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Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited is using a complete automated system for all of its banking sections including General Banking, Credit and finance, Cash and Foreign Trade. But their Leave Management System is totally manual and it takes a long time to process a leave request. In the current system a leave application has to go through a long chain of officials and as a result, several times the competent authorities get manipulated information. While working in the bank as an intern I have analyzed the current Leave Management System and tried to find out the problems of the system. I have proposed a new system to solve the identified problems. I have introduced some new concepts and constraints while developing the proposed solution. The proposed system will minimize the paperwork. Moreover, it will help management in decision making as they will get up-to-date reports. While implementing the system, I have used myself for the database and PHP along with HTML as the front end development tools. I believe, the proposed system will make the leave associated activities easier and will also save time and energy.

Dutch-Bangla Bank started operation is Bangladesh's first joint venture bank. The bank was an effort by local shareholders spearheaded by M Sahabuddin Ahmed (founder chairman) and the Dutch company FMO. From the onset, the focus of the bank has been financing high-growth manufacturing industries in Bangladesh. The rationale being that the manufacturing sector exports Bangladeshi products worldwide. Thereby financing and concentrating on this sector allows Bangladesh to achieve the desired growth. DBBL's other focus is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Even though CSR is now a clich, DBBL is the pioneer in this sector and termed the contribution simply as 'social responsibility'. Due to its investment in this sector, DBBL has become one of the largest donors and the largest bank donor in Bangladesh. The bank has won numerous international awards because of its unique approach as a socially conscious bank. Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited (DBBL) started their journey by M Sahabuddin Ahmed (Founder & chairman) and the Dutch company FMO in 1995. It is the largest bank in Bangladesh by market capital. DBBL was established under the Bank Companies Act 1991 and incorporated as a public limited company under the Companies Act 1994 in Bangladesh with the primary objective to carry on all kinds of banking business in Bangladesh. Dutch Bangla Bank is noted to be the first and only local bank in Bangladesh to have an automated banking system. The bank has spent over Tk. 1 Billion in automation upgrades (first bank in Bangladesh to do so). This automation took place in 2003 whereby services of the bank were available uniformly though any branch, ATM and internet. Banking was a paper based until DBBL, with its wide local network, delivered banking automation and modern banking services to the masses. This effectively introduced the 'plastic money' concept into the Bangladeshi society. The entire automation system was imported and is the most expensive banking related IT project in Bangladesh.

Background of the study:

DBBL is the introducer of mobile banking in Bangladesh and it also has the largest number of individual accounts. The top management of bank found that their mobile banking service customer percentage is decreasing gradually which lead them to focus on the factors that will increase of use of mobile banking service. Researchers suggest that therere certain factors like demography, perception of risk, ease of use and usefulness of the device can influence the use or adoption of any technology. A study of the impact of demographic factors in developing countries recommended that

in a developing country like Bangladesh, the impact of demographic factors is stronger than other adoption factors. Because country like Bangladesh has high levels of illiteracy, low levels of income and different cultural level etc. So it can be assumed that technological application like mobile banking will be influenced by the demographic variable like gender, age, profession, income etc of the customers. So the top management decided to conduct a research to explore the relationship of demographic variables with the use of Mobile banking. It will help the mangers to identify the potential customers and target them to gain the more market share

Problem statement
The banking sector is focusing on mobile bank applications as a medium to introduce banking services for client as the number of mobile users in Bangladesh is continuously growing. There are around 160 million people in Bangladesh, of which, only 13% have bank accounts. Through Mobile banking platform, DBBL can reach the rural and unbaked population, of which 45% are mobile phone users. But DBBL mobile Banking service user market share is relatively low. Moreover, the use of mobile banking application services among the existing customers of the bank is still very low. Previous study (Lewis, Palmer, Moll- 2010) shows the relationship of young customers with the adoption of mobile banking in the context of Germany. There were no studies carried on the relationship between the use mobile banking and other factors like demographic factors of the customers in the context of Bangladesh. This patronizes the current study to explore the relation of demographical factors on the use of mobile banking. Researchers are willing to know the relationship between the use of mobile banking and demographic factors of the of consumers in the context of Dutch-Bangla Bank Ltd in Bangladesh.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to present and test a model that identifies the relationship between the use of mobile banking and demographic factors (like gender, age, education, profession, income) of bank customers in the context of Bangladesh. The demographic factors are considered the most important factors that can affect the use or adoption of any new technology. The present study, we will be able to explore the relationship between these of mobile banking and demographic factors of the consumers in the context Dutch-Bangle Bank Ltd in Bangladesh. It will helps DBBL to focus on the customers to gain more market share compare to other mobile banking service provider banks and increase the usage of that particular service among the existing bank customers. The outcome of the survey will be analyzed to reflect the preferred patterns among the customers of DBBL in Bangladesh toward the mobile banking application. The major contribution of this research project is the pattern and attributes of preferences that reflects the demographic factors on the adoption levels of the mobile banking

applications. Besides that, it may also outline novel and innovative ways to improve or increase the adoption level.

Literature Review and conceptual framework

From various studies we got to know that, the use of mobile banking depends on the number of factors like demography, perception of risk, ease of use etc. From those factors demographic factors like gender, age, income, education, profession etc plays an important role in the adoption of mobile banking. Over here, we will be talking about the dependents and independent variables that we came across during our research. We have taken six variables, among them five are independent and one is dependent variable. The six variables are: 1) Gender, 2) Age, 3) Education, 4) Profession 5) Income and 6) Use of mobile banking

In the context of Bangladesh, gender always plays an important role in the adoption of any new technological applications. Because of our cultural structure, there is a difference between the involvements of adoption of banking service as well mobile banking between male and female. If the ratio of working male and female is very different in a society these of mobile banking will also be different in number. Often females are less likely to use mobile banking than male. The reasons are may be they are not that much updated with the latest technology like males are. Another reason could be the participation of female worker is May less in the society. There is no much research on the moderating impact of gender in mobile banking adoption up to now. A study (Wan et al, 2005) found that males were more inclined to adopt bank technology than females, thus supporting (Pipers et al. 2001) previous finding that males are more positive about m-commerce than females. An exploratory study of m-commerce (Yang 2005), found that gender influences perceived ease of use and usefulness but in a negative way, contrary to expectations. In relation to mobile banking, it has been found that females are more concerned by security issues than males, whereas males pay more attention to effectiveness (Amen et al. 2006).In terms of the effects of gender on innovation diffusion, (Senates and Morris, 2000)investigated the gender differences in the context of individual adoption and sustained usage. They discovered that gender to be an important determinant of technology adoption and usage. In addition, (Mosque and S. Labored, 2004) said that men express a greater interest with using various types of technology. One possible explanation for more male respondents could be that males are more likely to be interested in the usage and adoption of technology such as mobile phones; for example Singh (2004 found that more males used mobile banking than females.


Age is an important factor to be considered for the adoption of mobile banking application in Bangladesh. People from different age has different point of view about banking as wells banking system. Certainly the elder people are generally less comfortable with the latest technology rather than younger people. So we assume that the use of mobile banking will be more in the younger generation and elder people will continue the use of conventional method of baking. This would make them to be the major group of users for mobile banking application in Jordan. Besides that, the targeted users would also comprise middle-aged, relatively good income and highly educated. Several factors are found to moderate attitude towards intention to adopt mobile banking and among those, the factor age is very much dominating as age strengthens perceived usefulness, perceived costs and perceived system quality. It helps consumers to make decision about the adoption of mobile banking. Generally young age people will more likely to use mobile banking (Lewis, Palmer, Moll- 2010). Young people like age range from 18years to 30 years, will like generally try to explore new things or get involve with new technological applications. So it can be assumed that they will enjoy the mobile banking. Middle aged people may not like it as the young people because they may found it difficult to operate another issue that is related to the age is the perception of risk on the adoption of mobile banking. Middle aged people less likely to believe on technology and they may found it risky to operate banking through using mobile phone. As a result they may be reluctant tousle mobile banking (Lewis, Palmer, Moll- 2010). On the other hand, Young people are less likely to concern about the risk associated with the mobile banking as young people are more likely to have more faith on technology.

For any technological applications, education level of the user is the major issue. Without proper learning or knowledge, the operation can not be performed properly. Since mobile banking is one of the most technological applications in terms of innovation, it is important that a strong understanding on how these innovations would benefit is inculcated among clients. Based on previous research work, an educated community is better at adopting new mobile banking technologies (Mantilla, 2003).To make the best use of mobile banking one person has to be educated, otherwise that person will not be able to use mobile banking. He or she must have sufficient knowledge indifferent technological process to operate the operation. So we can assume that educationist very much related with mobile banking. People with higher education will use mobile banking more and on the other hand people with lower education will use mobile banking less. Highly educated people will tend to use the mobile banking more because they will find it interesting and get the maximum benefit from it. But people with less educational background will not find interest on mobile banking and as a result will not tend to pat attention on it. Customer education is a critical aspect of any successful approach to mobile banking security. A knowledgeable customer is less likely to be tricked by phishingor other attempts at fraudulent activity (Burke, 2002). For example, bank cans train customers to avoid clicking links in emails that may come from frauds; an

attacker may use this method to direct the customer to malaria or phasing site. providing customers

Profession has a huge impact on mobile banking. The person who is in a corporate profession is more likely to use to mobile banking more rather than a person who is working in a traditional organization. A person who is doing conventional business will prefer conventional banking method than mobile baking. On the other hand, the person doing business in multinational level will prefer the mobile banking over conventional method of banking. Mobile banking may help increase the productivity of the workforce by increasing the efficiency of users daily routines. Time-pressured consumers or employees can use dead spots in the day like during the daily travel to and from workplace, more effectively while carry out bank transactions without being physically present at the bank as the same time when he/she is must be present in the office. The level of adoption of the mobile banking for a business man may depend on several issues. It basically depends on the nature of business, transaction pattern, access to other financial instruments etc. If the business is knowledgeable enough to run the operation through mobile, he or she may accept it to ease his business.

The higher income people are busier as they are working more according to our assumption. So definitely they have less time to go for conventional method of banking, rather than they will prefer mobile banking. On the other hand people with less income are often from lower strata of the society so we are assuming that they will more prefer conventional method of banking over mobile banking. Level of income is another factor that should be taken into consideration which can influence the adoption of mobile banking. The study of (Crabbed et al. (2009) revealed two important findings regarding the role of income in mobile phone banking adoption. Firstly, the study found that a significant relationship exists between income and intention to adopt mobile phone banking. This is understandable as lower income consumers often resist services with continuing costs (Porter and Donahue, 2006).The price of banking services may have an opposite effect with respect to the adoption of mobile banking. Provision of a lower service cost is also a major benefit for users using mobile banking and performing banking transaction functions through a mobile device; soothe level of income which results in to the ability to pay may be another factor influencing the adoption of mobile banking services. But, mobile phone banking transactions cost far less than transactions costs at the ATM and the bank branches (Pickens and Victory, 2006) and therefore, intuition suggests that it should appeal to lower income consumers. Secondly, in the study the non-users were overrepresented in the lower income groups. This finding can also serve as a sign of the role of income in adoption of mobile phone banking. In the past few years a number of studies have been done on mobile phone banking adoption behavior such as (Crabbed et al, 2009), (Lee and Chung, 2009). However, previous

studies did not investigate mobile phone banking adoption behavior of low-income nonusers of mobile phone banking. For example, in (Learn and Lin, 2005) the respondents were attendees at an e-commerce exposition and in (Lee and Chung, 2009) the respondents were users of mobile phone banking. Furthermore, in previous studies in the mobile commerce field of study such as (Shin, 2009) and (Serrano et al, 2006), the moderating effect of income has been investigated.

A management information system is a system or process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of prudent and reasonable business decisions. The reports start with the background history of the bank such as when it establish in Bangladesh, the branches, pre and post era etc. It explains all the TPS how the transactions are made by the bank, using of these TPS from the new events such as account opening, new allowances etc to the routine work including cash and payments record, updating of records, payroll and the processing of the complaints. These TPS holds all the activities from the manager and employees to the customers. The report discuses the inbound and the outbound logistics and relate all the processes of TPS used in the bank with the MIS, enabling the bank to provide the quality and satisfactory services to their customers. Also includes the inter relations, of all the entities in the database of the bank. ERD diagram represents all these relations. Initially in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was produced manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some Additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Data was organized manually according to the requirements and necessity of the organization. As computational technology developed, information began to be distinguished from data and systems were developed to produce and organize abstractions, summaries, relationships and generalizations based on thedatas.Finally, a system of secure communication which allows you to exchange private information, confirm appointments, and extend personal advice in an environment akin to an online safety deposit box is the new wave. You can ensure the protection of personal and private information all with the convenience and ease of email But it is Not email. Its secure. A feature like this is well worth checking out

Dutch-Bangle Bank now performs their social responsibility in some selected sector. Its have separator foundation called Dutch-Bangla Bank foundation. The bank donates mainly towards social awareness programs, medical and educational fields. DBBL also maintains the largest scholarship program in Bangladesh whereby college/university education tuition and expenses are fully paid for unconditionally by the bank. But they can expand their business and broaden their sector of social responsibility by the following terms:

Primary school sector:

Primary school sector is very backward in our country. DBBL can nourish their social responsibility in this root sector. They can offer scholarship or patronize this sector and thus country can benefited as well as take a role of social responsibility by this sector.

SME Sector:
SME is also a root sector where this bank can apply credit formula or patronizing this sector. Thus it can probably expand its social image. They also can supply credit at a low interest rate that can improve this sector according to its social responsibility.

Micro credit sector:

Micro credit is very popular among root people in our country. The main advantage of micro credit is that a person can take loan without any security. If DBBL starts to give micro credit than it will help the people a lot. On the other hand it will increase the social image of DBBL

References:\ Management, 8th Edition; by Stephen P.Robbins/ Mary Coulter

Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited

Customer Satisfaction Survey questionnaire: Its really appreciable if you would take just a few minutes to respond to the questioner below. As a valuable customer of DBBL how you rate our service, is very important information for us. It is to be noted that all answers here will be treated confidentially & no individual data will be disclose. Please read the statements, which some people agree with, agree not. Whether you Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (D), strongly Disagree (SD) with each statement. Demographic Information: 1 Age A) 20-30 years d) 41-50 years 2 Gender. a) Male 3. Occupation a) Professionals c) Business man 4. Reason for opening A/C. a) Required c) Attractiveness 5. Education level. a) No formal education c) HSC e) Post Graduation c) 31-40 years e) above 50 years b) Female b) Service Holder d) Housewife b) Facility d) near from my place b) SSC d) Graduation

e) others

8. Would you like to use Dutch bangla banking services? a) Yes b) No

1 Strongly Agree

2 Agree

3 Neutral

4 Disagree

5 strongly Disagree

No 01 02 03 04

Statement items Mobile Banking is new but modern. You feel safe in your transaction through mobile. Call center services are always available when you require. The Cost of cash In and out is affordable in case of Mobile Banking. Available agent and branch for m-banking. M-banking is save your time. I feel safe in my transactions with this bank. DBBL understands your specific need. Time taken to process of Mobile transaction of this bank is acceptable. DBBL provides prompt services to its customers. DBBL Mobile Banking is very effective for you.

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DBBL booth system. DBBL booth available in Bangladesh. DBBL corporate person are. The bank has spent over Tk. 1 Billion in automation upgrades. Micro credit is very popular among root people in our country. DBBL can nourish their social responsibility in this root sector. DBBL also maintains the largest scholarship program in Bangladesh. DBBL booth condition.


DBBL is the introducer of mobile banking in Bangladesh and it also has the largest number of individual accounts.

Please check one best alternativeIn your experience, the approximate waiting time for cash in is Below 10 min 15 min 30 min Above 30 min Are you regular customer? Yes

No once a month infrequently

How often do you use this facility? once a week More than once a week

Your valuable comment regarding the service:

Your precious suggestions to improve the services: Thank you very much for sharing valuable time Interview Guideline