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XAVIER UNIVERSITY-ATENEO DE CAGAYAN College of Engineering Cagayan de Oro City

Mechanical Engineering Department Mechanical Engineering Technical Elective 3

An Evaluation of the Fire Protection System of a Building: AGRICLUTURE BUILDING

Submitted by: Rivera, John Renzel Hibaya, Alexis Eduria, Tracy Keenan Marfa, Ralph Marion

Submitted to: Engr. Cyril G. Fabrea, PME

Introduction: The building to be evaluated is the Agriculture building of Xavier University in Corrales street, Cagayan de Oro City. The floor area of the six-storey building is 80.96x10.55 m2. The buildings Fire sprinkler system will be evaluated to check if it is in compliance to the NFPA 13 standard for fire protection. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire, and the sprinkler heads will discharge water over the fire area. Fire Sprinkler systems are almost 100% efficient.

General Objective: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the fire protection system of the Agriculture Building of Xavier University in accordance to the NFPA 13 and compare the evaluation to the existing/installed sprinkler system.

EXISTING PARAMETERS 1st floor Number of branchline- 22 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 45 Distance between branchline- 3m ( referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers - 3.45m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3 2nd floor Number of branchline- 22 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 57 Distance between branchline- 4.5m ( referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers - 3.15m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3 3rd floor Number of branchline- 23 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 67 Distance between branchline- 2.7m ( referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers 2.85m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3 4th floor Number of branchline- 25 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 75 Distance between branchlines - 3m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers 4.35m/2.85m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3 5th floor Number of branchline- 20 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 62 Distance between branchline- 3m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers 2.85m/4.35m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3

6th floor Number of branchline- 25 Number of Sprinkler per floor- 76 Distance between branchline- 3.25m (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Distance between sprinklers 3.6 (referred to autocad drawing of the building) Number of Sprinkler per branch- 3

SUMMARY OF DATA GATHERED BASED ON AUTOCAD DRAWING FROM PPO

Number of branchlines

Number of Sprinklers per Branch

Number of Sprinklers per floor

Distance Between Branchlines (m)

Distance Between Sprinklers (m) 3.45 3.15 2.85 2.85/4.35 2.85/4.35 3.6

1st floor 2nd floor 3rd floor 4th floor 5th floor 6th floor

22 22 23 25 20 25

3 3 3 3 3 3

45 57 67 75 62 76

3 4.5 2.7 3 3 3

Evaluation in accordance to NFPA 13 Light Hazard Each occupancy classification for a fire protection system has a maximum floor area to be protected by sprinklers supplied on each system riser on any one floor shall be as follows: NFPA 13
2

PSME CODE Area Limitation 4830 m2 4830 m2 2323 m2

Light hazard Ordinary hazard Extra hazard

52,000.00 ft

52,000.00 ft2 40,000.00 ft2

(Lmax=15ft=4.572m, Area coverage of sprinkler, As=18.6m2)

1st floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

2nd floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

3rd floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

4th floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

5th floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

6th floor Width=80.94m Number of Branchlines NB = = =17.718 branchline Length=10.55m

Distance between branchlines Lb= = 4.5m

Distance between Sprinkler S= =

Number of Sprinklers per branch Nb= Actual Distance between sprinklers Sact= Distance of sprinkler to the wall

Number of Sprinkler per floor Ns=(3 sprinklers/branch)x(18 branch)=54 Sprinklers Verification of Sprinkler Coverage A= (Sact) (Lb)= 3.52x4.5 = 15.84m A<As, 15.84<18.6 Complies with NFPA 13

Hydraulically Most demanding area 2nd floor A=16.8m x 10m = 168m2 Density=3.8 LPM/m2=0.092GPM/ft2

Flow to the design area Q= AxD =168x 3.8 Q=638.4LPM Length of Design Area Lmin= 1.2 Lmin= 1.2 Lmin=15.55m Number of Sprinklers on the design length Ns= Lmin/S, S=3.15m Ns=15.55/3.15 Ns=4.945 sprinklers Actual Length of the design area Lact=Ns X S Lact= 5 x 4.13 Lact=20.65 m Width of the design area W= A/ Lact W= 168/ 20.65 W=8.14m Sprinkler Coverage, As As= 14.175m2 The design area is 168 m2, 14.175x 12 sprinklers= 170.1 > 168; therefore it meets the desired minimum criteria.

Minimum flow at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler Q= D x As Q= 3.8 x 14.175m2

Q=53.865 LPM = 14.23GPM

Minimum pressure at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler P= (Q/K) 2, K=5.3-5.8 At K=5.3 P= (14.23/5.3)2 P=7.21 PSI At K=5.4 P= (14.23/5.4)2 P=6.94 PSI At K=5.5 P= (14.23/5.5)2 P=6.69 PSI At K=5.6 P= (14.23/5.6)2 P=6.46 PSI At K=5.7 P= (14.23/5.7)2 P=6.23 PSI At K=5.8 P= (14.23/5.8)2 P=6.02 PSI According to NFPA 13 the minimum pressure at any sprinkler shall be at 7.0 psi Determine the Friction Loss Pf= ;

Pf =fiction loss per one foot of pipe C= C-factor measure of relative roughness or smoothness of the internal surface of a pipe compared to other pipe. From tale B-1 of NFPA 13 c-factor (galvanized)- 120 d = internal diameter of pipe, Table C-1= 1.61 in Pf= = 0.0086 psi/ft

Comparative tables between existing design and in accordance to NFPA 13 design OCCUPANCY ORDINARY HAZARD:GROUP 2 EXISTING 855 m
2

NFPA 13 4830m
2

REMARKS PASS

NUMBER OF BRANCHLINES 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5TH FLOOR 6TH FLOOR

EXISTING 22 22 23 25 20 25

NFPA 13 18 18 18 18 18 18

REMARKS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS

The more number of branch lines the better DISTANCE BETWEEN BRANCHLINES 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5TH FLOOR 6TH FLOOR EXISTING 3 4.5 2.7 3 3 3 NFPA 13 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 REMARKS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS

The closer branch lines is more efficient in fire protection DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLERS 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5TH FLOOR 6TH FLOOR EXISTING 3.45 3.15 2.85/3.75 2.85/4.35 2.85/4.35 3.6 NFPA 13 4.13 4.13 4.13 4.13 4.13 4.13 REMARKS PASS PASS PASS PASS/FAIL PASS/FAIL PASS

The sprinkler should be closer to each other for effective coverage

NUMBER OF SPRINKLERS PER BRANCH 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5
TH

EXISTING 3 3 3 3 3 3

NFPA 13 3 3 3 3 3 3

REMARKS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS

FLOOR

6TH FLOOR

The number of sprinklers per branch should comply with the minimum number in NFPA 13 NUMBER OF SPRINKLER EXISTING PER FLOOR 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5TH FLOOR 6TH FLOOR 45 57 67 75 62 76 54 54 54 54 54 54 PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS NFPA 13 REMARKS

Sprinkler Coverage 1ST FLOOR 2ND FLOOR 3RD FLOOR 4TH FLOOR 5TH FLOOR 6TH FLOOR

EXISTING 10.35 14.175 7.7/10.125 8.55/13.05 8.55/13.05 10.8

NFPA 13 15.84 15.84 15.84 15.84 15.84 15.84

REMARKS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS PASS

MINIMUM PRESSURE HYDRAULICALLY MOST AREA

AT THE EXISTING (PSI) DEMANDING

NFPA 13

REMARKS

2nd floor, 168m2 Major portion Faculty Area At K=5.3 7.21 At K=5.4 6.94 At K=5.5 6.69 At K=5.6 6.46 At K=5.7 6.23 At K=5.8 6.02 7 7 7 7 7 7 PASS FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL