H
2
, cho A tc dng vi NaOH khng
thy c phn ng.
2CH
3
-CH
2
-OH + 2Na 2CH
3
-CH
2
-ONa + H
2

Cho B tc dng vi dung dch Na
2
CO
3
thy c CO
2

2CH
3
COOH + Na
2
CO
3
2CH
3
COONa + CO
2
+ H
2
O
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
195. B 196. E
Dng 2: Vit phng trnh iu ch, s dy bin ho
Bi tp t lun
Ch :
- Phng php iu ch Axetilen: C
2
H
2
a) Trong phng th nghim:
CaC
2
+ 2H
2
O

C
2
H
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
b) Phng php hin i c th iu ch axetilen bng cch nhit
phn metan nhit cao ri lm lnh nhanh:
2CH
4

o
t

C
2
H
2
+ 3H
2
- iu ch ru etylic.
Cht bt hoc ng

Ru etylic
Hoc: C
2
H
4
+ H
2
O

C
2
H
5
OH
3
- iu ch axit axetic.
Trong cng nghip: 2C
4
H
10
+ 5O
2

4CH
3
COOH + 2H
2
O
sn xut gim n, ngi ta thng dng phng php ln men dung
dch ru etylic long.
CH
3
CH
2
OH + O
2

CH
3
COOH + H
2
O
197. Vit phng trnh theo s chuyn ho sau:
Metylclorua
Metan
Axetylen
Cacbon dioxit a)
Axetylen
CacbuaCanxi b)
C
2
H
2
Br
4
C
2
H
2
Br
2
C
2
H
6
C
2
H
4
C
2
H
3
Cl
PVC
c) Brombenzen Benzen Xiclohecxan
R u etylic
etylen
Etyl axetat
etylat Natri
d)
PE
etan C
2
H
5
Cl
e) T axit axetic iu ch Natri axetat bng 4 phng php
f)
Tinh bt
Axetylen
A
B
R u etylic
D
Etyl axetat
198. Hy vit phng trnh ho hc iu ch axit axetic t:
a) Natri axetat v axit sunfuric.
b) Ru etylic
199. Hy vit cc phng trnh ho hc theo s chuyn ho
sau
4
Saccaroz

Glucoz

Ru etylic
200. T tinh bt vit cc phng trnh iu ch ru etylic
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
201. Chn cc cht thch hp thay vo ch trng:
a) ...............
2
H O
xt
+

C
2
H
5
OH
2
O
MenGiam
+

................
b) ..............
Trung hop

CH
2
=CH
2

dd brom

...............
202. Hy chn cc cng thc v cc ch s thch hp in vo ch
trng trong cc phng trnh ho hc sau:
a) ....C
2
H
5
OH + .............. ..............+ H
2

b) C
2
H
5
OH + .............. ... CO
2
+ ..............
c) ....CH
3
COOH + ........... (CH
3
COO)
2
Ca + .........+ ........
d) .... CH
3
COOH + .............. ..............+ H
2

e) C
2
H
5
OH + .............. CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ ..............
f) (R-COO)
3
C
3
H
5
+ .......... ...R-COONa + ...........
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
197. a) CH
4
+ Cl
2

anh sang

CH
3
Cl + HCl
CH
4
+ 2O
2

0
t

CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
2CH
4

0
1500 C

C
2
H
2
+ 3H
2
(lm lnh nhanh)
b) CaC
2
+ 2H
2
O Ca(OH)
2
+ C
2
H
2

HC CH + Br
2
Br HC CH Br
HC CH + 2Br
2
Br
2
HC CHBr
2

HC CH + H
2
H
2
C=CH
2

HC CH + 2H
2
H
3
C CH
3

HC CH + HCl H
2
C=CH Cl
n (H
2
C=CH Cl)
0
, t P

(H
2
C=CHCl)
n
5
c)

+
Br
2
Fe,t
0
Br
+ HBr
+
3H
2
Ni,t
0

d) n H
2
C=CH
2

0
, t P

(CH
2
CH
2
)
n
CH
2
=CH
2
+ H
2
O
H
+

C
2
H
5
OH
C
2
H
5
OH + CH
3
COOH
2 4
H SO dac

CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
O
2C
2
H
5
OH + 2Na 2C
2
H
5
ONa + H
2

e) 2CH
3
COOH + 2Na 2CH
3
COONa + H
2

2CH
3
COOH + Na
2
O 2CH
3
COONa + H
2
O
CH
3
COOH + NaOH CH
3
COONa + H
2
O
2CH
3
COOH + Na
2
CO
3
2CH
3
COONa + CO
2
+ H
2
O
f)
C
6
H
12
O
6
C
2
H
4
CH
3
COOH
(-C
6
H
10
O
5
-)
n
H
2
O
H
+
HC CH
H
2
Pd, t
0
C
2
H
5
OH CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
198. a) H
2
SO
4
+ 2CH
3
COONa 2CH
3
COOH + Na
2
SO
4
b) CH
3
-CH
2
-OH + O
2

MenGiam

CH
3
COOH + H
2
O
199. C
12
H
22
O
11
+ H
2
O
H
+

C
6
H
12
O
6
(glucoz)+ C
6
H
12
O
6
(fructoz)
C
6
H
12
O
6
(glucoz)
MenRuou

2C
2
H
5
OH + 2CO
2

200. -(-C
6
H
10
O
5
-)-
n
+ n H
2
O
H
+

nC
6
H
12
O
6
(glucoz)
6
C
6
H
12
O
6
(glucoz)
MenRuou

2C
2
H
5
OH + 2CO
2

Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
201. Chn cc cht thch hp thay vo ch trng:
a) CH
2
=CH
2
2
H O
xt
+

C
2
H
5
OH
2
O
MenGiam
+

CH
3
COOH
b) -(--CH
2
CH
2
--)-
n
0
, t P

CH
2
=CH
2

dd brom

CH
2
Br CH
2
Br
202. Hy chn cc cng thc v cc ch s thch hp in vo ch
trng trong cc phng trnh ho hc sau:
a) 2C
2
H
5
OH + 2Na 2C
2
H
5
ONa + H
2

b) C
2
H
5
OH + 3O
2
2 CO
2
+ 3H
2
O
c) 2CH
3
COOH + CaCO
3
(CH
3
COO)
2
Ca + CO
2
+ H
2
O
d) 2 CH
3
COOH + 2Na 2CH
3
COONa + H
2

e) C
2
H
5
OH + CH
3
COOH
2 4
H SO dac


CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
O
f) (R-COO)
3
C
3
H
5
+ 3NaOH 3 R-COONa + C
3
H
5
(OH)
3
Dng 3: Nhn bit v tch cc cht
Bi tp t lun
203. C 2 bnh ng hai kh l metan v etilen. Ch dng mt
ho cht phn bit c hai kh trn.
204. Nu hai phng php ho hc khc nhau phn bit hai
dung dch C
2
H
5
OH v CH
3
COOH
205. C ba l khng nhn ng ba cht lng l: ru etylic, axit
axetic, du n tan trong ru etylic. Ch dng nc v qu tm, hy phn
bit cc cht lng trn.
206. Chn mt thuc th phn bit cc dung dch sau bng
phng php ho hc. (nu r cch tin hnh)
a) Dung dch glucoz v dung dch ru etylic
b) Dung dch glucoz v dung dch axit axetic.
7
207. C mt hn hp kh gm CO
2
v CH
4
. Hy trnh by phng
php ho hc :
a) Thu c kh CH
4
b) Thu c kh CO
2
208. a) Hy nu phng php ho hc loi b etilen c ln trong kh
metan thu c metan tinh khit.
b) Bng phng php ho hc hy nhn bit cc kh trong cc bnh
ring bit:
CO
2
, SO
2
, CH
4
, C
2
H
2 ,
SO
3
.
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
209. nh du vo trng ch cu ng hoc cu sai
S
a Phn bit 2 kh etylen v axetylen bng dd nc
brom
b Phn bit 2 kh etylen v axetylen bng cch
t chy v quan st mu ngn la
c Phn bit 2 kh etylen v axetylen bng cch
ho tan trong nc
d Phn bit 2 kh etylen v metan bng dd nc
brom
210. Khoanh trn vo mt trong cc ch ci A, B, C, D ch p
n ng:
loi b kh etylen trong hn hp vi metan ngi ta dng:
A. Nc B. Hidro C. Dung dch brom D. Kh
oxi
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
203. Cho 2 kh qua dung dch brom, cht no lm dung dch
brm mt mu th kh l etilen.
Phng trnh ho hc: C
2
H
4
+ Br
2

C
2
H
4
Br
2
8
204. Phng php 1:
Dng qu tm nhng vo dung dch, dung dch no lm qu tm
chuyn mu th l dung dch CH
3
COOH.
Phng php 2:
Cho dung dch Na
2
CO
3
vo hai dung dch, dung dch no c phn
ng v c kh mu trng bay ln th l CH
3
COOH.
Phng trnh ho hc:
Na
2
CO
3
+ 2CH
3
COOH

2CH
3
COONa + H
2
O + CO
2

205. - Trc ht ta cho qu tm nhng vo cc dung dch


Hin tng: c 1 l lm qu chuyn sang mu , chng t l
cha dung dch CH
3
COOH.
- Cho nc vo hai dung dch cn li, dung dch no xut hin 2 lp
th l dung dch du n tan trong ru. V du n khng tan trong
nc.
206. - Dng dung dch AgNO
3
vo ng ng dung dch amoniac,
lc nh ri ln lt cho tng dung dch vo ng nghim , sau
t ng nghim vo cc nc nng.
- Hin tng: ng no l dung dch glucoz th s c cht rn mu
sng bc bm ln thnh ng nghim. Dung dch cn li khng c hin
tng g.
Phng trnh ho hc:
C
6
H
12
O
6
(dd) + Ag
2
O(dd)

C
6
H
12
O
7
(dd) + 2Ag (r).
207. a) Cho hn hp kh i qua dung dch nc vi trong d, kh i
ra khi dung dch ch c CH
4
.
Phng trnh ho hc:
CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2

CaCO
3

+ H
2
O
CH
4
khng phn ng.
b) Lc tch ly kt ta ri cho tc dng vi dung dch HCl, thu c kh
CO
2
.
Phng trnh ho hc: CaCO
3
+ 2HCl

CaCl
2
+ CO
2

+ H
2
O
208. a) Cho hn hp kh qua dung dch brom d, kh i ra khi
dung dch ch cn metan tinh khit
9
Phng trnh ho hc: C
2
H
4
+ Br
2

C
2
H
4
Br
2
b) * Cho tng kh qua dung dch Ba(OH)
2
- C 3 kh cho

l: CO
2
, SO
2
, SO
3
(nhm 1) theo cc phng trnh
sau:
Ba(OH)
2
+ CO
2

BaCO
3


+ H
2
O
Ba(OH)
2
+ SO
2

BaSO
3


+ H
2
O
Ba(OH)
2
+ SO
3

BaSO
4


+ H
2
O
- 2 kh khng c hin tng g l CH
4
, C
2
H
2
(nhm 2)
* Ly 2 kh nhm 2 cho qua dung dch brom, kh no lm mt
mu dung dch brom th l C
2
H
2

C
2
H
2
+ 2Br
2

C
2
H
2
Br
4
Cht cn li khng lm mt mu dd brom l CH
4
* Cho 3 cht kt ta thu c nhm (1) tc dng vi dd HCl d, c 2
cht tan, cn 1 khng tan.
BaCO
3
+ 2HCl

BaCl
2
+ CO
2


+ H
2
O
BaSO
3
+ 2HCl

BaCl
2
+ SO
2


+ H
2
O
Cht khng tan l BaSO
4
, tm c SO
3
* Cho 2 kh thu c trn cho qua dung dch brom, SO
2
lm mt
mu dung dch brom, cn CO
2
khng lm mt mu.
SO
2
+ Br
2
+ 2H
2
O

2HBr + H
2
SO
4
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
209. a.S - b. - c.S - d.
210. C
Dng 4: Bi tp v hiro cacbon
Bi tp t lun
211. Phn t hp cht hu c A c 2 nguyn t. Khi t chy 3
gam cht A thu c 5,4 gam H
2
O. Hy xc nh cng thc phn t ca
A, bit khi lng mol ca A l 30 gam.
10
212. t chy 3 gam cht hu c A thu c 8,8 gam kh CO
2
v 5,4
gam H
2
O.
a) Trong cht hu c A c nhng nguyn t no ?
b)Bit phn t khi ca A nh hn 40. Tm cng thc phn t
ca A.
213. t chy 4,6 gam cht hu c A thu c 8,8 gam CO
2
v 5,4
gam H
2
O.
a) Hi trong A c nhng nguyn t no ?
b) Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A, bit t khi hi ca A so vi
hiro l 23.
214. t chy hon ton hn hp X gm 2 hirocacbon c cng
cng thc tng qut, mch h thuc mt trong 3 cng thc tng qut
sau: C
n
H
2n+2
; C
n
H
2n
; C
n
H
2n-2
. Hp th hon ton sn phm chy vo 1,8
lt dung dch Ca(OH)
2
0,05M thu c kt ta v khi lng dung dch
tng 3,78g. Cho Ba(OH)
2
d vo dung dch thu c kt ta v tng khi
lng tng cng c 2 ln l 18,85g. T khi ca X vi H
2
nh hn 20. Xc
nh cng thc chung ca 2 hiro cc bon trong hn hp X.
215. Hn hp kh X gm 2 hirocacbon A, B mch thng v khi l-
ng phn t ca A nh hn khi lng phn t ca B. Trong hn hp X, A
chim 75% theo th tch. t chy hon ton X cho sn phm chy
hp th qua bnh cha dung dch Ba(OH)
2
d, sau th nghim khi lng
dung dch trong bnh gim 12,78 gam ng thi thu c 19,7 gam
kt ta. Bit t khi hi ca X i vi hiro bng 18,5 v A, B cng
cng thc chung thuc mt trong cc cng thc sau: C
n
H
2n+2
; C
n
H
2n
;
C
n
H
2n-2
.
1) Tm cng thc chung ca A, B?
2) Tm cng thc phn t ca A. B?
216. t chy V lt kh ( ktc) hai hirocacbon c cng cng thc
tng qut v hn km nhau 2 nguyn t C, to thnh 39,6 gam CO
2
v
10,8g H
2
O.
a) Xc nh cng thc tng qut ca hai hirocacbon. Bit rng
chng thuc mt trong nhng cng thc tng qut sau: C
n
H
2n
; C
n
H
2n+2;
C
n
H
2n-2
.
b) Xc nh cng thc phn t ca mi hirocacbon. Bit rng
chng c s nguyn t C nh hn 5.
11
217. t chy hon ton 2,8 gam mt hp cht hu c X ri cho
ton b sn phm hp th vo dung dch NaOH th dung dch ny c
khi lng tng thm 12,4 gam, thu c 2 mui c khi lng tng cng
19g v 2 mui ny c t l s mol 1 : 1. Xc nh cng thc tng
qut ca cht X. Bit X thuc mt trong 2 cng thc tng qut sau: C
n
H
2n +2
v C
n
H
2n

218. t chy hon ton 2,8g cht hu c X cn 6,72lt O
2
(ktc)
ch to thnh kh CO
2
v hi nc c th tch bng nhau trong cng
iu kin.
Nu cho 2,8 g X ni trn vo dung dch Br
2
d th c 9,2 g sn
phm cng. Tm cng thc phn t ca X.
219. Mt hn hp gm hai cht A v B c cng cng thc tng qut
C
n
H
2n+2
, hn km nhau 1 nguyn t cc bon, c khi lng 24,8 gam. Th
tch tng ng l 11,21t ( ktc).
Hy xc nh cng thc phn t ca chng.
220. Cho 6,72 lt hn hp kh gm 2 hiro cacbon c cng thc
tng qut C
n
H
2n
li qua nc brom d thy khi lng bnh tng 16,8gam.
Hy tm cng thc phn t cc hiro cacbon bit rng s nguyn t
cacbon trong mi cht khng qu 5.
221. t chy 560cm
3
hn hp kh ( ktc) gm hai hirocacbon
c cng s nguyn t cacbon ta thu c 4,4gam CO
2
v 1,9125g hi nc.
Xc nh cng thc phn t cc hirocacbon.
222. t 10cm
3
mt hirocacbon bng 80cm
3
oxi (ly d). Sn
phm thu c sau khi cho H
2
O ngng t cn 65cm
3
trong c 25cm
3
l oxi. Cc th tch u o ktc. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca
hirocacbon.
223. Mt hn hp gm 2 hirocacbon mch h: Cho 1680 ml hn
hp trn i chm qua nc brom d. Sau khi phn ng hon ton cn li
1120ml v lng brom tham gia phn ng l 4,0 g. Mt khc nu t
chy hon ton 1680ml hn hp trn ri cho ton b sn phm chy hp
th vo nc vi trong d th thu c 12,5g kt ta.
Xc nh cng thc phn t ca hai hirocacbon.
224. t chy 56 ml hn hp kh metan v axetilen cn phi dng
134,4 ml kh oxi.
a) Tnh phn trm th tch ca mi kh trong hn hp.
b) Tnh th tch kh CO
2
sinh ra.
12
Bit rng cc th tch kh o cng iu kin nhit v p
sut.
225. Cho 11,2 lit (ktc) hn hp kh gm C
2
H
4
, C
2
H
2
tc dng ht
vi dung dch brom d, lng brom tham gia phn ng l 11,2 gam.
a) Hy vit phng trnh ho hc.
b) Tnh phn trm th tch mi kh trong hn hp.
226. t chy V lit(ktc) kh thin nhin cha 96% CH
4
, 2% N
2
v
2% CO
2
v th tch. Ton b sn phm chy c dn qua dung dch
Ca(OH)
2
d thy to ra 4,9 gam kt ta.
a) vit cc phng trnh ho hc xy ra.
b) Tnh V?
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
227. nh du vo trng ch cu ng hoc cu sai
S
a C
2
H
6
l cht kh iu kin thng
b C
2
H
6
l hidrocacbon khng no
c C
2
H
6
lm mt mu nc brom
d C
2
H
6
c kh nng tham gia phn ng th
e C
2
H
6
khng tan trong nc iu kin thng
Khoanh trn vo mt trong cc ch ci A, B, C, D ch p n
ng:
228. t chy hon ton 29 gam mt hidrocacbon no c dng
C
n
H
2n+2
thu c 45 gam nc. Cng thc ca hidrocacbon l:
A. CH
3
CH
3
B. CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
C. CH
3
CH(CH
3
) CH
3
D. CH
3
CH(CH
3
) CH
2
CH
3
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
211. Theo gi thit ta c: nA =
3
30
= 0,1 mol v n H
2
O =
5,4
18
=
0,3 mol
13
C t chy 0,1 mol A th thu c 0,3 mol H
2
O
Nu t chy 1 mol A th s thu c 3 mol H
2
O
Suy ra, trong 1 mol A c 6 nguyn t H
V A ch cha 2 nguyn t, nn nguyn t th 2 phi l C, khi lng
nguyn t C trong 1 mol A l: 30 6 = 24 gam
s nguyn t C trong 1 mol A =
24
12
= 2 Cng thc phn t ca A
: C
2
H
6
212. a) Trong A phi c nguyn t C v H, c th c nguyn t O.
nC

=
8,8
44
= 0,2 mol hay 2,4 gam
nH =
5,4
2
18
= 0,6 mol hay 0,6 gam
Ta c: mO = 3 2,4 0,6 = 0 . Vy A ch c 2 nguyn t l C v H.
b) Bit phn t khi ca A nh hn 40. Tm cng thc phn t
ca A.
Ta c t l: C : H = 0,2 : 0,6 = 1 : 3
Cng thc nguyn ca A c dng: (CH
3
)
n

ta c: 15n < 40
V n: nguyn dng nn tho mn vi n = 1, 2
Vi n = 1 cng thc phn t ca A l CH
3
(loi do ho tr cacbon =
3)
Vi n = 2 cng thc phn t ca A l C
2
H
6
(etan)
213.
a) Xc nh cc nguyn t c trong A. M
A
= 23.2 = 46 vc
Theo gi thit: n
A
=
4,6
46
= 0,1 mol
n

CO
2
=
8,8
44
= 0,2 mol s nguyn t C =
0,2
0,1
= 2
n H
2
O =
5,4
18
= 0,3 mol s nguyn t H =
0,3
2
0,1

= 6
Khi lng C + H = (12.2)+(1.6) = 30 < 46 Trong A cn nguyn t
14
O
b)Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A.
Suy ra s nguyn t O =
46 30
16

= 1
Cng thc phn t ca A l C
2
H
6
O
214. Ca(OH)
2
+ CO
2
= CaCO
3

+ H
2
O (1)
a mol a mol a mol
Ca(OH)
2
+ 2CO
2
= Ca(HCO
3
)
2
(2)
b mol 2b mol b mol
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
= BaCO
3

+ CaCO
3

+ H
2
O (3)
b mol b mol b mol
Ta c: a + b = 1,8 . 0,05 = 0,09 v 100 (a+b) + 197b = 18,85

a = 0,04 v b = 0,05
u bi cho kh hp thu sn phm vo 1,8 lt dung dch 0,05M thu
c kt ta v khi lng dung dch tng 3,78 gam c ngha:
2 2
CO H O
m +m -
m
k.ta
= m
tng
2 2
CO H O
m +m =
m
k.ta
+ m
tng
= 3,78 + 100 x 0,04 = 7,78
2
CO
n =
a + 2b = 0,14
2
H O
7,78- (0,14.44)
n = =0,09
18
V
2 2
CO H O
n >n
hirocacbon ch c th l C
n
H
2n-2
Ta c phng trnh: C
n
H
2n-2
+ (
3n 1
2

) O
2

nCO
2
+ (n-1) H
2
O
215. 1) s mol BaCO
3
= 0,1
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
= BaCO
3

+ H
2
O
0,1 0,1
Theo phng trnh s mol CO
2
= 0,1 hay 4,4 gam
gim lng dung dch = lng BaCO
3
lng (CO
2
+ H
2
O)
15
12,78 = 19,7 4,4 lng H
2
O
tnh c lng H
2
O = 2,52 gam hay 0,14 mol
Do t l s mol
2
2
0,14
0,1
H O
CO

> 1 nn 2 hydrocacbon no dng C
n
H
2n+2
.
2) C
n
H
2n+2
+ (
3n 1
2
+
) O
2

nCO
2
+ (n+1) H
2
O
Theo gi thit: A (75%) v B (25%) vi
M
= 18,5

2 = 37
75(14x+2)+25(14y+2)
=37
100

3x + y = 10 x = 2 v y = 4

Cng thc phn t A: C


2
H
6
; B: C
4
H
10
216. a) nH
2
O =
10,8
18
= 0,6 mol v nCO
2
=
39,6
44
= 0,9 mol
V nH
2
O

< nCO
2

cng thc chung ca hai hirocacbon l: C


k
H
2k
-2
Theo phng trnh sau:
C
k
H
2k -2
+ (
3k 1
2
) O
2

k CO
2
+ (k -1) H
2
O
b) Xc nh cng thc phn t ca hai hirocacbon
Gi s hai hirocacbon l C
n
H
2n-2
v C
m
H
2m-2
v n + 2 = m:
Theo gi thit ta c: n + 2 = m

4 suy ra n

2
Vi n = 1 (loi)
Vi n = 2 m = 4 cng thc phn t l C
2
H
2
v C
4
H
6
217. a) Cch 1: t chy hp cht hu c cho sn phm hp th
vo dung ch NaOH to hai mui, chng t hp cht hu c gm C, H
c th c oxi
CO
2
+ 2NaOH = Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
amol amol
CO
2
+ NaOH = NaHCO
3
amol amol
16
Theo u bi t l 2 mui l 1 : 1
Ta c phng trnh: (106 + 84)a = 19 a = 0,1 mol

2
CO
n =0,2;


2
H O
n =

12,4 - (0,2 x 44) = 3,6 gam hay 0,2 mol


m
C
= 0,2 x 12 = 2,4 gam v m
H
=
3,6
18
x 2 = 0,4 gam m
O
= 0
Vy cht hu c l hirocacbon C
x
H
y
12x : y = 2,4: 0,4 x : y = 2 : 4 = 1 : 2
(CH
2
)
n

C
n
H
2n
Vy X c cng thc tng qut l C
n
H
2n
218. C
x
H
y
O
z
+
2 2 2
y z y
x+ - O xCO + H O
4 2 2
1

1
]
Trong cng iu kin t l V = t l s mol, nn ta c: x =
y
y =2x
2

C
x
H
2x
O
z
+
2 2 2
3x- z
O xCO +xH O
2

(14 x + 16z) x mol
2,8g
6,72
22,4
= 0,3 mol
(14x + 16z) 0,3 = 2,8

3x- z
z =0.
2


Cng thc ca X c dng
C
n
H
2n
Ta c phng trnh: C
n
H
2n
+ Br
2

C
n
H
2n
Br
2
2,8g 9,2g
Ta c: lng Br
2
phn ng = 9,2 2,8 = 6,4 gam hay 0,04 mol
14n =
2,8
0,04
= 70 n = 5 C
5
H
10
219.
M
=
hh
lit hh
m 22,4 24,8 22,4
= =49,6g
V 11,2

Gi s: Gi M
A
l khi lng phn t ca A, gi M
B
l khi lng phn
17
t ca B.
M
A
< M
B
th M
A
<
M
< M
B
14n + 2 < 49,6 < 14n + 2 hay n < 3,4 < n
n = 3 v n = 4 (v n + 1 = n)
A l C
3
H
8
v B l C
4
H
10

220. S mol hn hp =
6,72
22,4
= 0,3 mol
Nu cho hn hp qua dung dch brom th:
Theo u bi m
dd tng
= 16,8g tc l khi lng ca hn hp 2 hiro
cacbon:
M =
h.h p
m
16,8
=
S mol hn h p 0,3
= 56
Gi s: M
A
< M
B
th M
A
<
M
< M
B
14n < 56 < 14n
2

n < 4 < n
V s nguyn t cacbon c t nht l 2 nn:
n = 2; 3
n = 5 (do s cacbon

5)
Vy hn hp kh c th c hai cp p s: C
2
H
4
v C
5
H
10

C
3
H
6
v C
5
H
10

221. Gi cng thc phn t hai hirocacbon l C
x
H
y
v C
x
H
z

C
x
H
y
+
2 2 2
y y
x+ O x CO + H O
4 2
_


,
a mol ax mol
ay
2
mol
C
x
H
z
+
2 2 2
z z
x + O x CO + H O
4 2
_


,
b mol bx mol
bz
2
mol
Gi a v b ln lt l s mol ca hai hirocacbon
18
- S mol ca hai hirocacbon: a + b =
hh
V . 560
=
22400 22400
= 0,025
- S mol CO
2
=
m 4,4
=
M 44
= 0,1
ax + bx = 0,1 x(a + b) = 0,1 0,025 x = 0,1 x = 4
- S mol H
2
O =
m 1,9125
=
M 18
= 0,10625
ax+bz
2
= 0,10625 ay + bz = 0,2125
Gi s: y < z Ta c: (a + b)y < ay + bz < (a + b) z
0,025y < 0,2125 < 0,025z hay y < 8,5 <
z
C
x
H
y
, C
x
H
z
: V y v z lun lun c s chn nn:
vi x = 4 th s nguyn t H ti a l 10.
Vy c th c cc cp p s: C
4
H
10
v C
4
H
8
C
4
H
10
v C
4
H
6
C
4
H
10
v C
4
H
4
C
4
H
10
v C
4
H
2
222. Th tch CO
2
=65 25 = 40 (cm
3
) s cacbon =
40
10
= 4
Th tch O
2
phn ng = 80 25 = 55 (cm
3
)
C + O
2
CO
2
v 2H
2
+ O
2
2H
2
O
40 40 15 30
T phng trnh ho hc thy: O
2
t C = 40 (cm
3
)
nn O
2
t H = 55 40 = 15 (cm
3
)
suy ra th tch hi H
2
O = 15 2 = 30 (cm
3
) s hidro =
30
10
x 2 =
6
Vy cng thc hidrocacbon l C
4
H
6
223. n
hh
=
1680
22400
= 0,075 n
hirocacbon no
=
1120
22400
= 0,05
19
n
hlrocacbon khng no
=
1680- 1120
22400
= 0,025
t cng thc hirocacbon khng no l C
n
H
2n+2-2k
(k l s ni i, 2
ni i ng vi 1 ni ba).
C
n
H
2n+2-2k
+ kBr
2

C
n
H
2n+2-2k
+ kBr
2

0,025 0,025k
0,025k =
4
160
= 0,025

k = 1
Vy hirocacbon khng no l C
n
H
2n
C
m
H
2m+2
+
2 2 2
3m+1
O mCO +(m+1)H O
2

0,05 0,05m
C
n
H
2n
+
2 2 2
3n
O nCO +nH O
2

0,025 0,025n
CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
= CaCO
3

+ H
2
O
12,5
100
= 0,125 mol
0,05m + 0,025n = 0,125
2m + n = 5, m v n nguyn dng; n 2
n 2 3 4
m 1,5 1 0,5
A: C
3
H
6
hirocacbon cn li l CH
4
224. a) Tnh phn trm th tch mi kh trong hn hp.
t th tch ca CH
4
c trong 56 ml hn hp l a ml
v th tch ca C
2
H
2
c trong 56 ml hn hp l b ml
Phng trnh ho hc:
CH
4
+ 2O
2

CO
2
+ 2H
2
O (1)
a mol 2a mol a mol
C
2
H
2
+ 2,5 O
2

2CO
2
+ H
2
O (2)
20
bmol 2,5 b mol 2b ml
(v cng iu kin v nhit v p sut t l th tch bng t
l v s mol)
theo (1) v (2) v gi thit ta c:
a + b = 56 (3)
2a + 2,5b = 134,4 (4)
Gii h phng trnh (3) v (4) ta c:
a = 11,2 ml

%V CH
4
= 20%
b = 44,8 ml

%V C
2
H
2
= 80%
b) Tnh th tch kh CO
2
sinh ra.
Theo (3) v (4) ta c: V co
2
= a + 2b = 11,2 + 2. 44,8 = 112 ml
225. S mol hn hp =
11,2
22,4
= 0,5 mol
t a l s mol ca C
2
H
4
c trong 0,5 mol hn hp
v b l s mol ca C
2
H
2
c trong 0,5 mol hn hp.
S mol Br
2
=
11,2
160
= 0,07 mol
a) Phng trnh ho hc:
C
2
H
4
+ Br
2

C
2
H
4
Br
2
(1)
a mol a mol
C
2
H
2
+ 2Br
2

C
2
H
2
Br
4
(2)
b mol 2b mol
b) Tnh % V mi kh trong hn hp.
Ta c : a + b = 0,5 (3)
a + 2b = 0,7 (4)
Gii h phng trnh (3) v (4) ta c: a = 0,3 v b = 0,2
V t l th tch bng t l s mol cng iu kin nhit v
p sut nn ta c:
%V C
2
H
4
=
0,3.100
0,5
= 60%
21
%V C
2
H
2
= 100% - 60% = 40%
226. a) Phng trnh ho hc:
CH
4
+ 2O
2

CO
2
+ 2H
2
O (1)
Ca(OH)
2
+ CO
2

CaCO
3

+ H
2
O (2)
b) Tnh V.
n CaCO
3
=
4,9
100
= 0,049 mol
Theo (2) ta c n CO
2
= n CaCO
3
= 0,049
Theo (1) ta c: n CO
2
= n CH
4
= 0,049
V CH
4
chim 96% v th tch hn hp nn ta c:
V CH
4
= 0,049 .22,4 lit = 1,0976 lit
V =
1,0976.100
96
= 1,143 lit
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
227. a. - b.S - c.S - d. - e.
228. C
Dng 5: Bi tp v ru
Bi tp t lun
229. Cho natri kim loi tc dng vi 1,06 gam hn hp ru c cng
cng thc tng qut l C
n
H
2n+1
OH v hn km nhau 1 nguyn t
cacbon, thy thot ra 224 ml hiro ( ktc). Xc nh cng thc
phn t mi ru.
230. t chy hon ton 23 gam ru etylic.
a) Tnh th tch(ktc) kh CO
2
to ra.
b) Tnh th tch khng kh (ktc) cn dng cho phn ng trn,
bit oxi chim 20% th tch khng kh.
231. Trn cc chai ru u c ghi cc s, th d 45
0
, 20
0
, 15
0
.
22
a) Hy gii thch ngha ca cc s trn.
b) tnh s ml ru etylic c trong 500 ml ru 40
0
.
c) C th pha c bao nhiu lit ru 25
0
t 500 ml ru 40
0
.
232. t chy 23 gam cht hu c A thu c sn phm gm 44
gam CO
2
v 27 gam H
2
O.
a) Hi trong A c nhng nguyn t no?
b) Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A, bit t khi hi ca A so vi
hiro l 23.
233. Cho 22,4 lit kh etilen (ktc) tc dng vi nc c axit sunfuric
lm xc tc, thu c 13,8 gam ru etylic. Hy tnh hiu sut phn ng
cng nc ca etilen.
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
234. Cho dy bin ho sau:
Ru etylic .............. .............. Ru etylic
Hy in hai trong s cc cht sau vo ch trng cho hp l:
CH
3
COOH ; CH
2
=CH
2
; CH
3
COONa ; CH
3
CH
2
ONa ; CH
3
CH
2
Cl
235. nh du vo trng ch cu ng hoc cu sai:
Ru 35
0
l:
S
a 100 gam ru c 35 gam C
2
H
5
OH v 65 gam nc
b Hn hp 35% th tch C
2
H
5
OH v 65% th tch n-
c
c Trong 100 gam nc c ho tan 35 gam C
2
H
5
OH
d 35ml ru tan trong 65ml nc
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
229. Cc phng trnh phn ng:
23
2C
n
H
2n+1
OH + 2Na

2C
n
H
2n+1
ONa + H
2

x mol
x
2
mol
2C
m
H
2m+1
OH + 2Na

2C
m
H
2m+1
ONa + H
2

x mol
y
2
mol
x + y = 2 (
224
22400
) = 0,02 mol
C ba phng php bin lun
* Phng php th nht: Bin lun n theo y hay y theo n.
Theo iu kin bi ton:
x(14n + 18) + y(14m + 18) = 1,06 (a)
Gi s n < m Thay m = n + 1 vo phng trnh (a) ta c:
x(14n + 18) + y(14n + 32) = 1,06
hay 14n(x+ y) + 18(x + y) + 14y = 1,06 (b)
Thay gi tr (x + y) vo phng trnh (b) v bin i ta c:
0,04n + 2y = 0,1 (c)
tm n, cn da vo phng trnh (c) ta c th bin lun n theo
y hoc y theo n
- Cch 1: Bin lun n theo y: iu kin 0 < y < 0,02.
Nu y = 0 th n = 2,5; Nu y = 0,02 th n = 1,5
Nh vy gi tr duy nht n = 2.
Vy cng thc phn t cc ru l C
2
H
5
OH v C
3
H
7
OH
- Cch 2: Bin lun y theo n: iu kin n <
0,1
0,04
ngha l n c gi tr
1 v 2.
Nu n = 1 th y = 0,03; Phi l v y < 0,02
Nu n = 2 th y = 0,01 (hp l). Nghim duy nht l n = 2
* Phng php bin lun th hai: Da vo khi lng phn t trung
bnh.
24
1,06
M = =53
0,02
Vy phi c mt ru c M < 53 v M > 53
M < 53 l C
2
H
5
OH (M = 46)
M > 53 l C
3
H
7
OH (M = 60)
* Phng php tnh ch s nguyn t cacbon trung bnh:
(Phng php ny ngi ta thng dng)
Gi cng thc chung ca hai ru l C
n
H
2n+1
OH
(14 n + 18)a = 1,06
n = 2,5
u bi cho hai ru hn km nhau 1 nguyn t C nn cng thc ca
hai ru l C
2
H
5
OH v C
3
H
7
OH
230. a) Tnh V CO
2
thu c ktc.
n C
2
H
5
OH =
23
46
= 0,5 mol
Phng trnh ho hc:
2C
2
H
5
OH + 7O
2
4CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
Ta c 0,5 mol 1,75 mol 1 mol
Vy V CO2
(ktc) = 22,4 lt.
b) Tnh V kk (ktc).
V o
2
= 1,75.22,4 = 39,2 lt
V O
2
chim 20% Vkk nn Vkk =
39,2.100
20
= 196 lit
231. a) Gii thch ngha:
ca ru cho bit s ml ru nguyn cht c trong 100 ml dung dch r-
u.
V d: 45
0
c ngha l c 45 ml ru nguyn cht trong 100 ml dung
dch ru.
b) Tnh s ml ru c trong 500 ml ru 40
0
Ta c: 100 ml ru 40
0
c 40 ml ru nguyn cht
25
Vy trong 500 ml ru 40
0
c
40.500
100
= 200 ml
c) C th pha c bao nhiu lit ru 25
0
t 500 ml ru 40
0
.
400 ml ru 40
0
c (500.40):100 = 200 ml ru nguyn cht
100 ml ru 25
0
c 25 ml ru nguyn cht
x ml .200 ml
Ta c : x =
200.100
25
= 800 ml = 0,8 lit
Vy c th pha c 0,8 lt ru 25
0
.
232. a) Trong A cha 3 nguyn t l C, H, O.
b) s mol C =
44
44
= 1 mol hay 12 gam C
s mol H =
27
2
18
= 3 mol hay 3 gam H
suy ra s mol O =
23 12 3
16

= 0,5 mol
T l C : H : O = 1 : 3 : 0,5 = 2 : 6 : 1 Cng thc n gin C
2
H
6
O
Theo gi thit: M
A
= 23.2 = 46 vc ph hp cng thc C
2
H
6
O
233. n C
2
H
4
=
22,4
22,4
= 1 mol v n C
2
H
5
OH =
13,8
46
= 0,3 mol
Phng trnh ho hc:
C
2
H
4
+ H
2
O

C
2
H
5
OH
Theo g/t: 0,3 mol 0,3 mol
Hiu sut phn ng s l:
H =
0,3.100
1
= 30%
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
234. CH
2
=CH
2
CH
3
CH
2
Cl
235. a.S - b. - c.S - d.
26
Dng 6: Bi tp v a xit
Bi tp t lun
236. Z l mt axit hu c cha mt nhm COOH. t chy
0,1 mol Z cn 6,72 lt O
2
ktc. Cho bit cng thc cu to ca Z?
237. Cc sn phm t chy hon ton 3 gam axit hu c X c
dn ln lt i qua bnh 1 ng H
2
SO
4
c v bnh 2 ng NaOH
c. Sau th nghim, khi lng bnh 1 tng 1,8 gam, khi lng bnh 2
tng 4,4 gam. Nu cho bay hi 1 gam X, th c 373,4ml hi (
ktc). Xc nh cng thc cu to ca X.
238. Cho 60 gam axit axetic tc dng vi 92 gam ru etylic thu c
44 gam este CH
3
COO CH
2
CH
3.
a) Vit phng trnh ho hc.
b) Tnh hiu sut ca phn ng trn.

239. Cho dung dch axit axetic nng a% tc dng va vi
dung dch NaOH nng 10% thu c dung dch mui c nng
10,25%. Hy tnh a.
240. C p gam hn hp (X) gm mt axit hu c A c cng thc
tng qut l C
n
H
2n
O
2
v mt ru B c cng chc tng qut l C
m
H
2m+2
O.
Bit A v B c khi lng phn t bng nhau.
Ly 1/10 hn hp (X) cho tc dng vi lng d kim loi Na th thu c
168 ml kh H
2
( ktc).
t chy hon ton 1/10 hn hp (X) ri cho ton b sn phm chy
hp th ht vo dung dch NaOH d, sau thm tip dung dch BaCl
2
d vo th nhn c 7,88 gam kt ta.
Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A v B
241. t chy a mol mt axit hu c thu c x mol CO
2
v y mol
H
2
O. Bit x - y = a. Hy tm cng thc chung ca axit.
242. trung ha 15ml dung dch axit hu c cha mt nhm
COOH cn dng 30ml dung dch NaOH nng 0,5 mol/l. Mt khc
nu dng 50 ml dung dch axit tc dng va vi lng NaOH ri
chng kh th thu c 4,1 gam cht rn.
a) Tnh C
M
ca axit
b) Cng thc cu to thu gn ca axit hu c
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
27
243. in cc t (cm t) [Gim, axit yu, -COOH, axit, baz, cht
hu c, etylaxetat, cht v c, este] vo ch trng trong cu sau
y cho thch hp:
Axit axetic l ..............., trong phn t c nhm............, chnh
nhm ny lm cho phn t c tnh........ Tuy nhin axit axetic c
tnh............, n tc dng vi ru etylic to ra.............. c tn l................
Dung dch axit axetic nng 2 5% gi l..........
244. Cho dy bin ho sau:
............. C
6
H
12
O
6
.............. ..............
3
CaCO
CO
2
Hy in ba trong s cc cht sau vo ch trng cho hp l:
CH
3
COOH ; CH
2
=CH
2
; CH
3
COONa ; CH
3
CH
2
OH ; CH
3
CH
2
Cl ;
(C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
; CH
3
CH
2
ONa ; CH
4
; CH
3
OH
Hng dn gii
Bi tp t lun
236. C
x
H
y
O
2
+ (x +
y
2
1) O
2

xCO
2
+
y
2
H
2
O
Theo u bi: 0,1mol 0,3mol
Ta c: (x +
y
4
1) =
0,3
0,1
= 3 4x + y = 16 vi y 2x
x 1 2 3 4
y 12 8 4 0
Cng thc ca Z l C
3
H
4
O
2
237. S mol H
2
O=
1,8
18
= 0,1mol
S mol CO
2
=
4,4
44
= 0,1mol
V khi t chy X to CO
2
v H
2
O c t l:
2
2
S mol CO 1
=
S mol H O 1
Vy X phi l axit no n chc (phn t X c mt ni i nn s
28
mol CO
2
= s mol H
2
O khi X b t chy).
M
x
=
1x 22400
373,4
= 59,99

60 vC
t X l C
n
H
2n
O
2
: 14n + 32 = 60 n = 2 CH
3
COOH
238. n CH
3
COOH =
60
60
= 1 mol ; n C
2
H
5
OH =
92
46
= 2 mol
n CH
3
COO CH
2
CH
3
=
44
88
= 0,5 mol
a) CH
3
COOH + C
2
H
5
OH CH
3
COOC
2
H
5
+ H
2
O
Phn ng: 0,5 mol 0,5 mol 0,5 mol
b) Tnh hiu sut phn ng. H% =
0,5
100%
1
= 50%
239. Gi s cn x gam dung dch a xit a% tc dng vi y gam
dung dch NaOH 10%.
Ta c phng trnh:
CH
3
COOH + NaOH

CH
3
COONa + H
2
O (1)
n axit =
.
100.60
xa
; n NaOH =
.10
100.40
y
Theo phng trnh ta c: n CH
3
COOH = n NaOH = n CH
3
COONa
Suy ra:
.
100.60
xa
=
.10
100.40
y
(2)
Khi lng mui thu c: 0,0025y . 82 = 0,205y gam
Khi lng dung dch sau phn ng l: x + y
Ta c:
0,205 .100
+
y
x y
= 10,25 (3)
20 5y = 10,25x + 10,25y
y = x; thay vo (2) ta c a =15%
240. Gi x, y ln lt l s mol ca A v B trong 1/10 hn hp (X).
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng A v B tc dng vi Na v phng
trnh t chy, ta rt ra:
29
x + y = 2
168
22400
= 0,015 (I)
2
CO
n = nx + my
2 2 3
CO Na CO
7,88
n =n = =0,04
197
Vy: nx + my = 0,04 (II)
Mt khc, theo u bi:
M
A
= M
B

14n + 32 = 14m + 18

m = n + 1 (III)
T (I), (II), (III) suy ra: y = 0,04 0,015n
iu kin: 0 < y < 0,015 nn:

Khi y > 0; n <


0,04
0,015
= 2,67

Khi y < 0,015; n >


(0,04- 0,015)
0,015
=1,67

n = 2 v m = 3

Ghi ch: c th gii qua s nguyn t cacbon trung bnh


n <
n
< m
n
=
0,04
=2,67
0,015

n = 2 v m = 3
Vy A l CH
3
COOH v B l C
3
H
7
OH
241. t cng thc ca axit dng C
n
H
m
O
z
:
Phng trnh phn ng t chy:
C
n
H
m
O
z
+
2 2
m z m
n + - O nCO +
4 2 2
_


,
H
2
O
a mol na mol
m
2
mol
Theo bi: na
ma
=a
2
m = 2n 2
30
Vy cng thc chung ca axit c th vit: C
n
H
2n-2
O
z
.
242. Phng trnh ho hc:
R- COOH + NaOH

R - COONa + H
2
O
a) Tnh C
M
dung dch a xit:
n NaOH = 0,03 . 0,5 = 0,015 mol
Theo phng trnh phn ng: n NaOH = n R- COOH = 0,015 mol
Ta c: C
M
=
0,015
0,015
= 1 mol/l
b) Cng thc cu to thu gn ca axit hu c.
n R- COOH = 0,05 . 1 = 0,05 mol
Theo gi thit v phn ng va vi NaOH nn cht rn cn li
l mui c m = 4,1 gam.
Theo phng trnh: n a xit = n mui = 0,05 mol
Vy ta c: R + 67 =
4,1
0,05
= 82 suy ra R = 15; ng vi nhm CH
3
Cng thc cu to thu gn ca a xit l: CH
3
COOH
Bi tp trc nghim khch quan
243. Axit axetic l cht hu c, trong phn t c nhm -COOH,
chnh nhm ny lm cho phn t c tnh axit.Tuy nhin axit axetic c
tnh axit yu, n tc dng vi ru etylic to ra este c tn l etylaxetat.
Dung dch axit axetic nng 2 5% gi l Gim.
244. (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
C
6
H
12
O
6
CH
3
CH
2
OH CH
3
COOH
3
CaCO
CO
2
31