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BANDGAP REFERENCES

MOHAMMAD A MAKTOOMI ELED, ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY

OUTLINE
PART-A

INTRODUCTION BANDGAP REFERENCE CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATIONS SPICE SIMULATION START UP CIRCUITRY

PART-B

RECENT TRENDS ( PAPER from IEEE Circuit & System TRANSACTION )

PART-A

VOLTAGE REFERENCE: PURPOSE


TO GENERATE AN EXACT OUTPUT VOLTAGE No matter what happens with respect to its

Operating voltage, Load current, Temperature changes Or the passage of time.

WHERE DO WE USE THEM ?

MIXED SIGNAL SYSTEMS

APPLICATIONS

High resolution A/D and D/As, digital meters, smart sensors with threshold detectors, servo systems, battery management, precision regulators and many other precision industrial control systems Voltage references can also be used to very accurately set another variable - a laser diode might need to operate at a very precise current to generate the proper wavelength of light.

BANDGAP REFERNCE (BGR)

MANY TECHNIQUES OF REFERENCE BGR IS THE MOST COMMON

Reasonable Complexity Sufficient Accuracy (TEMP independent) Wide Operating Range Low voltage design Possible

BGR: WORKING PRINCIPLE

At room temperature VBE: NEGATIVE TEMCO= -2.2 mV/C

And ,
T VT: POSITIVE TEMCO =+0.086 mV/C

VBE: BASE-EMITTER VOLTAGE VT: THERMAL VOLTAGE (KT/q)

BGR: WORKING PRINCIPLE


BGR is TEMPERATURE INDEPENEDENT

VBGR= VBE+ m*VT

m=2.2/0.086=25.6 Since, VBE is approximately 0.6V and VT at is 25.8mV

VBGR =1.2V (Approx.)

REMINDER: WE ARE AT ROOM TEMP !

IMPLEMENTATION

STRATEGY-I

VBGR= VBE+ m*VT

STRATEGY-II

VBGR

STRATEGY-I

HOW TO EXTRACT m*VT VBE=VTln(I/A*IS) VBE1-VBE2= [ln(A2/A1)]*VT

HOW TO ADD

Vout=R2/R3(VBE1-VBE2)+VBE1

FINAL CIRCUIT-1

SPICE(LTspice) SIMULATION

WOW ! ITS AROUND 1.2V !

NOT ALL IS WELL !

CURVATURECOMPENSATION

STARTEGY-II

I1=[ln(A2/A1)]VT/R1

I2=VEB/R2

FINAL CIRCUIT-II

3 HOURS & IT DIDN'T WORK ! WHY ?

START-UP CIRCUITRY

START-UP CIRCUITRY

SOME ISSUES

VBE dependence on temperature is not fixed !

Parasitic BJTs !

SOME ISSUES
Opamp offset voltage:

Output voltage of opamp is not zero when input is zero. The input offset voltage of opamp is itself temperature dependent, causing temco of the reference to increase.

Feedback:

Since both positive as well as negative feedback is being employed in the circuit, a net negative feedback must be ensured.

SOME ISSUES
FINITE GBP OF OPAMP:

Opamps finite bandwidth creates trouble in the reference at high frequency. CURVATURE CORRECTION: when plotted as a
function of temperature, bandgap reference shows a zero temco a particular T, positive on side and negative on the other.

It arises from temperature dependence of base-emitter voltage, collector current and the offset voltage. Many techniques exist to correct this behavior.

PART-B

RECENT TREND

Non-BGR ! On Threshold voltage cancellation

Compatible with CMOS

Very little Variation

To do:

Sub-1V design

REFERENCES
[1] Ze-kun Zhou, Pei-Sheng Zhu, Yue Shi, Hui-ying Wang, Ying-qian Ma, Xiang-zhu Xu, Lin Tan, Xin Ming, Bo Zhang: A CMOS Voltage Reference Based on Mutual Compensation of Vtn and Vtp. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems 59-II(6): 341-345, June,2012. [2] Ming-Dou Keret al., " New Curvature-Compensation Technique for CMOS Bandgap Reference with Sub-1-V Operation," ISCAS2005, pp. 3861-3864. [3] P.K.T. Mok, K.N. Leung, Design Considerations of Recent Advanced Low-Voltage Low Temperature-Coefficient CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 635-632, Oct 2004.

[4] Razavi,B, Design of Analog CMOS integrated circuits, McGraw Hill, NY, 2001. [5] Baker,J, CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation,3rd ed, IEEE press, NJ, 2010 [6] Maloberti, F, Analog Design for CMOS VLSI Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2001

THANK YOU !
QUESTIONS?