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What is Bhagvat Gita?

There was a king ruling Hastinapura, now known as Delhi. He had two sons, Dhritarashtra and Pandu. Dhritarashtra was born blind. Therefore, Pandu became the King. Pandu had five sons. They were called the Pandavas. Dhritarshtra had one hundred sons. They were called the Kauravas. After the death of king Pandu, his eldest son, Yudhisthira was to be the Ruler. But the Kauravas would not like it. The eldest of Kauravas, Dhuryodhana wanted the whole kingdom for himself. Through trickery and treachery, he made many attempts even to kill the Pandavas. All peace talks by Pandava Ambassador, Sri Krishna also failed. So the war between Pandavas and Kauravas could not be avoided. Both Pandavas and Kauravas belonged to the same family and therefore many family elders were also part of this war. Arjuna, the Pandava Prince had disliked the idea of fighting against the family elders, Gurus and close relatives. Lord Krishna was the Charrioteer to Arjuna in the battle field. Arjuna communicated his hesitation to get on with the war. And it was left to Lord Krishna to respond to the hesitation of Arjuna. And this response given by Lord Kishna to Arjuna was very long and is codified in 18 chapters. Who reported this talk taking place at the battle field? King Dhritarashtra was curious to know what was happening in the battle field. You know he was blind. He therefore asked Sanjay, his Charioteer to tell him about it and it was he who reported the entire talk verbatim to Dhritarashtra. According to Gita, Sanjay had the boon of " Divyachakshu" i.e. being able to see from the Palace as to what was happening in the battle field. Bhagvat Gita is the actual talk between the confused Arjuna and his Charrioteer Lord Krishna in the battle field. This talk was basically a spiritual talk encompassing real truth about human life. The 18 Chapters of Bhagvat Gita can be broadly divided into three parts each dwelling about Gyana Yoga, Karma Yoga and Bhakti Yoga. Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1 ARJUNAS CONFUSION

The war of Mahabharata was about to begin after peace talks by Lord Krishna and others failed to avoid the war. It is at this Battle field at Kurukshetra, the great discourse called the Gita was given by the Lord Krishna to Arjuna. The counseling given by Lord Krishna is not meant for Arjun alone. It is for the entire humanity. In this first chapter, the names of the main warriors and generals of both sides are given. However, the main event is the despondency of Arjuna. Verse 1.01 The King inquired: Sanjaya, please now tell me, in details, what did my people (the Kauravas) and the Pandavas do in the battlefield before the war started? 1.02 1.11 Sanjaya said: O King, After seeing the battle formation of the Pandava's army, your son approached his guru and spoke these words: O Master, behold this mighty army of the Pandavas, arranged in battle formation by your other talented disciple! There are many great warriors, valiant men, heroes, and mighty archers. (1.03-06) The List of Warriors Pandava Army The son of Drupada (Dhristadhyumna). Dhristaketu, Chekitan, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Shaibya - the finest among men. Yudhamanya, Uttamauja, Abhimanyu Shikhandi, Dhristadyumna, Virata and Satyaki. The five sons of Draupadi Kaurava Army Drona, Bhishma, Karna, Kripa, Ashvatthama, Vikarna and Bhurishrava The leaders of my army those who are most distinguished among us. I will name them now for thy information. Yourself, Bhisma, Karna and many other heroes who have risked their lives for my sake. They are armed with many kinds of weapons and are all well skilled in war. Unlimited is this army of ours which is guarded by Bhisma, while that army of theirs which is guarded by Bhima is limited. Our army is invincible, while their army is easy to conquer. Therefore all of you, occupying your respective positions, protect our commander-in-chief, the Bhishma. Sounding of the Conches 1.12-19 Then Bhisma, the grandsire of the Kuru dynasty and the grandfather of the fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly. It sounded like the roar of a lion. After that, the conchshells, drums, bugles, trumpets and horns were all sounded, and the combined sound was tumultuous.

On the other side, both Lord Krsna and Arjuna were seated on the great chariot drawn by white horses. Lord Krsna blew His conchshell, Pancajanya. Arjuna blew his, the Devadatta Bhima blew his terrific conchshell Paundra King Yudhisthira, the son of Kunti, blew his conchshell, the Ananta-vijaya Nakula blew the Sughosha Sahadeva blew the Manipuspaka. The others including Abhimanyu all blew their respective conchshells. The blowing of these different conchshells became uproarious. Vibrating both in the sky and on the earth. Arjuna in the middle 1.20-1.26 Seeing your sons standing, and the war about to begin with the hurling of weapons; Arjuna, whose banner bore the emblem of Lord Hanumana, took up his bow and spoke these words to Lord Krishna: O infallible one, please draw my chariot between the two armies so that I may see those present here, who desire to fight, wishing to please the evil-minded son o Dhrtarastra and with whom I must contend in this great trial of arms. Having thus been addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krsna drew up the fine chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties in the presence of Bhisma, Drona and all the other chieftains of the world and asked Arjuna to have a look at all those Kurus assembled there. Arjuna notices the leaders of the opposition There Arjuna saw, in the midst of the armies of both parties, his grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends and well-wishers. Arjuna is overtaken by emotions Verse 1.27-39 When Arjuna, saw all elders, relatives and friends, he became overwhelmed with compassion and spoke thus: My dear Krsna, seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such a fighting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering My mouth drying up. My whole body is trembling My hair is standing on end My bow Gandiva is slipping from my hand My skin is burning I am now unable to stand here any longer. I am forgetting myself My mind is reeling. I see only causes of misfortune. I do not see how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle In this way, I cannot desire, victory, kingdom, or happiness

What is the use of a kingdom, happiness or even life itself when all the elders, friends and relatives are dead? For whom we desire the kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures? I foresee no good by slaying my own people in the fight. When teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and other relatives are ready to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, why should I wish to kill them, even though they might otherwise kill me? I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange for the three worlds, let alone this earth. What pleasure will we derive from killing these people? Sin will overcome us if we slay such people. It is not proper for us to kill these people. How could we be happy by killing our own kinsmen? 1.40-46 When the dynasty is killed, the entire tradition vanishes. Their ancestors suffer (fall) as the offerings of rice and water is stopped. All it means is we become irreligious. May be these people, overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing one's family or quarreling with friends. But why should we do that? I can see the crime in destroying the family and in engaging in a sinful act. If the sons of Dhritarashtra kill me in battle, while I am unarmed and not fighthing, it would be far better. It is the custom--according to ksatriya fighting principles--that an unarmed and unwilling foe should not be attacked. Arjuna, however, decided that even if attacked by the enemy in such an awkward position, he would not fight. He was not worried about the other party being bent upon fighting. This extreme position taken by Arjuna was due to his soft heart for the elders, relatives and friends and also due to his Principles based on Dharma. 1.47 After speaking this, Arjuna put aside his bow and arrows and sat down in the back of the chariot with his mind full of sorrow and commisseration. He became reluctant to fight. Chapter 2

CHAPTER 2A Know about the human Soul [Bodies are like bulbs and the principle of Atma is like the currentpassing through all the bulbs.] 2.01-2.03 Arjunas eyes were tearful and downcast. He was overwhelmed by compassion and despair. Then Lord Krishna spoke these words to Arjuna:

How has the dejection come to you at this juncture? This is not fit for a person of noble mind and knowledge. It is disgraceful, and it does not lead one to fame, O Arjuna. Do not become a coward. Do not yield to this impotence. It does not befit you. Shake off this trivial weakness of your heart and get up for the battle. 2.04-10 Arjuna said: How shall I strike my grandfather, my guru, and all other relatives, who are worthy of my respect, with arrows in battle, O Krishna? It would be better, indeed, to live on begging in this world than to win the kingdom by slaying these noble personalities. By killing them all I would get is the wealth and pleasures stained with their blood. We should not even wish to live after killing our cousin brothers, who are standing in front of us. I do not think that gaining an unrivaled and prosperous kingdom will remove the sin I would be committing in killing them. I do not know which is better, i.e. to fight or to quit. My senses are overcome by confusion about duty (Dharma). Please tell me what is better for me. I am Your disciple, and I take refuge in You. 2.11-15 Lord Krishna said: You are grieving for what is not worthy of grief. The wise people grieve neither for the living nor for the dead because there was never a time when these monarchs, you, or I did not exist; nor shall we ever cease to exist in the future. Just as the soul acquires a childhood body, a youth body, and an old age body during this life; similarly, the soul acquires another body after death. The contacts of the senses with the sense objects give rise to the feelings of pain and pleasure. They are transitory and impermanent like the winter and summer. They all arise from sense perception. While performing ones duty, one should learn to tolerate them without being disturbed. Only persons who are not disturbed by either happiness or distress and remain balanced are fit to become immortal. 2.16-21 The visible physical body is perishable and transitory. Only the invisible Spirit, Atman is eternal. This Atman is indestructible. No one can destroy the imperishable the Atman. In this way you and the others are mere Atman. The Atman neither slays nor is slain. If you think you are slaying the others, you are ignorant.

The Spirit is neither born nor does it die at any time. It does not come into being, or cease to exist. It is unborn, eternal and permanent. The Spirit is not destroyed when the body is destroyed. O Arjuna, how can a person who knows that the Spirit is indestructible, eternal, unborn, and immutable, kill anyone or cause anyone to be killed? Therefore fight, O Arjuna. 2.22-30 Just as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones; the living entity or the individual soul acquires new bodies after casting away the old bodies. Weapons do not cut this Spirit, fire does not burn it, water does not make it wet, and the wind does not make it dry. It is eternal, all pervading and unchanging. Knowing the permanence of Spirit as such you should not grieve. Even if you think of the physical body, be aware that the death is certain for the one who is born, and birth is certain for the one who dies. Therefore, you should not lament over the inevitable. All beings are unmanifest, or invisible to our physical eyes before birth and after death. They manifest between the birth and the death only. What is there to grieve about? O Arjuna, the Spirit that dwells in the body of all beings is eternally indestructible. Therefore, you should not mourn for anybody. CHAPTER 2B Do your duty selflessly 2.31-38 Considering also your duty as a warrior you should not waver like this. There is nothing more auspicious for a warrior than a righteous war. So there is no need for hesitation. Only the fortunate warriors get such an opportunity for an unsought war that is like an open door to heaven. If you will not fight this righteous war, then you will fail in your duty, lose your reputation, and incur sin. People will talk about your disgrace forever. To the honored, dishonor is worse than death. The great warriors will think that you have retreated from the battle out of fear. Those who have greatly esteemed you will lose respect for you. Your enemies will speak many unmentionable words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful to you than this? You will go to heaven if killed on the line of duty, or you will enjoy the kingdom on the earth if victorious. Therefore, get up with a determination to fight, O Arjuna. Fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat--and by so doing you shall never incur sin. 2.39-41 So far we discussed about self realization by you. But beyond this lies the realm of selfless service (Seva) with no attachment to results. Such a self less service alone can free yourself from all Karmic bondage, or sin. A selfless service never incurs adverse effect. All selfless service protects one from repeated birth and death. Whereas, one who renders service keeping its results in mind does not get free from the birth and death.

CHAPTER 2C Rise about worldliness in performance of your Duty 2.42-46 There are many people who consider Vedas as containing only rituals for obtaining heavenly enjoyment. They are the people who are misguided who merely chant Vedas without understanding their real purpose. They do get any self realization through ritualistic activities. Vedas essentially deal with Satva, Rajas and Thamas, i.e. goodness, passion, and ignorance. But there is a realm even beyond Vedas making you lead a balanced life, helping you rise above thoughts of acquisition and preservation. To a Self-realized person who has risen about the Vedas, the Vedas are as useful as a small reservoir of water when the water of a huge lake becomes available. Become free from worldliness. Be free from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the self. 2.47-54 You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty. You have control over doing your duty only, but no control over the results. While the fruits of work should not be your motive, yet you should never be inactive. Do your duty to the best of your ability, with your mind attached to the Lord, abandoning worry and selfish attachment to the results, and remaining calm in both success and failure. The selfless service is a yogic practice that brings peace and equanimity of mind. A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad actions even in this life. Work done with selfish motives is inferior by far to the selfless service. Therefore be a selfless worker. Those who work only to enjoy the fruits of their labor are verily unhappy, because one has no control over the results. Strive for selfless service. Karma-yogis are freed from the bondage of rebirth due to renouncing the selfish attachment to the fruits of all work, and attain blissful divine state of salvation or Nirvana. When your intellect will completely pierce the veil of confusion, then you will become indifferent to what has been heard and what is to be heard from the scriptures. When your intellect, that is confused by the conflicting opinions and the ritualistic doctrine of the Vedas, shall stay steady and firm on concentration. CHAPTER 2D Control your senses and let go of attachments Arjuna asked O Krishna, whom do you call as a steady person? How does a person of steady intellect think? How does such a person behave with others, and live in this world? 2.55-59

Lord Krishna said: When one can completely withdraw the senses from the sense objects as a tortoise withdraws its limbs into the shell, then the intellect of such a person is considered steady. But generally, the desire for sensual pleasures could fade in a person, but his craving for sense enjoyment might remains in a very subtle form, dormant. This subtle craving also need completely disappear. Anyone, who restrains the senses but mentally dwells upon the sense objects, is called a pretender. (3.06) When one is completely free from all desires of the mind and is satisfied with the Supreme Being, then one is called an enlightened person, O Arjuna. Thus a person whose mind is unperturbed by sorrow, who does not crave pleasures, and who is completely free from attachment, fear, and anger, is a person of steady intellect. He should be a person who is neither elated by getting desired results, nor perturbed by undesired results. 2.60-63 The senses are so strong, impetuous and restless that they forcibly carry away the mind of even a wise person striving for perfection. One develops attachment to sense objects by thinking about sense objects. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects Anger comes from unfulfilled desires. Delusion or wild idea arises from anger. The mind is bewildered by delusion. Reasoning is destroyed when the mind is bewildered. One falls down from the right path when reasoning is destroyed. One's intellect becomes steady when one's senses are under complete control. One should therefore fix one's mind on God with loving contemplation after bringing the senses under control. 2.64-73 The mind, when controlled by the roving senses, steals away the intellect as a storm takes away a boat on the sea from its destination the spiritual shore of peace and happiness. One who desires material objects is never peaceful. Only the one who abandons all desires, and becomes free from longing and the feeling of 'I' and 'my', attains peace. Therefore, O Arjuna, one's intellect becomes steady whose senses are completely withdrawn from the sense objects. A disciplined person with senses under control and free from attachments and aversions, attains tranquillity. All sorrows are destroyed upon attainment of tranquillity. The intellect of such a tranquil person soon becomes completely steady and united with the Supreme. Therefore it is necessary for one to know who he is. He should have self knowledge and self perception. Without Self-perception there is no peace, and without peace there can be no happiness. A person of self knowledge and self perception is a Yogi. He remains alert and wakeful when every one is asleep. And when every one is awake, still there are asleep as far as the Yogi is concerned. The Yogi attains peace because in his mind, all desires dissipate without creating any mental disturbance, as river waters enter the full ocean without creating any disturbance.

O Arjuna, this is the superconscious state of mind. Attaining this state, one is no longer deluded. Gaining this state, a person becomes one with the Absolute. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 How to Work and control senses This chapter focuses on various reasons why action is essential for the man; why should one act according to ones caste (Varna); how should one act; which actions help take one to the path of liberation; which actions cause the bondage of life-death cycle etc. 3.01-09 Arjuna asked: O Janardana, You say one should have enough intelligence to work without expecting results. If that knowledge alone is important, why should I engage in a war? I am still not clear. Lord Krishna said: There are two classes of people who try to realize self. One who acquires self knowledge and leads a disciplined path. The other person who does unselfish devoted work. The path of knowledge for men of contemplation and path of service for men of action. Whatever path one may take, one has to do his duty to attain freedom from the bondage of Karma. No one can get this freedom from past Karma, by simply abstaining from work. One does not attain freedom from the bondage of Karma by merely abstaining from work. One does not attain fulfillment by simple renunciation. No one can remain without doing work even for a moment and all are made to work. Even the maintenance of your body would not be possible without work. While working is better than sitting idle, between people who work, the one who controls his emotions and feelings by training and purifying his mind and intellect and engages himself in selfless service is considered superior, because doing service free from selfish attachments to the fruits of work is a service done to the Creator. Therefore it is necessary you perform your obligatory duty. 3.10-18 In the beginning the creator created human beings together with selfless service to each other. By serving each other they were supposed to prosper. When people serve each other, each one nourishes them. And the supreme goal was to be attained by nourishing one another. One who enjoys the gift of celestial controllers without sharing with others is, indeed, a thief. (3.12) Every one is supposed to eat only after feeding others, including the celestial beings, the demi Gods, through Yajna. The celestial controllers, served by peoples selfless service, will help them in their prosperity. Those who eat after feeding others are freed from all sins. But the selfish who are selfish enough to take care of themselves alone without first offering to God and other celestial beings, they verily eat sin. All living bodies subsist on food grains, which are produced from rains. Rains are produced by performance of yajna [sacrifice], and yajna is born of prescribed duties

Grains are thus produced by sacrificial work or duty performed by farmers and other field workers. Out of their produce, other living beings are born. The living beings are born from food grains. This type of creation is designed by the Supreme being and thus God is present in this self less service. Regulated activities are prescribed in the Vedas, and the Vedas are directly manifested from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently the all-pervading Transcendence is eternally situated in acts of sacrifice. The one who does not help to keep the wheel of creation in motion by performing ones duties and obligations, is a selfish person rejoicing in sense pleasures and is a sinful person living in vain. One who does not follow in human life the cycle of sacrifice thus established by the Vedas certainly leads a life full of sin. Thus there is an obligation for every one to participate in the design of the supreme Being and lead a life of content with the Supreme Being. Such a person is a self realized person with no selfish interest whatsoever in what he is doing. 3.19-24 Without being attached to the fruits of activities, one should act as a matter of duty. Therefore, Arjuna, always perform your duty efficiently and without any selfish attachment to the results, because by doing work without attachment one attains Supreme. King Janaka and others attained perfection of Self-realization by selfless service (Karma-yoga) alone. You should also perform your duty for the welfare of the society. Because whatever noble persons do, others follow. Whatever standard they set up, the world follows. O Arjuna, there is nothing in the three worlds that should be done by Me and there is no work prescribed for Me. Nor there is anything unobtained that I should obtain. Yet I engage in action. Because, if I do not engage in action relentlessly, O Arjuna, people would follow My path in everyway. These worlds would perish if I do not work. 3.25-26 As the ignorant work with attachment to the fruits of work, so the wise should work without attachment, for the welfare of the society and for the same leading people to the right path. The wise and the enlightened should inspire others by performing all works efficiently without selfish attachment. 3.27-33 The forces of nature created by Me also do their duties. The one who knows the truth about the role of the forces of Nature in getting work done. Many times, it is the forces of Nature that get their work done by using our organs as their instruments. To the extent you do your duty, it is not you who is doing that, it is the forces of nature that gets the job done by you. To the extent you refuse to do your duty or do a non-duty, it is you who is acting and taking the blame. Do your duty dedicating all works to God in a spiritual frame of mind free from desire, attachment, and mental grief. Therefore, O Arjuna, surrendering all your works unto Me, with full knowledge of Me, without desires for profit, with no claims to proprietorship, and free from lethargy, fight.

Those who always practice this teaching of Mine with faith and are free from evil become free from the bondage of Karma. But those who carp at this teaching and do not practice it, consider them ignorant, senseless, and lost. 3.34-35 Do not be attached to your emotions and feelings. Your emotions and feelings remain in the senses. Your attachments and aversions are two major stumbling blocks on the path of your Self-realization. Arise and discharge your prescribed duties. 3.36-41 Arjuna said: O Krishna, what impels one to commit sin as if unwillingly and forced against one's will? Lord Krishna said: It is passion. From the passion, the desire is born. This desire is known variedly as lust, greed, etc. And that desire becomes anger when the desire is not fulfilled. Passion in the form of desire and anger are greatest evils. Know this as the greatest enemy. What this desire does? . You dont want to commit a sin, but yet you do. Because this passion and desire covers and blocks your self knowledge, as the smoke covers the fire, the dust covers the mirror and amnion covers the embryo. Thus the Self-knowledge gets covered by different degrees of this insatiable desire, the eternal enemy of the wise. Where does this desire reside? It resides in your senses, the mind and even on the intellect. It just deludes a person by covering and hiding his self knowledge. Therefore, O Arjuna, it is necessary to destroy this desire that destroys your Self-knowledge and Selfrealization. 3.42-43 The senses are said to be superior to the body, the mind is superior to the senses, the intellect is superior to the mind, Soul is superior to the intellect, and the Spiritual knowledge is superior to Soul. Thus, the important thing is to achieve spiritual knowledge. By achieving Spiritual knowledge, you can use your intellect to control your mind and the emotions arising in your senses, the most important of which is desire. Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4 PATH OF RENUNCIATION WITH KNOWLEDGE Verse 4.01-04 Lord Krishna said: I taught this Karma-yoga, the science of right and proper action, to King Vivasvan, the sun God. Vivasvan taught it to Manu. Manu taught it to Ikshvaku. Thus handed down in succession the saintly Kings knew this science of proper action. After long time this science was lost to this earth. Since you are my devotee and friend, today I am describing the same to you. Arjuna said: While Vivasvan was born long ago, you were born now only. How is it possible that you taught this Karma Yoga to Vivasvan? Verse 4.05-10 Lord Krishna said: Both you and I have taken many births. I remember them all, O Arjuna, but you do not remember. Only persons who truly understand me, take refuge in me, get free from attachment, fear, and anger and get fully absorbed in my thoughts reach my supreme abode after leading their body and they do not take rebirth. As for me I am eternal and the Lord of all beings. Whenever there is a decline of Dharma and Adharma takes predominance, I manifest Myself. I appear from time to time for protecting the good and to establish the world order. Verse 4.11-12 People worship me with different motives. But with whatever motive people worship Me, I accept them. . Verse 4.13-15 Every one is created to do his assigned work. I have created the four divisions of human society based on needs of the society and make them do the tasks. I create this world with no desire for fruits. Works do not bind Me, because I have no desire for the fruits of work. The one who fully understands and practices this

truth is also not bound by Karma. The ancient seekers of salvation also performed their duties with this understanding. Therefore, do your duty without worrying about the results. Verse 4.16-17 There are four kinds of actions. One is attached action, the second is detached action and the third is forbidden action and the fourth is inaction. Verse 4.18-24 A person in Yoga sees action in inaction. He also sees inaction in action. A person who meditates is engaged in action, though appearing to be not doing anything. And this yogi would find no meaning in many actions that ordinary men are engaged in. A person who does any action devoid of self gratification and is selfless is a sage. Whose total work is free from desire and not swayed by like or dislike, whose attachments to the fruits of actions are perished in the fire of knowledge, is a learned man. Such a person is a contented person. The person who does not take shelter in the worldly things, and is ever contented, abandoning the desires caused by action while engaged in work is not a doer. He does all his duties in the name of God without attachment to the results. A hangman does his job as per the orders of the King, though kills a person, does not attract any Karmic reaction, because his actions are selfless and therefore his action is equivalent to inaction. His mind and intellect are well controlled, acts without any emotions of desires or attachment, his action is done by his body alone and is uninvolved. Thus he incurs no sin. He does his actions with equanimity unaffected by the success or failure of his effort. He himself has no jealousy or other ill feelings against the man whom he is hanging. When he does his duty, free from desires and bondage of his actions, remaining neutral and does the job only physically, he does not commit any sin. All works of a person acts free from desire and attachment and acts in accordance with the injunctions of scriptures do not attract any sin. He does his service as service to his Lord. He considers everything as an act of God. He is a karma yogi. Verse 4.25-32 There are kinds of Yogis as many types of spiritual disciplines are described in the Vedas. Some observe Bhakti yoga and perform worship to Gods. Some observe Gyan Yoga, study scriptures in pursuit of self knowledge. Some observe Karma yoga, abandon their sensual pleasures, perform breathing and other yogic exercises, give away their wealth in charity and perform their duties. What is common between all these is they want to purify themselves by remaining selfless and want to attain the Supreme Being. They have all understood the fact that leading an attached life does not give happiness. Verse 4.33-37 Purification of mind and intellect makes a person transcend and Self-realization is the sole purpose of any spiritual action. This knowledge is imparted by self realized masters and students acquire this knowledge by serving the master and through sincere learning. This knowledge makes a person transcend all the confusions and delusions of this world of attachment. It makes the person see the spirit of creation by God. Only this transcendental self-knowledge can help the person get of bonds of sins and karma and cross the ocean of life of birth and death.

Verse 4.38-40 Spiritual knowledge is pure knowledge and that alone cleanses ones mind of selfishness and takes towards Karma Yoga. If one obtains this knowledge with faith in God and control over his mind and senses attains peace and liberation. The irrational, the faithless, and the disbeliever would never find peace and happiness. Verse 4.41-42 One who has attained this knowledge and destroyed his worldly confusions and has renounced the fruits of his work, is a Karma Yogi and sins do not affect him. Therefore kill your confusions with the sword of self knowledge, steady yourself and get up for the war. Chapter 5 CHAPTER 5 PATH OF RENUNCIATION Verse 5.01-07 Arjuna asked: O Krishna, You praise the path of transcendental knowledge, and also the path of performance of selfless service (Karma-yoga). Tell me, definitely, which one is the better of the two paths. Lord Krishna said: The path of Self-knowledge and the path of selfless service both lead to the supreme goal. But, of the two, the path of selfless service is superior to path of Self-knowledge, because it is easier to practice. One who attains self knowledge also attains self less service. One who neither hates nor desires the fruits of his activities is known to be always renounced. Such a person, free from all dualities, easily overcomes material bondage and is completely liberated. One who gets self knowledge becomes a sage and one who does self less service is a karma yogi. Both reach the same goal. A sage equipped with Karma yoga attains Nirvana more quickly because both by mind and act he becomes pure and both his mind and senses are under control. And when he does his duties, he does not become tainted by his works. Verse 5.08-09 A person in the divine consciousness, although engaged in seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving about, sleeping and breathing, always he always stands detached. Verse 5.10-12 When doing his duties, he does all work as an offering to God - abandoning selfish attachment to results just like a lotus leaf never gets wet by water. On the contrary, those attached to fruits of work become bound by selfish work. Verse 5.13-17 If any one feels I am doing this job it is his ego that makes him feel so. His attachment to the results makes him feel so. The God does not create these feelings and delusions in men. Similarly, if a man does evil deeds, it is his ignorance of self knowledge makes him commit the wrongs. The Lord does not take the responsibility for the evil deeds of anybody.

Only the transcendental knowledge can destroy this ignorance and reveal the supreme being in him, just as the sun reveals the beauty of this world to him. Persons, whose mind and intellect are totally merged in the Supreme Being, who are firmly devoted to the Supreme, who have God as their supreme goal and sole refuge, and whose impurities are destroyed by the knowledge of the self can live happily and reach nirvana avoiding to take birth again. Verse 5.18-26 An enlightened person perceives God in all beings whether the other is a learned or an outcast or an animal or a bird. He is the person who has realized the Supreme Being. He neither rejoices on what is pleasant nor grieves on what is unpleasant. To him sensual pleasures are a source of misery. He withstands the impulses of lust and anger. He is a man of a steady mind. Well illuminated with self knowledge he simply is in union with the Supreme Being enjoying the transcendental bliss. Those who are free from lust and anger, who have subdued the mind and senses, and who have known the Self, easily attain Nirvana. Self knowledge destroys doubts and disciplines people and makes them engaged in the welfare of all beings and to attain the Supreme Being. And they conquer the conditions of birth and death. Verse 5.27-29 To free oneself from the external objects, one has to get into the mode of meditation. This meditation is achieved by keeping the eyes and vision concentrated between the two eyebrows, suspending the inward and outward breaths within the nostrils, and thus controlling the mind, senses and intelligence. This helps one to shut out all external influences. The human liberation starts from here. And now to attain freedom from material miseries, one has to be in full consciousness of Me, knowing Me and consider Me to be the ultimate benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities. Chapter 6 CHAPTER 6 PATH OF MEDITATION Verse 6.01-02 Lord Krishna said: The renounced person is not the one who does not work. Nor the person who does his work for a self benefit and has a motive behind his action can be said to be a renuncient. Renunciant is one who performs the prescribed duties without seeking its fruit for personal benefit. One can never become a yogi unless he renounces the desire for sense gratification. Verse 6.03-04 If a person approaches his work without the intention of self benefit is a Karma yogi and that is the way to attain equanimity of mind. One becomes a Yogi when he or she has no desire for sensual pleasures, or attachment to the fruits of work, and has renounced all personal selfish motives. Verse 6.05-09

If one elevates his mind, his mind would be his friend. If one degrades it, it becomes his enemy. When one has control over his mind, it is his friend. When one has no control over it, it becomes his enemy. The one who has control over his mind is the one who has control over his organs and remains tranquil in cold and heat, in pleasure and pain and in honor and dishonor. The one who has control over his mind is the one who is impartial with friends and enemies; friends and relatives; and sinners and saints. Verse 6.10-26 A yogi is one who meditates to achieve control over his mind, senses and desires. Meditation is one which is performed in solitude, sitting in a comfortable position concentrating on self purification. The posture for sitting on meditation is to sit erect holding the waist, spine, chest, neck and head erect; fixing the eyes and the mind steadily on the front of the nose and making sure that he does not waver and look around. Whenever his restless and unsteady mind wanders away, he should gently bring it back to the reflection of God and ultimately reach the stage when the mind remains steady and unflickering like the flame of the lamp sheltered by the thought of divine from the wind, i.e. from the reach of the senses. He should be moderate in eating, sleeping, working and in entertainment and should observe celibacy. To be perfectly disciplined and to become free of desires, one should focus his mind on Me. The one who does so attains peace and comes to Me. The meditation is a tool attain self realization and once attained, even greatest of calamities does not affect him. This self realization is the Yoga, the bliss. Verse 6.27-32 One who has attained this self realization is a Yogi. With his desires under control and himself abiding the Divine in his mode of living, lives free of faults. Such a yogi is enabled to engage his mind with the Spirit enjoying inflict bliss. Since he himself has merged with the Supreme Being and since the Supreme being resides in every body, the Yogi sees every one as equal and feels the pain and pleasures of others as his own. Verse 6.33-36 Arjuna said: O Krishna, I find the restraining of my mind as difficult as restraining the wind. What should I do? Lord Krishna said: Sure it is difficult to restrain the human mind. Only detachment and repeated practice of meditation can make it free of restlessness. Verse 6.37-45 Arjuna said:

If one takes to mind control, control of the senses and pursues attainment of self realization but fails due to unsubdued mind, does he not lose both the worldly pleasures as well as the heavenly bliss? Lord Krishna said: An unsuccessful yogi is reborn in the house of pious and spiritually advanced family. There he is fine tuned to get his spiritual advancement which he could not get in his previous life. His efforts in his previous life remain to assist him to proceed towards God in this life. One who does good, is never overcome by the evil. Verse 6.46-47 The yogi, who is devoted to meditation, is superior to the ascetics, vedic scholars and those who perform rituals. Therefore Arjuna, rise to become a Yogi. Chapter 7 CHAPTER 7 SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND ENLIGHTENMENT Verse 7.01 Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, listen. I shall now tell you how you can know me, how can you be absorbed in me and how can you take refuge in me through self knowledge. Verse 7.02 Self-knowledge is enlightenment and after comprehending that nothing more remains to be known in this world. That is realization and ultimate of wisdom. Verse 7.03 Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth Verse 7.04-05 Physically, the body consists of earth, water, fire, air and ether. The invisibles in the man are his intellect, mind and ego. All these are perishable. The imperishable element is the soul, which only sustains the world. Verse 7.06-07 The Supreme Spirit is the source of origin as well as dissolution of the entire universe. There is nothing higher than the Supreme Being, i.e. Me. Everything in the universe is strung on the Supreme Being, like jewels are strung on the thread of a necklace. Verse 7.08-13 O Arjuna, I am the sapidity in the water, I am the radiance in the sun and the moon, the sacred syllable OM in all the Vedas, the sound in the ether, and potency in human beings. I am the sweet fragrance in the earth. I am the heat in the fire, the life in all living beings, and the austerity in the ascetics. Know Me to be the eternal seed of all creatures. I am the intelligence of the intelligent, and the brilliance of the brilliant. I am

the strength of the strong who is devoid of selfish attachment. I am the lust in human beings that is devoid of sense gratification, and is in accord with Dharma (for the sacred purpose of procreation after marriage). I am imperishable. The human life is governed by three Gunas of goodness, passion, and ignorance. But I am not in them nor they in me. Human beings are deluded by various aspects [Maya] of these three modes of material Nature; therefore, they do not know Me, who is eternal and above these modes. Verse 7.14 This Maya, consisting of three states of matter or mind, is very difficult to overcome. Only those who surrender unto Me easily cross over this Maya. Verse 7.15-20 Those evil doers who are the lowest among mankind are those whose knowledge is prevented by Maya and ignorance and they have lost their power of discrimination. They part take in atheistic activities of demons and do not worship or seek Me. Only four kinds of people seek Me. They are the distressed, the seeker of wealth, the inquisitive, and the enlightened one who has experienced the Supreme Being. While all these seekers are indeed noble, those whose minds are distorted by desires resort to the celestial controllers, the other gods, observing various rites, constrained by their own natures. Among the above, the enlightened devotee is single mindedly united with Me and steadfastly involved in devotional service and is the best. Being engaged in devotional service, he is like my own self. After many births and deaths the enlightened one resorts to Me. Such a soul is very rare. Because of this I am very dear to the enlightened and the enlightened is very dear to Me. Verse 7.21-23 Whosoever worships whatever deity with faith get their wishes fulfilled. But in actuality these benefits are bestowed by Me alone. But all the material gains are temporary and those who seek them are less intelligent. My devotees surrender to me and attain Nirvana. Verse 7.24-30 All beings in this world are in utter ignorance due to delusion of pairs of opposites born of likes and dislikes, these ignorant ones cannot understand my eternal and transcendental form. While I know them all of past, present and future, they do not know me and they cannot comprehend me. Because of this they fall victims to the Maya of this world. But persons of unselfish deeds become free from of all delusion worship Me with firm resolve. By taking refuge in me, they fully comprehend my true nature and powers and attain freedom from the cycles of birth and death by attaining me. Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 THE ETERNAL SPIRIT Verse 8.01-02 Arjuna said:

O Krishna, Who is Brahman, the Eternal being or the spirit? Who are Demi gods or the Temporal Beings? How can You, the Supreme Being, be remembered at the time of death? Verse 8.03-04 Lord Krishna said: The Supreme Being is referred to as Brahman, Eternal Being or the Spirit. It is indestructible. Various expansions of the Supreme Being like those of the sun and moon are called Temporal Beings or Divine Beings or demi Gods. The Supreme Being also resides inside the physical bodies as the divine Controller. I, the Supreme being am there as the soul in the heart of every embodied being. Verse 8.05-06 Whatever object one remembers when one leaves the body at the end of life, one attains that object. Thought of whatever object prevails during one's lifetime, one remembers only that object at the end of life and achieves it. The one who remembers Me while leaving the body at the time of death, attains the Supreme Abode; there is no doubt about it. Verse 8.07-11 By contemplating on Me with an unwavering mind, one attains the Supreme Being, O Arjuna. Therefore, always remember Me and do your duty. You shall certainly attain Me if your mind and intellect are ever focused on Me. Now I shall briefly explain the process to attain salvation, the Supreme Abode Verse 8.12-16 I am easily attainable, O Arjuna, by that ever steadfast devotee who always thinks of Me and whose mind, fixed in the heart, does not go elsewhere. They attain Me. After attaining Me, the souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world, because they have attained the highest perfection. The others are subject to the miseries of repeated birth and death. Verse 8.17-21 By human calculation, a thousand Yugas taken together form the duration of Brahma's one day. And such also is the duration of his night. At the beginning of Brahma's day, all living entities become manifest from the unmanifest state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifest again. Again and again, when Brahma's day arrives, all living entities come into being, and with the arrival of Brahma's night they are helplessly annihilated. But those who reach the Supreme Being remain unaffected even when all is this world is annihilated That which the Vedantists describe as unmanifest and infallible, that which is known as the supreme destination, that place from which, having attained it, one never returns--that is My supreme abode. Verse 8.22-26

This Supreme Abode, O Arjuna, is attainable by unswerving devotion to Me. O Arjuna, , I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, the yogi does or does not come back. The path of light of spiritual practice and Self-knowledge and the path of darkness of materialism and ignorance are thought to be the world's two eternal paths. The former leads to salvation and the latter leads to rebirth as human beings. Fire, daytime, Full moon phase, and during the six months when the sun travels in the north - departing by the path of these celestial controllers, yogis attain the Supreme. Yogis passing away in the other periods come back. Verse 8.27-28 Knowing these two paths, O Arjuna, a yogi is not bewildered at all. Therefore, one should be resolute in attaining salvation - the goal of human birth - at all times. (8.27) The one who knows all this knowledge goes beyond getting the benefits of the study of the Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities, and charities; and attains salvation. (8.28) Chapter 9 CHAPTER 9 SUPREME KNOWLEDGE Verse 9.01 Lord Krishna said: I shall now reveal to you the most profound secret knowledge of realization which would free you from the miseries of worldly existence. Verse 9.02-06 This is the king of all knowledge, is the most sacred, is very easy to practice and is timeless. O Arjuna, those who have no faith in this knowledge do not attain Me, and follow the cycles of birth and death. This entire universe is an expansion of Mine and all beings emanate from Me. All things depend on air but air does not depend on them. All beings depend on me but I do not depend on them. All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them. I am like the wind resting in the sky but going everywhere. Verse 9.07-10 I had created them all and they all go through the cycle of birth-death-birth and they all merge in nature at the end of cycle. And I create them again at the beginning of next cycle. And thus the creation keeps on going. Verse 9.11-15 Though I appear in human form, ordinary people are not able to recognize me and they take me for an ordinary human being and start even deriding me. They are unable to recognize my true form because they are under the influence of Maya of false knowledge, false qualities, false actions and false hope. Only realized souls recognize me, worship me in various ways and strive to attain me. Verse 9.16-19

I am the ritual, I am the sacrifice, I am the offering, I am the herb, I am the mantra, I am the Ghee, I am the fire, and I am the oblation. I am the supporter of the universe, the father, the mother, and the grandfather. I am the object of knowledge, the sacred syllable OM, and the Vedas. I am the goal, the supporter, the Lord, the witness, the abode, the refuge, the friend, the origin, the dissolution, the foundation, the substratum, and the immutable seed. I give heat, I send as well as withhold the rain. I am immortality as well as death, I am also both the eternal Absolute and the temporal, O Arjuna. Verse 9.20-25, Those who do the prescribed rituals in Vedas worship the Devas go to the Devloka where they enjoy godly delights till the results of their pious activities are exhausted. Then they return to this mortal planet again. Those who are devotees of other gods and who worship them with faith actually worship only Me, but indirectly. Those who worship the demigods will go the demigods; those who worship the ancestors go to the ancestors. But those who always worship Me with exclusive devotion are taken care of by me. I carry what they lack, and I preserve what they have. Those who worship Me will live with Me. I, the Supreme Being, alone am the enjoyer of all sacrificial services, and Lord of the universe. But people do not know My true transcendental nature. Therefore, they fall into the repeated cycles of birth and death. Verse 9.26-29 Whosoever offers Me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or water with devotion; I accept and eat the offering of devotion by the pure-hearted. Therefore O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as oblation to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, do all that as an offering unto Me. When you so do, you shall become free from the bondage good and bad of Karma and come to Me by this attitude of complete renunciation. It is true that I am present equally in all beings and I am impartial to all. But whoever renders service to me is in Me. Verse 9.30-31 Even if one is sinful, once he resolves to worship Me with single-minded loving devotion, such a person soon becomes righteous, becomes a saint and attains everlasting peace. My devotee shall never perish or fall down. (9.31) Verse 9.32-34 Having obtained this joyless and transitory human life, one should be keen to attain the Supreme abode. Anybody can attain this Supreme Abode by just surrendering unto My will with loving devotion, To attain the Supreme Being, therefore, always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and bow down to My laws. Thus uniting yourself with Me by setting Me as the supreme goal and the sole refuge and being completely absorbed in Me you shall certainly come to Me. Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10 UNDERSTANDING GOD Verse 10.01 Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, listen once again in the interest of your own welfare. Verse 10.02-10-09 I am the origin of all celestial controllers and great sages. I am the unborn, the beginningless, and the Supreme Lord of the universe. I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The great saints, sages, and all the creatures of the world were born from My potential energy. I am the origin of all. Everything emanates from Me. The wise ones who understand this adore Me with love and devotion. One who truly understands My manifestations and yogic powers is united with Me by unswerving devotion. My devotees remain ever content and delighted. Their minds remain absorbed in Me, and their lives surrendered unto Me. They always enlighten each other by talking about Me. Verse 10.10-13 I no doubt reside in the hearts of every one. But only a few elevate my presence in them by uniting themselves with me. To those who adore me, I destroy their darkness, give them true knowledge, decorate their inner consciousness and give them understanding by which they can come to me. Arjuna said: You yourself are declaring to me that You are the Supreme Being, the Supreme Abode, the Supreme Purifier, the Eternal Being, the primal God, the unborn, and the omnipresent. Verse 10.14-18 I believe all that You have told me to be true and you are the Creator and Lord of all beings, God of all celestial rulers, the Supreme person, and Lord of the universe. Please tell me how I can know you by constant contemplation and in what form are You to be thought of by me? Please tell me your power, your glory, etc. Verse 10.19-39 Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, My manifestations are endless. I am also the creator, maintainer, and destroyer or the beginning, the middle, and the end of all beings. I am Lord Shiva, I am the god of wealth, I am the fire god I am the radiant sun, the sustainer. I am the controller of wind, I am the moon. I am the water-god, and the manes. I am the controller of death. I am the celestial rulers. I am the seven goddesses or guardian angels presiding over the seven qualities fame, prosperity, speech, memory, intellect, resolve, and forgiveness. I am the Vedas, I am the monosyllable cosmic sound, OM, among the words; I am the chanting of mantra among the spiritual disciplines

I am the mountains. I am the ocean. I am the Supreme Spirit / soul abiding in the inner psyche of all beings. I am the mind among the senses, I am the consciousness in living beings. I am the Narada among the sages. I am the Vajra among the weapons. I am the Himalaya amount mountains. I am the Margasirsha among the months. I am the Ganges among the rivers. I am the holy fig tree among the trees. I am the lion among the animals. I am the Garuda among the birds. I am the king among the men. I am the letter A among all the alphabets. I am the splendor of the splendid; victory of the victorious; resolution of the resolute; and goodness of the good. I am silence among the secrets, and the Selfknowledge of the knowledgeable. I am the endless time. I am the sustainer, and I am omniscient. I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all creation. I am the origin of all beings, I am the time or death and I am also the origin of future beings. I am Krishna, Vyasa, Arjuna and the power of all rulers. There is nothing, animate or inanimate, that can exist without Me. Verse 10.40-42 There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjuna and this is only a brief description by Me of the extent of My divine manifestations. Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power; know that to be a manifestation of a very small fraction of My splendor. I remain sustaining this whole creation in a special way with part (of Myself). Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11 Viswaroopam Verse 11.01-02 Arjuna said: You have spoken to me about the secrets of spirit. You have told me about the origin and dissolution of beings. You have told me of your great glory. My illusion has now been dispelled. Verse 11.03-08 Though I see You here before me in Your actual position, yet I wish to see Your divine cosmic form, O Lord. If You think it is possible for me to see Your form, then please show me Your transcendental form. Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, behold My hundreds and thousands of multifarious divine forms of different colors and shapes. Behold all the celestial beings, and many wonders never seen before. See now in My body, O Gudakesa

(Arjuna), the entire Universe together with the moving and the non-moving, concentrated at the same place here in My body. Since you would not able to see Me with your physical eye; therefore, I give you the divine eye to see My majestic power and glory. Verse 11.09-13 Sanjaya said: O King, having said this; Lord Krishna revealed His supreme majestic form to Arjuna. Arjuna saw the Universal Form of the Lord. The form of Lord before Arjuna has many mouths and eyes, and many visions of marvel, with numerous divine ornaments, and holding many divine weapons. Wearing divine garlands and apparel, anointed with celestial perfumes and ointments, full of all wonders, the limitless God with faces on all sides. Arjuna saw the entire universe, divided in many ways, but standing as all in One, and One in all in the transcendental body of Krishna, the Lord of celestial rulers. The whole universe, with its manifold divisions gathered together in one, in the body of the God of gods. If the splendor of thousands of suns were to blaze forth all at once in the sky, even that would not resemble the splendor of that exalted being. Verse 11.14-23 Having seen the cosmic form of the Lord, Arjuna was filled with wonder; and his hairs standing on end, bowed his head to the Lord and prayed with folded hands. Arjuna said: O Lord, I see in Your body all supernatural controllers, and multitude of beings, sages, and celestials. I see You everywhere with infinite form, with many arms, stomachs, faces, and eyes. I see neither your beginning nor the middle nor the end I see You with Your crown, club, discus; and a mass of radiance, difficult to behold, shining all around like the immeasurable brilliance of the sun and the blazing fire. I see You with infinite power, without beginning, middle, or end; with many arms, with the sun and the moon as Your eyes, with Your mouth as a blazing fire scorching all the universe with Your radiance. O Lord, You pervade the entire space between heaven and earth in all directions. Seeing Your marvelous and terrible form, the three worlds are trembling with fear. Hosts of supernatural rulers enter into You. Some with folded hands sing Your names and glories in fear. A multitude of perfected beings hail and adores You with abundant praises. All the celestial beings amazingly gaze at You. Seeing your infinite form with many mouths, eyes, arms, thighs, feet, stomachs, and many fearful tusks; the worlds are trembling with fear and so do I, O mighty Lord. I believe You are the Supreme Being to be realized. You are the ultimate resort of the universe. You are the Spirit, and protector of the eternal order (Dharma). Verse 11.24-31

I am frightened O Krishna, after seeing Your effulgent and colorful form touching the sky, and Your wide open mouth with large shining eyes. All my cousin brothers, along with the hosts of other kings and warriors of the other side, together with chief warriors on our side, are also quickly entering into Your fearful mouths with terrible tusks. Bhisma, Drona as also the son of Suta (Karna) together with even our prominent warriors all rapidly enter into Your terrible mouths with cruel teeths! Some are seen sticking in the gaps between the teeth, with their heads crushed! These warriors of the mortal world are entering Your blazing mouths as many torrents of the rivers enter into the ocean. All these people are rapidly rushing into Your mouths for destruction as moths rush with great speed into the blazing flame for destruction. You are licking up all the worlds with Your flaming mouths, swallowing them from all sides. Your powerful radiance is filling the entire universe with effulgence and burning it, O Krishna. I lose my sense of direction and find no comfort after seeing Your mouths with fearful tusks glowing like the fires of cosmic dissolution. Tell me, who are You in such a fierce form? My salutations to You, O best of all celestial rulers, be merciful! I wish to understand You, O primal Being, because I do not know Your mission. I desire to know You who are the Primal One. For I do not understand Your actions! Have mercy on me! O Lord of celestial rulers, and refuge of the universe. Verse 11.32-34 Lord Krishna said: I am Time. I am death, the mighty destroyer of the world. I have come here to destroy all these people. Even without your participation in the war, all the warriors standing arrayed in the opposing armies shall cease to exist. With the exception of you [the Pandavas], all the soldiers here on both sides will be slain. I have already destroyed all these warriors. Drona, Bhisma, Jayadratha, Karna and the other great warriors have already been destroyed by Me. You are only an instrument, O Arjuna. Therefore, you get up and attain glory. Conquer your enemies, and enjoy a prosperous kingdom. Kill all these great warriors who are already killed by Me. Do not fear. You will certainly conquer the enemies in the battle; therefore, fight! Verse 11.35 Sanjaya Said: Having heard these words of Krishna; Arjuna, trembling with folded hands, prostrated with fear and spoke to Krishna in a choked voice. Verse 11.36-46 Arjuna said: Rightly, O Krishna, the world delights and rejoices in glorifying You. Terrified demons flee in all directions. The hosts of sages bow to You in adoration. You are both Eternal and Temporal, and the Supreme Being that is beyond Eternal and Temporal. You are the primal God, the most ancient Person. You are the ultimate resort of the entire universe. You are the knower, the object of knowledge, and the Supreme Abode. You, O Lord of the infinite form, pervade the entire universe.

You are the controller of death, the fire, the wind, the water god, the moon god, and the creator, as well as the father of the creator. Salutations to You a thousand times, and again and again salutations to You. My salutations to You. My obeisance to You. You are infinite valor and the boundless might. You pervade everything, and therefore You are everywhere and in everything. Considering You merely as a friend, and not knowing Your greatness, I have inadvertently addressed You as O Krishna, O Yadava, and O friend merely out of affection or carelessness. In whatever way I may have insulted You in jokes; while playing, reposing in bed, sitting, or at meals; when alone, or in front of others; O Krishna, the immeasurable One, I implore You for forgiveness. You are the father of this animate and inanimate world, and the greatest guru to be worshipped. No one is even equal to You in the three worlds; how can there be one greater than You? O Being of incomparable glory. Therefore, O Lord, I seek Your mercy by bowing down and prostrating my body before You. Bear with me as a father to his son, as a friend to a friend, and as a husband to his wife, O Lord. Beholding that which has never been seen before delights me, and yet my mind is tormented with fear. Therefore, O God of celestial rulers, the refuge of the universe, have mercy on me; and show me your original four-armed form just as before. I wish to see You with a crown, holding mace and discus in Your hand. Therefore, O Lord with thousand arms and universal form, please appear in the four-armed form. Verse 11.47-49 Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, being pleased with you I have shown you, through My own yogic powers, this particular supreme, shining, universal, infinite, and primal form of Mine that has never been seen before by anyone other than you. O Arjuna, neither by study of the Vedas, nor by sacrifice, nor by charity, nor by rituals, nor by severe austerities, can I be seen in this cosmic form by any one other than you in this human world. Do not be perturbed and confused by seeing such a terrible form of Mine as this. With fearless and cheerful mind, now behold My four-armed form. Verse 11.50-51 Sanjaya said: After speaking like this to Arjuna, Krishna revealed His four-armed form. And then assuming His pleasant human form, Lord Krishna, the Great One, consoled Arjuna who was terrified. Arjuna said: O Krishna, seeing this lovely human form of Yours, I have now become tranquil and I am normal again. I am now composed in mind and I am restored to my original nature. Verse 11.52-55 Lord Krishna said:

This four-armed form of Mine that you have seen is very difficult, indeed, to see. Even celestial controllers are ever longing to see this form. This four-armed form of Mine that you have just seen cannot be seen even by study of the Vedas, or by austerity, or by acts of charity, or by the performance of rituals. However, through single-minded devotion alone, I can be seen in this form, can be known in essence, and also can be reached, O Arjuna. The one who does all works for Me, and to whom I am the supreme goal; who is my devotee, who has no attachment, and is free from enmity towards any being; attains Me, O Arjuna. Chapter 12 CHAPTER 12 Definition of a Spiritual person Verse 12.01-07 Arjuna asked: Between those who worship God in form and others who worship the formless; which of these are considered more perfect? Lord Krishna said: Realization is more difficult for those who fix their mind on the impersonal, unmanifest, and formless Absolute; because, comprehension of the unmanifest by embodied beings is attained with difficulty. Nevertheless, those who worship the formless impersonal aspect of God restraining all the senses, evenminded under all circumstances, engaged in the welfare of all creatures, come to Me indeed. But for those who worship the Supreme with unswerving devotion as a personal deity of their choice, offer all actions to Me, intent on Me as the Supreme, and meditate on Me; They fix their minds on My personal form and are always engaged in worshiping Me with great and transcendental faith are considered by Me to be most perfect. I therefore swiftly become their savior from the world that is the ocean of death and transmigration whose thoughts are set on My personal form, O Arjuna. Verse 12.08-12 There are four ways to attain Me, O Arjuna. Focus your mind on Me, and let your intellect dwell upon Me alone through meditation and contemplation. Thereafter you shall certainly attain Me. Long to attain Me by practice of any spiritual discipline; such as deity worship that suits you. Be intent on performing your duty just for Me. You shall attain perfection by doing your prescribed duty for Me - without any selfish motive - just as an instrument to serve and please Me. Just surrender unto My will, and renounce the attachment to, and the anxiety for, the fruits of all work - by learning to accept all results as God's grace - with equanimity. Knowledge [of the Supreme] is superior to [mere] practice Meditation is superior to knowledge

Renunciation is superior to Meditation Verse 12.13-20 The one who is dear to me is the one Who does not hate any creature Who is friendly and compassionate Who is forgiving By whom others are not agitated Who is not agitated by others Who is free from joy, envy, fear, and anxiety Who is free from the notion of "I" and "my" Who has renounced the evil and is full of devotion Who has subdued the mind Whose resolve is firm Who is ever content Who is free from attachment Who has renounced the doership in all undertakings Who is indifferent to censure or praise Who is desireless, pure, wise, impartial, and free from anxiety Who neither rejoices nor grieves, neither likes nor dislikes Who remains the same towards friend or foe, in honor or disgrace, in heat or cold, in pleasure or pain Who is quiet and content with whatever he or she has; unattached to a place, a country, or a house; equanimous, and full of devotion Who is devoted to Me. Whose mind and intellect are engaged in dwelling upon Me Who follow the imperishable path of devotional service Who completely engage themselves with faith, making Me the supreme goal Chapter 13 CHAPTER 13 CREATION AND THE CREATOR Verse 13.01-02 Arjuna said: O my dear Krsna, I wish to know about prakrti [nature], purusa [the enjoyer], and the field and the knower of the field, and of knowledge and the object of knowledge. (13.01-02) Verse 13.01-06 Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, this physical body, the miniature universe, may be called the field or creation. One who knows the creation is called the knower or creator. Know Me to be the creator of all the creation. The true understanding of both the creator and the creation is considered by Me to be the transcendental knowledge.

I shall now tell you about what the creation is, what it is like, what its transformations are, where its source is, who that creator is, and what His powers are. The description of the above is available in Vedic hymns and also in other scriptures. It is especially presented in Vedanta-sutra with all reasoning as to cause and effect. The five great elements, false ego, intelligence, the unmanifested, the ten senses and the mind, the five sense objects, desire, hatred, happiness, distress, the aggregate, the life symptoms, and convictions--all these are considered, in summary, to be the field of activities and its interactions. This in brief is the field along with its modifications. Verse 13.07-12 The following are the areas of knowledge to be known by knowing which life eternal is gained. Humility, modesty, nonviolence, forgiveness, honesty, steadfastness, purity of thought, word and deed, absence of ego, self-control; and aversion towards sense objects, detachment, freedom from entanglement in family, non-interest in participation in a crowd of people, even mindedness amid pleasant and unpleasant events Taste for solitude, constant reflection on pain, old age, disease, and death, accepting importance of self realization and philosophical search for the Absolute Truth Service to guru, unswerving devotion to Me, the Supreme who is without any beginning. Beyond the above, rest is ignorance. Verse 13.13-18 The Creator has His hands, feet, eyes, head, mouth, and ears everywhere, because He is all-pervading and omnipresent. He is the perceiver of all that is going on. He is inside as well as outside all beings, animate and inanimate. And because of His omnipresence, He is very near residing in one's inner psyche; as well as far away in the Supreme Abode. Though He appears to exist as if divided in beings, yet He is undivided. He is the creator, sustainer, and destroyer of all beings. He is the Supreme Being seated in the inner psyche as consciousness, the source of all knowledge and the object of knowledge. He is to be realized by Self-knowledge. Thus the creation, the field of activity [the body], the knowledge and the knowable have been briefly described by Me. My devotees can understand this well and thus attain My Supreme Abode. Verse 13.19-34 Prakrti (nature) and Purusha (soul) are both beginningless; and know also that the forms and modes are born of prakrti (nature). With regard to the source of body and organs, Nature is said to be the cause. This is the living entity, associates itself with material nature, gets attached due to ignorance of previous Karma and meets with good and evil. The soul is the cause for the experience of pleasure and pain. This is the transcendental Spirit, who is the Lord, the Supreme Proprietor. This Supreme Soul in the body witnesses, guides, supports and controls but by itself neither does anything nor becomes tainted. The sky, due to its subtle nature, does not mix with anything, although it is all-pervading. Similarly, the soul situated in Brahman vision does not mix with the

body, though situated in that body. One who understands this philosophy, either by meditation or by knowledge or by selfless service or by deity worship with total faith in Me is sure to attain liberation. Such liberated people are not born again. Whatever is born animate or inanimate know them to be born from the union of Body and the Creator. Just as one sun illuminates the entire world, the Creator gives life to the entire creation, O Arjuna. One who sees the Supersoul accompanying the individual soul in all bodies, and who understands that neither the soul nor the Supersoul within the destructible body is ever destroyed, actually sees. One who sees the Supersoul equally present everywhere, in every living being, does not degrade himself by his mind. Thus he approaches the transcendental destination. One who can see that all activities are performed by the Creator and sees that the self does nothing and is not the doer, actually sees. The one who truly sees is the one who sees the Supreme Lord in all mortal beings. Such a seeing will ensure that no one injures another. The moment one discovers diverse variety of beings and their different ideas abiding in One, come out from the Creator, one attains the Supreme Being. They who perceive the difference between the creation (or the body) and the creator (or the Spirit) as well as know the technique of liberation of the living entity from the trap of illusory Maya attain the Supreme. Chapter 14 CHAPTER 14 THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE Verse 14.01-02 Lord Krishna said: I shall now reiterate the supreme wisdom among all wisdom by knowing which sages have been able to reach perfection. Verse 14.03-04 I am the life giving Father. I make all births of living beings possible, whatever forms are produced in any womb whatsoever.. Verse 14.05-09 Material nature consists of three modes, viz. Satva, Rajas and Thamas, i.e. Goodness, Passion and Ignorance. When one is born he comes into contact with nature and becomes conditioned by these modes. Goodness is purer than the others. It is illuminating. It frees one from all sinful reactions. Those in this mode are attached to knowledge and happiness. Passion is attachment to desires, longings and craving for sense gratification. Those in passion are bound by attachment to action and fruits of work.

Ignorance binds living entity by madness, carelessness, laziness and excessive sleep. Verse 14.10-13 Satva can prevail only by defeating Rajas and Thamas Rajas prevails by suppressing Satva and Thamas Thamas prevails by stifling Satva and Rajas When Satva is predominant, light of knowledge of the Supreme glitters all the senses in the body. When Rajas is predominant; attachment, greed, undertaking of selfish works, uncontrollable desire, craving, hankering, restlessness, and excitement arise. When Thamas is predominant; ignorance, inactivity, negligence, dullness, madness, carelessness, and delusion arise. Verse 14.14-18 The fruit of Satva is beneficial and pure. When one who dies during the dominance of Satva goes to heaven the pure world of knowers of the Supreme. The fruit of Rajas is pain. When one dies during the dominance of Rajas, one is reborn as attached to selfish action. The fruit of Thamas is laziness. When one dies in Thamas, one is reborn as lower creatures. Verse 14.19-20 One is freed from the pains of birth, old age and death and attains immortality or salvation only when he transcends these three modes of Satva, Rajas and Thamas and perceives that in all activities no other performer is at work than the Supreme Lord. Verse 14.21-27 Arjuna enquired: What are the marks of those who have transcended the three modes of material Nature, and what is their conduct? Lord Krishna said: The marks of the transcended persons are that They remain indifferent to pain and pleasure, happiness or distress To them, clod, a stone, and gold are alike To them the dear and the unfriendly are alike They are of firm mind They are calm in censure and in praise They are indifferent to honor and disgrace They are impartial to friend and foe They renounce sense of doership They are aware that I am the abode of Brahman They know I am immortal and imperishable They know I am the eternal law and absolute bliss They stay firmly attached to the Lord without wavering in the three material modes.

They offer service to Me and to My endeavors with love and unswerving devotion, unfailing in all circumstances Only they become fit for Salvation. They who have taken refuge in this transcendental knowledge attain unity with Me and are neither born at the time of creation, nor afflicted at the time of dissolution. Chapter 15 CHAPTER 15 THE SUPREME BEING Verse 15.01-06 Lord Krishna said: Think of a Pepal Tree. It has its roots, branches, leaves and sprouts. This universe is comparable to this tree. God is its roots. Bramha is its branches. Vedas are its leaves. The branches of this eternal tree are spread all over the cosmos. The beginning, the end, or the real form of this tree is not perceptible on the earth. In the human world, the ego, sense pleasures and desires form its sprouts causing Karmic bondage. One has to remove these desires through knowledge of the Supreme, detachment with all lust completely stilled and seek the Supreme abode by constantly dwelling in the Supreme Being. Once reached the Supreme abode, one does not come back to the mortal world again. Verse 15.07-11 The living entity enjoys sense pleasures using six sensory faculties of hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell, and mind. But the individual soul, the jivatma in the body of living beings is the integral part of the universal Spirit. But instead of associating themselves with the soul, the six sensory faculties including the mind associate themselves with the body. The ignorant cannot perceive this. Just as the air takes aroma away from the flower; similarly, the individual soul, after the death of the individual, takes the six sensory faculties from the physical body to the new physical body it acquires in reincarnation. The living entity, thus taking another gross body, obtains a similar faculties as the past one. This too the ignorant do not perceive. But those who have the eye of Self-knowledge can see it. The yogis, striving for perfection, behold the living entity abiding in their inner psyche as consciousness. Verse 15.12-15 I am in every planet and the light energy that coming from the sun illumines the whole world; and that in the moon, and in the fire; know that light to be Mine. Entering the earth, I support all beings and all plants with My energy. I am the Prana, the breath getting into and coming out of every being. The energy causing digestion in the living beings is also My energy. I am seated in everyone's heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas, I am to be known. Indeed, I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas Verse 15.16-20

There are two entities in the cosmos: The Temporal, i.e. the changeable and the Eternal. The Supreme Being is beyond both the Changeable and the Eternal. He is also called the Absolute Reality that sustains both the Temporal and the Eternal by pervading everything. Because the Supreme Being is beyond both Temporal and Eternal; therefore, He is known in this world and in the scriptures as the Supreme Being, Absolute Reality, Truth and Supersoul. The wise one who truly understands the Supreme Being, knows everything and worships Him wholeheartedly. Having understood this, one becomes enlightened, and one's all duties are accomplished. Whoever knows Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, without doubting, is the knower of everything. He therefore engages himself in full devotional service to Me O Arjuna. Chapter 16 CHAPTER 16 DIVINE AND THE DEMONIC QUALITIES Verse 16.01-03 Lord Krishna said: The following qualities that belong to Godly men endowed with divine nature: Cleanliness, Purity of innerpsyche Fearlessness, Absence of indecisiveness, Determination Study of scriptures Charity, Sacrifice, Modesty, Simplicity Gentleness, Sense of restraint and self control Honesty, Truthfulness Nonviolence, Forgiveness, Compassion for all creatures Absence of anger, Equanimity Absence of pride, Freedom from passion for honor Absence of malice, Absence from malicious talk Freedom from greed, Austerity Perseverance in attaining spiritual knowledge Renunciation Verse 16.04-05 These qualities belong to those of demoniac nature are Hypocrisy, arrogance, pride, conceit, harshness, anger, harshness, and ignorance. Divine qualities lead to salvation, the demonic qualities are said to be for bondage. O Arjuna, you are born with divine qualities. Verse 16.06-18 There are only two types (or castes) of human beings in this world: The divine, or the wise; and the demonic, or the ignorant. The divine has been described at length, now hear from Me about the demonic, O Arjuna.

Persons of demonic nature do not know what to do and what not to do. They neither have purity nor good conduct nor truthfulness. Neither cleanliness nor proper behavior nor truth is found in them. They say there is nothing called God and sexual union of man and woman alone is the spice of the world. Adhering to this wrong atheist view, these degraded souls - with small intellect and cruel deeds engage themselves in unbeneficial and horrible works. They are born as enemies for the destruction of the world. Filled with insatiable desires, hypocrisy, pride, and arrogance; Holding wrong views due to delusion; Obsessed with endless anxiety lasting until death, Considering sense gratification their highest aim, Convinced that sense pleasure is everything; Bound by hundreds of ties of desire and Enslaved by lust and anger; they strive to obtain wealth by unlawful means for the fulfillment of sensual pleasures and act with impure motives.. They believe that to gratify the senses is the prime necessity of human civilization. They think: This has been gained by me today, I shall fulfill this desire, I have this much wealth, and will have more wealth in the future That enemy has been slain by me, and I shall slay others also. I am the Lord. I am the enjoyer. I am successful, powerful, and happy I am rich and born in a noble family. Who is equal to me? I shall perform sacrifice, I shall give charity, and I shall rejoice. Thus deluded by ignorance; Bewildered by many fancies; entangled in the net of delusion; addicted to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures; they fall into a foul hell. Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with pride and intoxication of wealth; they perform service only in name, for show, and not according to scriptural injunction. These malicious people cling to egoism, power, arrogance, lust, and anger; and hate Me who dwells in their own bodies and those of others. Verse 16.19-20 I hurl these envious, mischievous, cruel, sinful, and mean people into the cycles of rebirth in the womb of demons again and again. O Arjuna, entering the wombs of demons birth after birth, the deluded ones sink to the lowest hell without ever attaining Me until their minds change for the better by the causeless mercy of the Lord. Verse 16.21-22 There are three gates leading to hell. They are lust, anger, and greed. They lead to the downfall (or bondage) of the individual. Therefore, Every sane man should give up these. One who is liberated from these three gates of hell, O Arjuna, does what is best for him or her, and consequently attains the highest state. Verse 16.23-24 One, who acts under the influence of his or her desires, disobeying scriptural injunctions, neither attains perfection nor happiness, nor the Supreme Abode.

Therefore, let the scripture be your authority in determining what should be done and what should not be done. You should perform your duty following the scriptural injunction. Chapter 17 CHAPTER 17 THREEFOLD FAITH Verse 17.01 Arjuna asked: What is the situation of those who do not follow the principles of scriptures, but worship according to their own faith? Is it in the mode of goodness, passion, or ignorance? Verse 17.02-06 Lord Krishna said: Ones faith can also be of three kinds, Satva, Rajas and Thamas depending upon the modes of nature acquired by the embodied souls. Satva people worship Gods. Those in Rajas worship demigods. And those in Thamas worship ghosts and spirits. Men who are impelled by lust, pride and passion, perform violent austerities not ordained by the scriptures. They torture the material elements of the body as well as Me who dwells within the body. This is a demonic conviction. Verse 17.07-10 Beyond the faith, the food preferred by men is also of three types. So are the sacrifice, austerity, and charity. Now hear the distinction between them. The foods that promote longevity, virtue, strength, health, happiness, and joy are juicy, smooth, substantial, and nutritious. Satva persons like such foods. Foods that are very bitter, sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry, and burning; and cause pain, grief, and disease; are liked by Rajas persons. The foods liked by people in the mode of ignorance are stale, tasteless, putrid, rotten, refuses, and impure. Verse 17.11-14 Service or sacrifice is done as enjoined by the scriptures, and performed without the desire for the fruit, with a firm belief and conviction that it is a duty, is in the mode of Satva. Service or sacrifice that is performed only for show, and aiming for fruit, know that to be in the mode of Rajas. Service or sacrifice performed without following the scripture, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of mantra, faith, and gift, is said to be in the mode of Thamas. Verse 17.14-16

Similarly austerity is also of three kinds, viz. austerity of deed, word and thought. Austerity of deed consists of Performing. Performing means worship of Gods, the guru, the learned with purity, honesty, celibacy, and nonviolence. Austerity of word consists of speech. The speech must be non-offensive, truthful, pleasant, beneficial, and to be used for the regular reading aloud of scriptures Austerity of thought stems from the mind. The thoughts must come from the serenity of mind. Such thoughts must reflect gentleness, equanimity, self-control, and the purity. Verse 17.17-19 And these threefold austerity (of thought, word, and deed) when practiced with supreme faith, without a desire for the fruit, is said to be Satva. When such austerity is performed for gaining respect, honor, reverence, and for the sake of show or result, it is said to be of Rajas When the same is performed with foolish stubbornness, or with self-torture, or for harming others, is born of Thamas. Verse 17.20-22 Help or charity given as a matter of duty, to a deserving candidate who does nothing in return, at the right place and time, is considered to be Satva. Help or charity that is given unwillingly, or to get something in return, or looking for some fruit, is said to be Rajas. Help or charity that is given at a wrong place and time, and to unworthy persons; or without paying respect to the receiver or with ridicule, is born of Thamas. Verse 17.23-28 In the above background it is to be understood that any sacrifice, charity, austerity or any other act or worship, if done without faith is of no value, either now or hereafter. It is God who created the Vedas and the prescriptions contained therein. These prescriptions alone enable one to do selfless activities. That is why all acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity are commenced by uttering the name of God, OM to be short. OM, Tat, Sat is the three fold designation of the Supreme Being, the Brahman, the Vedas and the Sacrifices. It is also a principle that clarifies the qualities required of any act. OM signifies God, the Brahman. Tat signifies actions to be free of material entanglement i.e. without aiming for any reward. Sat signifies goodness and truthfulness, i.e. the objective is to be to attain the Absolute Truth. Anything done as sacrifice, charity or penance without faith in the Supreme is impermanent. It is called asat and is useless both in this life and the next. Chapter 18

CHAPTER 18 SALVATION THROUGH RENUNCIATION Verse 18.01 Arjuna said: What is sacrifice and what is renunciation? What is Thyaga and what is Sanyas? What is the difference? Verse 18.02-06 Lord Krishna said: Thyaga is freedom from selfish attachment and fruits of work. Where as Sanyas is giving up activities prompted by desires. Renunciation comprises of sacrifice, charity and penance. These are not to be given up. They must be performed as they purify even the great souls. All these activities should be performed without attachment or any expectation of result. They should be performed as a matter of duty, O son of Prtha. That is My final opinion. Verse 18.07-12 Prescribed duties should never be renounced. In the name of Sanyasa or renunciation, one should not give up ones duty. The abandonment of obligatory work is due to delusion, and is ignorance. One who abandons duty merely because it is difficult, or because of fear of bodily trouble, does not get the benefits of sacrifice by performing such a sacrifice in the mode of passion. Obligatory work performed as duty, renouncing selfish attachment to the fruit, is alone regarded to be Satva sacrifice The one who neither hates a disagreeable work, nor is attached to an agreeable work, is considered a renunciant (Tyagi) so long he is free from all doubts about the Supreme Being. Human beings cannot completely abstain from work. Therefore, the one who completely renounces the selfish attachment to the fruits of all works is considered a renunciant. A non-renunciant is assessed after death based on what he had done, desirable, undesirable, and mixed. Such an assessment is not necessary for a renunciant.

Verse 18.13-18 There are five causes for the accomplishment of all actions. Whatever right or wrong action a man performs by body, mind or speech is caused by these five factors. They are: The performer His Karma His perception of what is happening, i.e. his knowledge Arousal of ones own senses i.e. of Satva, Rajas or Thamas Act of the other person Therefore one who thinks himself the only doer, not considering the five factors, is certainly not very intelligent and cannot see things as they are. The one who is free from the notion of doership, and whose intellect is not polluted by the desire to reap the fruit; even after slaying these people, he or she neither slays nor is bound by the act of killing. Verse 18.19-28 There are three kinds of knowledge, action and the performer of action. As far as knowledge is concerned, the three kinds are: That is Satva knowledge where one sees one spiritual entity in all living entities. That is Rajas where one sees different living entities in different people That is Thamas when one sees his own long standing irrational prejudice in other people As far as action is concerned, the three kinds are: Duties performed without likes and dislikes, and without selfish motives and attachment to enjoy the fruit, is said to be Satva Action performed with ego, with selfish motives, and with too much effort; is Rajas Action that is undertaken because of delusion; disregarding consequences, loss, injury to others, as well as one's own ability is Thamas As far as the performer is concerned, the three kinds are: One who is free from attachment, is non-egotistic, endowed with resolve and enthusiasm, and unperturbed in success or failure is Satva One who is impassioned, attached to the fruits of their work, greedy, violent, impure, and is affected by joy and sorrow is Rajas The undisciplined, vulgar, stubborn, wicked, malicious, lazy, depressed, and procrastinating performer is Thamas Verse 18.29-35 Now there are also three kinds of understanding and determination. They are Understanding by which one knows what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, what is to be feared and what is not to be feared, what is binding and what is liberating, is Satva

Understanding which cannot distinguish between religion and irreligion, between what is to be done and what is not to be done is Rajas Understanding which considers irreligion to be religion and religion to be irreligion, under the spell of illusion and darkness, and strives always in the wrong direction, is Thamas. Determination which is unbreakable, which is sustained with steadfastness by yoga practice, and which thus controls the activities of the mind, life and senses is Satva determination Determination by which one holds fast to fruitive results in religion, economic development and sense gratification is Rajas And that determination which cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness, lamentation, moroseness and illusion--such unintelligent determination is Thamas. Verse 18.36-40 Similar to the above, there are also three fold pleasure and happiness that people go after. That which in the beginning may be just like poison but at the end is just like nectar and which awakens one to self-realization is Satva That happiness which is derived from contact of the senses with their objects and which appears like nectar at first but poison at the end is Rajas And that happiness which is blind to self-realization, which is delusion from beginning to end and which arises from sleep, laziness and illusion is Thamas There is no being, either on the earth or among the celestial controllers in the heaven, who can remain free from these three modes of material Nature. Verse 18.41-44 The division of human labor is also based on the qualities inherent in peoples' nature or their make up. Those who have serenity, self control, austerity, purity, patience, honesty, transcendental knowledge, transcendental experience, and belief in God are labeled as intellectuals (Braahmans). Those having the qualities of heroism, vigor, firmness, dexterity, not fleeing from battle, charity, and administrative skills are called leaders or protectors (Kshatriyas). Those who are good in cultivation, cattle rearing, business, trade, finance, and industry are known as business men (Vaishyas). Those who are very good in service and labor to others are classed as workers (Shudras). Verse 18.45-58 One can attain the highest perfection by devotion to one's natural work. Listen to Me how one attains perfection while engaged in one's natural work. One attains perfection by performing ones own work along with worshipping the Lord who is the source of all beings and all pervading. . Duties prescribed according to one's nature are never affected by sinful reactions.

It is better to engage in one's own occupation, even though one may perform it imperfectly, than to accept another's occupation and perform it perfectly. One's natural work, even though defective, should not be abandoned; because all undertakings are enveloped by defects as fire is covered by smoke. The person whose mind is always free from selfish attachment, who has subdued the mind and senses, and who is free from desires attains the supreme perfection of freedom from the bondage of Karma by renouncing selfish attachment to the fruits of work. Learn from Me briefly, O Arjuna, how one can attain such perfection. Endowed with purified intellect Subduing the mind with firm resolve Turning away from sound and other objects of the senses Giving up likes and dislikes Preferring solitude Eating lightly Controlling the mind, speech, and organs of action Performing meditation Being detached Relinquishing egotism, violence, pride, lust, anger, and proprietorship one becomes peaceful, free from the notion of "I, me, and my", and fit for attaining oneness with perfection and the Supreme Being Absorbed in the Supreme Being, the serene, one neither grieves nor desires; becoming impartial to all beings, one obtains the highest devotional love for God. By devotion one truly understands what and who I am, in essence. Having known Me in essence, one immediately merges with Me. A Karma-yogi devotee attains the eternal immutable abode by My grace even while doing all duties just by taking refuge in Me (by surrendering all action to Me with loving devotion). Sincerely offer all actions to Me, set Me as your supreme goal, and completely depend on Me. Always fix your mind on Me, and resort to Karma-yoga. You shall overcome all difficulties by My grace when your mind becomes fixed on Me. But, if you do not listen to Me due to ego, you shall perish. Verse 18.59-62 If due to ego you think: I shall not fight; this resolve of yours is vain. Under illusion you are now declining to act according to My direction. But, compelled by the work born of your own nature, you will act all the same, O son of Kunti. You are controlled by your own nature, i.e. born Karmic impressions. Therefore, you shall do even against your will what you do not wish to do out of delusion. The Supreme Lord - as the controller abiding in the inner psyche of all beings - causes them to work out their Karma like a puppet (of Karma created by the free will) mounted on a machine. Seek refuge in the Supreme Lord alone with loving devotion, O Arjuna. By His grace you shall attain supreme peace and the Eternal Abode.

Verse 18.63 Thus the knowledge that is more secret than the secret has been explained to you by Me. After fully reflecting on this, do as you wish. Verse 18.64-67 Hear once again My most secret, supreme word. You are very dear to Me, therefore, I shall tell this for your benefit. Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, offer service to Me, bow down to Me, and you shall certainly reach Me. I promise you because you are My very dear friend. Set aside all meritorious deeds and religious rituals, and just surrender completely to My will with firm faith and loving devotion. I shall liberate you from all sins, the bonds of Karma. Do not grieve. This knowledge should never be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerity, who is without devotion, who does not desire to listen, or who speaks ill of Me. Verse 18.68-69 The one who shall propagate this supreme secret philosophy the transcendental knowledge of the Gita amongst My devotees, shall be performing the highest devotional service to Me, and shall certainly come to Me. No other person shall do a more pleasing service to Me, and no one on the earth shall be more dear to Me. Verse 18.70-77 I promise the study of this sacred dialogue of ours will be equivalent to worshipping Me with knowledgesacrifice. Whoever hears this sacred dialogue with faith and without cavil becomes free from sin, and attains heaven the higher worlds of those whose actions are pure and virtuous. O Arjuna, did you listen to this with single-minded attention? Has your delusion born of ignorance been completely destroyed? Arjuna said: By Your grace my delusion is destroyed, I have gained Self-knowledge, my confusion with regard to body and Spirit is dispelled and I shall obey Your command. Sanjaya said: Thus I heard this wonderful dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, causing my hair to stand on end. By the grace of sage Vyasa, I heard this most secret and supreme yoga directly from Krishna, the Lord of yoga, Himself speaking to Arjuna before my very eyes of clairvoyance granted by sage Vyasa. O King, by repeated remembrance of this marvelous and sacred dialogue between Lord Krishna and Arjuna, I am thrilled at every moment; and Recollecting again and again, O King, that marvelous form of Krishna I am greatly amazed and I rejoice over and over again. Verse 18.78

Wherever there will be both Krishna, the Lord of yoga, or Dharma in the form of the scriptures, and Arjuna with the weapons of duty and protection; there will be everlasting prosperity, victory, happiness, and morality. This is my conviction. EPILOGUE The Farewell Message of Lord Krishna Lord Krishna on the eve of His departure from the arena of this world, after finishing the difficult task of establishing righteousness (Dharma), gave His last parting discourse to His cousin brother Uddhava who was also His dearest devotee and follower. At the end of a long sermon comprising more than one thousand verses Uddhava said: O Lord, I think the pursuit of yoga as You narrated to Arjuna, and now to me, is very difficult, indeed, for most people; because it entails control of the unruly senses. Please tell me a short, simple, and easy way to God-realization. Lord Krishna upon Uddhava's request gave the essentials of Self-realization (BP 11.06-29) for the modern age as follows: (1) Do your duty, to the best of your abilities, for Me without any selfish motive, and remember Me at all times - before starting a work, at the completion of a task, and while inactive. (2) Practice to look upon all creatures as Myself in thought, word, and deed; and mentally bow down to them. (3) Awaken your dormant powers. Perceive through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions that the power of God is within you at all times, and is constantly doing all the work using you as a mere instrument. The Supreme Lord Krishna said: The one who wants to know Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, should only understand that I existed before creation, I exist in the creation, as well as after complete dissolution. Any other existence is nothing but My illusory energy (Maya). I exist within the creation and at the same time outside the creation. I am the all-pervading Supreme Lord who exists everywhere, in everything, and at all times.