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# BANDGAP REFERENCES

OUTLINE
PART-A

PART-B

PART-A

## VOLTAGE REFERENCE: PURPOSE

TO GENERATE AN EXACT OUTPUT VOLTAGE No matter what happens with respect to its

## MIXED SIGNAL SYSTEMS

APPLICATIONS

High resolution A/D and D/As, digital meters, smart sensors with threshold detectors, servo systems, battery management, precision regulators and many other precision industrial control systems Voltage references can also be used to very accurately set another variable - a laser diode might need to operate at a very precise current to generate the proper wavelength of light.

## MANY TECHNIQUES OF REFERENCE BGR IS THE MOST COMMON

Reasonable Complexity Sufficient Accuracy (TEMP independent) Wide Operating Range Low voltage design Possible

## At room temperature VBE: NEGATIVE TEMCO= -2.2 mV/C

And ,
T VT: POSITIVE TEMCO =+0.086 mV/C

## BGR: WORKING PRINCIPLE

BGR is TEMPERATURE INDEPENEDENT

IMPLEMENTATION

STRATEGY-I

STRATEGY-II

VBGR

STRATEGY-I

## HOW TO EXTRACT m*VT VBE=VTln(I/A*IS) VBE1-VBE2= [ln(A2/A1)]*VT

Vout=R2/R3(VBE1-VBE2)+VBE1

FINAL CIRCUIT-1

SPICE(LTspice) SIMULATION

## NOT ALL IS WELL !

CURVATURECOMPENSATION

STARTEGY-II

I1=[ln(A2/A1)]VT/R1

I2=VEB/R2

FINAL CIRCUIT-II

## 3 HOURS & IT DIDN'T WORK ! WHY ?

START-UP CIRCUITRY

START-UP CIRCUITRY

SOME ISSUES

## VBE dependence on temperature is not fixed !

Parasitic BJTs !

SOME ISSUES
Opamp offset voltage:

Output voltage of opamp is not zero when input is zero. The input offset voltage of opamp is itself temperature dependent, causing temco of the reference to increase.

Feedback:

Since both positive as well as negative feedback is being employed in the circuit, a net negative feedback must be ensured.

SOME ISSUES
FINITE GBP OF OPAMP:

Opamps finite bandwidth creates trouble in the reference at high frequency. CURVATURE CORRECTION: when plotted as a
function of temperature, bandgap reference shows a zero temco a particular T, positive on side and negative on the other.

It arises from temperature dependence of base-emitter voltage, collector current and the offset voltage. Many techniques exist to correct this behavior.

PART-B

RECENT TREND

## Very little Variation

To do:

Sub-1V design

REFERENCES
[1] Ze-kun Zhou, Pei-Sheng Zhu, Yue Shi, Hui-ying Wang, Ying-qian Ma, Xiang-zhu Xu, Lin Tan, Xin Ming, Bo Zhang: A CMOS Voltage Reference Based on Mutual Compensation of Vtn and Vtp. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems 59-II(6): 341-345, June,2012. [2] Ming-Dou Keret al., " New Curvature-Compensation Technique for CMOS Bandgap Reference with Sub-1-V Operation," ISCAS2005, pp. 3861-3864. [3] P.K.T. Mok, K.N. Leung, Design Considerations of Recent Advanced Low-Voltage Low Temperature-Coefficient CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 635-632, Oct 2004.

[4] Razavi,B, Design of Analog CMOS integrated circuits, McGraw Hill, NY, 2001. [5] Baker,J, CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation,3rd ed, IEEE press, NJ, 2010 [6] Maloberti, F, Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2001

THANK YOU !
QUESTIONS?