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T.C.

KLTR BAKANLIGI
ANITLAR VE MZELER GENEL MDRLG
XVIII.
KAZI SONULARI
TOPLANTISI
I
27-31 MAYIS 1996
ANKARA
KLTR BAKANLlGI
ve Miizeler Gene/ Miidiirliigii
No:51
YAYIMA
EROGLU
Handan EREN
Fahriye BAYRAM
FilizKAYMAZ
Nuray TARLAN
A.Hamd! ERGRER

Birsen KIZlLDAG
MORKAYA
ISBN: 97517-1720-5
975-17-1721-3 (Cilt)
ISSN: 1017-7655
Not: Bildiriler, sahiplerinden ve gre
KLTR BAKANLlGI KTPHANE
ANKARA1997

Sayfa
YALINKAYA, Marce OTTE,
H. B. KOSEM, K. CEYLAN
!<ar.ain Anadolu
1
YALINKAYA, J. M. LEOTARD, M. KARTAL,
Marcell OTTE, C . M. EREK, A. ATICI, I. LOPEZ
1990 - 1995 kzini 11
IanHODDER
Report On Excavations at atal Hyk 1995 17
Veli Isabella CANEVA, Kemalettin KROGLU
1995 Mersin / Yumuktepe 23
Refik DURU
1995 43
Jacob ROODENBERG
Excavations 1995 .49
Mehmet ZDOGAN, Hermann PARZINGER, Necmi KARUL
1995 53
Patricia WATTENMAKER
Kazane Hyk, 1995: Excavations at An Early City 81
Git J. STEIN
1995 Excavations at Tepe 93
Guillermo ALGAZE
Excavations at Hyk The 1995 Season 121
Antonio SAGONA, Mustafa ERKMEN, Claudia SAGONA
Excavations at Sos Hyk, 1995 137

1995 Dnemi 145
Christine KEPINSKI.LECOMTE, Rifat ERGE
Research at Tilbeshar 1995 163
Elizabeth CARTER, Hadi BOZKURT, Stuart CAMPBELL,
James SNEAD,Lynn SWARTZ
Report on The Archaeological Work in Domuztepe and its
Environs in 1995 173
Engin ZGEN, Halil Barbara HELWING
Oylum Hyk 1995 189
Sachihiro OMURA
1995 Kaman-Kalehyk 201
Manfred KORFMANN
Troia 1995 213
Hayat ERKANAL, Sevin GNEL
1995 Liman Tepe 231
Hayat ERKANAL, Turhan ZKAN
1995 Bakla Tepe : 261
ERKANAL
1995 Panaztepe 281
Barthel HROUDA
Vorlaufiger Bericht ber die Ausgrabungsergebnisse auf dem
Sirkelihyk/Sdtrkei Von 1992 - 1995 291
Roland
Aphrodisias 1995 313
Jrgen SEEHER
- 1995 ve 323
Aygl SEL, Mustafa SEL
1995 339
Hate
Alacahyk 1995 353
Altan Haluk
Van - Ayanis Kalesi 1995 363

1995 ve Yukan Anzaf Urartu Kaleleri 379
Zafer NER
Ulueak Hyk ve 1995 .411
John Nicholas POSTGATE
Kilise Tepe 1995, A Summary of The Principal Results , .441
Mehmet
1995 Harmanren 457
G. Kenneth SAMS, Mary M. VOIGT
Gordion 1995 .475
John DEVREKER, Frank VERMEULEN
Pessinonte (Pessinus) 1995 Rapport Provioire ..499
Crawford H. GREENEWALT Jr.
Sardis: Arehaeological Research in 1995 513
Volkmar Von GRAEVE
1994/95 Milet 529

Nysa 1995 555
Klaus TUCHELT
Didyma-Grabung des Deutsehen Archologischen Instituts 563
Orhan
Magnesia ad Maeandrum (1995) 577
1985-1995
ANADOLU
YALINKAYA*
Mareel! OTTE

BKSEM
K.CEYLAN
1985 bu yana yeniden ele srdrlmekte olan Ka-
rain onuncu geride Bu sre
iinde elde edilen Anadolu bir
iin, burada,
1995 yerine genel bir
..
1946 Kkten ve
aralarla 973 kadar olan Karain 19.85
Ankara Universitesi ile Tbingen Universitesi
(prof.Dr.H.J. MlIer-Beck)'nin sonucu bir ekip ta-
yeniden 1988). 1986-
1988 Ankara Universitesi yeleriyle..srdrlen
1989 itibaren Ankara Universitesi ile Liege Universitesi
(prof.Dr.Marcel Otte) iinde
bir proje Sz konusu proje halen devam et-
mektedir 1994). gerek gerekse
laboratuvarda, bu Dil ve
Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim lisans ve yksek lisans
(*) Prof. Dr. YALINKAYA, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi,
Anabilim 06100
1
rencilerinin ok
bilimsel zellikle Prof.Dr. Janusz Kozlowski (Krakov
Jagiellon niversitesi, Polonya) ve Prof.Dr. Ofer Bar-Yosef (Harvard
Universitesi, A.B.D.)'in izmek gerekmektedir.
Karain kompleksi, g-
ney ynnde uzanan bir masifin
olup, kuvvetli tektonik hareketlerle eski bir deniz
seviyesine tekabl eden bir traverten Ka-
masif Anti-Toros zincirine aittir ve olarak ad-
Bu kompleks iinde, Pleistose'nde ok byk ve
olan "E" gz, bugnk Incelemenin ana konusunu In-
celenmesi planlanan ya da incelenmekte olan bir dizi bir-
likte
Burada "E" gz sz konusu edilen depolar, Kkten ta-
olarak olan merkez dolguyu temsil etmektedir
(ana dolgu). tortul bir kap-
lama ise profili), ana silsileyi 12-15 m
gsteren ve son derece nemli olan bu depolar, henz anakayaya kadar

Depolar, kalker renkli tortullar
(kum ya da kil) ile Genellikle stlerinde
bulunan kalsitik konkresyonlara olan, koyu renkleriyle (gri ve koyu
kahverengi) son derece pedolojik alterasyonlarla yer yer
Bu kesintiye iklimsel-imge evreleri
olarak halde tanesi Romen ile
ii boyunca gzlemlendiklerinden, Arap ra-
olan daha ince stratigrafik da temel
olarak
"E" gznn yntemleri uy-
Bugne elde olan temel sonular, uraniumun
deriveleriyle olan .. ortaya (Rink,
1994: Toronto Mc Master Universitesi ve Polonya, Krakov' daki Gli-
vitsy). Silsilenin st bu sit ile sonularla, bugn
iin, grece iyi Genel stratigrafik nite "I" son buzul
evresine Wrm'") aittir olarak 60-70 bin
Bu evrenin son buzul aittir (Okyanus evresi 5) (1l0-l20
bin Bunu izleyen evreler (Tablo.), zellikle
belirtilen toprak ile denizel izotoipk
paleo-klimatik temeli zerine Bl-
2
gesel paleontolojik evrime yoluyla kemik elde
edilen geici bilgiler (Prof.Dr, Achille Gautier'nin incelemesi, Gent, Bel-
ika), bu
Endstrideki teknik evrimin daha nce sz
olup (Otte ve 1995a,b) inceleme devam etmektedir. Genel
'nun bu temel iin nemli evrimsel bir ritm
byk evre ile zetlenebilir. Tabanda (350 bin tesi: V. for-
masyon ve topuklu (dz ya da kabuklu),
vurma konili yongalardan "arkaik" bir endstri gz-
lemlenmektedir (Fig.I). Bu ise, sert ve
bugn olan alanda iki yzeylilerin gsterir. O halde
bu yongalar iki yzeylilerden Ote yandan alet
birka ve ontukln aletle teknik
topluluk (IV ve III, 3-4-5. niteler), 350 bin ile 300 bin
Teknik olarak Avrupa "Charentien"ini an-
Burada yongalar apraz ynlerden
ve alet basamak pulcuklu dzelti
kenar ve ontuklular egemendir (Fig.2).
Ust silsile (300-60 bin IIL1,2,3; ii ve 1.2-7. niteler), "Ka-
rain Mousterien'i" ya da "Zagros Mousterien"i" olarak
olan Burada bir hayli ha-
grnmektedir, btn Levallois tiptedir, ancak
yerel sz' konusu temelolarak "recurrent" al-
(Pawlikowski, 1994). Alet kenarsal dzeltilerle ok
ince bir biimde ve ok kenar ve ok
dzgn ulan yzeyliler" ve yap-
rak biimli paralar bu topluluklara, hem Suriye'nin hem
de bir grnm verirler (Fig.3).
Nihayet silsile Ge Ust Paleolitik'in dilgisel ve dilgiciksel
sona erer; bunlar, depolardan ya da bu geleneklerin
hemen "B"gznden (Albrecht, 1988a
ve b) srklenerek buraya
Sonu olarak, Karairi'den Anadolu olarak elde
edilen bilgi, Eski uzun mesafelerindeki kltrel ve etnik
kiler erevesinde, tamamen zel bir neme sahiptir. Gerekten de "Le-
vant koridoru", Acheuleen endstrilere Afrika'dan Kafkaslar'a bir
geit grevi 1.6 milyon varolan tipi Af-
unsurlar, (Oubeidiya, Gesher Benot Ya'aqov)'de, Suriye (La-
tamner'de (Bar-Yosef, 1994) ve Anadolu (Gaziantep)'da bu-
lunurlar, Bu izleri, Kuzey Kafkasya'ya kadar devam
3
eder (Lioubine, 1993); bununla birlikte Anadolu'nun ve Bal-
kanlar'da bulunmazlar. Uzak bir gelenek (Cho-
ukoutien), Acheuleen ncesine aittir ve Afrika ilk ya-
denk Btn ve Orta Uzak
kapsar ve Grcistan'da Dmanisi'de bu topluluklarla bir arada
olan alt enenin Kafkaslar'daki (Bo-
sinski, 1992). iki yzeylilerin bu-
endstrileri ieren bu ve Orta da kaplar.
Acheuleen ancak son evresinde (500 bin sonra) temsil edil-
ve itibaren gney ve Avrupa'da
Fransa, Belika). halde Anadolu, bu
evrede, (Acheuleen) ve (Clactonien)
kesinkez ortaya Daha sonraki uzun
evre (Orta Paleolitik) sresince ise bu hareket tersine ben-
zemektedir, zira Karain'in st seviyeleri, Levalloisien topluluklarla bir-
likte birka Neanderthal da iermektedir. Avrupa'da grece
nemli olan bu insan Anadolu boyunca
'ya gibi grnmektedir.
Bu halde, bu ok nemli pozisyon, en eski periyodlar boyunca Ka-
rain' in Paleolitik kronolojisi zerinde verilen
nemi, iinde
Bununla birlikte, Anadolu platosu, modern ve st
ortaya daha byk bir anlama sahiptir.
biri ya da Afrika ya da Avrupa'ya
bunu yeniden Anadolu geiti iinde incelemek sz konusu ola-
Bununla birlikte, yine gibi, Asya bu hareketin
kkenini Anadolu kprs yine zorunlu yol
o halde uygun bir
BIBLlYOGRAFYA
ALBRECHT. G.. 1988a. An Upper Palacolithic Sequence from Antalya Southem Turkey. Re-
sults of the 1985 Cave Excavations in Karnin B. Dans lK.Kozlowski (coor.), L'
de vo1.8: La Mutation, Actes du colloque de Liege (ddccmbre 1986),
Liege, E.R.A.U.L. 35. '.2335.
ALBRECHT, G., 1988b. Preliminary Results of the Exeavation in the Karairi B Cave ncar An-
talya/Turkey: the Upper Palaeolithic and the Upper Cli-
Development. vo1.14/2, 5.211-222.
4
BAR-YOSEF, o.. 1994 The Lower Palaeolithic of the Near East. Journal of World Prehistory,
vol., no.3, '.211-265.
BOSINSKI, G., 1992. Die ersten Menselten in. Eurasien. des
Mainz, 39/1, s.131-181.
LIOUBINE, V.P., 1993, La du Paldolithiquc du Caucase.
t.97, no.2/3, ,.291-298.
OTTE, M., YALINKAYA, 1., KOZLOWSKI, LK., BAR-YOSEF, O., H. et
NIRET, P.,1995a, Evolution teehnique au Paleolithique ancien de Karain. L'Ant-
hropologie, t.99, no.4, ,.529-561.
OTTE, M., YALINKAYA, 1., H., KOZLOWSKI, J.K., BAR-YOSEF, O. et
NOIRET. P.. 1995b,The Anatelian Middle Palaeolithic: NewResearch at Karain Cave.
Joumal of voL.5I, noA. s.287-299.
PAWLIKOWSKI. M.. 1994. Karain and kzini Caves, Turkey. General Geology of Area. Pre-
Report. Trkiye ve Uygulama Merkezi Dergisi,
Ankara, ,.351-369.
RINK, W.J.. SCHWARCZ, H.P.. GRN, R., YALINKAYA, 1., H., OTTE, M.,
VALLADAS, H., MERCIER, N.. BAR-YOSEF, O. et KOZLOWSKI, J.K., 1994, ESR
of theLastInterglacial Mousterian at Karain Cave. Turkey. Journal of
Science, 21, 5.839-849.
YALINKAYA. 1-., 1988. Resulters reccnt des fouilles en Dans J.K. Koz-
lawski (coord.), L' de vol8: La Muration. Actes du colloque de
Liege (decembre 1986), Liage, E.R.A.U.L. 35, ,.257-271.
YALINKAYA. 1., 1994. 1992Karsin I,Ankara, 5.23-42.
YALINKAYA, 1.,1996,Karairi I, Ankara, ,.49-70.
5
ol KARAIN E : Ccrrclatlcn between Geological Layers and Archaeclogical Layers
016/018 Key Dcpths in the Spits Uthla
UlTh-ESR Layers Central seeter (eseavettcn Unils
(averages) (snlls and (cm below units)
eoncretlens) datum)
LATEUPPER

m
PAl.EOLITHIC
1,1 -500 to -550 cm 1104 P.s, b1adetelSj
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MOUSTERJAN OF
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"PROTO-
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Tablo
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F
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9
1990-1995

YALINKAYA *
J.MLEOTARD
MKARTAL
MarcelOTTE
C.M.EREK
A.I.ATICI
ILOPEZ
Bu son kapsayan kzini
elde edilen verilere dayanarak genel bir
kzini, kuzeyinde, Ky'nn yer al-
Arkeolojik Prof.Dr. Kkten ellili
larda Karain'e paralelolarak yrtlen ortaya kon-
ve ana bir sondaj 1989
Kkten stratigrafik kesitlerin biri, Karain
paleoekoloji erevesinde temizlendikten sonra, zerinden
analiz zere
bu yana ise yeni Antalya Mzesi Ankara Uni-
versitesi (prof. Dr. ile Liege Universitesi'nin
(Prof.Dr.Mareel Otte) ortak projesi erevesinde devam etmektedir.
Karain'e oranla olduka kktr (ISx8 m).
Kattan dibinde, ok aktif karstik bir ortamdan ileri gelen su-
alviyal bir birka metre stnde bu-

iindeki depolar, ana ka-
yadan hayvan gbresinden aktel yzeye kadar uzamrlar ve 4
(*) Prof. Dr. YALINKAYA, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Pre-
historya Anabilim 06100
11
m'ye bir gsterirler, Rzgarlarlaya da daha ender olarak
akarsularla birlikte, 0.0.16.500 ile 7.900
nemli bir antropik da bulunur. Bu
silsilede bir tekabl eden uzun kesilmesi
(bin (Fig.l). Bu ritm, ve
nemini gsteren seviyelerde tersine
Ote yandan, yzeyin kk boyutta
daha bir zellikle, bir
byk kalker bir ocak di-
zisinde gzlemlenebilir.
kzini'nde srdrlen aktel incelemeler, prehistorik etkinliklerin
izlerinin evrede ortaya
0..l6.500 birinci toplulukla
(Phase:I;Fig.2) dz sivri, ya da hafife
aletler, dilgi zerinde ve birka dilgi ile bi-
rarada bulunurlar. Bu alet iki kutuplu ekirdeklerden
dilgisel retimine Bu temel
olarak kei ve alageyiklere
bin bir aradan sonra, 15.500'e yeniden
Phase:II). keileri bir biimde tercih ederek,
hemen hemen koyun keilere (ovi-capra)
uzun genler ve dilgiciklerle
0..l4.500'e nc evre (Fig.3) kendisini gsterir ve 14.000
tamamen yeni bir "hiatiis" kapsar. Bu periyodun
ok bklmeler bu da d-
ve belki de bu olanarak verir.
ekirdekler daima iki kutupludurlar; dilgiciklerin,
oklu ontuklu dilgilerin, dilgl-zerine n kalemlerin
ve muntazam olmayan mikrolitlerin retiminde Ala-
zellikle geyik trlerinin yiyecek bir fark-
ifade ediyorsa da, tablosu temelolarak koyundan

Bunu izleyen toplulukla (Phase:IV) yerinde artistik ya da
sembolik retimin (kemik ve zerinde izgiler
zerinde hayvan betimlemeleri) grlmektedir. Ote yandan
endstride ani gzlerulenir, ekirdekler kez ok y-
zeyli, bazen piramidaldir; yongalama yzleri oklu ve kez ap-
Bu ise, mikrolitlerin yarayan, da
12
dzenli olmayan dilgilerin ortaya neden olur. Gnmzden
nce 12.500 olan drdnc grup, bu tek-
nolojik mikrolit aletlerin mikro-
ve ortaya nitelenir. Av-
hayvan srleri alageyik, koyun-
kei, karaca, geyik, yaban domuzu. Alageyik ve koyun byk l-
de
Sitin son bir kez kesilmesinden sonra, zellikle daha eski
seviyeleri yaran ukurlarla beliren yeni etkinlikler G..9.600'e ger-
karma bir endstri ile birlikte bulunan
birka seramik ve bir balta Neolitik'i eder. Bu
seviyeler, belki de, Kalkolitik'e ait bir dizi bireysel mezarla dam-
(Phase:VI).
Bu tip depolarda polenlerin ev-
renin evriminin restitsyonu, ve kmrlerin incelenmelerinin
G.. 16.500 ile 13.000 alet-
lerin evresi iinde saptanan orman
az bir kendisini gibi grnmektedir. Oysa,
endstrinin ve incelenmesiyle ortaya kar-
zerinde halen olan be-
lirtisidir.
Toros sisteminin denizle temas halindeki son dibinde ve
ortasmda, kzini'nin bir ok sit yer Bunlardan
Beldibi, gibi byk lde ancak
gibi bir henz yeterince Daha ola-
rak ele olursa, geometrik evresi Okzini'nkine benzer
gibi grnen Balkan dnyasmda gibi Levantin endstride de pek
az unsur, ya da benzerlik Belki de
benzer tekniklerin Zagros sitlerine dndrlmelidir,
13
ci
ii:
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LU
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= 8
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C.capreclus
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if,;.
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-; -' .
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o 1 2cm
. ti,
UJ ' \
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Figure: 2
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t i
o 1 2em

7.41%
16
Figure: 3
REPORT ONEXCAVATIONS AT
ATALHYK 1995
Ian HODDER*
Surface survey work continued at atalhyk this year on both East
and West mounds. On the West mound, the topographic survey was
completed using a GPS system. On the East mound, magnetometer
surveying was extended on the north part of the mound and magnetic
susceptibility readings were also taken as a trial. In addition, three LO x
lOm areas were scraped (using the same technique as in earlier years) on
the southern edge of the area shown in Figure This area was
chosen as previous scrapings to the north had shown converging lines
and a street. However, the newly scraped areas proved to have been
pitted and disturbed by HelIenistic and Byzantine pits, buildings and
graves so that the Neolithic pattern had become obscured, An oven could
clearly be seen within a building which may have been more substantial
than is usually found in the northern area at Traces of red
paint could be seen in some of the plaster in the scraped areas.
Figure 2 shows the area scraped in 1993 and 1994 at 1170/1020 on
the north part of the east mound. Building I (see 70-73 in Figure 2) was
chosen for preliminary exeavation. We expected the house to be complex
because of a plaster feature revealed by scraping in the middle of the
north wall. A shelter was constructed and exeavation began in the west
room (70 in Figure 3), which had been plastered on all walls. In the
northeast corner of the room an area of buming was found, and in the
southwest a well-made hearth with adjacent rake-out. This hearth in its
latest phase indicated use after the initial collapse and infill of the house
and earlier oven. AIso secondary was a west-east wall or bench added
into room 70 and dividing it into two. At its eastern end, this wall or
bench had a cattle hom set into it, reminiscent of the bucrania benches
found in the 1960s, but much smailer in scale. A deer antler attached to
(*) Dr. Ian HODDER, British Institute of Archeology, Tahran Caddesi No: 24-ANKARA
17
plaster lay in the northern subroom and may have from the wall,
All these activities indicate a Iate use of room 70. The original floor of
room 70 sloped down from north to south and was resurfaced several
times. At the southem end it was covered by collapse material. A
slight platform or removed platform occurred in the southeast part of the
room and of seeds occurred on the floor. In the northwest
corner a bone 'cup' contained red paint. Against the northeast wall was
found a carbonised wooden 'wall' with traces of plaster on each face.
An opening in the wall in the southeast comer of room 70 leads into
room 71 which was partly excavated this year. In the corner a
sloping platform was found on which there was a concentration of
vertebrae. Cut into the edge of the platform was alater pit which,
however, respected the west wall of this room. Secondary activity is thus
again indicated, as it is by a curving wall in the southwest part of the
room. The westem wall of room 71 near the platform was plastered with
multiple layers, at least three of which were painted in salmon red - the
colouring was continuous and no designs could be identified. The
painting was consolidated and will be uncovered fully next year.
In the south of room 71 the plaster was very thick and extended
out around a plaster relief. Only the base of this relief survived. On the
floor beneath and around the relief were found the remains of a plaster
'box' in the of which was found a jaw of a large aurochs. There
was considerable evidence of bumt collapse material in this area. A well
defined floor was found at a depth of 40 cms - considerably higher than
in room 70.
Numerous samples were taken for chemical, lipid ete analysis and
micro-sorting. But even before the results of these are known, it
is clear that House 1 is extremely complicated. There are at least two
separate phases of use. The phase is associated with the main floors
(themselves renewed many times) and at least one plaster feature. The
second occurs after the initial filling of room 70 and is associated with a
reused hearth new symbolic elaboration. The high density of features
of a complex and symbolic nature recalls the so-called 'shrines' found in
the 1960s excavations (Figure:l). It demonstrates that there is no
evidence of a ritual 'elite' concentrated in one part of the site.
In the southwestern area (Figure:l) the 1960s trenches were cleaned
in an area 20 x 20 m. The aim here is to remove the walls left by Mellaart
so that exeavation of the early levels at atalhyk can begin. In
the fill in 'shrines' 1 8 was out in attempt to
18
[md Mellaart's 'deep sounding'. All walls rediscovered in this way were
drawn and photographs taken ready for removal next year. This process
has led to an evaluation of Mellaart's evidence and the complexities of
the stratigraphical sequence are now more fully understood, partly
through micromorphology. The plaster on the walls in these areas had
largely eroded off, but sorne smail areas of geornetric design were
identified. These plaster areas have been conserved and lifted. Courtyard
15 had been left unexcavated by Mellaart and so exeavation began in this
arca, uncovering multiple midden layers with high densities of bone.
All earth excavated in both areas of the site was dry sieved through a
5mm rnesh, with samples taken from each unit for water flotation.
Residues from the flotation were dried and further sorted down to 500

Other work conducted by the project included conservation research,
video documentation, and ethnoarchaeology in the surrounding villages
in order to study architecture. A display of 9 panels for visitors has been
set up in the new laboratories which have been constructed by the site.
Relatedprojects are the regional site survey (directed by Douglas Baird),
exeavation at (directed by Trevor Watkins), geomorphology
(directed by Niel Roberts) and social anthropology (David Shankland).
We owe an enormous debt to our government representative Mr. Ali
ndir and to the Ministry of Culture, Directorate of Monuments and
Museums for their help aud support. Assistance was also given byKonya
Museums (Director Erol) and the umra Belediyesi
Funding for the field research was provided by the British Academy, the
British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, the McDonald Institute, the
National Geographic Society and the European Commission.
The main sponsor for the project is Visa International and the main
long term sponsor is Merko. Co-sponsors are GlaxoWellcome and British
Airways.
19
1300
1250
1200
1150
1100
1050
1000
950
900
850
850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200
Figure 1: atalhyk East showing scraped areas and Mellaart's excavations in the
southwest
20
41
Hellenist1c/
Byzant1ne walls N
10m
Areas of dark grey
and black ash
21
1


19 .


42
1020,1160
Figure 2: Plan of area scraped on the mound at atalhyk East
21
l:3
Figure 3: Plan of Building
o
N
~
m
2
o obsidian
B bone
F flint
St stone
sb shell
D plaster feature
mcharcoal
~ scorched/bumt floor
~ Ister mud-brick wall
1995 YILI YUMUKTEPE
Yeli SEY1N*
Isabetla CANEYA
Kemalettin KROOLU
Kltr ve Mzeler Genel izin-
leriyle Prof.Dr.Veli Sevin'in Mersin/Yumuk-
tepe 2 -12 Eyll tarihleri
Bilim kurulu, Roma La Sapienze niversitesi'nden Dr. Isabella Ca-
neva, niversitesi'nden Prof. Dr. nder Bilgi, Marmara ni-
versitesi 'nden Yrd. Do. Dr. Kemalettin Istanbul Universi-
tesi'nden Uzman (MA) Aynur Erciyes Universitesi'nden
Gr. Hakan Sivas, Mimar Sinan Universitesi'nden Dr. Glgn
ltalya'dan Roberta Giocchetti (antropolog), Daniela Corrente
(mimar) ve Luciano Frazzoni (topograf), Sadberk
(M.A.) Hlya ve Istanbul Universitesi'nden Yksek Lisansiyer
Erkan Konyar (desinatr), iler Gner Mjgan
stajyer olarak da Mimar Sinan Universitesi'nden
Bensan E. Glay Albayrak, anakkale 18 Mart Uni-
versitesi'nden Burak Muharrem Oral, zgr ve Zafer
Sitti'den Kltr ve Mzeler Genel M-
ise Mzesi
Unl
Yumuktepe Orta ile ilgili gzlemlerde
bulunmak Istanbul'da faaliyet gsteren Hollanda Tarih ve Ar-
keoloji Merkezi Mdr Ted LaGro ile Sema Baykan
da 5.9/9.9.1995 tarihleri ekibe
(*) Prof. Dr. Veli SEVIN,Istanbul niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi 34459-lsTANBUL
Dr. Isabella CANEVA, Institute Paletnclcgia Via Palesrro 63001S5 RomaITALYA
Yrd. Do. Dr. Kemalettin KOROGLU, Marmara Universitesi Fen - Edebiyat Fakltesi
SI040ISTANBUL. .
23
maddi ynden Kltr ve Mzeler Genel
ile Roma La Sapienza Universitesi Bunun
Mersin Belediye ilgi gs-
ikametve sorunu bylelikle Sanat
Kulb ve zellikle de bu kulbn aktif Ali Merzeci her
zaman gibi ellerinden gelen
AMALAR
Yumuktepe'de paralelinde, Neolitik Orta
hemen hemen kesintisiz olan
zellikle 1960 sonra, park, yol ve zerindeki ya-
kaynaklanan olumsuz etkilerden mmkn
vadede bir "arkeoloji haline getirme
da srdrlmektedir.
1995 iki ana sektrde
(Resim: i): st sorumlu olan Istanbul Uni-
versitesi gurubunun gre 1995 doruk dz-
nceki amadan (Z O-I-II) iki-
sinde (Z O, Z II) srdrlmesine; bu
hemen kuzeyinde yeni bir (Z III) ve
bir sur ortaya yamata ise temizlik a-
karar etekteki ta-
bakalar zerinde Roma La Sapienza Universitesi grubu ise, Kal-
kolitik (KN) ve Ge Neolitik Dnem'e (EBA 1-6 ve NA) 3
amada devam etmeyi; analizlerden elde
edilen geleneksel arkeolojik yeni
tan ve zellikle sistematik radyokarbon
tarihlemesi konusundaki etdleri srdrmeyi
KAZ!
Doruk
(Orta
Zirvedeki amada toplam 335 m'lik bir alanda ger-

Hyk zirvesinin Yama zirvedeki
Z i bu sadece temizlik Onceki
lara raporlarda zere, Yama byk oran-
da tahrip bir Orta suru ? ZI
24
ise gnmzdeki yzey -2.1S m derinde Demir tabaka-

Z i ile Yama yer alan utaki Z O
yzey kire kk ve orta b-
yklkteki dere ile byk kalker bloklardan Orta
duvar ortaya doruk kesimindeki
Orta giderek ykselmesi ne-
deniyle bu alandaki olduka
Z O camdan bilezik ile ve dip
XI. ait tun anonim Bizans sikkeleri, tun ve demir objeler,
toprak ve kemik boncuklar, toprak kandil par-
byk depo ait paralar ile miktarda Orta
kiremiti ve hayvan kemikleri ele geiril-
Bu alandaki en ilgin buluntu ise zerinde bir Eros betiminin
men mermerden bir yksek kabartma Arka yz
az ince bir levha halindeki bu paramn, antik dnem Mersin
kentinden bil' lahide ait (Resim: 4).
zn bu Orta ait 2. ve 3. ortaya

ynnde uzanan 3.00 m
kadar bir koridor ya da sokak Koridor g-
neyden ve kuzeyden duvarlarla (Resim:2). Ozellikle kesme
lardan gney daha iyi Birka evreli
bu duvar zerinde
(Resim: 3). durumun, kuzey taraf iin de geerli sy-
lenebilir. Ancak bu yndeki duvarlar tmyle g-
nmze temel herhangi bir de-
Bylelikle ikinci iine 1993
ortaya ift bir girilebilen ve y-
nnde uzanan bir iki odalardan meydana gelen
bil' doku ile
Koridor dolgunun sonra 3.
ait olabilecek kireli bil' taban Bu taban da
bu kesimdeki genel uygun olarak al-
faaliyetleri olduka tahrip olan bu ta-
(1) V. Sevin-I. Caneva, 1993 Mersin/Yumuktepe XVI. Sonulan Top-
I, Ankara 1995, s. 27-41; V. Sevin-I. Caneva, "1994 Mersin/Yumuktepe Ka-
XVII. I, Ankara 1996, '.71-86.
25
bakada 2.34 m uzunluk ve 1.32 m dzgn kesme kalker
bir platform Dzgn
nemli bir birlikte, tahribat yznden
bunun ne gibi bir fonksiyonu Bu ka-
ait olabilecek bir duvar da
Kireli btn Z II kaplayan ve
kilde bir ortaya
Bu sadece kuzeyinde 2. du-
varlannca bir 1111, yoksa 3.
temellerine mi ait henz
Z II 1995 ok paralar halinde ve
anak-mlek ve kandiller, camdan bilezik de-
boyutlarda bardak veya kaba ait gvde ve dip
boncuk tun bilezik, ve objeler ile demirden ya-
aletler ele tir. Kemik veya boynuzdan
da buluntular
Orta Bizans Dnemi'ne tarihlenen seramiklerde beze-
me, astar ve astar bezeme kom-
pozisyonlara sahip ok rnek Bu anak-mlek ara-
halka dipli yayvan bir anak, bezemeleri ilgintir. Ka-
i ve mor-kahverengi boya ile iri bir palmet
ve evresindeki bordre bitkisel bir desen (Resim: 5).
Szn bezeme beyaz astar zerine, uy-
Yine bu arnada, teknik ve renklerde sarmal,
bitkisel ve tarama desenli rnekler de Uzerinde figr
olan bir rnekte, ve blm
gvde zerindeki pullar olarak g-
(Resim: 6). geen gibi,
sgrafitto (astar ve astar bezeme (slip) tek-
nikierinde ok para ele Slip de-
boyutlardaki ukur, dz veya ekik zellikle
i ve beyaz-bej astarla, parmak veya yar-
yanyana diagonal izgiler veya fisto bordr uy-
Boyama veya
renkli Bunlardan kk
kum ve mika zerinde ve geometrik iz-
giler olan boyutlarda, kulplu ve kulpsuz yemek
da (Resim: 7). Yine bu amadan toprak, renkli
veya kandiller ele
Cam bilezik yuvarlak, drtgen, kesitlidir. Burgu,
26
spiral biimli (pek cam bezemeli) rnekler de
Ozellikle kesitli bileziklerin zeri boya bezemeye sahiptir.
boyama rnekler zerinde ha, ve bit-
kisel grlmektedir.
Boynuzdan zerinde, kon-
santrik halkalar ve zigzaglar Yine boynuzdan ka-
yivli-oluklu izgilere sahip ve zerine renkli veya renkte
malzemenin deliklere sahip bir objenin,
tren kaidesi mmkndr,
Z II bulunan lL. ait olan 4 adet tun Bizans ano-
nim follisi zellikle tarihlendirmek
. nemli bir buluntu grubunu (Resim: 8 )2.
Z II kuzeyindeki Z III Orta
yeniden test etmek H-
doruk kesimindeki bu daha ok alan stratejisine
gre bu kesimde plankare yn-
temi yerine apraz kare ynteminin uygun buna
uygun olarak 4x4 m apraz iki karede gi-
Bu karelerde ortalama 0.80 m
Bugnk yzey hemen kalan bu tabakalar modern et-
kinlikler nedeniyle olduka
Etek
(Prehistorik
1995 Yumuktepe'de tarihncesi dnem in-
celemek iin, 3 amada ve toplam 170 lik
bir alanda KN Kalkolitik, EBA, 1-6 ve NA
Ge Neolitik tabakalar
Kalkolitik
tabandan 17.50 m yksekte, geen a-
K hemen kuzey ve KN 4 X 9 m
Yzey bir teras zerine ilk
kuzey ynl bir duvar ve bu
den Ancak bu mimarisi durumda
(2) Bizans Dnemi buluntulan konusundaki Yrd. Do. Dr. Glgn

27
zellikle erozyon, hyk teraslar, ve
direk dikmek iin ukurlar olduka fazla tahrip
bu iine stteki tabakalardan silo da
rol Duvarlar herhangi bir gs-
termeyen dere ile Tutturma malzemesi olarak ise
amur
Bu Kalkolitik Dnem'e tarihlenebilecek mutfak malzemesi
trnde anak mlek, ok miktarda kilden ve evin al-
2 adet de mezar ele Ge silo u-
kurunda da yine tipik Obeyd tipi Ge Kalkolitik malzemesi
anak mlek ierisinde az parlak siyah zemin
zerine beyaz motiflere sahip rnekler, dnemin sonunu ve
etkili yeni bir kltr etmektedir. gibi Tun
Mersin, Anadolu'nun blgeleri ile bir iinde g-
zkmektedir. Bununla birlikte materyallerin tipik ha-
ve kahverengi veya siyah motifleri olan Ge Obeyd ti-
pindeki anak mlekten ve bu zellikleri ile de
XII B ile gzkmektedir (Resim: 9). Elde yeni
karbon 14 tarihlerine gre bu tabaka G.O. 5360+80 tarihlen-
mektedir. , .
Geen XVI.
Obeyd Dnemi'nin K
(Resim:lO, 11) ise yeni verilere gre G.O. 5940+70 vermektedir.
Bylece hykte 4 m kltr ile temsil edilen btn
Obeyd Dnemi'nin. tarihlere gre 4900 ile 4200 700
kadar Yumuktepe'deki Obeyd Dnemi ta-
bakalan iin elde edilen bu yeni tarihler, son Breniquet- ta-
nerilen, zellikle de XVI. tabaka iin 4500 tarihini 3-
400 kadar ne ekmekte; bu dnemin 500 700
bir dnemi ortaya XVII. ta-
bakamn henz Halaf etkili kltrn
5 m kltr da yine Breniquet'in
gibi 2000 bugnk bilgilerimize gre, G.O. 6980+.80 ile
5940+70 1000 kadar gzkyor. Bu durum, ker-
piten evlerden ve aym sre bir-
birinin tabaka srecinin de esas itibariyle
gelmektedir.
(3) C. "La Stratigraphic des Niveaux Prehistoriques de Mersin et l'Evolution Cul-
turelle en Cilicie", Anatolia (Eski Anadolu) III (1995). 1-3
28
Ge Neolitik
tabandan 8 m yksekte bulunan ve 1994
Ge Neolitik Dnem'e alandaki EBA
1-6 NA ve A ile ve
150 m-ye
EBA 1-6 koridorlarla ok bir ile
evresindeki bu trde Duvarlar
ve oval dere ile dummlarda du-
i gele!"! yzeyleri Odalar kare veya dik-
drtgen biimindedir. Iki odada zel bir
birer kk
blme Ileri en az 3-4 tabaka halinde
ise birka tamir evresi Bu evrelerde
boyutunun seimi ve duvarlara biiminin gz-
lenmektedir. Bu alan daha nce Garstang kk
sondaj Trench A'dan nce olarak son mimari
tabaka olan XXVI veya biraz ncesi ile (Resim: 13).
1995 daha kltr bulunan EBA a-
alan (NA ke-
simin kalmakta idi. Burada 16 metrekarelik alanda st ste du-
varlar Bunlardan ge erken mimari
srdrdkleri ve hatta mimari
grlmektedir, Bununla birlikte teknikleri
ilk evrede, iki halinde, daha kk
byk, veya oval bunu izleyen
evrede, ok dolgu yuvarlak, kk
ve en ge olan duvarda ise yzde byk
da bir dolgu (Resim: 13).
Ortaya bu
iin sonucunda, byk
XXV. ile, bunun daha kk ise XXVI veya
XXVII. evreleri ile an-

Her ne kadar da, XXv. ve
XXVI. tabaka ev bir an-
Bu hem teknikteki ve hem de ar-
keolojik materyaldeki glendirilmektedir: Ge Neolitik
kk temsil eden ok ince ve iyi
veya siyah anak mlek ile birlikte byk temel se-
29
viyesinde yeni bir tip anak mlek de ortaya Elde ya-
byk kahverengi damla ve nokta motifleri ile ssl bu anak
mlek renkte, ve da genellikle bo-
yunlu mlek ieren tiplerdedir (Resim: 14).
Kk karbon 14 gre, M..
6200 ile 6000 bir tahrip byk temel
seviyesi ise M.O. 5800 tarihlenmektedir.
M.O. 6000 nce anak mlek yoktur; bu dnemde ss-
leme, yzeyin iyi bir biimde ve bezekli
ritler (Resim: 15) ierir veya noktalama bezeme).
Bu tabakalarda aletlerde herhangi bir
Aletler genellikle obsidienden ve kktr. Dzeltili
aletler, bir dilgicik zerine kk delicilerle
analizlerine gre bunlar delici olmaktan ok, burin olarak sert mad-
deleri iin, oval u kenarlar ise iin kul-

Karbon 14 rneklerinden Neolitik tabakalar iin. de yeni tarihler elde
Hyk en erken tabaka M.O. 7000 ta-
bandan 5 m ykseklikteki tabaka 6500 7.50 m de ise 6200 ta-
rihini vermektedir, Geen derin sondajda, hyk ta-
i m daha .ye
burada anak mleksiz Neolitik Ust
8 m blm 2000 burada 8
m lik stratigrafi 700 ilk
8 m ykseklikteki mimari, nedeniyle ge
dnemdekilerden daha
Bu erken tabakalarda zellikle hayvan kemikleri ile kar-
Kei, koyun, ve domuzdan drt ana grubu ieren
fauna evcildir. Yumuktepe, drt trn de evcil olarak
en erken merkezlerden biridir. koyun ve kei
bununla birlikte ve et ile
en nemli g-
rlr. Neolitik Mersin'e zg ve nadir bir zellik de hibir
yabani hayvan Dornuzun
tmden toplum ve
(Resim: 16). Anadolu kentler ve atalhyk'le
Mersin gibi sakinlerinin yabani hay-
vanlarla daha az ilgilendikleri iftilik ve hay-
ekonomisini tamamlamak iin yeterli olabilir. By-
30
lece biz Mersin'deki kltrel ve ideolojik da atalhyk'ten t-
myle iddia edebiliriz.
Mersin'de obsidyenlerin analizi Orta Anadolu
etmektedir. Bununla birlikte,
platodakiler direk bir gsteren bir
iin, bu blgelerin ara
kabileler mmkn grnyor. Mersin'de obsidien yongalama
rnlerinin bu yolla
Yumuktepe ile Anadolu kentler kltrel, ide-
olojik ve ekonomik farklar, Yumuktepe'nin ilk sakinlerinin orijinli
hipotezini ortaya atmak iin yeterince gldr. Devam eden
henz bilinmeyen Yumuktepe'teki ilk kyllerin Anadolu veya
Levant gelenekleri ile konusunda hayati bilgileri
paralelinde, Dr. Hala Barakat srdrlen
arkeobotani bu da devam edildi. Btn tabakalardan
bitki saptamak 500 litre kadar toprak
nce su iine konarak ve bitki yz-
drld, eleklerden geirilerek bu rnekler
VE PROJE
"Yumuktepe Arkeoloji Projesi" yrtlen a-
1995 ncelikle zirvesinde yer alan su de-
posu, .beton platform ve ocuk durumdaki so-
nuncusu tmyle zirvesinin 1960
dzeltilmesinin burada 38 x 45
m evreleyen beton ereve de
31
YUMUKTEPE'DEN RADYOKARBON
NEW RADJOCARBON DATES FROM YUMUKTEPE
g . yeri dnemi
dates b.p. provenance cultural attribution Garstang's levels
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Erken Neolilik
792090 Om Early pottery XXXiii
Erken Neolilik
779080 5m Early pottery Neolilhic XXX
Ge Neolilik
738080 8 m(NA2a A36) XXVI
Ge Neolilik
716080 8 m (EBA i A20/A17 2e) Late Neolithic XXVI
Ge Sonu
703090 8.50 m (EBA4 la-b) Latest Neolilhie XXV
Ge Neolilik Sonu
698080 8.50 m (NA A' Ib) Neolithic XXV
Orta Kalkalilik
594070 13 III (K) Middle Chalcolithic XVI
Orta Kalkolitik Sonu
536080 17.50 m (KN8 la Ci) Latest Chalcolithic XIIB
(4) Karbon 14 Roma La Supienza niversitesi Yer Bilimleri Blm'nden Gilberto
Caldereni
32
EJ\ZISI 1995
ENEL PLANI O 11500
Resim 1: Yumuktepe ama
33
Resim 2: Yumuktepe Z II genel grnm,
Resim 3: Yumuktepe Z 11 geidi
34
Resim 4:' lahit
Resim 5: Bitkisel motifli bir Orta
35
36
Resim 6: pulu motifli bir para
Resim 7: Orta bir mutfak
Resim 8: Anonim Bizans sikkelerl
37
,\
3
6
Resim 9: Ge Kalkolilik (XIIB) anak mlekleri
Resim XVI. tabakadan anak
38
-0-
Resim 11: XVI. tabakadan ift kulplu mlek
Resim 12: Ge Neolitik (XXIV'!)
bir mezar hediyesi
39
Resim 13: Ge Neolitik Dnem(XXVr!) mimari
40
Resim 14: XXV. tabakadan anak mlekler
.. \: ri)
. ,
r:J.V
'. ."
3
\.
Resim 15: XXVI ve daha erken tabakadan siyah ve
portakal renkte
'''LO
'20'
tooc
eoo

eoo j
",j
"'

E ij
o

o
.

.;-



]
o

;;
o
s-,

o
o

ll!!!. \\'elght
,
D
Number
Resim 16: Erken (tabaka XXX ve
hayvan kemiklerinin
41
BADEMAGACI 1995
Refik DURU*
1995 23 Eyll
tarihleri devam edildi'. Bu dneminde ku-
zeyindeki A her biri x 10 m'lik, C-5/III-5, C-5/III-4 ve D-2/
IV-2 plankareleri ve yz lm 700 m? ye
Sezon sonunda ortalama 2.5 m kadar
C-5/III-5 karesinde, bu sezon inilen en derin kadar olan bi-
rikimde, kl ve izleri in-situ hi
bir bu karede
durumu konusunda bilgi Buna birikim
iinde, Neolitik ait kesin olan ok anak mlek
(), topraktan figrleri ve bir hayli kk buluntu ele ge-

(*) Prof. Dr. Refik DURU, niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya Anabilim
FenPTT 34459tSTANBUL
(1) 3. dnem Yrd. Do. Dr. Glsn Umurtak
Kurulu Cevdet Erek (Mimar), Turhan Birgili (Arkeolog-
ve Aylin avdar, Nalftn Ozge Bckar, Devlet,
Muhammet Baluja, ve Murat Cengiz Kltr
ve Mzeler Genel temsilci olarak Mzesi Asis-
tanlanndan, Ahmet
her gibi bu da ve Mzelcr Genel ni-
vesitcsi Fonu (Proje no. 702/260495), Edebiyat Fakltesi De-
Trk Tarih Kurumu ve Kltr Dner Sermaye
(DOStM) desteklediler.
aya sremiz iinde Beldesi'ndeki ilkokulda Bel-
demizin Belediye Enver belediyesinin telefonundan, ve
ara tm
Antalya Mzesi Mdr Metin Pehlivaner olmak zere, mzede grev yapan tm
ile Antalya Kltr Mdr, Musa Seyirci, ge-
reksinmemiz olan her trl bilimsel ve brokratik Musa Se-
yirci'nin DOStM'den bir miktar byk oldu.
emekleri geenlere, parasal yapanlara ve ok
ve yukanda geen ve tm yneticilerine iten te-
sunmak istiyoruz.
43
C-S/III-4 karesinde ise, I.S m birikimden sonra, Erken
Neolitik (EN) ait ok durumda bir ortaya
nedeniyle hemen hi halde gnmze
kadar gelen, 7xS m lsndeki, dikdrtgen
ve tek bu 40-4S cm Duvar, temelin
en alt dzeyinden kerpiten ite
ve resimde gibi, yuvarlak bir haline
(Resim: i, 2).
Bu evin 3.S m bir
Ancak bu ikinci evin ok byk iin,
genel plan ve konusunda bilgi edinmek mmkn Bu
ikinci evin kuzeyinde bir nc daha kuvvetli bir ih-
timaldir. Bu de (Resim:
2).
dar alanda-veya sokakta - g-
nmze kadar ok iyi gelen bir depolama tesisi var-
(Resim: I, 2). S gz olan ve gerekte 6 gzl anla-
bu depolama tesisi, kare biimli kutulardan
Bu taban dzleminin EN'nin daha erken
evrelerine ait
D-2/lV-2 karesinde, ilk iki
dneminde ortaya Tun
temellerini izlemek tarla yzeyinden iti-
baren ortalama-L.S m derinliklere kadar olan birikim iinde, ait
bol miktarda ele fakat bu dnemin bu-
Bu derinlikden sonra, N'ye ait kk buluntular gel-
. ve -2.20 m'de, temellere rast-
(Resim: 3). 1994 ve bir
grnm olan temelli olan bu
da ait
Son dneminde, ile ilgili bir de, D-2,3/lV-
I,III-S karelerindeki duvarlann, iki megaron ait ol-
(Resim: 4).
Neolitik plankarelerde, gerek st bi-
rikim gerekse kerpi evlerin bu yrenin iyi bilinen Neolitik
ok rnek Kahverengi veya gri ha-
murlu, iyi ve biim olarak S profilli yas-
44
gvdeli mlekler bu dnem en
trleridir. Kulp yerine hemen her parada, dikine delikli silindirik tu-
tamaklar Neolitik 'si iinde sadece bir mlek zerinde,
dibe inen paralel boya Bu bo-
para izi ve kabartma ile bezeli bir para yoktur.
Bu genel izginin bir kap, sepet kulplu bir m-
lektir.
Kk buluntular topraktan birka ana fi-
grini ile iki damga mhr kk boy keskiler
ve irice baltalar, en ok bulunan eserlerdendir.
veya obsidiyenden pek ok dilgi ve yonga var-
EN'nin dikdrtgen evi ile kil de-
polama geidin zerinde binlerce sileks par-

alanda, blgenin tipik anak
bol rnekle, iki idol ele
ve Sonu/ar
1995 dneminde 300 m- lik alanda saptanan
ile kk buluntular, ile blgedeki yer-
ve benzerlikler konusunda, bu-
gnden sylenebilecek saptanabilmesine olanak
Bu
Mimari EN ile Hycek ta-
dnemi ve GN ben-
zerlikler
kil levhalardan kutular da, sz
edilen iki merkezde teknikle
EN 'sinde ok grlen dikey ip delikli tp tu-
tamaklar ve anak ve mleklerdeki hafif S profiller, Hycek,
ve Kuruay'da da benzer
Bu ortak hususlar ile Burdur blgesinin daha
kuzey kesimlerinin Neolitik arkeolojik ara-
da i hatta
bazen sadece
45
zg bir zelliktir. Bir ve gibi Burdur
blgesinin nemli Neolitik merkezlerinin krem zerine boya be-
zemeli 'sinden hi bir ol-

Bugn iin, Neolitik Anadolu'nun bu ke-
siminin Neolitik iindeki kesin olarak Ancak
Hycek dnemi ile bu iki merkezin
ve bu dnemin EN olarak gs-
teriyor Kesin tarihleme istenirse, bu dnemin Ha-
VI ve Kuruay II hemen nceye, Hycek
dnemi ile birlikte M.O. 7. bin son iine ait ol-
sylenebilir,
46
Resim 1: Erken Neolitik kesim, nde yu-
ev
Resim 2: kuzeyden
47
Resim 3: en erken temelleri
Resim 4: lT'nin yanyana iki megaronu
48
lUPINAR EXCAVATIONS 1995
Jacob ROODENBERG*
The main mound; the big square
Work was carried out at for the eighth season in succession.
Since the of the excavations in 1987, more than 4 of the 5 ID thick
archaeological deposit of the big square (yVX 12/13) was removed and a
great many ground plans of houses marked by rows of wall-posts,
brought to light (Fig.l).
This season, during which the big square was excavated another 50
cm, the aim was to further document the transition from phase X to IX.
This was hampered by the non regular deposition of the successive
building and levels as a results of a depression in the subsoiL.
In the "Main Section" can be observed how this depression occurred by
the drying out and settling of a peat filled ditch.
During the last two seasons, the top level of the deposit ascribed to
phase X, had been excavated in W 12/13 and the west part of X12. This
level was characterized by chunks of redburnt clay--the remains of a
number of burnt down houses. For the observation of the successive
building structures, the traces of this fire tumed out to be rather usefuL In
the southwestern area of the big square (yV12) this season the remova! of
the burnt debris revealed the contours of another groundplan. To the
and east, in W13 and X13, postwall ditches filled with burnt
building debris appeared. These ditches apparently had belonged to
houses built after the fire: theyare dated to phase IX.
(*) Dr. Jacob ROODENBERG, Nethertand Institute for the Near East Witl Singel25 POB 9515
2300 RA Lciden/HOLLAND
49
The house plans of the oldest phases at show mutual
similarities as for size and orientation: theyare NW-SE oriented
one-room dwellings of ca 30 each, standing on a plot of an average
100 m'', the surface of the big square constitnte a minor part of
the village, disposition of the house plans found here hints to aradial
village plan with the spring as its central point.
The cemetery, discovered in 1994 north of the dwelling area, also
stretches to the east, as shown by the latest excavations. Skeletons of
different ages were found in open areas at the perifery, it seems, of the
whereas infants had been buried in the yards close to the
houses. Inhumation undemeath house floors, a funeral tradition practiced
in eastern regions, had not been followed at
The southwest
In square P9, which had been excavated in former seasons until a
depth of L.80 m, asounding of 3 x 9 m wide was made in order to carry
out a stratigraphy control of the archaeological deposit in this sector of
the mound. The now 5.5 deep trench (measured from the mound surface)
shows a 3.5 m thick deposit of phase VI building levels. Underneath this,
2 m of accumulated phase VIII-IX levels were investigated. Before virgin
soil will be reached at an estimated depth of 7.5m, a considerably thick
accumulation of phase X occupation remains is expected to come to
light.
In the samesector, a house plan had been uncovered (square N9)
which was different from the standard one-room type of
house was built on the edge of the settlement (phase VI), with its
backside on the slope of an or rampart.
The bank was investigated to a length of 13 m during last season. In
section, it is triangular and rises i to L.5 m above the trodden surface
around the deseribed house. Originally it may have been topped with a
fence. Still, I don't think this construction was intended as a defence
system, but merely sheltered cattle at night and in the meantime may
have constituted the village's symbolic barrier, Neolithic
demarcations known from the Balkans, where ditches surrounded the
villages. In Anatolia (Kuruay) and the East (Magzalia), Low stone
walls seem to have fulfilled function, whereas real defence
systems, aimed at keeping the enemy away, in fact, only became
widespread in the IIIrd millennium Be.
50
the surface of bank appeared ruins of three
compartments or rooms, separated from each other by double mudrick
walls. The limited size of these rooms, ca 3,5 by 4 m, suggest
were part of a building complex. Surprisingly, each room was filled
with debris of two floors. Originally, the lower one was laid above a
sanitary space, whose function was obviously to keep floor away
from the moist subsoil. The second floor indicates that there had been
initially an upper storey, which had collapsed as a result of a fire that had
destroyed the building. These floors were built with a thick layer of mud
plaster applied on a subfloor of timber. Partly in situ, there were silos or
containers of different shapes and sizes, and fragments of big square
ovens with flat tray like roofs. More than 40 grinding slabs and tools and
an even bigger number of fragmented pottery vessels were recovered
from the fallen upper storey debris, It is possible that what we now
consider to be the remains of a second storey-flor, one day will turn out
to be the debris of a terrace roof (Fig.2).

This smail site lies the boundaries of the settlement
territory. It was inhabited on the course of III rd millennium when
apparently was During this third exeavation season,
soil was reached in the western half of the 7 x 9 m sonnding, at a
depth of 4.5 m below the surface of mound. In the lower most 2 m of
the archaeological deposit several troddensurfaces and the contours of
two buildings were encountered. These north-south oriented buildings
were of the postwall construction type with abasin like device on the
successive mud-plaster floors, which may have served as a fireplace.
Investigation of the 4.5 m thick.accumulation of building levels had led
to the assumption that occupation occurred during the first
half of the EBA (3000-2700 B.C), but a few Radiocarbon
indicate it dating to around 2400 Re. Further sampling of the occupation
layers, together a thorough analysis of the vast collection of pottery
sherds are expected to provide with a more accurate position
in the chronology of Anatolia.
51
Fig:2
52
j

191'\7-1995

..
'......... 'n,
;:".
un.'
HYO 1995 YILI KAZISI
Mehmet ZDOGAN*
PARZINGER
Necmi KARUL
1995 nceki gibi, il
merkezinin gneyindeki tarih ncesi yerlerinden
ve mevkilerinde
orta kesimine ve nceki
4 ve 5. katlanna kadar
orta kesimin ve kuzeyinde,
saptamak ve jeofizik ortaya
namak ile 12 ama daha Bylelikle 1995 sonunda
mevkiinde toplam olarak 2000 metrekarenin zerinde bir
alan alana bu sonunda, Orta Kal-
kolitik Kalkolitik ve Son
Neolitik daha da Ay-
1994 jeofizik lmlerinde grlen daire biimli iziu, Orta
Demir ait byk bir ait da ortaya
Bu ikinci kesim mevkiinin kuzey yer-
yeri Burada 500 metrekarelik bir alan
kk bir derin sondaj da kuzey yer-
yzey iinde ok bozuk durumda Helenistik Dnem
izleri bunun hemen megaron tr evlerden ve
bir sur ya da evre ile evrili Tun III d-
nemine ait bir tabakaya derin Anadolu
Tun kltrleri ile benzerlik gsteren bu hemen
(*) Prof. Dr. Mehmet ZDdAN. Prehistorya Anabilim Edebiyat Fakltesi, Istanbul ni-
versitesi, 34459 ISTANBUL
Prof. Dr. Hermann PARZINGER, Euratisehe Abteilung. im Dol 2-6, 14195 BERLIN
53
Balkan Tnn kltrlerine ait ve
kk bir gl gs-


1993 Trakya-Marmara Blgesi Projesi kap-
tarih ncesi yerlerinde
muz 1995 ve Eyll iinde de devam edil-
Onceki gibi Istanbul Universilesi
Edebiyat Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim Kltr
ve Mzeler Genel Istanbul Universilesi Edebiyat Fa-
kltesi, Istanbul Universilesi Fonu ile Alman Ar-
keoloji enstitlerinin ile ekibi Prof. Dr.
Mehmet ile ikinci Dr. Hermann Parzinger'in (Ber-
lin) ynetiminde, alan sorumlusu Arkeolog Necmi Karul,
Dr. Ivan Gatsov (Sofya), Arkeozoolog Dr. Benecke
(Berlin), Arkeobotanist Dr. Reinder Neef (Berlin), Arkeolog Dr. Oz-
alan yneticisi ve Restoratr Arkeolog Gltrk, alan y-
neticisi Arkeolog Ahmet Ayhan, ama yneticisi Arkeolog Burin
(Edirne) ok Trk, Alman ve
Kltr bu Sibel Alpaslan
byk bir zveri ve itenlikle destek
nceki gibi ekibimiz, Ah-
mete Ky'nde ve ve ilgi
ve her zaman iin zellikle
Kltr ve Kltr Mdr Blent Dizdar-
her konuda bize
Valisi etin Birmek de ilgisini
Gerek gerek. kamp
lareli'ndeki kurum ve iin ok borluyuz.
i995 PROGRAMi VE KAZi
mevkiinde iki yer-
orta kesimindeki esas dolgunun Orta Kalkolitik ait ol-
Bu kesimde 3. ve 4.
Karanovo III ile V. kltr dneme, Vina
kltrnden kltrne srecine ait bilgi
bu ok az bilinen dnemini, srecini, Anadolu-Balkan kltr
bir ok yeni bilgi zmne
Orta Kalkolitik Dnem'e ait
54
iki gene dneme ait
iki daha
nceki ait da gibi,
tarih ncesi orijinal hyk dol-
gusunu da kullanarak M.O. 5. yz ve daha sonra da da-
evreye olan tmls nedeni ile ok bo-
Yzey verileri ile ne Orta Kalkolitik
ne de daha eski yerini saptama
i 994 ile evresindeki bir alanda je-
ofizik yntemlerle bu sorunlara zm ile tarama ya-
Bu ok daha bir
alana eski gnmzden ok
ne tr bir ait ok
olan daire biimli iki iz de Bu veriler
rultusunda dzenlenen 1995
a) kesimde Orta Kalkolitik ilk evrelerine ait kat-
bir alanda
b) ve kuzey kesimlerinde kk sondajlar ile
gerek Orta Kalkolitik belirlenmesini, ge-
rekse daha eski dnemlere ait
c) Jeofizik taramalarda grlen daire biimli izlerin nitelik ve hangi
dneme ait ngrmekteydi.
Daha nce mevkiinde yzey
tarih ncesi dnemlere ait izlerinin ok bir
alana Bunlardan Haydardere'nin gneyindekiler,
ve kuzeyindeki ise kuzey olarak
olarak 1994 sondaj ve
ikisi Son Kalkolitik, ikisi de Tun ait 4 evreli bir
yerinin ancak 10-15 kadar nce tanmsal amala
tepe tesviye edilirken arkeolojik dolgunun da hemen hemen tm ile or-
tadan ancak derine, ana iine ukurlar ile,
elektrik kk bir
mevkiinde devam etmenin bir ol-
bu nedenle, greli olarak iyi ko-
kuzey kesimde, 1995 hi arkeolojik dolgu ni-
belirlemek ile bir karar

55
1- 1995 YILI
da gibi, 1995
ve Kuzeyolmak zere tarih ncesi yer-
iki kesiminde alanlar ile elde
edilen zetleyebiliriz:
A -
14-15/ G- K ve 13 H a-
orta kesime bunun gene nceki
olan 13 M devam Yer-
ve kuzey kesimlerinde de sondaj bo-
yutlarda 11 ama
Orta yolunun ke-
1993 1994 35x20
m lik bir alan olarak yola d-
zenlenen bu byk bir geen 4. kadar
ancak blmleri 3. tabaka iinde
bir alanda da 5. ve 6. katlara Bu ilk olarak tm alan 4. ta-
baka dzlemine ve daha sonra daha alt
Ancak amalarda 4. iinde ikinci bir
evresinin daha bu nedenle mevsiminin sonunda
tm alan 5. kadar Yolun ya-
mata st evrelere ait ok durumda g-
Bu kesimde sadece 6. da
Orta kesim ile olan ancak ara blme ko-
bunlar ile 1993 sonra
tabaka iinde olan, 13 H da bu ye-
niden Bu amada 4. tabakaya kadar nemli bir
ancak 4. tabakada, ok bir byk
bir izleri ortaya
a) 3. Tabaka: Bu 14 3. ait 2 x 3 m bo-
bir izi ile, ok bozuk durumda bir ocak
bunun bir ev av-
lunun iindeki bir ait 15 de ise, iinde
kk yerleri olan bir avlunun 1994
15 K iin
3. ait, en az iki tamir olan kub-
beli byke bir ait ortaya Bu 4. kat ya-

56
b) 4.Tabaka: 1994 15 H ve 15 K ile tah-
rip iki Bu bu iki kalan
15 4. tabaka dzlemine ve her iki da plan-
duvarlar 4. yer-
dzeni
gneyinde, 15 H, ve K boyunca, kuzey-kuzey-
ynnde uzanan bir dizi
birimlerden bu bir birlerine ve olarak di-
kuzeyi boyunca, 9 m eninde bir alan ve
bunun da kuzeyinde, gene ncekilere ikinci bir dizisi daha
alanda tm ile depo, ambar gibi hafif
evlerin ise daha Byk
bir 1993 13 M
da, daha kuzeydeki nc bir dizisine aittir. Bu grnm ile
4. zenle dzenli bir ky yer-
izlenimini vermektedir, Nitekim, Bulgaristan'da bu dneme ait
yerlerinden Golyamo Delevo, Polyanitsa, Razgrad ve Ovarovo da
benzer bir dzeni izlenmektedir; ancak sz konusu yer-
oranla alanlar daha yer kap-

standart ancak genellikle biri kk,
byk olmak zere iki odadan Du-
nce bir hendek iine bir dizi
direk sonra, ii kerpi ile dol-
Duvar 25 ila 40 cm
her iki yz de beyaz kireli bir madde ile zenle
Buna oda olduka bu da taban olarak
izlenimi vermektedir. Nitekim gerek
ve gerekse Bulgaristan'da bu dneme ait izleri bu-
iindeki ocak ve genellikle tabandan 20-30
cm zerindedir. Gerek bu platformun ke-
gerek taban ve yan yzeyleri ve zenli olarak

Genellikle kuzey ya da bir dizi drtgen
ambar Ambarlar 70 cm drtgen
kil levhalardan Bnnlar ile yuvarlak ambarlara ve
depo da
evreleyen olduka zenle temiz ve
o kez de Ev dizileri ara-
57
kalan avluda byk kubbeli depo olarak kul-
kk Ancak avlulardaki
konut olarak olduka
B 20-30 cm direkler
ince bir it rg ile duvar yzleri
Bu tr ilerinde, 14 i bir rnek
belirtecek her hangi bir ize 14 i a-
2x3 m
drtgen iinde ok ya da
malahit ve alet Bu boncuk iin

kadar hi bir ya da yerini
gsteren bir iz Bunun bir yoksa du-
dzlemden daha kay-
ancak ileride belli Ancak 15 K bulunan
boyunca uzanan, direkli bir

Daha nce 4. olarak dolgu iinde, yer yer
ikinci bir yenileme evresinin Bu zellikle 15 H ve
15 K kesin olarak izlenmekte,
ise bu ikinci evreye ait her hangi bir iz grlmemektedir. Genelolarak 4.
her iki evresi ile 3. sonra
yerde, kk plan ile ancak 2. ka-
dzeninin belirgin bir biimde sylenebilir.
Avlu ise
c) 5. ve 6. katlan :Bu 5. ve 6. 14 ve
15 H Her iki amada da 5. tabaka, tm alana ya-
san renkli, killi, ok dzenli bir taban ile temsil edilmektedir. San
hemen koyu kahve renkte, iinde ok az ve ok kk
anak olan bir dolgu ile, beyaz bir taban izi
ok bir alanda bu dolgu 6. olarak ta-
ana zerine oturan bu dolgu Neolitik-
Kalkolitik srecine tarihlenmektedir.
d) l3 M Orta kesim bu amada,
4. ait iki izine Bunlardan
gney kesiminde direklerden gney ve kuzey
ile bir blm Ancak duvar iz-
leri, ok kesintili ve bozuk durumda boyutlan ve i
blmlernesi tam olarak orta
58
bir nedenle olarak da g-
Bu hemen kuzeyinde, byk bir blm ama
kalan, greli olarak daha iyi durumda ve ge-
ikinci bir daha Iki kalan alanda da,
bir insana ait alt ene
e) 9 L ve 12 PIR (Hendek) : da
gibi 1994 jeofizik lmleri 120 m kadar
dzgn yuvarlak ilgin bir izine
olan manyetik lmlerde saptanan bu anomalinin, ge-
7-8 m, de 3-4 m olan bir alana ait
olduka g olan bu iz, ev-
releyen bir kerpi duvara ait gibi, malzeme ile
dolu bir de ait olabilirdi. Trakya'da savunma sistemi olarak ker-
pi duvardan ok hendeklerin gz nne bu izin,
Orta Kalkolitik evreleyen bir savunma ait ola-
Bu izin nitelik ve tarihini saptamak ile,
izini kuzey ve kesen 9 L ve 12 P

Her iki amada da, yzey hemen jeofizik l-
mlerine gre 1 metre ile hendek Enine
kesiti "V" biiminde olan st 8 m, ise
3 m dibe ana iine eni 2 m'ye
kadar i ke-
sime bylelikle hemen bir tmsek
saptanan ller, jeofizik verilere,
hemen hemen tam olarak Buna jeofizik
lmleri yksek anomalinin ancak bir toprak -
dolguya ait ise, iin-
de hemen hemen hi bir madde buna
ok daha fazla malzeme
Hendek, hemen yzey ve tm tarih
ncesi tabakalan kesmektedir. Hendek dolgusu iinde de daha ok M.O.
6. ve ait paralar Bu
ok adak ukuru ile Demir
kutsal Bu sonu zerine
geri kalan
f) Sondaj Amalan: da gibi, tarih ncesi yer-
ve saptamak ile, ve kuzey y-
nnde bir dizi sondaj Bu sondajlarda elde edilen sonular
zetlenebilir:
59
8 L Jeofizik lmlerinde grlen alanlardan en ku-
zeydekilerden birini ile, sondaj olarak
bir belirlemesi ile alan Bulunan malzeme, orta
kesim 3. tabaka ile Bunun
altmda gene ancak ok iyi bir mekan sap-
iki evresi bulunan ve orta kesim 4. ile
bu iki Duvar yz-
leri ve taban ok zenle Ilgin olan,
bir kerpi molozunun iinde beyaz boya bezemeli ilk Neolitik
Dnem anak Bu paralar her ne kadar
in situ durumda de, Neolitik Dnem
sinin kesin olarak bu da bu ke-
siminde Neolitik Dnem'in ilk kez
byk bir nem
7 - 8 P, da benzer dolgular ile ancak bu
ileriki olan 8 P a-
2. ukur dol-
gusunda, byk bir ait paralar, durumda
Kerpi ve zeri beyaz olan n yz
kesme ve oymalar ile
11-12 R, 13 Y- Z ve 14Y amalan: Bu amalar, Orta Kalkolitik yer-
ok daha bir alana Orta Demir
da ve gneye
Kalkolitik Dnem'e ait duvar; ocak ve taban
dar sondajlar da, ana yer yer 3 m derinde
Bu elde edilen en nemli sonu, ana zerinde ilk
Kalkolitik Dnem
B - KANU KUZEY
nceki ait raporumuzda da gibi,
300 m kadar smda, Haydardere 'nin her iki boyunca,
tarih ncesi dnemlere ait bir ok yeri Eli-
mizdeki veriler, Neolitik ile Tun srekli olarak
dere boyunca kayarak yer ilk Tun iin-
de de, ekirdek bir alt biriminin ge-

mevkii olarak bu kk yer-
1994 ilk olarak en ile de-
burada, Son Kalkolitik ve ilk
60
Tun kltr sreci ok byk
bir nem ancak dolgusunun hemen hemen tm ile
dzletilerek tahrip
devam etmenin ortaya yzey bu-
gre Tun ait olan, ve daha az
belli olan kuzey denenmesine kadar verildi. Bu yer-
1980 ve 1994 yzey
dnemini tam olarak
da bu vermemizde etkili
kuzey mevkiinde bu tabakalanma srecini ortaya
kartmaya ynelik bir bu amala 29
N ile 31 R karelerinde, m lik 2 kk ama ile 12N
hi buluntu ve ile kar-
alan giderek ve mevsiminin sonunda 28-30 N
ile 28-30 P da iine alacak SOO metrekarelik bir alana

kuzey dolgusunun bir blm nceki
larda makine ile ve bir ka nce de, iin
ok miktarda sklerek Bu nedenle yer-
en son dnemleri ile ilgili pek fazla iz
ancak yzey' iinde bulunan Klasik, Helenistik Dnem
burada, M.O. S. kk bir ya da
Gene yzey inen ilk Tun da,
ile zerinde de, ilk Tun 'na ait en az
bir daha
yzey ancak hangi tabakaya ait ol-
tam olarak i ile i ,S m
halkalar Bunlardan en iyi durumda ko-
iinde, bozuk durumda insan iskelet

Yzey hemen ok iyi bir or-
taya Bu tabakada megaron
iki byk ile, evreleyen byk bir duvar bu-
28 N da, henz tam olarak birlikte,
en az iki evresi olan byk bir tahkimat ile geitli ol-
yeri byk megaronun ama iine
giren 14 x 6 m Bu megaronun iki an-
tesi en grlen
arka byk ante mi, yoksa bir i blmeye mi ait ancak gelecek
61
belli Megaronun iinde olarak
bir taban esas taban
dzlemi tarla srlrken yok Bu megaronun gneyinde, 1
metre mesafede, tam olarak uzanan ikinci megaron
Bu megaronun en az iki blmesi ancak gney
tmnn 1996

Her iki megaron ile, kuzeyden evreleyen ka-
60 cm ok iyi bir gsteren bu du-
temel bunun zerinde rt
ile kerpi
dmdz uzanan bir duvar duvar
gney ynnde 15 m kadar devam ettikten sonra me-
evreleyecek gibi dnmektedir. Bu duvann hemen al-
ok daha iki byk izi belli ancak bu du-
varlar bu tam olarak temizlenmeden Ancak st
dizilerinden bir sur sistemi ile geitli bir yerine ait ol-
ve kendi iinde de en az iki tamir evresi belli 01-

31 R sondajda, megaron hemen al-
1 m kadar olan ve tipik Ezero dnemi anak
veren da hemen susal
bir bir gl dolgusunu veren katman, bunun da
Kalkolitik ait bir tabaka ana
varmadan
II - MALZEME VE YAYIN HAZIRLlGI
A - Arkeozooloji
Gerek ve gerekse mevkiinden bulunan ok
hayvan ile Dr.Norbert Benecke in-
celenmektedir. toplanan malzemeye ek
olarak, belirli alanlarda, zellikle saptamak ile elek
de 1995 mevsimi sonunda Dr.Benecke,
yzbinin zerindeki verilerin bil-
gisayara yklenmesine
nceki ek olarak, bu elde edilen ilk veriler Orta Kalkolitik
ait 4. tabakadan sonra besicilikte
62
koyun ve keiden daha fazla nem koyun trnn de
gstermektedir. Besi av, tm Kal-
kolitik boyunca nemini Ilk Tun
bir sre iin av azalma olmakla birlikte, Ilk Tun
av yeniden belirli bir iz-
lenir. Av kemikleri zerinde ilk
de, ve Orta Kalkolitik olarak step uygun
ancak Son Kalkolitik iinde,
ve orman ortaya Kalkolitik
avlanan aslan ve yaban kedisinin bu-
Tun da grlmesi ilgintir.
Klasik adak bulunan hayvan ke-
miklerinin incelenmesi de, o dnemin kurban ile ilgili ok ilgin
sonu Kurban edilen hayvanlar zellikle koyun, tav-
domuz bulunmakta, genellikle ya hayvan tm olarak ukura, ke-
sildikten sonra ya da belirli bir se-
ilmektedir; bu bir ukurda i 8 koyunun n
bacak topln olarak
B - Buluntu
aletler zerinde srdrmekte olan Dr.Ivan
Gatsov'un elde ilk sonular, 5 ve 4. Ne-
olitik bu yana sren temsil daha ok byk
dilgi bir envanterin Ancak 3. ta-
bakada endstrisinde nemli bir olmakta, byk dilgi
aletler ortadan kalkarak yerini, Mezolitik Dnem aletlerini mik-
rolitik bir endstri Bu tabakada aletlerin
ve de nemli bir Minik aletlerin
zellikle mikro deliciler, minik n ve yuvarlak ok
az olmakla birlikte geometrik aletlere ve zellikle
da ilgintir. Bu denli ge bir dnemde arkaik bir
teknolojinin, mikrolitik blgeye nereden ve gel-
ileride sonunda belli .
C- anak mlek
ve Orta Kalkolitik anak zerindeki
Dr.Parzinger, Son Kalkolitik malzemesi ise sr-
drlmektedir. Dr.Parzinger 1993 bulunan malzemenin tm ile
1994 byk bir blmnn n bi-
80 bin mal ve biim ya-

63
D - Arkeomettik
Toplanan ok rnekler zerinde laboratuvar ve ku-
ilk olarak 8 radyoaktif be-
lirlemesinin Bunlar 3. evrenin G..
6300 gstermektedir.
E - Depo Sorunun zm
Alunete Ky'ndeki evinin, ekibimizin giderek daha
malzemesinin miktar ve hacim kar-
yetersiz daha geen belli Bu sorunu z-
mek iin, ile Milli de ile,
Kltr uzun ky ilkokulu
ile ekibimize tahsisini
64
65
ma J'1il.s/ TlJ\l.Ul5
lS!'.iI TIJlilWW SlTES
uRBAH
GNEY i
LOCATION OFSnES
Resim 2 : kenti gneyi sit konumu
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0\
\D Resim s: jeofizik lmlere gre gl anomali veren yerlerin bilgisayar
Resim 6: A a P n a r . hyk zerinde jeofizik lmleri
Resim 7: A a P n a r , Orta Demir a adak ukurunda hayvan iskeleti
70
8: 24-15 L 4. tabaka, ve avlu
Restm 9: 8 L
71
ResimlO: 131\1 avludaki direkli
Resim ll: kuzey, genel grnm
72
Resim 12: kuzey Tun megaronu
Resim 13: kuzey megaron: duvar ve ocak
73
Resim 14; gney, genel grnm
Resim 15: Orta Demi)" fibula
74
Resim 16: A a P n a r , Orta Demir a , bilekllk
Resim 17: A a P n a r , O..ta Demir a , bilekHk
75
76
Resim 18: Orta Kalkolitik sunak
Resim 19: Orta Kalkolitik
2 3 4
Resim 20: Orta Kalko-
litik figrin
Resim 22: Orta
Kalkolitik
kemik
Resim 21: Orta Kalkolitik
figrin
77
78
Resim 23: Orta Kalkolitik
Resim 24: megarondan Tun

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80
KAZANE HYK, 1995: EXCAVATIONS AT
AN EARLY CITY
Patricia WATTENMAKER*
i would like to express our appreciation to Prof. Dr. Engin zgen
and the Directorate of Monuments and Museums for permission to con-
duct this research. i also thank Mr. Adnan Director of the
Museum, for his support of this work. i am grateful to Dr. Guil-
lermo Algaze, who facilitated this work in many ways, and to Dr. Harald
Hauptmann, Mr. Michael Morsch, and Dr. Klaus Schmidt for their hos-
pitality. Dr. Nurettin kindly provided advice. The 1995 season
was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and National
Geographic Society.
In addition to the author, the 1995 staff included Songl Ceylan (rep-
resentative from the Museum), Elise Auerbach (University of
Chicago), Simon Bickler (University of Virginia), Kadir Ozdcmir
(METU), Ben Coockson , Kksal, Julia Frane (University of
Carolina, Chapel Hill), Jim Knudstad (project architect), Arlene
Miller (Calgary University) , Naomi Miller (University of Pennsylvania;
project ethnobotanist), Eric Rupley (University of Michigan) and Henry
Wright (University of Michigan). The Area H excavations and artifact
anal yses were conducted by Henry Wright. Area C was supervised by
Julia Frane, James Knudstad and Naomi Miller. Area F was supervised
by Elise Auerbach and Eric Rupley. Arlene Miller undertook the geo-
archaeological study. The phytoliths were studied by Rosa Maria Albert
and Arlene Miller.
(*) Prof.Dr. WATTENMAKER, University of Virginia Dept. of Antropology 303
Brooks Hall. Charlcttesville. VA 22903- USA
81
Kazane Hyk: Excavations at an Early City
Kazane is a large ancient center located approximately four ki-
lometers southeast of where the Anatolian foothills meet the
steppe of Upper Mesopotamia (Fig. I). The site was chosen for
exeavation because the early occupational sequence presented an ideal
opportunity to study the rise of civilization in southeast Anatolia. More-
over, there was an urgent need for excavations at the site. The major ca-
nal of the Tunel project had been cut through Kazane, and the lower
town is threatened by the expansion of irrigation, Previous seasons at the
site (1992-1994) have shown that Kazane was founded by the Halaf pe-
riod and occupied continuously until the Middle Bronze Age.
excavated thus far include those from the Halaf, Late Chalcolithic, Early
and Middle Bronze Age periods. As early as 5,000 B.C., Kazane was a
large regional center. In the mid-third millennium the settlement reached
its maximum size of 100 hectares and was surrounded by a
wall.
During the 1995 season at Kazane, we continued excavations in
three parts of the site opened in 1994, a step trench on the high mound
(Area H; Fig.2), a large mid-third millennium building on the lower town
(Area C), and a mid-third millennium building with associated work-
shops on the outer town (Area F). The excavations were conducted to
contribute to the project of outlining the occupational history of the
site and understanding the rise of cities in sontheast Anatolia.
The Area H Step Trench
The 1994 step trench In Area H, on the west slope of the high
mound, was expanded to 1) continue efforts to establish the occupational
sequence at Kazane, 2) document the artifact assemblages from the Late
Chalcolithic period into the Early Bronze Age and 3) to investigate the
nature of the settlement during thi:; key period that preceded growth
of Kazane as a large city in the third millennium. Toward theaim of de-
fining the occupational sequence, we emphasized precise stratigraphic
control and thorough recovery of artifacts, rather than broad exposures.
Using such as approach, we have documented the Late Chalcolithic ce-
ramic sequence in this part of the site, as well as the transitional as-
semblage between the Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Exeava-
tions yielded an over four meter deep sequence of uncovered
mudbrick houses and associated features and fill deposits. In 1995 ex-
posure of the earliest structure found in 1994 was expanded (Fig. 3). In
one room a pilaster created two smail recesses on the south waU. An
82
oval hearth was built on the mud plastered floor. An adjacent courtyard
yielded a sequence of ashy layers rich in artifacts, A flexed infant burial
and hearths were placed against the south face of the structure.
The courtyard deposit provided a stratigraphically sccure sample of
ceramics for analysis. The majority of these were "chaff-faced ware"
(Braidwood and Braidwood 1960:232-239) bowls, "cassero1es" and jars.
Fine ware bowls, cups and smail jars are alsa well-represented in the as-
semblage. In terms of the southern Mesopotamian chronology, the de-
posit is probably equivalent to the Early or earlier Middle Urnk period of
Mesopotamia.
Above this house deposit were two additional phases with mudbrick
buildings. One room of the uppermost phase yielded fresh water shells,
beads and possible micro-drill fragments, perhaps indicating a smail bead
manufacturing workshop.
Filllayers with locallate Chalcolithic ceramics and a few Urukostyle
sherds sealed part of the earlier seqnence of house remains. The layer
above this had a similar ceramic assemblage, along with a few
Bronze Age sherds. A cylinder seal impression was recovered from this
deposit. Fill deposits and hearths and ovens provide the first evidence
for Early Bronze Age occupation of this area, followed by a smail mud-
brick building.
Artifacts from these Late Chalcolithic deposits included food re-
rnains, domestic tools such as bone perforators, spindle whorls and grind-
ing slab fragments, chipped stone blades, chipped stone debitage, slag,
and clay sealings and tokens. The local nature of the ceramics rilises the
possibility of a difference in ceramic assemblages between sites in the
Euphrates Valley, such as Hacinebe tepe (Stein and 1995) and
those on the Urfa Plain, with the latter assemblages containing fewer
Uruk-style sherds.
Phytolith remains from both Late Chalcolithic Early Bronze Age
levels show that wet-land reeds and sedges were abundant in the vicinity
at this time. This corresponds with geologic findings from soundings
that the environment was moister and the floodplain was at least season-
ally wet and crossed by a shallow stream. The hillslopes surrounding the
valley were probably forested. These moist conditions continued into the
mid-third millennium, when Kazane reached urban proportions.
83
Excavations in Area C
Our major project this season involved exeavation of a large archi-
tectural complex in Area C, on the lower town, that dates to the period of
urbanism. Deep plowing on the outer town exposed wall foundations and
Middle Bronze Age ceramics, attracting our attention to the area. The
building complex consists of two major architectural components: 1) an
outer stone foundation wall over five meters thick 2) an inner mudbrick
complex (Fig. 4).
In 1994, just over 200 m2 of the building had been uncovered. This
year we concentrated our efforts on delimiting the size of the building,
and excavating floors associated with the mudbrick walls uncovered in
1994.
Exeavation of the outer stone wall system revealed that the east-west
wall is fifty meters long (Fig. 5). An extensive mudbrick wall with a
plastered face abutts the east-west stone wall. The north-south stone wall
foundation of this large complex was not completely exposed, but ex-
cavation revealed that it extends for at least 18 meters, providing a mini-
mum dimension of 900 m
2
for the building. The wall foundations were
built of large and medium sized rough field stones, with the larger ones
used for the wall faces. Two to three courses were observed, and the
stone foundations would have been approximatelyone meter high.
Smailer stones were placed on top of the larger ones, perhaps in prepara-
tion for laying the mudbrick above the stone foundation. .
Three large rectangular blocks along the southern wall may have
served as tower bases (Fig. 5). A passage or gateway into the complex
extended for over 13 meters. The walls on either side of the passageway
were refaced several times with large stones. This outer stone complex
may have s e v e d as a fortification system protecting the inner mudbrick
building. it appears to have been constructed in an ad hoc fashion, rather
than according to a formal plan, and was probably built after the mud-
brick structure was standing.
Excavations within the mudbrick structure revealed two major oc-
cupational phases, both dating to the mid-third millennium. The up,
permost building phase apparently post-dated the major use of the public
building, and was separated from the lower phase by bricky material
from wall decay. However, the orientation of the walls was similar to
walls of the earlier building complex. In both phases, the rooms had lime
plastered floors a d walls.
84
Four rooms dating to the earlier phase were excavated, and a series
of floors was reached in three of these (Fig. 4). In the easternmost room,
three floor levels were detected. The uppermost floor had a series of ov-
ens. The deposit contained high concentrations of ash, charcoal and car-
bonized seeds. In centrast to this room, the middle and westemmost
rooms contained limited debris, and most of the recovered ceramics were
fine ware serving vessels. The room with the ovens and the adjacent
room to the west had doorways with stepped facades that formed an en-
trance into a larger room; judging from the elaborate architecture, we ex-
pect that this room had a very different function than the smaIler rooms
found at the entrance to the complex. The floor of this room was not ex-
cavated.
In general, the floors were relatively clean, and a t i f a c t s were largely
limited to ceramics, chipped stone, animal bones. On the other hand, 01'-
ganic remains (seeds, charcoal, and phytoliths) were abundant, and
should yield a great deal of information on diet, economy and environ-
mental conditions during the period of occupation.
With the exception of intrusive Ubaid and Halaf sherds, all ceramics
from room floors dated to the mid-third millennium. In contrast to ceram-
ics from the uppermost phase (see below), ceramics from these floors
were largely undecorated. The wares represented in the ceramic as-
semblage include "Plain Simple Ware," "Cooking Pot Ware," "Stone
Ware" and "Horizontal Reserve Slip Ware" of the wide variety (equiv-
alent to the earlier phases of Kurban Period IV; see Algaze 1990). Ex-
terior deposits against the western side of the complex were excavated
and contained a high density of artifacts.
Three rooms excavated date to the upper phase of building use
(FigA). Evidence for this upper phase was limited to the northern part of
the trench, where the overburden was relatively deep. Even in this area,
deposits from the upper phase were just below the surface. The remains
were at the base of the deep plow zone, and walls were defined on the
basis of plaster lines, as the mudbrick was poorly preserved,
Several plaster features inside one relatively weIl-preserved room
may have been used for both storage and processing of agricultural prod-
ucrs. Judging from the relatively thin waIls and informal natnre of the ar-
chitecture, it is likely that the building had lost its original function by
this time. Although the entire floor deposit was screened, the room had
been kept clean, a 1 d few artifacts were recovered. A series of cobble fea-
tures with high artifact yields have been tentatively interpreted as en-
85
trance ways. The walls of the earlier building may have been reutilized
for what appears to have been more modest and informal domestic Use.
The density of artifacts was high, and pottery associated with this
phase includes well known mid-third millennium types such as "Plain
Simple Ware," "Smear Wash Ware," "Band Painted Ware," and "Hor-
izontal Reserve Slip Ware" of both the wide and thin varieties (equivalent
to Kurban Period IV; see AIgaze 1990), with sherds from the latter three
decorated categories forming a surprisingly high proportion of the as-
semblage (as high as ca. 30% of the assemblage in same samples). Other
finds include chipped stone, animal bones, ground stone objects, abone
awl, a ceramic disk, a bronze pin, and a copper alloy needIe. .
In summary, the Area C building has provided evidence for two dis-
tinct ceramic phases associated with the urban expansion on the
edge of the Urfa Plain. The large scale of the building and elaborate na-
ture of the architecture support our earlier impressions that Kazane was a
major center with public architecture fairly early in the mid-Iate third
millennium episode of urban expansion. Despite the presence of Middle
Bronze Age potteryon the mound surface, no intact occupational re-
mains from this period were recovered.
AreaF: The OuterTown Excavations
Our third exeavation area, Area F, is located in the southern sector
of the site. In 1994, Area F yielded an outdoor cobbled work area with
ovens and a high concentration of artifacts. This year we expanded ex-
cavations to investigate the range of activities conducted in this work
area and determine whether the workshop area was associated with a sub-
stantial building located immediately to the east. Further exeavation of
the exterior cobbled supported our preliminary findings that this
arca may have been used for the manufaeture of textiles. Two large spin-
dle whorls and a bronze needle augmented the 1994 sample of artifacts
related to weaving. We also found that the exterior was indeed
associated with the wall of the large structure that may have been a pub-
lie building rather than a house (Fig. 6).
A room exeavated within the building yielded a large quantity of pot-
tery, and probably served as a storeroom. The density of artifacts was
high on both the eobble and inside the structure, Pottery from
this period appears similar to that reeovered from the upper oeeupational
phase in Area C. Several pieees of sealing clay were reeovered from
both the cobble and storeroom. In addition, two clay jar stoppers
and a clay sealing from astarage jar were found within the strueture.
86
...
Other artifacts recovered from Area F include chipped artifacts, one
sickle blade, a large quantity of anima! bones (primarily sheep, goat and
cattle), and a clay figurine.
The geoarchaeologica! study suggested that the region was moister
than it is today throughout most of the occupationa! sequence at Kazane.
A period of increased aridity at the end of the third millennium or be-
ginning of the second millennium may have contributed to the contrac-
tion of settlement at the end of the third millennium. Although some
second millennium ceramics are visible on the of the outer town,
the excavations in Areas D and F have not revea!ed any traces of second
millennium occupation in this part of the site.
Conclusions
In summary the 1995 excavations have provided evidence that a
complex local economy was in place during the Late Cha!colithic period
of the fourth millennium. By the mid-third millennium, Kazane was a
city with public architecture and a highly specialized craft economy.
Monumental architecture was recovered in both parts of the mid-third
millennium settlement that have been explored. Judging from ceramics,
the initial of the Area C building probably prc-dated the Ak-
kadian period. A concern with security during the mid-third millennium
is suggested by the massive fortification wall (explored in 1994) as well
as the new evidence for fortification of the Area C complex. Findings
from Area F show that later in the mid-third millennium sequence major
architecture was constructed not only toward the center of the site, but in
the outer town as welL. By this time, Kazane was a spatially hetero-
geneous city with considerable economic specialization. While
north Mesopotamian and southeast Anatolian urban expansion of the
third millennium is often deseribed as a sudden change, our findings
from Kazane suggest a more gradua! process of urbanization.
REFERENCES
ALGAZE, G., 00.1990 Town and Anatolia. Vol. 2: The Stratigraphic
Sequence at Kurban Hyiik. Oriental Institute Publication UO. Chicago: Oriental
Instituteof theUniversity of Chicago.
BRAIDWOOD. R. and L. Braidwood 1960 Excavations the Plain of Aruioch. Oriental In-
stitutePublications l.Ofi.Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press.
STEIN, G. and A. 1995 The 1994 Excavations at Hacinebe Tepe. In
pp. 109-140.
87
Fig :1
88
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90
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91
1995 EXCAVATIONS AT TEPE
Gil J. STEIN*
Introduction
The field season of the Northwestern University salvage ex-
cavations at Tepe, Birecik district, province took
place from July 6-August 30, 1995, cLirected by Gil Stein (Northwestern
University). We wish to express our appreciation to Prof. Dr. Engin Oz-
gen, General Director of the Ministry of Culture's Directorate of
ments and Museums for to conduct this research. The 1995
fieldwork was supported by National Science Foundation grant SBR-
9511329, and by generous contributions from Dr. Joseph and Laura Kis-
er, William and Sally Anderson, Paul Webster and Mary Larson. We
thank Mr. Adnan Director of the Museum for his ad-
ministrative assistance, and Hamza Gllce, who served as representative
of the Directorate of and Museums. We alsa gratefully ac-
knowledge Kemal the Muhtar of village, for his hospitality
and assistance in conducting excavations at
The project staff consisted of: Mr. Kenneth Boden (University of Ar-
izona), Ms. Tania Collas (conservator), Ms. Gner (Istanbul
University), Dr. Christopher Edens (Harvard University), Mr. Fokke
Gerritsen (University of Amsterdarn), Ms. Hinds (Cambridge Ar-
chaeological Unit), Ms. Jessica Johnson (University of Texas-Austin),
Ms. Kathryn Keith (University of Michigan), Ms. Kksal (Is-
tanbul University), Dr. Alan Lupton (Cambridge University), Dr. Au-
gusta McMahon (Cambridge University), Dr. Naomi Miller (University
of Ms. Belinda Monahan (Northwestem University), Ms.
(*) Dr.Gil J.STE1N Anthropology Department. Northwestern University, Evanston,.IL 60208
USA
93
Rana zbal (Bates College), Ms. Julie Pearce (University of Penn-
sylvania), Dr. Holly Pittman (University of Pennsylvania), Ms. Lynn
Rainville (University of Michigan), Mr. Joel Sweek (University of Chi-
cago), and Ms, Anwen Tormey (Northwestern University). A team of 42
workers from the village of assisted the project staff
in the exeavation and artifact processing.
Site Description and 1995 Project Goals
The excavations have been investigating the effects of
Uruk Mesopotamian commercial expansion on local Anatolian cultures
in the fourth millennium BC. Tepe is a 3.3 ha. low mounded
site on the bluffs overlooking the east bank of the Euphrates river, 5
of Birecik in province, southeast Turkey, Four seasons of
exeavation from 1992-1995 have shown that Tepe has two main
occupations [Stein and 1994 a, 1994b, 1995, 1996). 1-2.5 m. thick
Achaemenid/Hellenistic deposits (ca. 5th-2nd centuries BC) are present
immediately below the plow zone. Beneath these is a Late Chalcolithic
occupation up to 5 m. deep, dating approximately 3900-3200 BC. The
Late Chalco1ithic occupation consists of two phases: an ear1ier Phase A -
ca. 3900-3700 BC which has only Local Anatolian Late Chalcolithic ce-
ramics (the "Pre-Contact" phase), and alater phase B ca. 3700-3200 BC
(the "Contact Phase"), which has both Mesopotamian Uruk style ceram-
ics and Local Anatolian Late Chalcolithic ceramics (Pollock and Coursey
1995). This stratigraphic situation provides a rare opportunity to study
the organization of interaction between Mesopotamians and Anatolians at
Hacinebi during the fourth millennium BC Uruk expansion.
The 1995 field season had two main goals: 1) Expansion of hor-
izontal exposures of phase B deposits in the north, south, and west parts
of the mound in order to clarify patterns of Mesopotamian-Anatolian in-
teraction; and 2) Studyand conservation of excavated in the
1992, 1993, and 1994 seasons. 42 days of excavations took place from
July 8-August 24,1995 in six trenches (ops. 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17) dis-
tributed over Area A in the northeast corner of the site, Area B in the
south, Area C in the west, and an exploratory trench located on the slop-
ing spur at the west end of the site overlooking the Euphrates (Figure: 1).
Area A now comprises six trenches (ops. 1, 4, 6, 10, 14, 15) and three
.smaller test cuts (ops. 3, 8, 9) for a total exposure of more than 600
Area B now comprises four trenches (ops. 2, 7, 11, 12) with a total ex-
posure of more than 350 m'. Area C consists of two exeavation areas
(ops. 5 and 16) exposing 200 m2 in the western part of the site, along
with operation 17 - an 8x1Om test trench on the far west slope of the
94
mound. The 1995 excavations exposed Roman, Achaemenid/Hellenistic
and Late Chalcolithic occupation levels at the site.
The Roman Occupation
Traces of a Roman period occupation are located in area C on the
west spur of the mound. 1993 and 1994 excavations in Operation 5 had
defined a large Roman period trash pir. In 1995, Operation 16 was
opened as a lOxlO m trench immediately to the north of op. 5. The up-
permost occupation in this trench was a Roman period farmstead whose
remains were present immediately beneath the plow zone. Although most
of the structure had been destroyed by deep plowing, the surviving frag-
mentary stone wall foundations suggest that the building consisted of
several rooms built around an open courtyard. Lying on the surface of the
was a Iarge, crudely carved limestone basin. A deep trash pit
was located in the open area downslope, immediately to the south of the
house. The southern portion of this pit had been uncovered in the earlier
excavations of op. 5. Trash deposits in the house and the pit both in-
cluded typical Roman period brittle red wares. This small
farmstead building and trash dump are the only known Roman occupa-
tion at
The AchaemenidlHellenistic Occupation
AreaA
The Achaemenid/Hellenistic occupation of dates to the5th-
2nd centuries BC (McMahon 1996). Remains from this period were re-
covered from areas A, B, and Operation 17 on the western spur of the
site. The 1995 excavations in Area A opened two new trenches - opera-
tions 14 and 15. Achaemenid/Hellenistic remains in Op. 14 included the
corner of the massiye mud brick building which hadbeen ex-
posed in operations 4 and 10 during the 1993 and 1994 field seasons
(Stein and 1995, Stein et al 1996). In the northeast comer of Op.
14, excavations exposed a levelling deposit of small angular limestone
fragments which seem to have served as the foundations for the Achae-
menid/Hellenistic fortification wall at the site. The highly eroded frag-
ments of this wall had a northwest-southeast orientation. This appears to
be the continuation of the defensive wall that was first found in the 1993
excavations of Op. 6.
Achaemenid/Hellenistic remains were also recovered in Operation
15, a 10 x 10 m trench located immediately to the south of operation 10
95
in area A. As was the case in vittually all other Achaemenid/Hellenistic
exposures at the uppermost deposits consisted of a series of
deep, straight sided pits lined with mud plaster; these seem to have been
used originally for grain storage, before being re-used for either burials
or trash disposaL. The pits cut into and badly damaged the underlying
Achaemenid/Hellenistic building levels of poorly preserved stone and
mud brick walls, apparently from a domestic area of houses court-
yards and ovens. Trash deposits from both pits and open air contexts
yielded large amounts of debris related to household activities, most not-
ably unbaked clay loom weights, basalt grinding stone fragments, and
smail baked clay figurines. Most of the figurines were of two types. The
first is the typical "Persian horseman", a freestanding figurine in which
the head of the rider is carefully fashioned with well defined facia! fea-
tures, a beard, and a Phrygian cap (see e.g. Stein and 1995:Pigure
16B), while the horse is formed in a very schematic fashion, with little or
no attention to anatomical detai!. The figurine is often dipped in or
splashed with red paint, The second most common figurines in op. 15 are
relief plaques, formed in an open-faced mold, depicting female deities.
The most unusual Achaemenid/Hellenistic figurine was that of a female
with a headdress or hala in a starburst shape - possibly. some kind of solar
deity (Figure: 2). The figurine was molded in two ha!ves (front and back)
which were then joined, smoothed, and fired. Only the upper 7.85 cm are
preserved, showing the head, and upper torso.
AreaB
In area B at the south edge of the site, Achaemenid/Hellenistic re-
mains were recovered from Operation 12, a new x m trench located
immediately to the west of operation i 1. In the uppermost building level
of op. 12, at least 19 pits of varying dimensions were scattered across the
trench. Some of these were dug expressly for trash disposal or perhaps as
borrow pits for mud brick manufacture. However, at least two of the pits
- 15 and 18 - were carefully formed, deep bell shaped features, probably
used origina!ly for grain storage and then filled up with domestic trash,
Roughly contemporaneous with the pits were a series of burials, gen-
erally stone-lined cist burials oriented east northeast to west southwest,
containing a single articulated f!exed skeleton with grave goods. The
cists are generally covered by 2 or 3 slabs of angular unworked lime-
stone. Burial 23 contained a jar, a complete pair of iron shears, a car-
nelian bead, and several fragmentary pieces of bronze and silver jewelry.
Buria! 5i contained a skeleton with 1 bronze anklet on each leg. Burnt
anitnal bones were found the feet of the skeleton and the west
96
wall of the burial cist; these are apparently the remains of a food offering.
Three amphorae were placed horizontally across the chest of the de-
ceased.
The pits and burials overlie and cut into an earlier level of large scale
Achaemenid/Hellenistic mud brick and stone architecture. This structure
forms part of same complex known from adjacent operations 11,7,
and 2 (see, e.g. Stein and 1995 :129 and Figure 15). The building
walls in operation 12 were 1.15 m. wide, with a maximum preserved
height of 1.02 m. As in ops. 7 and 11, the construction technique con-
sisted of mud brick upper courses on a foundation of rounded cobbles
and unworked angular limestone bonded with mud mortar and set into a
foundation trench. The floors of the building were dean, and even the
post deposits generally contained little refuse.
The portion of the building exposed in op. 12 consisted of wall 60 to
the west, and wall 4 to the east, framing a doorway linking
roofed over room to the south with an open space or courtyard to
north. The walls extended for 7.75 meters, oriented northeast-southwest.
The doorway had a stone threshold to north and a mud brick step to
south, leading down into slightly sunken interior of the structure, The
arca to north of these walls was apparently an open courtyard, with
ovens on an outdoor surface. The courtyard extends 8 m
from NW-SE and at least 12 m from SW-NE; its western limits lie in the
as-yet unexcavated area to the west of op. 12. The sequenee of construc-
tion and modification suggests that this structure was used for an ex-
tended period.
AreaC
Achaemenid/Hellenistic deposits were also exposed in operation 17,
8x10 m test trench on the west slope of the mound. The upperrnost oc-
cupation in op. 17 was a series of deep bell shaped Aehaemenid/
HelIenistic pits (5, 7, and 10) cut down into earlier architecture of the
same general period. These seem to have been grain storage pits reused
or filled with trash. The pits cut into an earlier, highly eroded set of
small mudbrick walls, apparently representing fragmentary house re-
mains. These in turn overlie a large mud brick
building terraced into the west slope of the mound. The structure appears
to have consisted of a single room, oriented east-west, with a bloeked
doorway in its southem wall. The interior wall and floor were
111ud plastered. The north, east, and walls were all exposed; the re-
mainder of building continued into the unexeavated west profile.
97
external room dimensions are 3.8 m from N-S and at least 6.6 m from
east to west. The mudbrick walls were 60 cm wide, and differ from most
of the Achaemenid/Hellenistic architecture at in that they were
constructed without a stone foundation. The north wall of the structure is
little more than a thick plastering of the Late Chalcolithic mound de-
posits cut into by the to build this The lack of founda-
tions, the narrow dimensions of the south and east walls, and the absence
of a true north wall all make it unlikely that this building had a second
storey, The function of the strncture remains unclear, but the manner of
construction suggests that it may have been same kind of semi-
subterranean storage facility rather than an actualhouse.
Overall, the Achaemenid/remains recovered in 1995 are consistent
with the occupational sequence known from earlier seasons. This consists
of an early phase characterized by large scale well, planned mud brick
and stone architecture. Above this phase is an architectural1evel of small-
er scale domestic architecture. The final Helienistic phase consists of
grain storage pits (re-used for trash disposal) and cist burials.
The Chalcolithic Occupation
AreaA
Late Chalco1ithic occupation 1evels were recovered from all main ex-
cavation areas. In area A at the northeast corner of the site, the 1995 ex-
cavations in ap. 14 exposed the uppermost preserved Late Chalco1ithic
phase B deposits known to date at Of significance
was the discovery of a partian of ahause with in-situ Uruk and
associated on the floor. Finds included complete ceramic vessels
such as a spouted jar, a juglet, crude conical cup, a fine conical cup with
string cut base, and several bevelled rim bowls leaning up against wall 16
and bin 21. Along with the ceramics, this floor deposit contained a reed-
impressed bitumen pad, a stone pestle, a rounded flat stone palette, and
two basalt grinding stones (Figure: 3). The broken distal end of a bitu-
men dipped wall cone was alsa found in this floor deposit. The wall, bin,
and floor seem to have be the fragmentary rernains of a kitchen or food
preparation This is the first in situ material found at the site,
and is important because it shows that the Uruk ceramics, and especially
beveled rim bowls, were used in clear-cut domestic contexts. The fact
that this Uruk house fragrnent was found in same of the latest phase B
deposits indicates that the Mesopotamian presence at
tinued for an extended period, perhaps as long as four or five centuries.
This in situ Uruk deposit in ap. 14 can be linked stratigraphically to
98
building level 5 in adjacent operations 1 and 6, where contemporaneous
deposits of Uruk and Local Late Chalcolithic ceramics were found on op-
posite sides of the same wall 10/45 (Stein and 1994:150-152, figs.
3,4,18). The later phase B houses in op. 14 were by levelling
off and terracing this portion of the mound.
In deposits sealed off beneath this fragmentary Uruk
ber of pits yielded Uruk material culture in the phase B building levels.
One of the most notable of these was pit 50, which contained exclusively
Uruk Mesopotamian style ceramics and a crudely carved small limestone
eye idol in association with large amounts of chipped stone simple blades
and cores. At least some of this trash deposit derives from a specialized
lithic production area or possibly a workshop of some sort.
In roughly contemporaneous pits 80 and 91, Uruk glyptic material
was found in association with exclusively Mesopotamian ceramics. Two
mushroom shaped jar stoppers found in pit 80 bore identical Uruk cyl-
inder seal impressions with a repeated "ear" motif. In pit 91, two jar seal-
ings bore identical Uruk cylinder seal impressions of a work scene taking
place in front of a beehive-shaped building (possibly a silo for grain stor-
age) on a platform (Figure 4- top right, bottom right).
Beneath these later pits and the fragmentary building lev-
els were two main Late Chalcolithic building phases of well preserved
mud brick houses built on stone foundations. These consist of an upper
"yellow brick" building level overlying and cutting into a lower "red
brick" building leve!. The earlier red brick building was levelled off and
filled in to provide a stable footing for the yellow brick building leve!.
A1though both construction episodes a northwest-southeast orienta-
tion, the two differ in ground plan and in the locations of major structural
elements. Both of these earlier building levels contain exclusively Local
Late Chalcolithic ceramics dating to the earlier portion of Late Chal-
colithic phase B. The lower "red brick" building level overlies as-yet un-
excavated thick ash deposits which extend south into the adjacent op. 4,
where they up against the upper stone platform in ops. 4 and 10.
These stratigraphic relationships provide additional evidence to suggest
that the upper stone platform was before the period of in-
tensive interaction with Mesopotamia, although it is still unclear
whether this structure dates to early in phase B or perhaps Iate in phase
A.
In the 1995 field season, Ms. Kksal made detailed archi-
tectural plans of the two large rectangular stone platforms that had been
99
exposed by earlier excavations in in area A (Figure: 5). The upper plat-
form is a rectangular, free standing structure over 9 m long from NE-SW,
8 m from NW - SE, and over 2.4 m high. The platform is of
large rounded Iimestone cobbles. Although the original is
no preserved, the monnmental size and height of the upper plat-
form suggest that it Olay have been either a public building such as a tem-
ple, or perhaps an elite residence.
To the east of the upper lies the lower platform, located in
operations i and 6. The upper platform was apparently constructed first,
while the lower platform was added at alater date to broaden the area at
the top of the mound (Figure: 6). A small ramp and stairway connect the
two structures. The lower platform is over 2.8 meters high. The lower
platform consists of an outer retaining wall of large Iimestone blocks and
cobbles, with the area behind it filIed in by layers of mud and
pieces of angular limestone. On top of the Iower platform was a packed
mud surface with a smail retaining wall. Based on the
tigraphy and ceramics of associated building levels, both platforms seem
to have bnilt before the period of contact with Mesopotamia.
AreaB
In Area B, at the southeast of the site, Late Chalcolithic de-
posits were mainly exposed in operations 11 and 12. Operation 11 is a l O
x LO m trench first opened in 1994. The 1994 excavations had exposed a
massiye Late ChalColithic stone wall (wall 68) with a series of wide nich-
es and buttresses on its east face. The 1995 fieldwork sought to
the funetion of this massiye stone architecture and determine whether it
was built in phase B or in the earlier pre-contaet phase A. Exeavations
down to the base of this wall established that it is 3 m wide at the base,
and is preserved to a height of over 3.3 meters, making it the largest
known and best preserved example of Late Chalcolithic arehitecture at
the site (Figure: 7). The wall is of large rounded cobbles and
angular pieces of limestone. On the exposed portions of the east face, the
three buttresses and niches - two m. wide and i m. deep - begin 2 m.
above the base of the wall. associated with the earliest deposits
at the base of wall 68 suggest that it was built in the pre-contact phase A.
The size and orientation of this wall suggest that it was probably part of
an open air monumental enclosure of some son.
Although first constructed in the pre-contact phase A, wall 68 con-
tinued in use with substantial repairs, additions, and modifications up
through the time of contact in Iate phase B. During phase
100
A, east-west oriented stone wall 120 was built to the southeast, forming a
possible gateway with wall 68. The area to the northeast of the wall
seems to have remained open for a long period, before the
of massive mud brick and stone platform 111/121 (Figure: 7). The plat-
form was constructed of brick on stone foundation s and was pre-
served to a height of over 1.5 m. Platform 111/121 fills the entire north-
east quarter of the trench and 4.5 m N-S and 5.5 m E-W,
continuing into the north and east profiles. The platform was designed to
run parallel to the east face of wall 68, forming a street 1.8 m wide. The
dating of the platform is still uncertain, ceramics in associated trash de-
posits suggest have been constructed before the beginning of intensive
contact with Uruk Mesopotamia.
The architectural and stratigraphic sequence of op. 11 suggest sever-
al conclusions. Monumental public architecture was and used
in the pre-contact phase A at the site. The massive niched and buttressed
wall 68 appears to have been some kind of enclosure wall, rather than a
or part of a roofed structure, The wall remained in use for an
extended period, and is associated with the of a large plat-
form (111/121) similar in many ways to the upper stone platform known
from operations 4/1Oin area A at the north end of the site. Both platforms
appear to have been built early in phase B, before the period of intensive
contact with Uruk Mesopotamia. Wall68 continued in use during the lat-
er part of phase B; however, by this point the stone and mud brick plat-
form 111/121 had been abandoned and the entire area was being used as
a resideritial area rather than a public precinct.
In op. 12, due to time limitations, the Late Chalcolithic deposits un-
derlying the Achaemenid/Hellenistic building were only investigated in
the eastern half of the trench. Beneath erosion layer 94, excavations ex-
posed the west face of massive Late Chalcolithic stone wall 68. Unlike
the east face of the wall known from adjacent op. 11, the west face was
straight, with no niches or buttresses, The original uses of the wall and its
western environs in op. 12 can only be clarified by further excavation.
AreaC
In Area C, op. 5 had been excavated in 1993 and 1994, exposing a
Late Chalcolithic complex of a mud brick courtyard house adjacent to a
set of two long, narrow stone walled rooms, possibly storage
This area had also yielded evidence for metallurgy, including a copper
chisel and an open faced mold still containing traces of copper. The com-
plex dates to the pre-contact phase A. To further investigate
101
the chronology and function of this Late Chalcolithic complex, operation
16 was opened in area C in the 1995 season.
Late Chalcolithic deposits in op. 16 consisted of three discrete build-
ing levels The uppermost occupation was represented by a series of nine
Iate phase B pits, most of them with exclusively Uruk ceramics,
mainly bevel rim bowls, spouted jars, conical cups, conical cups,
and chaff tempered trays. No architecture was found in direct association
with this material. The pits are in most cases irregularly shaped, and are
filled with altemating trash and wash deposits suggestive of a gradual ac-
cumulation of debris over an extended period, rather than a single epi-
sode of deposition. Although all pit deposits were carefully screened, ad-
ministrative such as sealings and sealing clays were quite rare
relative to the Iate phase B occupation levels in area A at the north end of
the site. Pit 51 yielded one bumtjar sealing bearing an Uruk cylinder seal
impression with an animal procession motif (Figure 4 - center). Uruk pit
69 contained a clay "nucleus" of unused sealing clay (cf. Ferioli and Fi-
andra 1983). wall cones were also rare, with onlyone example re-
covered from ash deposit 37. Although several pits contained almost ex-
clusively Uruk ceramics, other contemporaneous contexts had mixed
assemblages of both and Late phase BLocal chaff tempered wares.
The pits cut into trash layers containing both and Local ceram-
ics. These deposits in tum sealed off an earlier building phase consisting
of two well mudbrick buildings. The eastem "white mud
brick" building had 3 rooms defined by white plastered walls. The west-
em "red mud brick" building had at least two rooms built on top of stone
pavement 44. Both buildings were oriented northwest-southeast, and both
extended south into op. 5. The wall dimensions and room layout suggest
that these were both houses, but the floors were very clean, so we can
only infer the of these structures. The dating of the houses is
also uncertain for the same reason. Ceramics Iying on top of cobble sur-
face 99 to the north of the building and in the post-abandonment deposits
of deliberate room fill both contain Local Late Chalcolithic
ceramics, often including typologically "Iate" hammerhead bowls (see
Pollock and 1995). On this basis, it seems that this building lev-
el dates to the earlier part of phase B, before the period of intensive con-
tact with Mesopotamia. Both mudbrick buildings in op. 16 had
been cleaned out and then deliberately filled., perhaps in order to !evel
the ground and provide a stable foundation for some later Chalcolithic
construction,
102
The mud brick building level was constructed on a series of levelling
fill layers consisting of deliberately laid clay deposits and stone pave-
ments. These deposits seal off the earliest architecture exposed in op. 16.
This stone built complex of rooms is the northward extension of the stor-
age rooms known from op. 5 (Figure: 8). This complex was not con-
structed as a unit, but instead represents the cumulative result of numer-
ous episodes of additions, rebuildings, and subdivisions of the rooms
before the entire structure was eventually filled in and levelled off. The
stone complex was only partially investigated in the 1995 sea-
son. It remains unclear whether the stone date to the end of the
pre-contact phase A or the earlier stages of phase B, before the period of
intensive interaction with Uruk Mesopotamia.
To the west of op. 16, a second new trench, op. 17, was opened to in-
vestigate Late Chalcolithic deposits eroding out of the west slope of the
mound. In contrast with Area A at the end of the mound, op. 17
has has only limited evidence for an Mesopotamian presence. Most
of the Late Chalcolithic deposits are Local in character, dating to the pre-
contact phase A and the earlier part of phase B. The trench was excavated
down to bedrock.
The Late Chalcolithic deposits in op. 17 were preserved
in the srnall area in the northeastern part of the trench which had not been
cut away by construction of the Achaemenid/Hellenistic mud brick buiId-
ing. A series of fragmentary walls, floors and associated trash deposits
were recovered, althongh it is still unclear whether these date to the-ear-
lier or later part of Late Chalcolithic phase B.
Underlying these fragmentary remains was an occupation level con-
sisting of a well constructed mud brick niched structure to which were
added a number of stone and mud brick buildings. Building 36 was locat-
ed in the southeast corner of op. 17; only the northwest part of the build-
ing lay within the limits of the trench (Figure 9 - bottom right), The
building dimensions are at least 5.75 m (E-W) and 2.4 m (N-S). it was a
mud brick structure oriented by west-southwest,with a
door along its east wall and a white plastered interior. The floor was un-
plastered compact clay. The interior face of the wall had two nich-
es, one of which was later filled in by the construction of a bench along
the west wall. Ceramics overlying the floor were almost entirely Local
Late Chalcolithic, and can be dated on typological grounds to later phase
B. The find of a single Uruk ledge rimjar sherd this dating.
103
To the north of building 36, a series of stone built rooms back onto
an open area which may have been a street or an irregularly shaped conrt-
yard. Set into the trash deposits in this open area was burial 57, a flexed
articulated interment with mud bricks arranged in the pit around the
skeleton (Figure: 9 - top center). Burial 57 is exceptional in that is one of
only two adult burials dating to the Late Chalcolithic at (the
other was found in the earliest occupation of op. ll). No grave goods
were found in either burial, To date, almost all other Late Chalcolithic
burials at have been infant jar burials.
One of the most noteworthy discoveries in this later phase B building
level was a well rectangular marble stamp seal (Figure: 10). The
seal is drilled through horizontally, perhaps to allow it to be suspended
on a string or chain and by its owner. The seal motif is the typical
Local Late Chalcolithic style combination of lions and caprids, as known
from numerous stamp seal impressions from area A (see e.g. [Stein and
1995). The seal was found in adepasit lying up against wall 61 to
the north of the niched mud brick building 36.
This upper building level shows considerable continuity with the
lines of the underlying rooms and wal1s in the two earliest construction
phases. These are constructed at least partiallyon the underlying lime-
stone bedrock that slopes down to the south and east. As in the overlying
phases, the rooms of the earliest building level are constructed of narrow
stone walls along the north, west, and south profiles, with an open area in
the central and castern parts of the trench. The ceramics from these ear-
liest two building levels are typological1y "early" Local Late Chalcolithic
forms that apparently date to the pre-contact phase A.
The uppermost of these two phase A building levels yielded an infant
child burial (locus 73) sealed beneath a room floor in the northeast corner
of the trench. Inside the burial jar along with the skeleton were placed a
miniatnre ceramic vessel, 1 copper ring and 2 silver earrings as grave
goods. The earrings are the earliest known silver artifacts known from
the site, and would be among the earliest silver pieces known
from Anatolia. A second noteworthy find from this building level was a
baked c1aydisk shaped Local Anarolian stamp seal with an incised snake
motif (Figure: ll). This seal was recovered from a trash deposit radio-
carbon dated to the early fourth millennium.
Chronology
The combination of the new stratigraphic exposures deseribed above,
radiocarbon dating, and ongoing ceramic analysis provides the basis for
104
some preliminary comments on the chronologyof the Late Chalcolithic
occupation at Of the 65 radiocarbon samples collected in the
1995 season, nineteen samples from Late Chalcolithic contexts were sub-
mitted for processing by Beta Analytic. The sample dates were then cal-
ibrated using the CALIB 3.03 software package (Stuiver and Reimer
1993). With the addition of these new samples, the calibrated chronology
for strongly suggests that the period of intensive contact with
Uruk Mesopotamia in later phase B at the site faIls within a time range of
about 3700-3400 BC (Figure: 12). This is consistent with the ceramic
analyses, which suggest that the Uruk material from has its
closest parallels in assemblages dating to the later MiddJe Uruk (possibly
extending into the first part of the Late Uruk period - Pollock and Cour-
sey 1996).
Laboratory
In 1995, continuing laboratory analyses focnsed on seals and seal-
ings, chipped and ground stone, ceramics, botanical remains, metals, and
artifact conservation.
Dr. Holly Pittman continued with her analysis of the glyptic material
(Pittman 1996a, b). Seals and seal impressed materials recovered in 1995
include examples from both the Anatolian and the southern Mesopo-
tamian record-keeping systems.
Mesopotamian style glyptic was recovered in operations 14 and 16.
Operation 14 produced four clay sealings impressed by two different
Uruk cylinder seals. HN 9410 and 9411 are two mushroom shaped un-
baked clay jar stoppers. Both are impressed with the same smaIl cylinder
seal carved with three rows of ear arranged in alternating directions. The
second pair of sealings - HN 9465 and 9466 were both impressed with
the same seaL. HN 9465 is a jar stopper, while HN 9466 is a bag sealing.
The seal motif shows a human Figure squatting to the left of two domed
grain silos built on top of a single platform. This motif has close par-
aIlels from Susa. Operation 16 produced a clay bag sealing (HN 8657)
bearing the impression of a cylinder seal earved with an animal pro-
cession scene showing goats, a feline, and an horned animal.
Three local Anatolian stamp seals were also recovered from phase A
and B deposits in operation 17 at the west end of the mound, HN 8334 is
a white calcite rectangular stone pierced lateraIly across the width of the
seal. It is WOI11, and broken through along the string hole. The
seal design depiets a feline and a caprid (Figure: 10) and apparentl ydates
105
to phase B. HN 8393 is a disk-shaped baked clay stamp seal with a coiled
snake motif found in phase A deposits (Figure: 11). A related snake motif
also appears on HN7440, a smail highly polished round stamp seal
carved from red stone.
Dr. Christopher Edens continued with his analysis of the Late Chal-
colithic chipped and ground stone (Edens 1996).4513 pieces of chipped
stone were coded in 1995 When added to the 5100 pieces coded in 1994,
the available samp1e amounts to 9600 pieces, the 1argest analyzed
chipped stone sample from a Late Chalcolithic site in SE Turkey. The
1994 analysis focused on the blade technology, concluding that the
assemblage combines an flake industry with two tech-
nologically distinct blade reduction trajectories. blades and
cores exhibit striking p!atforms that are facetted and and
are on opaque, fairly coarse-grained cherts; simple b1ades
have plain and slightly acute-angled striking platforms, and often are
made on fine-grained, translucent cherts. The two kinds of b1ades are
metrically distinguishable, the simp1e blades strongly tending to be nar-
rower than 2.2 cm, and the Canaanean blades wider than 2.0 cm. Both
blade technologies exist in Phase A and Phase B contexts, and in both
Uruk and local contexts (as identified by pottery) within Phase B. Dr.
Edens also began a pilot study intended to estab1ish the feasibi1ity and ef-
fectiveness of low magnification microscopy for 1ithic use-wear analysis.
101 blades and other pieces were examined to identify characteristic pat-
terns of edge wear associated with specific too1uses. Several general mi-
crowear patterns were identified, reflecting chopping, scraping, and ce-
rea1 Finally, ground stone too1s from the 1992-1994
excavations were also examined to develop a typology of these objects.
Ceramic analyses by McMahon began to develop a ty-
pology of Achaemenid/Hellenistic ceramics. while Julie Pearce, Kenneth
Boden and Anwen Tonney continued the examination of Late Chalcolith-
ic pottery, using the typology developed in the 1993 season (Pollock and
Coursey 1995, 1996). The 1995 study focused on 3 goals: a) refinement
of the chronology for the Local Late Chalcolithic cerarnics, b) re-
construction of the Phase A ceramic technologyand pro-
cedurc, and c) functional comparisons of versus Local ceramic as-
semblages from different parts of the phase B
Dr, N Miller continued with her analysis of Late Chalcolithic
archaeobotanical remains. 12 new samples were examined from phase A
and BLocal contexts, and from Uruk deposits (Miller 1996). The main
crops represented in the samples are barley, einkorn, emmer,
106
free-threshing wheat, and lentil. Among the cultigens, barley is most
common in all phases. Minor contributors to the assemblage include
grasspea, grape, fig, and possibly almond and olive. As is typical of sites
in the Near East, the most common wild plants are for the most part
grasses and legumes along with a few other small plants (e.g., Galium).
The quantities of wood charcoal suggest a vegetation cover of steppe for-
est or open woodland. Newly recorded taxa in 1995 included arboreal
species such as olive (Olea europaea) and acorn (Quercus sp.) along with
the small herbaceous plants Ziziphora and Sherardia. All types found at
alsa occur on other archaeological sites in the middle Euphrates
valiey.
Hadi zbal began an archaeometallurgical analysis of the Late Chal-
colithic copper artifacts, focusing on a small chisel from the pre-contact
phase A (Ozbal 1996). Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis
determined that the chisel is made out of a highly pure copper
no alloying elements. Based on the presence of Nickel and Iron, Ozbal
suggests suggest that the metal is not made from native copper but was
smelted instead. The of advanced metallurgical processing
based on chemical characterization studies is consistent with the finds of
open faced molds in the 1993 and 1994 seasons.
Finally, laboratory work alsa included the continuing program of ar-
chaeological conservation, conducted in 1995 by Jessica Johnson and Ta-
nia Collas. Conservation efforts focused the stabilization and
removal, of corrosion from bronze and iron artifacts recovered from
Achaemenid/Hellenistic cist burials in operation 12.
Conclusions
The 1995 field season at accomplished four main aims.
First, radiocarbon dates and ceramic analyses are allowing us to refine
site chronology so that we can pinpoint the beginnings of the period of
interaction between Mesopotamians and Anatolians at
during Late Chalcolithic phase B. Second, our excavations of the under-
lying phase A deposits at the site exposed evidence indicative of monu-
mental public architecture, social differentiation, advanced metallurgy,
and complex administrative systems at well before the period of
intensive interaction with Uruk Mesopotamia. Third, the ceramic and
stratigraphic evidence suggests a high degree of continuity between the
pre-contact and contact phases at so that many structures may
have continued in use between the two. Finally, our discovery of in situ
Uruk material culture on house floors in the Iate phase B settlement pro-
107
vides the basis for detailed artifactual studies of the organization of inter-
action between the Mesopotamian enclave and their local Anatolian host
community.
Understanding the initial date and duration of the Contact phase at
Hacinebi is essential to any reconstruction of the organization of
action between Mesopotamians and Anatolians at Hacinebi. The com-
bination of the 19 radiocarbon dates collected and processed in 1995 with
the ceramic analyses allow us to establish the beginning of the period of
intensive Mesopotamian-Anatolian interaction at ca. 3700 BC in calibrat-
ed dates.
Excavations of the early pre-contact (phase A) and Iate pre-contact
(phase BI) deposits recovered architectural, mortuary, and glyptic ev-
idence indicative of monumental public buildings, social differentiation,
advanced metallurgy, and complex administrative systems at
well before the period of intensive interaction with Uruk Mesopotamia.
The phase A construction date for the massiye stone enclosure wall 68 in
op. 11/12 and the apparent Phase Bl date for the two large
stone in ops. 1/4/6/10 mean that all of the 1argest structures at
the site were first built prior to the contact phase. The recovery in op. 17
of a pre-contact phase child burial with silver is extremely un-
usual for fourth millennium Anatolia and argues strongly for the local or-
igins of prestige goods and social ranking before the period of intensive
interaction with Mesopotamia. Similarly the discovery of an Anatolian
style stamp seal in a secure phase A deposit confinns the presence of a
local adrninistrative technology at the site prior to contact.
REFERENCES
EDENS Christopher. 1996 Hacmcbi Chipped Stonc - 1995. In Gil J. Steiu. Christopher Edens.
Naomi Miller. Hadi zbal, Julic Pearce, and Holly Piuman) "Hacinebi, Turkey: Prc-
liminary Report OnThe 1995Excavations'' Anatolica 22.
PERlOL! P. and FIANDRA E, 1983"Cluy sealings From Arslantepe VI A: Administrntion and
Bureaucracy''. Origini 12(2):455-509.
MCMAHON Augusta, 1996"The Achacmenid-Hellcuistic Occupation at in G. Stein,
R: Bembeck. C. Coursey, A. McMahon, N. Miller. A. J. Nicoln. H. Pinman. S.
Pollock and H. Wright "Ufuk and Mesopotamian Communities:
An Interim Report on the 1992-3 Excavations at Hacinebi, Turkey" American Journal
of 100: 222,229.
108
MILLER Naomi F., 1996 Rcmains from the 1995 Excavations at
Tepe In Gil J. Stcin. Christopher Bdcns, Naomi Miller, Hadi zbal, Julic Pcarce, and
Holly Pittman)" Hacinebi. Turkey: Prcliminary Report On The 1995 Excavations" An-
22. 1996 Tepe 1993: Arehaeobotanical Report. In "Uruk Cultural
Expansion and Anatolian in G. Stcln. R. Bembcck, C. Coursey, A.
McMnhon, N.Miller, A. J. Nicola. H. S. Pollock and H. Wright "Uruk
Colonial Expansion <md Mesoporamian An Report on the.1992-3
Excavaticns nt Hacinebi, Turkey" American Journal of 100: 248-257.
ZBAL Hadi, 1996 Chemical Analysis Of A Copper Chtsel From Tepe. (In: GiI J.
Stein, Christopher Edens. Millcr, Hadi zbal, Julic Pcarce, and Holly
"Hacinebi, Turkey: Preliminary Report On The 1995 Excavations" 22.
PEARCE Julie. 1996 1995 Analyses of Phase B Ceramies. In Gil J. Stcin, Christopher
Edens, Miller, Hadi zbal, Julie Pearce. and Holly PiUman) "Hacinebi, Turkey:
Pre1iminary Report On The 1995 Excavations" 22.
PITTMAN, Holly, 1996a "Prcliminary Report on the Glyptic Art: Hacinebi 1993". in G. Stein,
R. Bernbeck, C. Coursey, A. McMahon, N. Miller. A. J. Nicola, H. Pittman, S.
Pollock and H. Wright "Uruk ColoniaI Expansion and Mesopotamian
"An Report on the 1992-3 Excavaticns at Hacinebi, Turkey" American Journal
of Arc!Jaeo!ogy 100: 230-233.
1996b "Preliminary Report on the Administrative Artifacis: Tepe -1995 Sea-
son", in Gir J. Stein, Christopher Edens, Naomi Miller. Hadi zbal, Julie Pearcc, and
Holly Pittman) Hacincbi, Turkey: Prcliminary Report On The 1995 Excavations"
22.
POLLOCK. S. and COURSEY C. 1995 "Ccramics from Tepe: ChronoIogy and COIl-
nections" Anatolica 21: 101-141.
Uruk Pcttery: Preliminary Report" In G. Srcin. R. C. Cour-
sey. A. McMahon. N. Miller. A. J. Nicola, H. Pittman. S. Pollock and H. Wright
"Uruk ColoniaI Expansion and Mcsopornmiau An Report on the
1992-3 Bxcevations at Hncinebi, Turkey" American Journal of 100: 233-
239.
STEIN G. und MISIR A. 1994 Mesopotamian-Anatolian Internetion at Hacinebi. "Turkey: Pre-
liminury Report on the 1992 Excavations". 20:145-189.
1994 "Hacinebi Excavutions'', 1992. In XV Sonular pp. 131-152.
Rcpublic qf Turkey, Miuistry of Culture, General Directorale of Monuments and Mu-
seums, Ankara.
1995 Hacinebi Excavations. 1993. In XVI Sonular pp. 121-140.
Republic of Turkey. Ministry of culture, General Directorale of and Mu-
Ankara.
109
1996 1994Excavations at Hacinebi Tepe. InXVII Sonular Republic
of Turkey, Ministry of culture, General Direcroratc of Monuments andMuseums, An-
kara.
STEIN, Gil J. andNICOLA Jeffrey, 1996 LateChalcolithic Faunal Remains from In
"Uruk Cultural Expansion and Anatolian Communities," in G. Stein, R. Bernbeck, C.
Coursey, A. McMahon, N. Miller. A. J. Nicola, H. Pittman, S. Pollock andH.
Wright "Uruk Colonial and Mesopotamian Communities: An Interim Report
on the 1992-3Excavations atHacinebi, Turkey" Americanjournal of Arehacology 100:
257-260.
STEIN, G., BERNBECK R, COURSEY C.. MCMAHON A., Mll.LER N.. MISIR A.,NICOLA,
J., PITTMAN H., POLLOCK S. and WRIGHT H. 1996 "Uruk Colonial Expansion
and Communities: AnInterim Report on the 1992-3 Excavations atHac-
iuebi, Turkey" American Journal of Archaeology 100:205-260.
STUIVER, M. and REIMER PJ., 1993 University of Washington Qualernary Isolope Lab Ra-
diocarbon Calibration Program Rev.3.0.3A. Radiocarbon 35:215-230.
110
- ------ ----
HACINEBI TEPE
Birecik, Turkey
1992-19?4
lZZiI. area ii
t
N
1995
area
o
AreaA: Narth (nUrukj Area
----"- ....
14
2 m.Contour Interval

......
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Figure 1: Topographical map of Hacmebi Tepe showiug 1992-1995 excavatiou areas
112
Figure 2: Operation 15: Locus 27 Lot 77.
molded
ceramlc figurine (HN8527).
Figure 3 : Operation 14: In situ Uruk ceramics and other domestic artlfaers from
a f100r deposit in the uppermost preserved Late Chalcolithic later
phase B building level. HN#s 7367, 7368, 7370, 7371, 7373, 7374, 7378,
7380,7382,7815.
Figure 4: Late Chalcolithic seal impressions. Top left - Local Anatellan stamp
seal impression. Top and bottorn right - Uruk cylinder seal m p r e s s l o n s
with work scene and grain silos. Center - Uruk eylinder seal impression
with animal processian motif. Center left and bortom left - Uruk
eylinder seal impressed jar stoppers with "ears" motif.
113
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.,
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Figure 7 : Operation II Late Chalcolithic phase A niched and buttressed stone wa1l68
[leff) and mud and stone platform 1U/121 (top right).
116
109
OPERATION 16
LATE eRALeOLITHIe AReHITECTURE
131
o
Figure 8 : Operation 16: Late Chalcolithic stone architectural complex of n a - r o w
storage rooms and adlacent structures
117
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OPERATION 7
LATE CHALCOLITHIC ARCHlTECTURE

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Figure 9: Operation 17: Late Chalcolithlc later phase B architecture. Note nlched mud brick
buiIding and associated floar 59 at bottom right, and f1exed adult burial at top center.
Figure 10 : HN8334 p. 17 Locus 60 lot 41: Rectangular calcite stamp seal
with lion and caprid motif.
Flgure ll: HN 8393 Locus 82 Lot 58. Disk shaped stamp seal with abstract snake motif.
119
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A
EXCAVATrONS HYK:
THE 1995 SEASON
ALGAZE*
INTRODUCTION
Hyk was the capital of a smail EBA city-state that emerged
and collapsed alongside an important east-west overland route in the
Atatrk Dam area of the Upper Euphrates basin of sontheastem Anatolia
between the Mid EBA (ca. 2600/2500-2300) and the Late EBA (ca.
2300-2200/2100 B.C.). At its apogee in the Mid-Late EBA, Titris was
composed of a central acropolis area (Area 1) surrounded by a much
more extensive lower city (Areas 2-4), about 35 ha in extent. The main
occupation just deseribed is surrounded, in turn, by a number of
discountinous and apparently ephemeral "suburb" occupations (Area 5)
that add a further 8 ha or so to the extent of the ancient city (Fig. 1). Five
seasons of excavations and centered at the site have been
conducted thus far (Algaze et aL. 1992, Algaze and 1994, 1995;
Algaze et aL. 1995; and Matney and Algaze 1996).
The fifth seasoin of work at the site was conducted between July 10
and August 30, 1995
1.The
main goal of the season was to continue
(*l ALGAZE, 9500 Dn. UCSD, Anlhropology La Jolla CA-92093, USA
(1) The 1995 scason was directed by Dr. Guillermo Algaze (University of California. San
Diego). Dr. Timothy (Whilman College) acted as field director. Full andpart-time
staff included 6 archaeologists: Mr. Murat Arslan (Bilkent University), Ms. Francesea De
Lillis (University of Rame), Mr. BekirGrdil (University of Istanbul), Mr. ClemensReichel
(University of Chicago), Mr. EricRupley (University of Michigan), andMr. DuncanSchlee
(Cambridge Archaeological Unit). Mr. John Kelly (University of Califomia, Berkeley) and
Ms. III ren (MiddIe Enstcm Technical University) servcd as architects. Ms. Virginia
Badler (University of Toronto) eondueted residue analysis and assisted pottery drawing.
Archaeological eonservation was supervised by Ms. Jessica Johnson (Texas Memorial
Museum. University of Texas), helped by Ms. Tania Collas Analytical
Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution). As always, heIp in all aspeets of our research was
provided by Mr. Adnan director of Museum. Ms. Songl Ceylan
Museum) served as the representative of the Ministry of Culture .
121
the nature of of the urban structure of the settlement in its
latest (Late EBA) occupational phase (Fig. 1). We pursued this goal by
means of: (1) broad area excavations of domestic housing in the Outer
Town (Area 4) sector; (2) a single exposure of comparable domestic
housing in the sector of Lower Town (Area 2), and (3) surveys in
one the suburb areas surrounding the site (Area 5).2 What follows is a
brief report of the principal results of our work in these various areas of
the site in 1995.
OUTER TOWN (AREA 4) EXCAVATIONS
Domestic Housing the Outer Trenches 79-84/87, 80-84/86,
81-84/86, 82-86. Remote sensing (magnetometry) results from the
1992-94 seasons (Somers in Algaze et al. 1995) had indicated
presence of small-roomed structures extending over a large portion of the
eastem sector of the Outer Town. Large-scale exposures of these
structures were initiated in 1994, when an area of 600 sq. m was
uncovered (Matney in Algaze et aL. 1995). The contiuuation of this work
in 1995 exposed a further 575 sq. for a total exposure of 1,175 sq. m.
The bulk of this exposure was contained within 12 contiguous trenches
arranged in 4 north-south oriented rows (Figs. 2-3). Over fifty rooms,
courtyards, and passageways forming at least 4 discrete building units
aligned at either side of a sherd and stone paved central street are
contained within these trenches. To the south, the exposed units face an
open midblock sector which appears to have been used as communal
space for various production activities and for dumping garbage. These
remains are contemporary with and adjoin a defensive system girdling
the Outer Town, which was partially eleared in 1994 (Matney in Algaze
et al. 1995).
All of the structures exposed in 1994/95 form part of a single
coherent building phase. Associated ceramics allow us to equate this
occupation with Phase of the neighboring site of Kurban Hyk
(2) Financial support for the 1995 season was provided by the National Endowrnent for the
Humauities. independent ageney of the United States The Samuel H. Kress
Foundation (New York), TheRichard Lounsbery Foundation (New York), the Wenner-Oren
Foundation forAnthropological Research anda smallnumber of private donors.
122
(Algaze et aL. 1990)3. This date is by racliocarbon
determinations from carbonized wood samples found in associated room
floor or exterior deposits. Four samples have been analyzed thus
far (below). One of the samples (TH 6162), yielded a date range in the
first half of the third millennium Be and appears too early for its Late
EBA context. However, the other three samples (TH 3771, TH 8267, TH
8274) yielded dates that are internally consistent and which inclicate a
temporal range focused in the last three centuries of the third

The Late EBA architecture in the eastem sector of the Outer Town is
terraced into the slope of the mound (from NW to SE) and, like the street,
follow its natural contours. In several places where exeavation
beneath the original floor surfaces, the remains of extensive,
well-built stone drains (made necessary by the steep terracing) were
recovered. Architectural features such as plaster and stone basins,
hearths and ovens (of various types), and benches common within the
(3) More specifically, the Late EBA materials from the upper (and final) Building Phase of the
Titris Outer Town corrclate precisely with the Phase 21 materials Area A at Kurban
Hyk (Algaze 1990: 108, Fig. 68). The Titris materials thus predate the Period III
sequence at Kurban (Aren A, Phase 22 and AreaD, Building Phase Ilc-A) (Algaze 1990:
369-390; Fig. 135), assigned to the EB/MB Transition period. The Late EBA assemblage at
Titris types with the earlier Mid EBA phase at the settlement. However, the
Iater phase can be distinguished because of the relatively law proportions of Metallic,
Horizontally Reserve Slipped, and Karababa Painted Wares (for definitions, see Algaze
1990). Particularly sensitive for chronological differentiation between the two phases are
the associated small cups and cooking pots. Whereas mid Early Bronze Age cups are
conical and have band rims (type as Algaze 1990: PI. 53 M-V), Late EBA cups have
inturned walls (e.g .. Malneyand Algaze 1996 Fig. 8 B) and become increasingly taller and
barrel shaped -- a development that eventually culminates in Hama Goblets. Late EBA
cooking pots, similarly, are easily distinguished from their Mid EBA counterparts. Both
have rriangular ledge lugs, but those of the earlicr phase are commonly highly burnished and
have outflaring rims (type as Algaze 1990: PI. 93 A-M), while .those of the later phase are
usually only crudely burnished and have sharply intuming upper walls, approaching a
shape (type as Algaze 1990: PI. 135 A-F). A thorough analysis of the ceramic
assemblages characteristic for these two chronological phases at Titris is now in preparation.
(4) Samples were run by Bela Analytic Radiocaroon Dating Laboratory (Plorida) and all have
been recalibrated using the latest calibration curves from the University of Washington
3.0.3).
123
Outer Town Uppermost Arehiteetural Level Cl4 Dates
Lab No. Beta-80446 Beta-80449 Beta-80447 Beta-80448
Loeus 79-85:031 80-85-015 79-87:046 79-87:047
Context Floor Street FIoor FIoor
Samnle No. TH 6162 TH 3771 TH 8267 TH 8274
BPDate 4260 + 170 3860 + 180 3630 + 60 3860+70
Intereepts 2888 B.e. 2397,2391, 2008, 1995 2397,2391,
2309,2300, 1952 B.e. 2309,2300,
2291 B.e. 2291 B.C.
1 Sigma 3080-2579 2566-1982 2108-1834 2462-2200
Calibration B.e. B.e. B.e. Re.
2 Sigma 3359-2361 2881-1755 2119-1772 2554-2042
Calibration B.e. B.e. Re. B.C.
rooms (Fig. 4). Limestone wall foundations eommonly rise to a height of
about 1 meter above the floors. Interior floors were made of either hard
paeked earth or, oeeasionally, plaster.
The extent of exposures in the eastern seetor of the Outer Town
makes it possible to define some basic recurring architectural and spatial
eonfigurations of domestie space in the city for the Iate Early Bronze Age
(Fig. 3). We can distinguish several distinct eonstruetional modules
within the exeavated area. These modules appear to represent reeurring
measures of space and, possibly, units of eonstruetion. Two standard
shapes may be recognized within the exposed area: reetangular modnles
and square modules. Rectangular modules are approximately 7 x 12 m in
size and vary in orientation. Three reetangular modules to the n o r t l of
the street (in Unit I), for instanee, are all oriented downslope (NW-SE),
while two faoing modules on the south side of the street (in Unit 3) are
oriented across slope (SW-NE). Square rnodules are approximately II
rneters per side. Two such modules faee eaeh other across the street
within the exposed area (Units 2 and 4). Save for a single exeeption, the
e o n s t n e t i o n s assoeiated with eaeh module are separated from eaeh other
by double walls.
While the modules appear to be reeurring spatial units, theyare not
the primary unit of domestie organization in the exposed seetor.
124
Doorways connecting different modules (i.e., across double boundary
walls) allow us to distinguish several larger discrete interconnected units
forming a single household or building unit. Four such units can be
identified in the plan of the excavated remains (Fig. 3: 1-4) and the
existence of further units may be extrapolated from the
map of the area (Fig. 5). These units are of variable size, depending on
the number and orientation of the modules they incorporate. Because of
their modular construction, each building unit contains a
number of cobble- and sherd-paved courtyards, which may serve to
identify the activities of nuclear families.
Mortuary Two of the building units just deseribed had
associated intramural tombs. One tomb (Locus 80-84: 011), the largest
found, was set into the corner of the central courtyard of Building Unit i
(Figs. 2-3). This tomb (Fig. 6) was built at the time of the initial
construction of the surrounding structure. Two similar but
smailer tombs were found in association with Building Unit 3. These
latter tombs appear to be sequential. Though of variable size, the tombs
always consisted of a stone-lined cist with long, flat capstones and an
exterior pit (dromos) leading to a door consisting of one or two large
limestone slabs standing on edge (Fig. 7).
among the offerings found inside the largest of the three
tombs, was a two-handled depas cup of Bronze date and Troy II
type (Fig. 8, center). This depas, no doubt imported into the site from
southwestern Anatolia or the Aegean area, is the second such complete
vessel to be recovered at Titris (cf. AIgaze et aL. 1992: fig. 16). AIso
found within this tomb was a carefully-rnade loop-handled vessel with a
ram's head spout (Fig. 9), a type thus far not attested elsewhere at the
site. Finally, included as one of the associated offerings was a vase that
had once contained a flower, apparently a thistle. This unique find
became apparent only after careful and conservation, when it
could be seen that a cast of the plant's structure had been preserved in
mud and salt (Fig. la-b).
Though the osteological material within these tombs hasnot yet been
analyzed in detail, preliminary observations show that, invariably, these
intramural tombs were communal interments and contained the mostly
disarticulated remains of multiple individuals, including adults (of both
sexes), juveniles, and even infants. In terms of their constructional
technique and use history, these Late EBA intramural tombs are
125
indistinguishable from, earlier, Mid EBA cist tombs previously excavated
in an extramural cemetery area near the site (Hauptmann 1993; Hona in
Algaze et al. 1995: 26-28). On account of their location, composition,
and long use history we believe that the intramural burials recovered this
year may represent family crypts. If so, the association of the crypts with
distinct households may well signal an claim of property rights
within the city, However, the significance of the shift in mortuary
practice at the site between the extramural cist burials documented for
the Mid EBA and the similar but intramural intennents common for the
Late EBA is difficult to assess.
LOWER TOWN (AREA 2) EXCAVATIONS
Guided by the results of remote sensing surveys conducted in 1994
(Somers in Algaze et aL. 1995: fig. 13), we opened a single 10 x 10 m
trench in the westem lobe of the Lower Town in 1995. This operation,
Tr. 34-12, was placed on the westem edge of the Lower Town to begin
uncovering a coherent neighborhood arca that could be cornpared against
the one being revealed in the Outer Town. All or of six rooms
flanking a cobble and sherd-paved sU'eet were uncovered within the
trench (Fig. 11). These remains may be assigned to the Late EBA on the
basis of the associated ceramics and are similar in both consrruction
technique and scale to the domestic units, discussed above, exposed in
the portion of the Outer Town. Also, like the Outer Town
exposures deseribed earlier, this architecture has several subphases,
suggesting an occupation of significant duration. However, further
exposures are needed in this area in future seasons before we can
how configurations of domestic space in the Lower Town
resemble or differ from those already deseribed for the Outer Town.
SUBURBS (AREA 5)
To date, no excavations have been conducted in any of the mid-late
Early Bronze Age suburb areas surrounding the main settlement at Titris.
However, in 1994 we noticed numerous Canaanean blade cores eroding
onto the surface of one of the suburbs (Fig. 12), about 320 meters away
from the eastem edge of the Outer Town (Fig. 1). We continued plotting
the ineidence of cores of this area in 1995. Over 100 cores have now
been recovered. This conccnrration of Canaanean blade cores, the
densest ever reported in southwest Asia (S. Rosen, pers. comm.),
attracted our attention because Canaanean blades regularly recovered
in Mid-Late EBA contexts on the site but none of the cores from which
they were produced has yet been found in the excavations. This
126
extraordinary concentration strongly argues for the existence of a
specialized flint blade production area within the eastem site suburbs and
will be the focus of future research at the site.
CONCLUSIONS
The 1995 work at Titris helps document the nature of domestic
occupations at the site in the Late EBA and suggests the presence of
specialized production areas at the periphery of the settlement. This is
important because, save for rare exceptions, such domestic and
specialized production sectors remain the least understood areas of urban
EBA societies in the ancient Near East, both textual1y and
archaeological1y. Because of the large size of the houses uncovered and
of the number of courtyards and hearths within them, it is likely that the
basic unit of organization at the domestic level within the city was
extended family, with each coherent architectural unit formed by a
number of closely-related nuclear families sharing a single burial crypt.
The evidence for standardized construction modules forming the units
and, more importantly, for wal1 alignments that cut across different units
suggest that in the exposed sector of the site was organized
at a supra-household level.
REFERENCES
ALGAZE, G.; GOLDBERG, P.; HONA, D.; MATNEY, T.; MISIR. A.; MILLER ROSEN, A.;
SCHLEE, D.; and SOMERS, L.1995 "Titris Hyk, A Smail Early Bronze Age Urban
Center in Southeastem Anatolia: The 1994 Season." Anatolica 21: 13-64
ALGAZE, G., andMISIR, A.1994 Museumjuiversity of Califomia Excavations and
Surveys at Titris Hyk, 1992." 15. Ankara: ve
Mzeler Genel Mdrlg. Pp. 153170.
1995 Museum/Universiry of "Excavations and Surveys at Titris
Hyk, 1993." 16. Ankara: ve Mzeler Genel
Pp. 107120.
ALGAZE, G.; MISIR, A.; and WILKlNSON, T. 1992 of
California Excavations and Surveys at Titris Hyk:, 1991:. A Report."
Anatolica 18; 3360.
HAUPTMANN, H.1993 "Vier Jahrtausende Sicdlungsgcschichte am mittlere Euphrat."
Archiiologie in heft 1: 10-15.
MATNEYand ALGAzE 1996, 1996 "Urban Development at Mid-Late Early Bronze Age Titris
Hyk in Southeastern Anatolia." Bulletin of the American ScJIoO/S of Oriental
Research 299: 3352. .
127
-t0
00
1000M
800
600
Extramural
c<\ery
o 200 600 aoo
,111111'
1000
EmI Umit of EBA Mounding
Aoodplain of Tavuk ay
t

N G DryStream Course
liIIIiL EM Suburbs
1200 1400
Figure 1: Hyk. Contour plan showing the main areas of the settlement and the areas
exeavared in 1994-95
......
N
'o
Figure 2: Late Early Bronze Age domestic area in the Eastern sector of the Outer Town (79-84/87,'80-84/86,81-84/86,
and 82-86). Viewtoward the northeast
F g u r e S :
130
Sehematic plan (origina) footprint not Incorporating numerous Iater
modifieations) of Late EllA domestic area in the eastern seetor of the Outer
Town (Trs. 79-84/87, 80-84/86, 81-84/86, and 82-86). Seale indicated. Map
pradaecd by Mr. Jobn Kelly
Figure 4: Room with in-situ deposits and horse-shoe shaped hearth
in Unit 1
,
o
T
10
.. ~
. ~ ~
. . . , .-
i
i
,
20m.
......
v .
......
Figure 5: Titris Outer Town. Correlation of geomagnetic data and 1994-95 exeavation results (see alsa
Figure 3) in and aruund the area of Trs. 79-84/87, 80-84/86, 81-84/86, and 82-86. The data
has been processed to highlight only negalive magnetic signals (in black), presumed to
represent collapsedand in-situ Hmestone wall foundatlons, Scale indicated
132
Figure 6: Late EllA cist tomb n Trencb
80-84 (tornb s t r u c t u r e Locus
011, c o n t e n t s Loci 026, 048)
with capstones removed, View
toward the south. View of
interior deposits prior to
removal,
Figure 7: Late EllA cisl tomb in Trench 80-84 (Locus 011) with
capstones removed. View (toward the southeast) showing
detail of tomb door construction.
Figure 8: Late EBA ceramics from depcstrs (Loci 026, 048) in interior of Tomb
80-84: 011. Note an Aegean type two-hendled depas (TH 11855) loward
center.
~
Figure 9: Late EBA vessel (TH 11878) from deposits
(Loci 026, 048) in interior of Tomb 80-84:
011.
133
134
Figure 10a: Mineralized flower imp-ression raund in vase (TH 11773) from deposits
(Loci 026, 048) in ioterior of Tomb 80-84: 011
Figure 10b: Mineralized Ilower impression raund in vase (TH 11773) from deposits
(Loci 026, 0481 in interior of Tomb 80-84: on
Figure 11: General View (toward the of Late EBA street and assoclated
domestie struetures in Trench 34-12
Figure 12: blade cores from the Eastern Suburb survey area
135
EXCAVATIONS AT SOS HYK, 1995
Antonio SAGONA*
Mustafa ERKMEN
Claudia SAGONA
Archaeological investigations this year at Sos Hyk, carried out by
the University of Melbourne and Erzurum Museum with a staff of twenty
three, took place in the summer, between 2 June and 3 August. We wish
to record our appreciation to the ve Mzeler Genel
for granting us to undertake the investigations and to the Vali
of Erzurum, and his staff, in particular Fehmi Bedir,
Director of Culture, for their unstinting support. The aims for the 1995
season included activities both on the mound and off-site. The following
discussion outlines the periods investigated in 1995 beginning with the
latest.
Medieval
The Medieval period consists of three building phases that can be
dated to the 13th century A. D. The latest (Phase: 1) is fragmentary,
whereas the second phase comprises a settlement of rectangular rooms
and communicating passages orientated northeast-southwest. Built-in
features include deep clay-lined ovens. Phase lll, the earliest Medieval
level, is represented only in L14 by the northem half of a rectangular
house. A good range of material was associated with the Medievallevels
(Fig. 1: i), though no major change can be observed in the assemblage.
(*) Prof.Dr, Antonio SAGONA, The University of Melborne, Parkville Victoria 3052
AUSTRALIA
Claudia SAGONA, The University of Melborne. Parkville Victoria 3052 AUSTRALIA
137
Hellenistic
The next cultural deposit, the Hellenistic, consists of onlyone
building phase. To date this period is represented by a large (at least 14.5
x 8.5 m), burnt building in Ll3 and Ll4, consisting of a main room and
anteroom. Walls were built of mudbrick and coated on the interior with
plaster, which vitrified and bubbled from the intense heat. The roof
consisted of a thick layer of mud which had been coated on the underside
with lime and separated from the supporting beams with reed matting.
Whole and split found burnt or partly in the fill, were used
in the construction of the superstructure. The focal point of the building
is a mud-plastered niche preserved to a maximum height of 55 cm and
set on a platform against the back wall, whose function is difficult to
determine. The absence of any traces of blackening argues against the
suggestion of a hearth. It is possible, however, given its prominent
position within a large public structure, that its function may have been
ritual, though what the ritual may have involved has yet to be established.
Excavations in the western half of this HelIenistic bnilding revealed that
it extended and re-used an earlier Iate Iran Age
A number of pits cur the floor of the HelIenistic building and were
subsequently sealed by the burnt debris, suggesting that the building was
abandoned for a short period before desrruction. An intact coarse ware
pot containing burnt animal bones was found buried up to the rim and
placed against the wall in the northwest corner,
In contrast to the smail quantity of finds in the L13 structure,
pottery was found in K14, mostly local coarse wares and fragments of
large starage jars. The few fine ware sherds incIuding a fragment of an
open bowl decorated with impressed palmettes below a band of grooved
horizontals, have strong affinities with material from Byktepe Hyk'.
An unplundered burial, Tomb 13, of the Helienistic period was
excavated in Area B. The chamber, a stone-lined cist, was found intact.
On the six large stones placed to form an approximate circle 4.6
m. in diameter defined the general extent of the tomb. Within the circle
two large capping stones were positioned in the centre. The burial
chamber, a stone cist, lay beneath a thick (56 cm.) layer of rubble and
was orientated along 001 east-west axis. Two skeletons, one superimposed
on the other, were found in the tomb. The topmost was a male, the other
(1) Sngonn, Pembertan and McPhce 1992: fig. 9:3, 7 and Pemberton and McPhee
1991: fig.7:6.
138
a female, adorned with a pair of silver earrings, Each corpse was
provided with asilver drachm of the type of Alexander the Great.
lron Age
Asounding along the west side of J14 was carried out to provide
guide to the Iron Age deposit. Much of the deposit consisted of fil!
above a thick plaster floor dated by radiocarbon last year to the tenth
century B.C. On the floor lay the well preserved carbonised remains of a
rush mat and a wicker basket, and fragments of twine.
Although our investigation of the Iron Age has only just begun,
certain trends in material culture can already be observed. Wheelmade
black ware represented by jars (Fig. 1:3) and carinated bowls (Fig. 1:2)
was found associated with the plaster floor in J14, whereas the Iate Iron
Age (Achaemenid period), best evidenced by material from immediately
beneath the plaster floor of the Hellenistic building in L13, and exposures
in L16 and 17b, inlcudes the dark brown bumished sherd decorated with
a pointille design and the distinctive burnished bowls of gadrooned form
(Fig. 1:4,5) which are nodoubt based on metal prototypes.
Millennium B. C.
This period is only just beginning to emerge at Sos. The small area
of the settlement currently exposed, in M16, is distinguished by compact
earthen floors, pits and basin-like plaster depressions similar to those
found in the Early Bronze Age levels. Pottery has a dark, gritty fabric
and is generally quite hard. New forms such as holemouth jars make their
appearance and increase in number.
Early Age
Five Iate Early Trans-Caucasian building levels were exposed. The
latest building level was represented by part of a rectilinear dwelling
built of pale brown mud bricks set on two courses of stone. It had a
plastered bench, a built-in circular hearth with a ridged kerb and raised
central horns, now broken, and a circular, plastered shallow basin.
A freestanding room built in the wattle-and-daub technique and
approximating a rectangle with rounded comers distinguished the next
level, the most extensive Early Bronze Age deposit so far exposed. Its
floor was plastered, but not as skillfully as that of its annex attached to its
side. Immediately below this level, in M17a1b, is part of another
round-cornered rectangular room, with foundations up to four courses
deep.
139
In trench Ll7b a of a substantial straight wall positioned
close to the edge of the was exposed. This trench provided two
radiocarbon readings: one charcoal collected around the portable
hearth found south of the wall yielded a calibrated date range (two
95% probability) of 2890-2555 and 2535--2495 Re., the other a
bell-shaped pit that cut this level extends 2120-2080 to 2050-1730
B.e.
2
Excavations in adjacent L17a has revealed the earliest building
level a stone surface, perhaps the foundations of a wide wall,
which was cut by a number of pits.
The contents of a pit that cut the southem wall of the rectilinear
brick building can be dated to the very end of the Early Trans-Cancasian
cultural phase and the period after, termed Martkopi in
Georgia. In the pit was a large, incised biconical jar very similar to
vessels the Martkopi kurgans'. Accompanying the jar were
fragments of a wheelmade grey 'Syrian Bottle' slipped on the outside in
black (Fig. 2:4)
The ceramic repertoire the Early Bronze Age is relatively
The bowl has a pronounced belly generally set
low on the profile. These bowls are invariably black, and have a highly
bumished exterior centrasting with an interior of rougher finish.
Two bowls found in close to each other in Trench L17a are
noteworthy for their lustrous black polish (Fig. 2: 1-2) Certain fragments
alsa bear a silvery, almost mirror-Iike surface produced by rubbing
graphite onto the at the leather-hard stage prior to burnishing.
Decoration is not but restricted to specific vessels, especially
trays (Fig. 2:3).
Obsidian is the primary used in the manufacture of stone
implements during the Early Bronze Age. The industry consists
of scrapers with a large number of flakes displaying one or
more cortex faces (Fig.2:5,6), testifying to the exploitation of alluvial
obsidian that has washed down stream from a source near Byk Dere,
north of Pasinler. Most of the lithic finds appear to be informal in their
shape, but do fall functional categories. An exception is a large
well-worked obsidian scraper with distinct bulbar scar and striking
platform, and extensively retouched edges.
(2) The eonvertional radiocarbon age' are 4140+/-60 B.P.(Beta-84372) and 3570 +/- 70 B.P.
(Beta-84371)
(3) Miron and 1995: 227, figs 58,59.
140
The Early Bronze Age bone industry is well developed. It includes a
comb with what were closely spaced teeth well-crafted fasteners (toggle
pins?), a single-barbed point a tanged arrowhead, an eyed needle, pointed
awls and spindle whorls, Two bronze earrings were found: one has
overlapping pointed the other is lunate in form
BlBLIOGRAPHY
MIRON, A. and ORTHMANN, W.. 1995. Unterwegs Go/denen VIies:
af/S Georgien; Snarbrckcn.
SAGONA. A. G., PEMBERTON, E. und McPHEE. I" 1992. "Excavutions at Byktepe Hyk,
1991: SecondPrelimiuary Report", AnatS! 42: 29-46.
SAGONA. A. G., Sagona. C. und ZKORUCUKLU, H., 1995. "Exncavations at Sos Hyk:
First Report 1994", 45: 193-218.
141
1
2
3
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Fig: 1
142
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Fig: 2
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-=-=-
143
1995
SONULARI
nder
niversitesi ile Kltr Trk Tarih ve Tr-
kiye Turing ve Otomobil niversitesi
Fonu'nun mali yrtlmekte olan Samsun-lkiztepe a-
1995 dneminde 15 Temmuz ile 15 EylUl tarihler 60
gn sre ile
1995 dnemi heyeti yesi olarak
Dnmez, Arkeolog Serpil ve Desinatr Bur-
han Glkan, Restoratr Vanin ile niversitesi stajyer li-
sans Trkan elik, Arseli elik, Seyhan Dursun, Hilal
Kmbe, Mehtap Tasa, Nket Burcu Bulut, Faruk Demirci, Yeliz
Yontucu, Nilgn Birel, Arzu Atabey, K.Erdem ve Anadolu ni-
versitesi stajyer lisans Duygu Baykara uz-
olarak Samsun Mzesi Menderes Alan

1995 dneminde arkeolojik 1993 ilk
defa Tepe III'de (Resim:3) "L" A-
D 6/114, D 7/114, D 8/114, D 9/114, D 6/115, D 7/1 15, D 8/115ve
D 9/1 15 plankarelerini kapsayan 200 m- lik bir alanda (Resim: i) ger-
sonucunda, her bir plankarede seviyedeki
yksekliklere kadar ve 1993 dneminde de-
seviyelerdeki 4 mimari da takip edildi. Bu arada
sz konusu plankarelerin yzey Ilk Tun III
1993 ve 1994 dnernlerinde gibi Hel-
lenistik, Ge Demir ve Orta Tun anak-mlek
da
(*) Prof. Dr. nder BILGI, niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi. Arkcoloji ve SanatTarihi
Blm, 34459!STANBUL
145
10.36 ile 9.70 m derinlikler kalan, 0.66 m'lik bir dolguya
sahip i. mimari tabakada ortaya bir kil tabana
olduka tahribata ve kille bir
ile bir kil yerden grld
(Resim: 2). D 6/1 14-LS plankareleri iinde yer alan ovalimsi
mevcut 0.63 m, mevcut 0.39 m ve tabandan
O.lS m dir 4). b.3432 olarak kodlanan, kuzey ve
Hellenistik bir plk tahrip edil-
iin, saptanamayan atlye nitelikli bir iin-
de yer grlen ait faaliyetleri so-
nucunda yok
I.S0 m kadar kuzey alanda, in-situ du-
yerlerinde (Resim: S) i anak ile Imeyvelik (Resim:
14) ve bir tanesi 3 (Resim: 16) 3 mlek bulundu.
ve D 6/1 IS plankaresi iinde yer alan ve
bulunan atlyede imal ve edilecek olan
eserlerin iyi renk-
li ve 0.20 m bir kil yer ukur (b.341O) 3.1S
x 1.76 m boyutunda olup ovalimsi (Resim: 6).
Bu arada 1.70 m kuzeyinde, kil taban zerindeki moloz
tahrip bulunan, b.341S olarak kodlanan
ve kuzey-gney zerine, kollar vcuda paralel, ba-
caklar ise ekik grlen iskeletin
(Sk.630), atlyenin enkaz kalarak 'bir
ait (Resim: 7).
D 6/1 LS plankaresinde ortaya kil bir taban
ve kil ukurunun
b.3400 olarak kodlanan ve 0.40 m kot ya-
parak olarak uzanan bu tabana ait herhangi bir mimari geye rast-

taraftan, Hellenistik ait iinde ele geen auak-
mlek trnden ve 1.70 m yi bulan D 6/1 14
plankaresi iinde, yzey hemen plan-
karenin 3/4'n gittike daralarak ve Tun
III mimari tahrip ederek
(Resim: 8). plk iinde toprak 3 koku
(Resim: 13) ile i kiremiti ele geti.
146
i. mimari moloz iinden 12 kova anak-mlek
ile i kova kemik Kk buluntu olarak tun i kalem
(Resim: 25), toprak i figrin, i tekerlek, i nesne, 3
ile 14 tezgah 2 kesici ile i yonga, L
kemik i spatula (Resim: 23) ve 3 delici ele geti.
9.70 ile 9.55 m derinlikler kalan, 0.15 m lik bir dolguya
sahip 2. mimari tabakada ortaya mimari bir
ait (Resim: 2). D 6/1 14-15 plankareleriiinde,
mevcut boyutu 5.27 x 3.25 m olan ve ynnde uzanan tek
gzl ve ynlerinde izlerine rast-
17 m-'lik bir kaplayan ve b.3403 olarak kodlanan
koridor grnml bu tomruklarla temel
gzlendi (Resim: 9). Iinde ve
ele geen maddi kltr bu bir yeri

taraftan, D 8/1 is plankaresinde b.3402 olarak, D 9/1 is plan-
karesinde ise b.3404 olarak kodlanan kil ta-
1994 ortaya kutsal sundurma
kalan kuzey yndeki bu
ortaya ve XV olarak
bulunan dikecin 0.17 m ve 0.32 m
kutsal

2. mimari moloz iinden 21 kova anak-mlek
ile 3 kova kemik Kk buluntu olarak tun i
toprak 5 figrin (Resim: 17), i i (Resim:
18), 2 ip 4 ile 38 pon-
2 2 obsidiyen i kesici (Resim:
24) ile i yonga, i pandantif, kemik i testere (Resim: 22), i spa-
tula, i ile 13 delici ve boynuz i havaneli ele geti. '
9.55 ile 9.15 m derinlikler yer alan 0.40 m dolguya sahip 3.
Mimari tabakada ortaya mimari yine bir
ait (Resim: 2). D 6-8/1 14-15 plankareleri iinde, genel
boyutu 6.55 x 5.70 m olan ve uzanan 2 gzl
taban
seviyesindeki gvdelerinin sap-
b.3414 olarak kodlanan yer alan 4.60 x 1.55 m bo-
yutundaki 3 blml kk gz depo, yer alan 5.70x
4.80 m boyutundaki byk gznn ise yeri
147
37 m? lik bir alan kaplayan byk gzn do-
bakan zerinde yer bu kesimde saptanan 1.82 m uzun-
taraftan, kuzey ve gney
90 derecede ve simetrik olarak 3'er adet
temeli destekleyen mimari elemanlar grld
(Resim: 10). Temel birbiri zerine yatay ola-
rak dikdrtgen planda olan bu
zerinin, saz demetleri ile semerdam biiminde
iinde in-situ durumda toprak 1mlek (Resim: 15)
ile 72 tezgah (Resim: 11) bulundu.
3. mimari moloz iinden l3 kova anak-mlek
ile 2 kova kemik Kk buluntu olarak tun i
toprak 3 toprak kilit (Resim: 19), bir tanesi kre biimli
ve golf topu grnml (Resim: 20) 3 sapan tanesi, dokuma
i ip tutturucusu, 8 ile 39 tezgah
1 1 balta 1 ile i ez-
kemik i olta (Resim: 21) ile 6 delici ve ok boynuz 1
delici ele geti.
9.15 ile 8.37 m derinlikler yer alan, 0,78 m lik bir dolguya
sahip 4. mimari tabakada ortaya mimari yine bir
ait (Resim: 2). D 8-911 14-15 plankareleri iinde,
mevcut genel boyutu 9.50 x 7.50 m olan, merkezi bir mekan ile bunun et-
evreleyen kk mekanlardan tomruklarla
taban seviyesindeki
71 m
2'lik
bir alan kaplayan ve b.3427 olarak kodlanan
4.15x 4.05 m boyutundaki merkezi 4.15 x 1.25 m bo-
yutundaki gney ince blnerek 4 kk mekan
ve bu gney 2 ile ilgili
olarak ortaya
yer alan ve b.3430 olarak kod-
lanan bakar. Oval mevcut
0.51 m, en yeri 0.65 m, 1.75 m ve tabandan
0.10 m dir, Duvar 0.08 m olan iyi sert
kuzeyden gneye olarak uzamr ve 0.11 m kot yapar.
b.3331 olarak kodlanan daha kktr. Ovalimsi olan
bakar ve 0.48 m En yeri 0.53 m,
ise 0.97 m ve tabandan 0.08 m olan bu iyi
sert kuzeyden gneye 0.08 m kot yaparak,
olarak uzamr. Merkezi yer alan mevcut boyutu
4.25 x 2.03 m olan ve kuzeyinde yer alan, gz 1.75 x 1.70 m,
148
gz ise 2.00 x 1.80 m boyutunda olan 2 gzl bir mekan ile mer-
kezi mekan iinde ve ele geen maddi kltr bu
bir yeri gzlendi (Resim: 12). merkezi
iinde in-situ durumda 43 toprak tezgah ele geti.
4. mimari moloz iinden 5 kova anak-mlek
Kk buluntu olarak toprak i figrin 1
sapan tanesi, 8 ile 61 tezgah i kemik i
ile 2 delici ve boynuz i delici ele geti.
4 mimari de hemen hemen zelliklere
sahiptir. Bunlar dz ve ve kenan
ikili, drtl, yatay veya dikeyolarak yumru a-
naklar ve mlekler ile delikli veya halat bezemeli olan mey-
veliklerden Hepsi elde olan hamurlan
iyi kile, mineral bitkisel ha-
Mutfak iyi iyi per-
ve iyi Yzey renkleri siyah, gri, kahverengi
veya rengin Bezerne olarak oyuk izgi, ve si-
linti bezek trleri grlr, /
taraftan, 0.66 m 1. mimari tabaka dolgusunun or-
talama 0.20 m kapsayan ve "O" olarak kodlanan yzey
ierisinde maddi kltr herhangi bir mi-
mari ize Tepe III'n yer bu kesimdeki Orta Tun
ile Ge Demir ve hemen onu izleyen Hellenistik yer-
gerek erozyon ve gerekse faaliyetler yznden tah-
rip bir kez daha gsterdi.
1995 dneminde bu sonra ortaya
zellikle mimari ile tm anak-mlekten Orta Karadeniz Bl-
gesinin en byk merkezi olan Ikiztepe'nin Samsun blgesinin
mimari kkenine ve Protohistorik kronolojisinin
bir kez daha taraftan, Tepe I'de
1993 dnemi ncesi ortaya bulunan me-
sahiplerinin Tepe III'de
men, henz ve Tepe I'de ele geirilen metal eser-
lerinin nerede bulmak iin,
zellikle gelecek da devam ettirilmesine karar verilerek ve ama
son verildi.
sonucunda elde edilen 32'si mzelik, 300' etdlk toplam
332 eser Samsun Arkeoloji Mzesi'ne teslim edildi.
149
Szlerime son verirken maddi ve manevi des-
tek niversitesi ile Kltr Trk
Tarih ve Trkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu Samsun
Mzesi Mdr ve mensuplanna, Bafra ve Ky
iten sunanm.
150
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P.
1
:.-
1
, ,.
- ' ~ -
i l .
Iii' -
LSI\" :0
111
.. .. g=.. ol ':l- .. '" ! :
151
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152
Resim: 3
Resim: 4
153
Resim: 5
Resim: 6
154
Resim: 7
Resim: 8
155
Resim: 9
Resim: 10
156
Resim: LI
Resim:
157
Resim:13 Resim: 14
158
Resim: 15
R e s i n : 1 6 Resim: 17
Resim: 18
159
Resim: 19 Resim: 20
160
Resim: 2]
161
RESEARCH AT TILBESHAR 1995
Christine KEPINSKI-LECOMTE*
Rifat ERGE
Our 1995 mission followed upon that of the previous year. In 1994
we established a topographical map of the site and began a study of the
surface material, primarily of the northern lower city. In 1995, then, we
continued prospecting the site, collecting sherds in the southern lower
city, and in addition we undertook several soundings in the northern
lower city.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the General Directorare
of Monuments and Museums, and in particular Professor Dr. Engin
Ozgen. I would also like to Dr. Rifat Erge, director of the
Gaziantep Museum, who graciously accepted our collaboration.
Besides myself, our team included archaeologists Alhan and
Mehmet nal, who represented the Gaziantep Museum, Frederic Gerard
and Regis Valiet; a topographer, Pascal Lebouteiller ; an architect and
draftsman Hande Canbilen. In addition we were greatly aided by
efficient help of Canbilen, who acted as interpreter in addition to
supervising various logistical problems.
Surface Survey: Lower City
In 1995, then, the survey of the site continued with the collection of
sherds in the southern lower city, In this southern lower city, two streets
and several entrances to the city still visible. At the center we can see .
a certain number of structures in ruins, If, as the ancient sources tell us,
(*) Dr. Christine KEPINSKI-LECOMTE. C.N.R.S.. EKA. 41. d'Art el d'Archeologie,
3, rue Michelet, F-75006 Pans, FRANSA
Rifat ERGE, GaziantepMzesi Mdr.
163
the fortress and the suburbs of Tell Bashir were destroyed in 1263 by the
Mamelukes, it is not impossible that these ruins represent alater
occupation of the city after its destruction by the Mamelukes.
Since Tilbeshar is a vast site, we used a loose grid for analysis, as we
did with the northem lower city in 1994 : this is, squares of twenty
meters per side, with systematic collection in every other square. We did
our surface collection in the south-east corner and in the southwestern
part of the city.
In the southeastem area, we found only medieval sherds : as we
hypothesied last year, this outcropping could well be the suburb which
ancient sources tell us was added in the thirteenth century, during the last
major occupation of the city.
In the southwestern area, the only period is the
Early Bronze Age. A Chalcolithic settlement seems uncertain, and even
unlikely, given the extrerne rarity of the sherds found. There are alsa a
few traces of the Middle Bronze Age, bm the sherds of this period found
both here and in the Iower ci ty are typical of a Middle Euphrates
culture. Of course, the majority of the sherds come from medieval
period, mostly the XII and XIII th. century.
Excavations
As for the excavations now, we open three soundings in the northern
lower town : two to the west (area A and B) and one to the east (area C).
Their goals were to give, after having excavated the medieval
levels, a first appraisal of the ancient Bronze and Chalcolithic
occnpations indicated by the surface collections, and, if possible, to link
the dwellings with the various fortification walls.
AreaA (Fig. i)
A trench i Ometers long was dug to the of a wall
visible at the surface of the site. These ruins are the remains of one of the
fortification walls that protected the suburb during the medieval period.
This stone wall, three meters wide, rests on stone wall with a
slightly ctifferent orientation. Both are constrncted on a rnud-brick wall
connected to a glacis, vestiges of a third stage of medieval
fortification wall.
164

To the south of the trench, a pile of falien mud bricks follows the
slope of the site: it is closely linked to an abundance of monochrome and
bichrome sherds of the Obeid and Halaf period : it eorresponds most
probably to fragmentsof a wall brought to the after digging.
the glacis reveals alayer of either destruetion or
abandon whieh covers a series of three floors, linked onee again to
Islamic material (sherds and coins) and to another stone fortification
wal!.
We uncovered its northern surface to a height of over two meters. At
the bottom, it cut a series of floors whose ceramic belongs to the Bronze
Age, and more precisely, to the very beginnings of the Middle Bronze
Age.
Area B (Fig. 2)
it is a square of ten meters per side, partially excavated to a depth of
two point eight meters. Several layers of occupation were brought to
light, the most reeent of which, all belong to the medieval period and the
oldest to the Bronze Age.
Beneath the surface of the site, two rectangular rooms were partially
uncovered, Theyare delimited by stone walls fifty or sixty centimeters
thick. A dig was undertaken inside one of the rooms : the walls bear
traces of two or three partial reconstructions of the building. Several
series of floors indicate a continuous occupation during arather long
period of time. On these well-preserved floors, the presence of ovens,
hearths, millstones and grinders, and also tools and iron objects attest to
the domestic or artisanal function of this room. A treasure of
eoins comprising silver dirhams and a
rather homogeneous collection of ceramics, eurrently being studied,
complete the inventory of objeets found here.
This level was built on a foundation of large stones. Under this
foundation, several pits perforate a deserted layer, then an older layer of
oceupation. The ceramic material here also dates from the medieval
period.
At the bottom of the excavation, a stone wall whose orientation is
eompletely different from the preceding level is eonneeted to a plaster
floor on whieh a few rare sherds date from the Bronze Age.
165
Area C (Fig. 3)
Trench C, two meters wide and twenty-five meters long, was dug
into the summit of the eastem side of the lower city.
Here, also, the most recent levels are medieval : we can recognize
several stages of fortification walls, along with a level of occupation.
After a long hiatus, this occupied level rests on structures from the
BronzeAge.
Stone foundations of a wall represent the last stage of the ramparts. it
is erected top of and perfectly aligned with an older and better
preserved fortification wall. The older wall is in mud brick, of which six
or seven layers remain on a stone foundation three and a half meters
wide. It is anchored in the slope of the hyk which was probably in
steps, and its foundation trench cuts into the underlying layer. it is
connected to a filler material (smail stones mixed into a very hard
mortar) that covers the older layers, and is obviously meant tolevel off
the building within the city.
This underlying level corresponds to the first inhabited level
indicated by the architectural remains of the entire trench. It consists of
two buildings separated by an alley. To the east two partially uncovered
rooms offered an abundance of material, including a large group of iron
objects and an inscribed vase from the twelfth or century.
Underneath this inhabited level, three large pits cut through a series
of floors with no buildings. These pits descend into the older levels.
After this, we have the last level reached by the excavations in 1995.
It consists of the remains of a Bronze Age structure, represented by four
parallel stone walls which are located one point three meters below the
surface to the west of the
Synthesis
On .the three area excavated, the most recent levels date from the
medieval period. Theyare represented by two or three successive
fortification walls, and inside the walls, one inhabited level, with several
phases of occupation and reconstruction. Underneath these medieval
levels, which are from one and a half to two and a half metershigh, we
proceed directly to a much older level, most probably dating from the
Middle Bronze Age.
166
Between these two levels of habitation, one dating from the Bronze
Age and the other from the medieval period, we can see a large number
of Islamic pits : they could well correspond to the mentioned in
the ancient sources. We learn, in fact, that in the middle of the twelfth
century A.D. the unbuilt northern suburb was sourrounded by a
fortification wall. A large millstone is abandoned in one of the pits and a
mass of animal bones, obvious traces of butchery, fills another. These
clues lead us to conclude that this space in the northern lower city was
probably used initially for outside (agricu1tural and pastoral) domestic
activities and as a refuge in case of attack.
On these three area, medieval ceramics are abundant and the floors
are rich and well preserved. They date mostly from the twelfth and
centuries A.D.
As the Bronze Age ceramics, they seem to find para!lels in
levels i to J or K to L in Amuq and Period LV, and especially III in
Kurban Hyk, which date from Early Bronze to the beginning of the
Middle Bronze Age; this is a particularly interesting collection, because
it includes several shapes and wares that date from the Middle Bronze in
Mesopotamia but which often dated back to Early Bronze levels in
Anatolia.
on area A, along with an important collection of
Obeidian and Halafian sherds both monochrome and bichrome, among
the material, we find new evidence of a Chalcolithic settlement.
Besides the ceramics, the exeavation permitted the discovery of
numerous medieva! iron tools and coins. These silver coins on which we
find the Christian cross as well as Christian and Arab inscriptions were
made only in 1251, probab1y in Acre in one case ; the others were made
either in Mardin, Aleppo, Damascus or Hama.
From the earlier levels, we note a fragmentary terracotta, a female
figurine, bronze knife blades, an arrowhead and numerous blades as well
as an Urukian cylinder seat. We already know that two cylinder
seals in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford are probably from Tilbeshar.
CONCLUSION
The information gained from the surveys and excavations, with
additional indications from medieval sources, us to sketch a
picture of a site that was occupied irregularly, essentially from the
Cha!colithic to the Middle Bronze Age, then during the Medieval period.
167
InitiaIly, during the Chalcolithic period, the settlement probably
occupied only the part of the site, near the Sajour River, and
particularly the nearby springs. The northern lower city was probably
occupied until the end of the Chalcolithic Period, and then rather
continuously from the Early Bronze to the beginning of the Middle
BronzeAge.
After a long hiatus, TeIl Bashir was again an iniportant medieval
city. It seems that originaIly the northern suburb was consecrated to
outdoor activities : domestic, agricultural, artisanal. and pastoral.
at this time to have located in the southern
lower city and the citadel. However, this has to be confirmed by the next
soundings. Later, probably from the Iate twelfth and the thirteenth
centuries, domestic settlements and new walls cover the entire suburb
and now constitute the upper levels of the northern lower city, whose
limits are slightly inside those of the underlying Bronze Age city,
In the Southern Lower City, settlement does not seem to occur
before the Early Bronze Age: it lasted perhaps until the Middle Bronze
Age. After a very long hiatus, as in the area, it was again
inhabited in the medieval period. The southeastern outcropping could
well be the suburb added in the thirteenth century. The ruined structures
standing in the middle of the lower city probably represent a
later occupation of the city till the ottoman period.
In 1996, we hope to expand our knowledge of the site with
additional surface collections in the southern lower city and the citadel,
so that the surface material can be published as quickly as possible.
Furthcrmore, excavations should be undertaken in three areas :
continuation of Area A on the slopes of the northem lower city, a step
trench on the slopes of the citadel and a square in a depression within the
lower city.
168
169
170
171
REPORT ONTHE ARCHAEOLOGICALWORK
IN DOMUZTEPE AND !TS ENVIRONS IN 1995
1
Elizabeth CARTER *
Hadi BOZKURT
Stuart CAMPBELL
JamesSNEAD
Lynn SWARTZ
Introduction (Fig. I)
Archaeological surveys carried out in the region in
1993 and 1994 led to the discovery of an exceptionally large (18 ha) Halaf
site (Carter 1995, 1996). Until recently most Halaf settlements were
thought to be "small or very and sites larger than 2 ha were
viewed as extraordinary (Akkermans 1990, 189). In the last five years,
however, several Halaf sites have been discovered that -are sufficiently
large to suggest that they contained population concentrations and thus
centralized functions. The first of these sites was the LO ha mound called
Takyan in the Cizre-Silopi plain in south-eastern Turkey (Algaze et al
1991, 195 and Fig. 12a); the second, called Kazane, on the outskirts of
is estimated to cover 15 ha or more (Wattenmaker, pers. com.) and
the last, and largest of these, is Domuztepe or KM-97 at 18-20 ha. Since
(*) Prof. Dr. Elizabeth eARTER, Neur Eastem Languages andCultures, 376 Hall. Uni-
versty of California, Los Angeles, A.B.D.
HadiBOZKURT, Mzesi Mdr
(1) i would likc to thank Burhan, loeal director of culture of the
provincc, Hadi Bozkurt, director of the Museum and Mehmet
Museum, who served as the representativc of the museum on the exeava-
tion. Staff 1995 included Dr. Stuart Campbell, field director, Dr. James Snead,
Eissenstadt, Bekir Grdil. Lynn Swartz, nrchaeologists, Tania Collas. conscrvator, Patricia
Oliansky, registrar and Kksal, draftswoman. Financial support from the Na-
tional Geographic Society; the University of Cnlifomia, Los Angeles, International and
Overseas Programs and Academic the University of Manchester and various private
doners. Without their support the project would not have been possible.
173
most excavated Halaf sites are smaIl or only known from restricted deep
soundings on mounds with much later occupations, Domuztepe is asite
that can make a unique contribution to our understanding of the origins,
functioning, and demise of aHalaf center.
The site lies in a fertile and well-watered seetion of the alluvial plain
about i km southeast of a pass in the These hills are one of sever-
al low ranges that subdivide the alluvial region south of the modem city
of The low hills have many natural springs and pro-
vided, and stilI provide, excellent grazing Iands. Theyare also a con-
venient source of basalt, serpentine, flint and Iimestone for the in-
habitants of the plain.
The Regional SUI1'eY.
The regional survey, conducted within a 21 sq km area surrounding
Domuztepe by Dr. James Snead, was designed to incorporate much of the
which would have formed the "hinterland" or "catchment" of the
ancient settlement at Domuztepe. The survey proceeded in two ways.
First approximately 1/3 of the associated terrain Iies on the flanks and
outlying ridges of and The steep, rocky slopes
were not considered suitable for intensive survey strategies but they com-
prise an important resource area for Domuztepe and related settlements.
Accordingly, survey implemented for these uplands was extensive, rather
than intensive, and consisted of foot reconnaissance in those areas
thought to have the highest site potentiaI. This survey effort was con-
sidered an extension of the valley-wide survey, using the same forms and
site numbers from the same sequence. A total of seven sites containing
Roman tombs were recorded in 1995, the most significant of these being
the estimated 17 tombs found in three related clusters (KM 228-229,
236). Distribution of chipping debris across the hill slopes indicates sub-
stantial use of local resources during the prehistoric period.
In addition to archaeological evidence, data to modern or
recent land use patterns and the distribution of natural resources were
also coIIected. In some cases (notably KM 232 and 237) cuItural features
(e.g., an abandoned village, sheep pens, roads, windbreaks, basalt quar-
ries) of probable recent date were recorded to provide examples of the
settlement type. Other occurrences of similar features were noted on the
master survey plan, together with the distribution of resources, smail
roads, drainages, and other landmarks not present on the 1:25000 base
map used to plot the distribution of sites in the region.
174
Second, the flat, low agricultural terrain immediately surrounding
the site is presently divided into fields used for the production of
cotton and sugar beets. Wheat is grown on the unirrigated land of the
mound. The off-site fields were used as survey units and were transected
at 25 m intervals - a scale sufficient to find smail flat sites. Large scale
maps of entire vicinity of the site were made and all fields were given
a unique number. Approximately 286 ha were surveyed in total. The 65
field/survey units surveyed covered an area of 98.97 ha and of these 27
fields contained artifacts primarily of Late Roman and Islamic date.
The Late Roman and Islamic material found in field s appears to
come from the site of Domuztepe and the site KM 220, next to the vil-
lage of Some off-site concentrations may also indicate
the presence of smaller activity areas in use during the Late Roman Pe-
riod. Artifact density was low in the vicinity of the Domuztepe, itself,
and it is very possible that the site was relatively isolated in the Halaf pe-
riod md that the surrounding low-Iying area was much wetter than it is at
present. Extensive irrigation and drainage systems may well have been
introduced into the area by the Romans. Such systems may have resulted
in settlement patterns similar to those of the present day - here small vil-
lages and hamlets are strung out along the fringes of the hills near natural
springs and in the lowlands next to the canals and natural watercourses.
Domuztepe (Fig.2)
Systematic Surface Survey of the Site
Before beginning excavations, a systematic survey of the
mound was completed (August 16 to August 29, 1995). The aims of sur-
face survey were to establish the major zones of settlement during the
various periods of occupation and to help localize any areas of .spccial
function -e.g, pottery production, flint knapping or stone bowl man-
ufacture. A stratified systematic unaligned random sample methodology
was selected using 50 by 50 m squares, In each 50 m' unit, 2 sample grid
points were chosen at random. A restriction was placed on the random
choice, to help ensure more even coverage, so that adjacent (even di-
agonally) grid points could not be seleeted. All artifacts in a eirele of ra-
dius 4.37 m (60 m-) area were eollected around each point, an area of 60
m'. This provides eoverage of about. 5% of the total site area, In eaeh
area 2 to 3 trained arehaeologists eolleeted all bones, shells and other ar-
tifacts, pot sherds with a maximum dimension of less than i
cm.
175
Preliminary analysis of the collections by Dr. Stuart Campbell re-
inforced our impression that the site was completely occupied during the
Halaf period and that the Islamic and Late Roman remains on a smail
part of the site cover earlier prehistoric Ubaid and Ubaid-
related materials are concentrated on the surnmit of the south mound and
in the northwestern area of the site. Pre-Halaf materials appear to be con-
centrated along the southeastern edge of the mound. The major growth
and deeline of the site occurred during the Halaf period, c. 5500-4500
b.c. (uncalibrated), but the finer grained analysis to isoIate
shorter term variability across the site's surface has not yet
been completed.
The Halaf collections units were rich in including pottery
and stone vessel fragments, lithics, stone beads and stamp seals. The
large amount of debitage in the collections from the northwestern part of
the site suggests that lithic production may have been located in this area
of the mound. A wide veriety of early and Iate Halaf painted and plain
wares was found along with a full range of chaff-tempered burnished and
plain coarse wares, The prevalence of stone vessel fragments suggests
that they were part of anormal household assemblage. In addition to 10-
cal flint and chert, a obsidian flakes, cores and tools was discovered.
Grey, green, elear and banded obsidian were present in the collections
possibly indicating a complex Halaf period network.
Six stamp seals were found on the surface and six more were dis-
covered in the subsquent excavations (Figs. 4-5). All, except one, made
in the form of a are of different geometric shapes (triangle, square,
rectangle, pyramid, circle, ete). Usually they have hatched designs on the
front and a suspension loop on the back, but one scaraboid-shaped seal
that is latitudinally pierced was discovered. Normally, few seals are
found on Halaf sites and the large number found in such a short time at
Domuztepe is noteworthy. These seals point to a need for marking own-
ership and suggest the monitoring of the of goods and com-
modities.
Test Excavations (Figs: 6-7)
Two operations, called Operation i ("the sounding") and Operation 2
("the southeast cut") were begun on the sourheastern end of the site
where virtually no Iate material was found during the course of the sur-
vey.
176
Operation 1 (E51O N490)
A 4 by 4 m pit was opened on the summit of the southern mound to
investigate the presence of an Ubaid period settlement on the site and to
establish the stratigraphic relationship between the Ubaid and Halaf pe-
riods - a period poorly understood throughout the Near East.
In this trench two major building episodes were identified and por-
tions of several surfaces below the lower building level were eleared. The
uppermost construction consisted of the foundations of a poorly pre-
served stone walllocated just below the modern with no elearly
associated floors. A finel y crafted spouted stone vessel came from on top
the wall (dt-I). Beneath this a wall (F4) which ran almost
north-south along the eastern side of the trench was found (Fig.). It is
1.10 m wide and based on the nature of the fill to its west appears to have
been the outside wall of a substantial structure, although onlyone course
of stone is preserved. No living floor was associated with the structure,
but wall Fl3 in the southeast corner of the trench, appears to join wall 4
and may be an inside wall of the same building,
Among the finds from the lower layer was a large polished basalt
spacer bead with ticked edges and 'dotted' circles (dt-89). Most of the
finds came from floors 5,8, and LO that were possibly outside surfaces in
use at the same time or slightly earlier than the lower Two
stamp seals, one in the shape of a hand (Fig.5:dt-17I) and the other a
square (Fig.4:dt-I72) came from floor 5. Several beads (dt-ll - 102) and a
sling (dt-143) were also found. Aside from a few sherds from the
uppennost layers excavated, no clear Ubaid materials appeared. The pot-
tery indicated that all !evels excavated were to be dated either to the very
end of the Halaf period or possibly to a period that is tentatively named
"post-Halaf" to indicate that it is earlier than the classic Late Northen
Ubaid.
Operation 2 (E596 N451 and E596 N446)
Operation 2 or, the southeast cut, was begun in order to take ad-
vantage of one of many recent cuts made in the edge of the mound by
farmers trying to !evel the land for agricultural use. These bulldozer
openings sometimes extend almost 50 m inside the rnound. By beginning
om work in one of these 'excavations' we were able to stop the further de-
struction of the site and at the same time to samp!e earlier !evels of the
occupation. A 5 by LO m trench was laid out at a place where a right angle
cut had been gouged out of the archaeological layers (Fig.6). After the re-
177
moval of the top soil to the surface of the archaeological deposit, it be-
came clear that the northem and westem portions (E596 N451) of the ex-
posure were mnch better preserved and excavations were begun along
this edge of the trench. In the southem portian of the trench (E596
N446) where cutting had been most severe, a mini step-trench was made.
This work revealed a minimum of five distinct building episodes all of
Halaf period date. The stratigraphy is very compressed. This possibly
suggests long periods of abandonment between episodes of occupation or
that the intentional removal of most structural remains before rebuilding.
Satisfactory links between the lower layers of the southern and northern
trenches renmin to be established.
Just below top soil, a surface (F20S) and a poorly preserved pise wall
(F203) were found in E596 N451. Alsa belonging to the first construction
episode in this trench were a stone platform (F207) and two trash de-
posits (F204 and F206). The larger trash deposit (F206) formed at same
unknown time, and accumulated and extended through both trenches, but
stopped short of the structures to the north (F203, 20S). Finds of animal
bones, raw flint nodules, debitage and various ground stone objects, in-
cluding a large mortar and pestle, suggest that butchering or possibly
same kind of flint production activities were carried out in or near the
area. In addition to typical Halaf sherds, a large nnmber of undecorated
burnished wares were found in this deposit.
The most interesting finds from these upper layers were two stamp
seals (Fig.5: dt-l37 and dt-140) found on or near floor 205. Dt-l37 is a flat
cm thick) 'ice cream cone' shaped pendant seal with a suspen-
sion loop at the narrow end, horizontal hatching on the and angled
lines on cither side of the rounded Dt-14 is a pyramidal flat seal
with vertical suspension Ioop, meant to be worn point np. Horizontal
hatching decorates the top part of the seal and vertical lines are found on
the bottom portion. These seals, based on a comparisian with other ex-
cavated assemblages, (cf. Von Wickede 1990) appear to be earlier than the
larger rectangular or square seals found in the Operation i and on the sur-
face.
Beneath these uppermost deposits, deseribed above, two pise walls
(F2l3, F214) preserved to a height of only 15 to 20 cm were found in E596
N45L They were cut by the bulldozer in the southern part of the opera-
tion. Since the fill inside them is extremely hard (perhaps intentionally
packed), few remains are directly associated with the room and most of
the finds come from the outside surfaces to the south and west of the
structure, In addition to pot sherds, stone and ground and chipped stones,
178
a latitudinally pierced scaraboid seal (Fig.5:dt-133) of a very highly pol-
ished black stone, possibly a diorite, was found. The flat side is
smoothed, the convex side is hatched and divided into two parts by a
double incised line.
Immediately below these walls in trench E596 N551 a single curving
line of stones, most probably the stone footing or edging of a tholos
(F215), was discovered. Only the tops of the stones were defined.
To the south in E596 N446, a stone wall fragment and a platform of
smail stones (F209) was This structure was badly cut by the bull-
dozer and, although clearly earlier than the tholos foundations, its ab-
solute stratgraphic position is not certain. South of F209 were a group of
stones, probably part of a wall (F216). A complete Halaf pot, was found
upside-down in lenses of burnt collapse just north of it. The vessel (dt
160) has a complex decorative scheme which has elose parallels at Tell
Halaf itself.
Cleaning the top soil from a meter-wide step at the base of E596
N446 revealed the top of a burnt tholos whose diameter is reconstructed
at 6 m. The curved wall is 40 cm in width and is made of sub-
rectangular pise lumps 18 cm-, it has 3 to 5 cm of white lime plaster on
both faces. Adjacent to to the north was an area of heavily
trash with altemating layers of hard and soft pit-like black trash
(F21l). The trash yielded a large number of animal bones, ineluding a
nearly complete goat skull, a number of handstones and several worked
bone tools. The level has been covered and will be fully excavated in
1996.
Conclusions
The finds from the systematic pick-up, and the excavations
have demonstrated that the Halaf occupation (c.5500 to 4500 b.c, un-
corrected or c. 6500 to 5500 RC. on the site was long-lived
and that its material culture was elosely tied to the contemporary as-
semblages identified in Syro-Mesopotamia, Further analysis of the ce-
ramics should lead to the development of a complete sequence for the
fifth millennium b.c. Some Anatolian elements, however, are present in
the cerarnic assemblage. Frequent and regular contact with the Anatolian
plateau is reflected in the large numbers and variety of obsidian cores,
flakes, and tools found on the site. Flakes and chunks from obsidian core
preparation and one fine blade core were also found, demonstrating that
obsidian was not coming to the site as finished blades or prepared
179
cores. A sophisticated ground and polished stone tradition suggests that
the production of stone items, utilizing the locally available serpentines
and basalts, formed part of the Halaf period economy of Domuztepe.
We hope in future exeavation seasons to investigate the suggestion
made by Campbell (1992) that Halaf societies were wealth-based chief-
doms, and currently see Domuztepe as a gateway community whose
growth was linked to the control of trade between the Anatolian high-
lands and the Syro-Mesopotamian lowlands.
The distribution of seals (and hopefully, in the future, sealings) in as-
sociation with stored goods or commodities might give us clues to the
presence of an elite who controlled wealth at Domuztepe. In future sea-
sons we will be analyzing the architectural remains to see what eth-
nographically known activities of chiefly elites such as feasting, storage
and/or production of wealth goods might have occurred in or adjacent to
large buildings (e.g. Earle, ed. 1991).
The exeavation of an Halaf period site as large as Domuztepe prom-
ises to shed new light on the questions raised by the other recently dis-
covered large Halaf sites in Anatolia. Was there an archaeologically iden-
tifiable elite? Did they manipulate the local economy to produce enough
surplus to fund the exchange networks evidenced by the presence of ex-
otic raw materials? Can we identify storage and production facilities,
large public buildings ete? These are some of the questions raised by our
first season of exeavation that we hope to answer in future years.
180
BIBLIOGRAPHY
AKKERMANS, P. 1990. Vilages in the SettlemenJ and Subsistence in
the Val!ey, Syria. University
ALGAZE. G., C.LIGHTFT. R. Breuninger and M. Rossenberg. 1991. "The Tigris-Euphrates
Archaeological Rccouaissance Project, 1989-90". 17:175-240
CAMPBELL, S. 1992. and Change in the Later Neolithic of Mes-
Doctoral Scotland: Universitiy of Ediuburgh.
n.d. and Emergen! Comp!exity. The Halaf Prcsence in the K. MaJYI
Plain;"
eARTER, E. 1996."The Archaeological Survey Project: A Prclimiuiary Report
on the 1994 Season." 14:289-305.
1995. "Report on the Archaeological Survey Project from 24/9/94-11/
11193. Sonuian 13:331-341.
EARLE.T., ed. 1991. Power, Economy and Ideolog)', ed. T. Earle. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge Universitiy Press .
.MELLAART, J. 1975. The ofthe Near East. New York: Schribners.
REDMAN, C. 1978.The Rise ofCivilization. San Francisco: Freeman.
1987."Surface Collection, Sampling, and Research Design: A Retrospective. "American
52: 249-265.
VON OPPENHEIM, M. and H. Schmidt. 1943. Tel! Halc{f i: Die Funde. Berlin:
De Gruyter & Co.
VON WICKEDE. A. 1990. Prilhistorische Stempelglyptik in vonterasten. Mnchener vor-
derasiatische Studien Herausgegeben von Barthel Hrouda, VI, Mnich: Profil Verlag.
181
( ........ -."'-
Aleppo
Vi
r SYRLA
TURK"V
"""""-

100""
'

Contour Interval SOOm
-- Area .surveyed in 993. 1994
DJ'
O?i
D,/i
v
N
ot
Late (c.37oo-31oo b.c.)
Ubaid (C. 4500-3800 b.c.)
Halaf (c.5500-45oo b.c.)
Late (c. 6000-5500 b.c.)
Flint Production
Regional survey map showing the distribution of settlements in the
through Late Chalcollthlc Periods.
Fig.l:
IS2
Archaeological Project
'NI
J.Snead
.100
(!)
i
,"LS

-
Domuztepe Survey Are.
jEW"
mIN
1995
IWIN
".
,
" -,
)--




contour intervaI = SO, m EI
o
, ,
km
Fig .2: Intenslve survey area around Domuztepe (KM S'7)
......
00
W
100m
Contour fnterval
Q.5m
. B. and S. Campbell
o
o
o
700.00
400.00
600.00
800.00
500.00
900.00
200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 700.00
F'ig. 3: Contour map of the site showing the locattons of OperattonsI and 2.
184
~ ,
~ ' = 1=_
~ ~
L ~
,c' -1-.
i i
o
185
- ~ ~
- ..
, '
,j
L ~
186
Fig. 6: Operation 1 (sounding) from the west.
Fig .7: Operation 2 (southeast cut) from the north,
187
OYLUM HYK 1995
Engin ZGEN"

Barbara HELWING
Kilis ili, Merkez ile, Oylum Ky iinde yer alan Oylum
Hyk'teki 1995 12 Temmuz - 26 tarihleri ara-
Bu T.C.Kltr ve
Mzeler Genel ve Alman Arkeoloji Enstits'nn maddi kat-
yrtlen 1995
Temsilcisi olarak Gaziantep Mzesi'nden
Bulgan heyetinin yeleri: Hacettepe Universitesi
Grevlisi Halil Tekin, Dr. Barbara Helwing, G-
revlisi Atilla Engin, Dr.Il.Kbra Ensert,..Mimar Pieter Collet, Arkeolog
Tufan, Hacettepe Universitesi arkeoloji
Mustafa Akyzl, S. Gke Solok, Figen Serim, Sheyla Gedik, Grsu
Gnal, Blent Volkan Ankara
Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi'nden Kimya Mhendisi Nazif Uygur,
Restoratr Abdurrahim ulha, Kanada, The University of Lethbridge'den
arkeoloji Bill Coward, Shawn Bubel ve Kevin Mc Ge-
ough'dan
Oylum Hyk'teki 1995 1993 bu yana
devam edilen ve amalarla ykseltisi ile bu yk-
seltinin st blmnde yer alan R 15 plankaresinde
(*) Prof. Dr. EnginZGEN, Hacettepe niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, Arkeoloji- Sanat Ta-
rihi Blm, Protohistorya ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim TR 06532, Beytepe,
ANKARA.
Gr. Halil TEKlN, Hacettepe niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi
Blm, Protohistorya ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim TR 06532. Beytepe.
ANKARA.
Dr. Barbara HELWING, Institut Ir Ur-und Frhgeschichte und Vorderasiatische Arhao-
logie, Marstallhof 4. D-69117 Heidelberg, ALMANYA.
189
R 15 AMASl
Sz konusu alanda 1991 sreli bir iri
bloklardan byk bir temellerine Bu
dolgu iinde Hellenistik Dnem'e ait seramik,
toprak figrin ve sikkeler ele H-
bu blm ky sakinlerinden birisinin tapulu iin,
hykte sistemli nce uzun zerinde zi-
raat Bundan sz konusu st ait
mimari ok tahrip RI5 bu de-
devam Ustteki, Hellenistik
bir teknikte duvar gn
Bu yn
olup; bazalt daha kk boyutlu ile doldurul-
sonucu Bu sadece iki
1995 sz konusu duvar rast-

Bu dolgu M..I.bin seramik
ve kk eserlere Bu amada ele geen seramik
gvde ve dip ait par-
alardan ark bu paralardan maalesef btn bir
kap elde etmek mmkn Bu kaplar, de-
vetynn bir renge sahiptirler. R 15 1995 a-
ele geen kk eserler bir silindir mhr nemli
yer (Resim: I). olan bu silindir m-
hrn yzeyine linear stilde bir sahne yer Bu
sahnenin solunda, ayak kadar uzanan bir elbise erkek
figr ok atar durumda Okunu ynde ise
iki bir sahip bir bu-
Bu iki ise bir bitki motifi yer
bir malzemeden iin, mhrn yzeyinde bo-
zulmalar Bu mhrde sahneyi Yeni Assur mhr

W llb-Xll a-b AMALARl
1993 bu yana gibi yk-
seltisindeki yama ta srdrlen amalara 1995 da
devam kod olarak en st seviyesinde bu-
lunan Wllb-X Ila-b plankareleri bu tek ama haline ge-
Geen bu amalarda Erken Demir tarihlendirilen
gn 1994 ortaya l-
190
ve ama profiline dik olarak
uzanan, bazalttan temel
ynde bir duvara iki metrelik bir
yeri bu kompleksinden
Oda i olarak simgelenen bu mekana ait iki taban ortaya
Ge safhada bir geidi Bu
gney blmnde bazalttan bir ocak
kuzey 3 adet pithos yanyana ele Bu pit-
sadece alt Bu iki me-
kana daha (Oda 2-3). ilerledike Xlla ile Wllb
ama i m lik blm bylelikle
iki ama Bu alandaki M.O.I.bin ta-
rihlenen bir skarabe (Resim: 2) ile insan eli bir damga
mhr Agyptologisches Institut des Universitat He-
idelberg'den Dr. Dietrich Raue, skarabenin zerinde
Amun-Re ve bu tip skarabelerin M.O.I.bin ilk ya-
Bu bilgilerden ken-
disine ederiz. mhr ise renk
olup, yzeyi Mhrn insan eli grnts
yzeyinin ikinci bir
Ancak, mhr Sz konusu mhr
form olarak Hitit mhrleri
X llb ncelikle geen ve
kuzey-gney ynnde uzanan duvar 62 (D62)nin iki
apraz duvar D 60-61 incelendi. Bunlar kk
iki adet temelli kerpi duvarlar olup; ama
profilinde bunlara ait iki taban izi kesik kesik grlebilmektedir. Bu ka-
kk mekanlardan kerpi
Sz konusu mekanlar 1-1.5 kerpi olup, 3
seviyesi grlebilmektedir. Ama profilinde bunlara ait taban izleri
daha grlebilmektedir.
X llb'nin kuzey 2 mimari tabakaya Her biri
1-2 kerpi ykseltisinde olup, temelleri yoktur. En stteki yuvarlak
duvar, kendisinden daha eski olan iine
W llb-Xll a-b plankarelerindeki mimari ama yzeyinden
itibaren Hellenistik p ma-
alesef ok tahrip Bu nedenle ama iindeki gerek
ve tam olarak anlamak gtr. Gn
bu mimari birbirleri iine adeta girmeleri, ara-
seviye da Sz ko-
191
nusu mimari daha iyi anlamak iin gelecek
beklemek gerekmektedir. p tahrip edilen bu alan-
da ele geen seramik zerindeki henz ta-
ilk gzlemlerden, bu tabaka seramikleri Erken Demir
zellikleri gstermektedir. Kk buluntular top-
raktan insan ve hayvan figrinleri da dnem gs-
termektedir, 1993 bu alanda bulunan toplu bu
restore Bunlardan ift kulplu bir mutfak seramik ko-
leksiyonu iin iyi bir rnek (Resim: 3). Btn buluntular
gz nne tespit edilen toplam 9 Erken Demir
aittir. W Ilb-X Ila-b gneyden 3 m
(Resim: 4). Son seviyede ukurlar Gelecek bu alanda a-
devam edilecektir.
Y lla-b AMALARI
1995 ile Yllb plankarelerinin
sre
Y Ila: Bu alanda gn bir zemini
kiler grnmndeki birinci bllim Alttaki
podyumdan meydana gelmekte olup, her iki da kerpi
ykselti Podyum ve i no'lu klms dolgusu
iinde en az 3 pithos ve kap Kerpi pod-
yumun delikler nedeniyle tahrip
Buluntular tatminkar Bu tabakada ele
geen seramik paralar olanlar Seviye ola-
rak kuzeyindeki YIO paralar
Bu tip paralar Y10 ok ele
Yllb: Geen temizlenmesiyle bu
alandaki devam
ynnde 2 adet duvar birbirine olarak ele Bunlar, a-
profilinde yer yer izlerine
Bu alan en dik birini mimari
ok tahrip Bu nedenle mimari ve az sa-
kk buluntuya bakarak sylemek gtr. Gelecek bu-
radaki devam ettike kesin bir sylemek mmkn ola-
bilecektir.
Y 10 A
X 9bl plankaresinde, 1994 kk bir sondaj so-
nucunda tespit edilen ve buluntulardan Orta Tun tarihlendirilen
192
ait temeller ile 1991 Z lla plankaresinde gn
ve yn ile koda sahip mimari
bir olup, iin, sz konusu iki
kalan Y LO plankaresinde
yzey dknt halinde kerpi ka-
ilerleyip, k-
yer alan X llb plankaresindeki seviyeye ora-
daki gibi birbirinin iine durumda mimari
Bu amada ele geen seramik paralar tek renkli, byk
ark Erken Demir zellikleri gstermektedir. Sz
konusu mimari ekilip, izimleri
sonra bunlar ve alttaki tabakaya
Alttaki tabakaya ait doku, stndeki tabakadan tamamen
Tek bazalttan bir temelin zerinde kerpi duvar
kuzey - da ortaya ya-
hem dolgu iinde, hem de zerinde olarak
kap Bu tip seramik Oylum Hyk'te ilk
kez bu ele arkta olan bu seramikler ortak zel-
likler gstermektedir. zemin zerine, veya kahverenginin
yatay, dikey ve hatlardan bezeme Sz
konusu seramikler zerindeki henz
Kuzey Suriye ve Amuq'ta bu tip benzerleri Ge Tun
ele
Z
1993 bu amada iri te-
mellere sahip byk bir Bu a-
sz konusu zarar vermeden. y-

l. Evresi: Byk bir ait te-
meller bu evreye aittir. Sadece temellerin ve
ele geen malzeme, bu tarihlendirilmesini
1994 X9bl bu ynde
ve duvar ve kodda bir Sz ko-
nusu iki kuvvetle Se-
ramikparalar da paralellik Bu Orta
Tun aittir.
193
2. Evresi: Bu evreyi ynnde uzanan
temelli bir duvar Bu duvarla hemzaman olarak ele
geen seramik paralar, blgedeki pek ok merkezde ve Oylum Hyk'te
gn ve Erken Tun IV dnemine
seramik trlerindendir (Resim: 5-6-7)
3. Evresi: gney ortaya
ve beyaz yzeyli taban, bu
aittir. Bu seviye bir son Bunun
beyaz taban bir mezar ele bu duvann ko-
olan kuzey iinde kap-kacak ile hayvan kemikleri
olan bir ukur, ve duvara olarak ortaya
gney blmnde ele geen dzensiz al-
bir seramik ile bir mlek ve
bilinli izlenimi veren kap-kacaklar gn
Erken Tun IV'e bu tun-
tan bir
4. Yapi Evresi: ynnde ve ku-
yaparak ynelen bir bir
turan iki duvar, bu evreyi meydana getirmektedir. Bu duvann i y-
zeyinde beyaz badana yer yer izlenebilmektedir. Bu duvann
bir oda mezar ortaya Bu mezar en dik ya-
birinde Her suyunun
stndeki toprak duvarlan tahrip
bu mezar erken dnemlerde zeri yas sal
Ancak, tahribattan kapak ieriye
bunun yol da
bir blm tahrip Mezar Z 12 plankaresi ile Z Ila a-
blmde ele Z 12 plankaresinin kuzey b-
lmnn kk bir blm de
1995 sezonunun son gnlerinde bulunan bu kapak
mezann daha nce net olarak gz-
Bu oda mezar, Oylum Hyk'te sistenili
sonra bulunan nc oda Maalesef bu da kendisinden
nce bulunan iki oda mezar gibi erken dnemlerde
mezarda tun k-
peler ve az kap ele Btn bu objeler, blgeden
ok iyi Erken Tun IV eserleriyle tiptedir.
194
ZllbAMASI
1993 bu tekrar
Fakat bu dzenli bir mimari vermedikleri Bu
ve profil b-
lmlerinde, kl.ve p ukurlan ele Bu ukurlann st se-
viyelere ait olduktan Ama iinde
devam ve izleri Bu
amadaki dolgu iinde ele geen seramik
Erken Tun III dnemine ait olanlar

Oylum Hyk'teki 1995 nceden
zere Ykseltisi Bu blmn ta-
baka dzenini tespit etmek ve Oylum Hyk'te gelecek ya-
tutmak bu sonu
kadar, bu alanda srdrlmesi
gibi Oylum Hyk'te sistemli 1987 Ga-
ziantep Mzesi ile ortak bir olarak kadar
kazilar sonucunda Hyk'te Erken Tun Hel-
lenistik Dnem'e kadar kesintisiz bir tespit
Henz ana ve OylumHyk'n iti-
bariyle, Anadolu'nun hykleri gz nnde tu-
tulursa, gelecek Anadolu arkeolojisi ve hatta
nasya arkeolojisi iin nemli byk
Oylum Hyk'te sistemli 1987 g-
nmze kadar geen zaman iinde incelemelerin toplu
hale ve en zamanda bir n rapor olarak Is-
tanbuler Mitteilungen'de
195
196
Resim:3
197
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198
Resim:5
Resim:6
199
1995 YILI KAMAN-KALEHYK KAZILARI
OMURA*
1995 Kaman-Kalehyk Kltr ve
Mzeler Genel izni ile, Japonya Kltr Mer-
kezi 19 Haziran-25 Eyll 1995 tarihleri 70
ile Japonya Kltr
Merkezi Genel Prens Takahito
heyeti, Mnih Universitesi doktora Daisuke Yos-
hida, Mamoru Yamashita; Ankara, Harvard ve Virginia niversiteleri dok-
tora Masako Omura, Kimiyoshi Matsumura, Hitomi
Hongo, Jeffrey Nikola, Konservatr Glenn Wharton, Sctott Carol, Mei
An Tsu, Kendra Kyoto nivesitesi'nden Prof. Dr. Kazumichi Ka-
tayama, Tsukuba nivesitesi'nden Prof. Dr. Yutaka Ikeda ve
Takao Aoki, Takayuki Oshima ve niversitelerden
rencilerden 19 Haziran-IS tarihleri ara-
ve Mzeler Genel Mzeler Ar-
keolog Mbera Gnel, 16 Eyll tarihleri Anadolu
Medeniyetleri Mzesi'nden Arkeolog Melek temsil ettiler. 25
Eyll 1995 tarihinde, 103 eser, Arkeoloji Mzesi'ne
teslim
1995 Kaman-Kalehyk ta-
bulunan heyeti yelerine, zellikle, her
zaman gibi, Kaman-Kalehyk her
bilimsel ve ilgisini srdren Prof. Dr. Tahsin
zg' e itenlikle,
(*) Dr. Sachihiro OMURA. 237-1-103 Naito, Kckubiuji-Shi, Tokyo - JAPONYA
201
i. 1995 Kaman-Kalehyk
gibi, Kaman - Kalehyk 100 km g-
Eski Ankara-Kayseri karayolunun hemen ku-
Kaman-Kalehyk, Kaman ilesinin 3 km
Kaman-Kalehyk, uygun, sulak, bereketli bir arazinin or-
Hyk, kuzey-gney ve
280 m ve 16 m orta boylu bir Anadolu
grnmndedir.
1995 Kuzey ve Gneyamalarda
yrtld. Bu noktada toplanabilir:
i 986 beri devam Kuzey stra-
tigrafisini srdrmek,
2. Kuzey Ama'da kadar tespit olan Kaman-
Kalehyk stratigrafisini, yeniden plankarelerde kontrol etmek,
3. Gney Ama'da Dnemi ve II. kat eserlerini bir
btn halinde incelemek ve ortaya koymak.
ll.
1995 Kuzey Ama'da I-II, Ve-Vll, XVfl-X'Vlfl,
Gney Ama'da L-LV plankarelerindeki a-
Kuzey Ama'da plankarelerde i
kat, XXVII-XXX'de Ila, IId I-II,
Ve-Vll, XXIV'de IIIb XXIV'te Ille Gney Ama
da LVplankarede la L-LII'de IId (Resim:1).
llL. Kuzey Ama'da Stratigrafi
Kuzey Ama'da kadar kltr tes-
pit edildi. Birincisi ikincisi Demir ncs Orta ve Ge
Bronz 4, Demir 18, Bronz ka-
13 i 995'de bu btn sezon bo-
yunca srdrdk.
1.1. Dnemi
Kuzey Ama'da Dnemi'ne ait 4 plan-
karede, yani XXVii, XXVIII, XXix, ve XXX'de srdrdk (Resim: I).
Bu 1994 Xll, O, I, II plankarelerinde tespit
202
edilen Assur Ticaret Kolonileri de-
idi.
XXVII, XXVIII plankarelerde, 1994 R164,
RI 67, ve R53 tmn devam
ettik. Mimari hemen sonia,
grld. hemen yine i. kata ait, tek
1995'de yeni XXIX, XXX
plankarelerinde de yzey hemen sonra, i.
grnd. temel kalan
luklar, ok dknt ve toprakla iki, ya da
tek kk halinde ve kuru duvar ve kk
yer yer daha bykleri
2. II. Kat-Demir
Kuzey Ama' da ikinci temsil eden Demir zerindeki a-
devam ettik. XVII, XVIII, XXIII, XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX,
ve XXX'de (Resim: 1). gibi,
Kaman-Kalehyk Demir mimari ve
kk gre, II. katta drt evre, yani
Ila, IIb, Ilc, ve Ild evreleri 1995'de de Ila, IId ev-
releri zerindeki srdrdk.
XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXX'de, Dnemi'ne ait mimari ka-
hemen Ila kata ait
.(Resim: 2). Bu katta 10 m, 2.5 m'yi bulan koridora
benzeyen mimari Bunlar, blok halinde iri
XXVII, XXVIII'de dikdrtgen iki
bodrum Kuzeydeki ze-
rinde byk pitos bulundu; bunlar onun depo olarak kul-
tahmin ettirmektedir. kerpi rl
bir duvar Duvar ve tabanda direk izleri grlmektedir. bu
10 m, 2.5 m ye olan ile
tespit edildi. Bu me-
garonu Megaron tipi hemen stnde Os-
Dnemi'ne ait gre, bu
Demir en son evresine, yani M.O. 4 tarihlendikleri tah-
min edilebilir. Dnemi hemen 1992,
1993 da, tipe giren Kuzey Ama'da O-II, XXI,
XXII, XXIII, ve XXIV'de ve Gney Ama'da II, IV, VI, XXXII,
XLVI, ve XLVIII plankarelerinde de Bunlar, plan,
seviye ve kk gre, 1995'de
203
Megaron tipi, iki tam merkezine ku-
Bu geen koridora
benzeyen duvarlar Bunlann byk binalar kompleksini
tahmin ediyoruz. koridor rgleri, II. teki
rglerine Bunlar, uzun sre kul-
olarak izlenimini vermemektedirler. Bun-
Hellenistik bir sre nce edildiklerini tahmin
ediyoruz,
II. erken evresi Ild'deki Kuzey Ama'da
XXI'de Ild'de 8 tespit
zelliklerini, tek alak bodrumlu, bol ve ta-
banda direk izlerinin 8 iki
gruba a) ve motifleri olanlar, b) elde ya-
olanlar. XXI plankaredeki kerpi tek bodrumlu ya-
boya gre, XXI'deki Ild son
yani M.O. 9. - aittirler.
XXI'de Ila ve IId'nin ancak Ilb, Ilc ev-
resine ait hi Bu olay, mer-
kezindeki teki plankarelerde de grlmektedir, Bu gzlem ve sonuca
gre, merkezi Ilb, Ilc evresinde bir olarak kul-

Ild evresinin ilk yani, 5., 6.,7. ve 8. zerinde,
saca durmak istiyorum. gibi bu bo-
hi seramik trnn Ild evresinin 4.
birden bire 4.
motifleri. olduka, bir Biz Ild
evresine ait Kaman-Kalehyk'te yerli on-
oraya bir yerden getirildiklerini 1986-1995
I Anadolu'da yiizey Ild evresine
ait seramik trnn blgesinden ok gney bl-
gesindeki hyklerde Ben bu
IId evresinin Orta Anadolu'nun gney blgesiyle d-
5.,6.,7. ve 8. katmda bu seramik tr
Bunun yerine boya yani monokrom seramik ok sa-
ele Ancak bu arasmda Hitit
rneklerini seramik da Onmzdeki mev-
simlerinde Hitit IId evresinin zerinde
zellikle gibi bu, Orta Anadolu arkeolojisinin henz
ok nemli bir sorunudur.
204
3_1I/ Kat-Bronz
XXI, XXIV, I, ve II plankarelerinde III. kat srdrld.
Bronz mimari ve
kk buluntulanna gre, evreye, yani Illa:
Hitit IIIb: Eski Hitit ve IIle: Assur Ticaret Ko-
lonileri Dnemi'ne IIIb, yani Eski Hitit zerinde
nemle durmak istiyorum,
XXI, XXIV karelerinde, 1993, 1994 IIIb
evresinin, yani Eski Hitit mimari
devam ettik. Eski Hitit Dnemi'nin daha eski bir
evresi (Resim: 5). Bu evrenin alttaki
iine Bu 1993, 1994' de XII,
O, I plankarelerinde yrtlen sonucunda, Assur Ticaret Ko-
lonileri son evresine ait
iine olan ve onlarla seviyede,
ok p da Bunlar birbirlerini durumda
idiler. Eski Hitit seramik ve bol miktarda kl ve
kmr bulundu.
Eski Hiti stndeki I, II plankarelerde
de devam edildi. 1994 I, II plankarelerde
daire byk duvar, Assur Ticaret Kolonileri Dnemi'nin
_ iine Buna gre bu
bu nik olan bu Assur Ticaret Kolonileri
stndeki daha ge evreye ait griilyordu. Bu bol mik-
tarda Hitit hiyeroglifli mhr 1995 da
daire dikkatle srdrdk. 2 m de-
rinlikten sonra, yuvarlak bir ok
krem seramik par-
derlendi. tm sonra,
40 cm lik kll
bir tabana grdk. Bu dairenin 14
m, 4 m dir. Bulunan eserler, ok krem seramik
bullalardan beyaz
Seramik ve bullalar zerindeki
seviyede Bunun iki bulla
bulundu. terk edildikten sonra geen sre iinde yuvarlak duvann
kesimindeki rg iine Bullalar bu
stne Bunlar, bu byk ya-
daha getir. Taban stnde bulunan bullalar, bu-
lunanlardan ok bullalar Eski Hitit hiyerogliflidir.
205
Taban stndekiler hiyeroglifsizdir. Henz yuvarlak fonk-
siyonunu tayin edemedik. Mukayese malzemesine sahip Depo
veya ayn bir iin edilip nmzdeki mev-
simin sonra yorumlamaya
Iv. Gney Ama
I. I. Kat
Gney Ama'da i. LV plankarede (Resim: 3). Yzey
nemli toprakta bol miktarda Bunlar kal-
sonra - ynnde uzayan kuru tek-
0.5 m kk objelerinin
la tarihlendikleri
2. II. Kat
II. LI-LlV'de II. daha nce
Ilc, IId evleri alanda LI, Lll plan-
karelerdeki R96, R98 nemli siyah
taban stnde, duvarlardan kerpi
(Resim: 4). Bunlann tetkiki, bu en az iki veya
kez taban uzun sre Taban ze-
rindeki seramik IId boya idi.
V. Buluntular
I. I. Kat: Dnemi
i. kata ait kk anak-mlek
Bunlar in situ durumda, ya da tam olarak ele
geen eser ok Kk objeleri: in porselen Os-
Dnemi'nin tun yzkleri. midye akik ve cam bon-
cuklar ve sikkeler
2. II. Kat: Demir
II. kata ait kk buluntular koleksiyonumuzu, tun fibulalar, oku-
lan, kemik objeler, fayans skarabe, ve fayans mhrler, fibula
ya da kemer gz fayans obje, anak-mlekler

206
3. III. Kat: Bronz
HI. kat Kuzey Ama'da I, H plan-
karelerdeki yanm daire Eski Hitit hiyeroglifli bul-
deriendi. Dr. Yoshida ilk incelemelerinden hiyeroglifli bullalardan
M.O.15. ait da M.O.l4. yz-
Bullalardan Eski Hitit
ait tipik mhrler, biiminde bir mhr, mhr,
kemik obje, bronz objeler
VI. Sonu
Arkeoloji ve tarih
zetlemek mmkndr:
Kaman-Kalehyk'n sonuncu temsil eden ken-
tin tipik objelerini inceleme
Kk karakteri ve sikkeler, terk
tayin eunemize Biz kentini, alanda
btn devam
2. Demir veya H. drt evresi, yani Ha-Ild
M.O. 12. 4. kadar devam eden uzun
bir Biz 1995 zellikle, Ila ve Ild ev-
relerinde Ila'da, iki megaron tipindeki
rneklerinin etkisinde edildikleri grlmektedir, Bu
benzerleri kadar Bu tipi son
evresinde Kaman-Kalehyk'te tam mer-
kezine
resmi bir veya mabetieri kuvvetle
muhtemeldir. Megaron M.O.5. sonunda veya 4.
nn terk
3. M.. lA. ve 9. sonuna kadar devam eden Ild iki
gruba tam Demir
eski evrelerinin nemli bu-
Burada birden bire ve mtekamil ortaya
boya seramik, Ge Hitit bl-
gelerinden, yani gney ve gstermektedir.
Kalehyk ve Ge-Hitit blgelerinin iki yn-
ldr,
207
4. Bu III. IIIb evresinde. yani Eski Hitit
ok buluntular ve sonular
daire Eski Hitit Eski
Hitit slubundaki hiyeroglifli bullalar, mhrler, parlak seramik,
Eski Hitit ok karakteristik objeleridir. daire ya-
bu paraleli yoktur. IIIb evresi daha
Eski Hitit Kaman-Kalehyk'te ok kuvvetli olarak temsil edil-

5. Assur Ticaret Kolonileri'nin ge evresi, Eski Hitit
stne Kalehyk bu iki byk tarih
aday merkezlerden biridir. Mzesi'nde olan
buluntular bunun mjdecisidir.
208
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1995
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TROIA1995
Manfred KORFMANN *
1995 bana gre kadar
en 1995 eylln kadar
ekibi, geen ekibi Tun
grubu, Brian Rose'un denetimi nceki bu-
Sadece Prehistorya Dnem'i
1994 deki Buna ek
olarak da tekrar, anakkale Mzesi'yle birlikte Kumtepe
Toplam olarak 19 grubu, 9 alanda (bunlardan 8
(Plan:l). temsilcileri Tevfik Gktrk
(Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi) ve Reyhan Krpe (anakkale Mzesi)
ok byk destek oldular.
I. Erken ve Orta Troia t-v
Greli kronolojiye ynelik, zellikle Troia Il'nin kltrel konumuna
ait kadar elde bilgiler, 1995 daha da per-

E 3 ve F 3 grkemli megaron
Megara HA ve HB'nin da bunlara benzer etkileyici temelleri olan
byk gsterdi (Plan: 2 ; Resim: 1). Burada ya da
evresi tespit edildi. 1995 evreleri tarihsel ge-
kadar Troia i kl-
trne ait tipik stteki evrelerinde de ortaya tespit
edildi. Troia evresinde, Troia H ortaya
Bu da tipik ve bir ok 01-
(*) Prof.Dr.Manfred KORFMANN, Universitat Tbingen Institut fr Var-Und Frhgeschichte
Schloss, D-72D?O Tbingen-ALMANYA,
213
dnemde gelmektedir. Buna gre Troia n kl-
tr, belli ki Troia i kltrnn son dnemi olarak
yorumlanabilir. Bu Troia i Sonu evresi, Troia Il'nin tespit edilen ev-
resi ile birlikte Btn bu tespitlerimize
daha olarak incelenmesi ve gerekmektedir. nk,
hazine evresi olarak (yani Troia Ilg byk Troia
sonra gelen Troia III dnemi hala bu izgisine aittir.
Burada Troia III dneminde bulunan keramiklerden % 50'si Troia i
ait keramiklerdir. ok uzun bir zaman di-
limine bu kltr, yeni Troia genel
(1994) mimarisinden kolayca fark etmek mmkndr (Plan: 3)
a- evreli Troia n savunma duvan (Troia n erken, II orta ve n
ge) bir sorundu ve sorun olmaya devam ediyor. Bu savunma
kale iindeki ok az olan mimari biribirine a-
ve bylece bu kltr konvansiyonel bir ortaya ko-
nabiliyordu. kadar' bu olduka
grkemli bir ok biribirine olarak ge-
Ama Troia i dnemine ait uzun
ncl seriyle, savunma evreleri daha ok
b- Keza, erken Troia I'de olup; erken, orta ve ge olarak
Troia Il'den Troia III'e dek olan dneme kadar devam eden
kent hi
c- zamanda 1995 Troia savunma (2
evresi olarak) da bu genel Bu savunma
duvan, kadar' Troia III'n
dzendedir. Troia n olarak ve en son
gibi Hatta, nl Troia n
bile hala bu dnemde
Bylece buluntular ve mimari, gelecekte Troia I, n ve Ill' bir
birliktelik olarak kabul etmemiz ortaya
Troia i kltr zamansal olarak mutlaka Troia n ve hatta Troia
III'den neeye Buna gre Troia I'in blmleri
tam olarak bilinmeyen, yani daha bir sonu Ama
hala gerek anlamda bir gerektirmektedir. Burada, bu ta-
btn Avrupa, Ege ve Anadolu kronoloji sistemi
iin nemli vurgulamak gerekmektedir.
Bu gl, belli ki kendi iinde 1000 srede var-
devam maddesel kltre, Troia'da tespit Troia
214
---------
I'den eski olan n evreyi ve Kumtepe'yi (=Kumtepe B) de ekleyebiliriz.
Bu silsile ile ilgili Troia'dan bir dzine olan savunma sis-
teminin evrelerini Biz, bu kltre, yani bir ok bl-
geyi kapsayan, bu kltr evresine ilk defa bir isim veriyoruz: Denizsel
Troia Kltr. Bu kltrn ncelikle Marmara ve Ege De-
nizi
Bu kltrn olan Troia N ve V dnemindeki byk de-
1995'de de tekrar D7 ve D8 Troia VI'n
ve onun alunda da Troia III'n en eski evreleriyle Troia
I'den III'e kadar olan daha eski evrelerin ortak zellikleri daha nce an-
...Bundan sonraki dnem iin yeni isim ise
Anadolu Ozellikli Troia Kltr: Bu isim, bu kltrn ve
kilerinin Anadolu ilerine daha iin
Burada gze arpan zellikler; iki iin bir ortak
(= Anadolu Troia'da yeni olan
kub bemsi ortaya organik maddelerdeki be-
Iirgin bir beslenmedeki yabani hayvan art-
Anadolu'da olan kesik gaga yonca
testilerin ve Red Cross-Bowls olduka belirgin
2- Ge Tun Troia V[- Orta ya da Getirota VII
1995 tarih ncesi nc Troia kltr ile, yani Troia VI
ve VII a dnemi ile ilgili ok nemli sonular verdi.
Savunma
Troia VI ve VII Prehistorik Dnem'i ol-
duka gneyde, iine metre sa-
vunma hendeklerinde
Son iki zerinde hendek sisteminde, set
gibi kesen bir (Plan:4; Resim: 2) tespit ettik. Bu hendek
15.yzyllda En bu durum alt kesimi
iin geerliydi. 3,5 m 5,5 m lik bir
olanak bir palisad bulundu.
Buna benzer Troia VI dnemine ait ikinci hendek, bah-
sedilen hendek sisteminin 80 ile 100 m gneyinde, g28
Bu prehistorik seti tahminen 12.yzylla tarihleyebilmekteyiz.
Hemen hemen btn dolgu Roma Dnemi'ndeki V biimli kanalla tahrib

215
Savunma
1995 olarak en doyurucu sonucu, uzun
sredir Troia VI/VII evrele-
yen savunma en sonunda K4 Bu du-
var bastiyonuna olarak (Plan: 5; Resim: 3).
Savunma temelolarak byk ve onun stnde ha-
vada kerpiten grkemli bir st
Bu buluntunun Troia rekonstrksiyonundaki nemi
bir yana, zamanda bastiyonun iin bir su deposu
levini de bizim iin ok nemliydi. zamanda
da Dmrek gelen yol ile yine bu sene tes-
pit ok iyi da gs-
Bastiyonun ise ovadan gelen bir yolun ka-
leye gerekiyordu. O de, bu ok hassas yerde
kolayca korunahilirdi.
Bir Semti
ile aym olan, Troia Kalesi'nin g-
daha nce olan zA 7-8 amalannda 1995
da devam edildi. Burada zellikle gze arpan Troia VIIa
dneminin sonuna ait ok bir Bir ok bu-
rada bir ediyordu. Ozellikle belirtilmesi gereken ise de,
Troia'da ilk kez bulunan kkenli bronz heykelciktir. bu tr
heykellerin Troia'ya kadar (Resim:
4) Troia Vi dnemine ait daha alttaki bir tabakada ise, o zamanlar Troia
Vlu giden bir yol (Plan: 6) bulundu. Bu yol son
olarak Troia VI ya da Troia
Troia Kalesi
1995 da, Sub-Miken/Protogeometrik tabakalarda
(n) Troia VII (yani, ncelikle VIIb ve 1995 tekrar bulunan VIIb3
evresi) beraber tespit edildi. Bunlar ok az
para Barbar ve zamanda Buckelkeramik ile iindeler;
ve tabi ki keramik envanterinde %5'lik bir orana sahip beraber ge-
olan Gri Minyan da bnna eklenmelidir. Troia kltrnn
Balkan etkisinde dnemde (Troia VIIbl-VIIb2 ya da VIIb3)
hala Ege zelliklerinin kendi kltrlerindeki far-
ve bu zellikleri de in-situ gibi
ikinci kadar Bununla ilgili so-
nular Troia VI kalesinin st kesimindeki E8 ve E9 amalannda ortaya
216
(Resim: 5-6). zamanda burada bir de bronzdan, iki y-
zeyli bir mhr bulundu. Mhrn iki yznde de Luwice hiyeroglif
Bu eserin orijinal yerinden yola M..
llOO'den hemen nce, yani Troia'da var
sonucu Dawid Hawkins'in bilgilere gre,
mhrn bir yznde olarak birisinin
yznde ise soylu bir Anadolu
bu tip mhrler M.O. 1190 ile 1040 tarih-
lenebilmektedir. Btn bunlar, Troas blgesinde eski Anadolu dillerinden
hangisinin tekrar ortaya koy-
gsteren belgelerin Ho-
meros'un ya da ona bilgi veren szsel (Oral Poetry) ya-
zamanda dneme ait kaynaklara
sorusunu da akla getirmektedir.
3- Hellenistik ve Roma Dnemi (Troia VIII ve IX)
Troia VI stnde, y28 ve y29
hemen onun stnde olan Roma Dnemi temelleri ynnde olan
mimari Burada her yeni evre iin kanalizasyonu
olan bir yol sisteminin tespit edildi.
s34 sulama sisteminde tah-
min edilebilecek 8 m bir hendek bulundu. Ama za-
manda da savunma Hellenistik
Dnem'e ait bir savunma sisteminin da
g28 Ilion'un Roma 50 m bu
duvara paralel olan Roma Dnemi'ne ait V biimli bir hendek bulundu.
Tun dnemi olarak zerinde
konular Kandiller, cam, mhrleri. at desenli
terrakotalar, arkaik keramik, Protogeometrik ve sik-
keler, .
4- Restorasyon, Konservasyon. Mimari Dkmantasyon
1995 Troia'daki restorasyon kadar ya-
en (Plan: 7). Olduka komplike olan ren ye-
rinde, her daha fazla mimari ge koruma Bu
durum zellikle alanlarda olduka belirgindir: Me-
garon 102 (Troia I) ; st blmndeki FM (Troia II)
ve Megaron VIA (Troia btn beraber,
btn kesimi (Troia VI) ve de K6 a-
Roma Dnem kutsal (Troia IX) evreleyen
temelleri. Btn turist yolunun
yere bir drenaj (ve ren yerinin her yerine elektirik ve su e-

Sistematik olarak mimari belgelerne 1995
K4 ve K6 Troia VI kalesinde
5- Kumtepe (Troia i ncesi dnem)
F28 Kumtepe A evresine ait hemen stnde
olan bir ok iskelet 1995
F29 B evresine ait tespit Burada bu-
5x7 m olan blmden bir ev
kompleksiydi.
Bu arada Kumtepe'nin arkeolojik olarak ilan edilmesi de
Bunun iin, Kumtepe'nin yer-
deki tarlalar Troia projesi ge-
lecek iin koruma syleyebiliriz.

Prof.Dr.Mehmet ve Troia projesinin ekip yelerinden Rs-
tem Aslan'a, zellikle Troia ve arkeolojik yerlerin ko-
iin ok
ederim. Bu sayede Troia evresinde 40, kkl ve bykl
blge olarak koruma (Plan: 8). 1995
yine dzenli bir arazi Bu sayede Eski
ve Kk Tepe ve 2. bine Acaba
Troia VI ve VII dnemine ait ve askeri kaleler miydi?
blgelerle kk bir kapsayan Troia
ve evresinin 1971 gibi Tarihi Milli Park ya-
istemekteyiz. UNESCO Dnya Kltr
da Troia ve LO km'lik evresinin
koruma iin ok nemli bir dnemde bu ev-
rede hareketlenmeden de Daha or-
taya kpr projesi de bu sreci olduka Tr-
kiye'deki Kltr ilgililerine bu hassas durumu uzun
sre nce planlanan nlem ve tedbirlerin bir bir an nce
uygulamaya geitilmesini belirtmekteyiz,
(eviri: Rtem Arslan)
218
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Plan5: bastiyonu ve savunma
223
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225
HISTORISCHER
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Plan 8: Koruma yerler
226
Resim!: R3, F3 amalanndaki megaron
Resim 2: Hendek sistemi ve
227
Resim 3: bastiyonu ve savunma
,. if
;
Resim 4: Bronz heykel
228
'13 .0t9J}57 .. ' ..... '3'
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Resim 5: Bronz mhr
Resim 6: Bronz mhr
229
1995 YILI LiMAN TEPE
Hayat ERKANAL *
Sevin GNEL
GENEL
Liman Tepe, Karantina
tam bulunan bir zerinde yer Tepe hem
ekonomik, hem de stratejik nemli bir konuma sahiptii. Bir ta-
raftan prehistorik bii' i deniz grnmnde olan krfezi kontrol
tutmakta, taraftan ekonomik sahip
Urla ilesine Mahallesi'ndeki bu pre-
historik merkezde yrtlen arkeolojik ikiye
yolu gz nne gney ve kuzey
iki ele Kuzey yolun
kuzeyinde bulunan blge, gney de gneyinde bu-
lunan blge kastedilmektedir (iziin: 1).
Eski Tun II'ye ait bir savunma sistemi daha nceki
gney Teknik nedenler ve savunma
yola 1995 bu alandaki en-
tm faaliyetleri kuzey kay-

(*) Prof. Dr. Hayat ERKANAL, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi, Pro-
ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim
Yard. Do. Dr. Sevin Gne}, Hacettepe Uruversitesi. Edebiyat Fakltesi, Protohistorya ve
Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim Beytepe-ANKARA
(1) 1995 Kltr ve Mzeler Genel izin-
leriyle, ve Mzeler Genel Urla Belediyesi, New York 'daki Institute for
Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP). A.U. Dil ve Fakltesi ve Trk Tarih Ku-
maddi Urla Belediye Blent
daha nceki gibi, 1995 da tm kendisine
zg pratik yntemlerle bundan sonraki da byk

231
Kuzey drt konuyu kap-
:
Ge Tun kuyusu;
2. Eski Tun II'ye ait "koridorlu evin" alan;
3. Kuzey gneyindeki Eski Tun re ait ya-
ve deniz kalan
GE TUN AG/ KUYUSU
Toprak alma hyk yzeyinin nemli bir tahrip edi-
lirken, bu kuyuyla mimari tabaka da tamamen ortadan kal-
1992 beri bu kuyunun orijinal ukuru st
kuyunun ancak 1993 ortaya
(izim: 1/2). Kuyu iinden, devri karakterize eden ok sa-
kk buluntu ve bir ya-
2,00-2,10 m kuyu ukuru iindeki dol-
gudan elde P.l. Kuniholm
bu sonradan kuyu iine ol-
kuyu konstrksiyonu ile ifade
1995 bir taraftan taban suyu bir pompayla srekli olarak bo-
taraftan da kuyu iindeki dolgunun devam edil-
Deniz seviyesinde, yani 0,00 m seviyede
-2,50 m ye kadar devam -1,75 m de Ge Tun
malzemesi sona Bu durumda orijinal kuyu bu se-
viyede gerekmektedir. Ust .. olan kuyunun, -
0,30 m den itibaren rgs Orgde daha ok iri, d-
zensiz Orgnn bozulan st
(2) 1995 kurulu yeleri: H.. Edebiyat Fakltesi ele-
Prof. Dr. Erkanal. Yard. Do. Dr. Tuba Oksc, Gr. Derya
Arkeoloji Mzesi'nden Mehmet Trkmen; A.. Dil ve Fakltesi
Gr. Uruversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakltesi Gr. Eyyp Ay ;
Blent tk; H.:. Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Yksek Lisans Ahmet
Funda Gk; Mnih Onasya Arkeolojisi Enstits Yksek Lisans
rencisi Schachner; H.. Edebiyat Fakltesi Koray Kadir B-
ykulusoy. Umit Meryem Kocabay. Mehmet zmen. Ozer
A.. Dil ve Fakltesi Kenan Aras, Hakan Aslan. Dilever At-
maca. Belli, Nuray Dilek Karukrzh. Hlya Ebru
Emsal Ozan Corrado Rijavec, Ozlem Szen.Dzlcm Ttneler, Yer-
Iikuya. Zeynep Ege U. Edebiyat Fakltesi Deniz Blbl. Kes-
kin; Berlin Ekonomi ve Teknik Yksekokulu Kerstin
(3) H. Erkanal ve Sevin Gnel, "1993 Liman Tepe XVI. KST Ankara 1995,264-
265. 2-3. Res. 2-3.
232
da, kuyu ukurunun alt Sonradan i dol-
duran rg seramik boncuk taneleri, Miken
ve yerel Ge Tun seramik tespit edil-

-1,75 m de kuyunun Ge Tun ait bi-
linli olarak ve bu taban eski tabakalara
-1,75 m ile en eski seviye -2,50 m kadar
Liman Tepe'de tespit edilen en eski kltr ait izler tespit edil-
Seramik rneklere gre bu tabaka, Kumtepe Ib ile Ge
Kalkolitik en erken ait olabilir'. Kuyu bu-
lunan bu tabaka, Liman Tepe' de M.O. 4000 kadar in-
Fakat bu tabaka tepenin en eski kltr Taban
suyu iinde bulunan daha eski kltr iin zelbir proje ge-
olup, bu proje ancak birka sene sonra uygulanabilecektir.
ESKj TUN ACI YE NT "KARmARLU BULUNDUCU
ALAN
GE TUN ACI VE ORTA TUN ACI KLTR TABAKALARI
1994 i Ox i Om'lik bir "ko-
ridorlu ev" olarak ve Yunanistan'da birok merkezde ben-
zerleri Eski Tun II'ye ait byk bir ko-
ridor gney ve bir koridor tespit
Liman Tepe'de bugne kadar tespit edilen tm 2.
bin bir arada ortaya koyma da nem
Dnemlerinin karakteristik zelliklerini ve bu-
luntular veren bu tabakalar
M.. iinde 1. Ge Tun mimari ta-

2. M.. 2. bin tarihlenen 1. ve II. Orta Tun mimari

(4) Liman Tepe'yi ziyaret eden M. buradaele geen malzemenin Kumtepe Ib-Ia ara-
ve bylece nemli bir ifade
(5) Yunanistan'da ele geen koridorlu evler Shaw derlenerek ve
J. W. Shaw, "The Early Belladie II Corridor House. De-
velopment and Form", AlA 91,1987,59 vd.
(6') H. Erkanal ve S. Gne!, "1994 Liman Tepe Kazrlan", XFII. KST I, Ankara 1996,312-313,
Res.l6-18.
233
3. Eski Hitit Devri ile III. Orta Tun
4. Orta Anadolu Koloni ile IV. Orta Tun mimari
ve
5. M.. 3. bin sonu ile M.. 2. bin tarihlenen V. Orta Tun
mimari
ok kk bir "koridorlu evin" daha bir
ortaya koyma mevcut 1995 kuzey
ve LO x LO m'lik amayla
(izim: 1/3). Bylece koridorlu evi 20 x 20 m'lik bir alanda
ortaya Bu yeni st gene M.O. 2. bin
kltrlerini
/. GE TUN AG/ MiMARi TABAKAS/
Hyk yzeyindeki tahribat nedeniyle bu tabakaya ait herhangi bir
tespit
/. VE II. ORTA TUN AG/ MiMARi TABAKALAR/
toprak kurtulan
bir su kuyusu ve duvar bu temsil et-
mektedir (Resim: I). Duvarlardan bir tanesi is-
tikametinde 0,60 m bu sadece 3,20
m bir ise 0,56
m'dir. Levha halindeki kire 0,50 m ka-
ikinci bir duvar, 1,40 m is-
tikametinde Bu ucu alan iine
girmektedir, 0,40 m korunan bu ikinci duvar birincinin ak-
sine orta boy dzensiz Birbirleriyle bu-
lunmayan bu duvarlar herhangi bir mimari Bu
hemen bir su kuyusu tespit Kuyu st
oval bir grnme sahiptir. da-
ralarak dairesel bir Ustte 1,90 m, ge-
1,55 m'dir. Altta ise 0,90 m'dir. Kuyunun ilk ortaya
seviye 5,20 rn'dir, en alt seviyesi ise -0,80 m'dir, 6 rn'Iik bir
temizlenen kuyunun Duvar r-
gsnde st levha halindeki kire Top-
lama da alt rg
hatta rg yer yer Duvar ve su kuyusu
hyk yzey nedeniyle tespit
234
devri, yani i. ve II. rta Tun mimari devrini temsil
ettikleri, ancak seramik rnekler sayesinde ortaya konabilmektedir.
Kuyu dolgusu iinden ok seramik rnek ele Bu
rnekler Anadolu, Ege ve Yunanistan'da grlen kap
tiplerini zellikle zeri yiv bezeli kantharos ve kaideli
gri Minyas ok gsterir. "S" profile sahip
dikey kenan zerinde ykselen gri Minyas tr fincanlar ol-
duka bir . Bu tr kaplar Menemen Pa-
naztepe rnekleriyle kronolojik Gri Minyas
kuyu dolgusundan ele geen kase ve mlekler yerel zellik

III. ORTA TUN ACI
Bu mimari tabaka daha nceki tek
evre tespit edilirken, yeni mimari ev-
resiyle (Resim: 2).
En stteki evre birbirleriyle olmayan duvar ka-
ocak ve bir temsil
edilmektedir (Resim: 2). Duvarlar iinde en iyi do-
istikametinde 0,50 m
bu 5,24 m bir
alan iine girmektedir. ise
duvar bir dik yaparak dnmektedir. Fakat bu
hyk yzey nedeniyle ancak 0,80 m 0,90 m
korunan bu 0,30 m'lik alt iki halinde
dzensiz toplama 0,60 m'lik st ise levha halindeki kire
Byk zemin kalan kaba
dzensiz zemin zerinde kalan ise muntazam levha
larla en stteki evresine ait ge-
reken ikinci bir duvar, gney kesiminde
4,20 m istikametinde
uzanan bu ikinci 0,50 m'dir. Bu duvarda bazen tek,
bazen iki halinde korunan karakterdedir. Gene ev-
reyi temsil eden iki duvar, ortaya Bu iki
duvar safhalan grnmndedir. her ikisi
(7) Bu tr kaplar Yunanistan'da da S. A. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora,
New Jersey 1971. 60-61,77, Lev. 19: 286; H. Goldmau. at Eutresis Boeotia,
Cambridge 1931, 138-139. Res. 187:3; A. J. Wace, Cambridge 1912.
62, 159, Res. 32a, 103 d.
235
de istikamette, istikametinde
Biraz daha stte 7,40 m ve 0,50 m
0,30 m ykseklikte korunan bu kesiminde levha ha-
linde kire kesiminde ise dzensiz toplama kul-
6,30 m ikinci duvar st-
tekiyle ise hafife 0,45 m
alttaki korunan 0,20 m dir.
levha halindeki kire iri kp da kul-
Her iki orta kesimi st tabakalar tahrip
En stteki evreye ait tm bu duvarlar mimari bir
sahip ve byk aittir.
Tm alana ok ocak ve byk ola-
evreyi, yani en stteki evreyi temsil etmektedir. Bu ta-
korunabilen veya 1,00-1,60 m de-
Tm iin bir
kl bunun zeri ise toplama bir
veya birka seramik
Bugne kadar Liman Tepe'de ilk olarak bir mimari
da byk bir en stteki evreye aittir. Bu byk
bir olup zemin iine iin dairesel
ukur kr duvar kk toplama daha sonra
bu ie baka yz 0,03 m bir
zerindeki k izlerinden bu uzun sre an-
i 0.90 m, ise 1,80 m'dir. ke-
grlen bir olup bu kesimdeki tahribat
nedeniyle 0,90 m ykseklikte bu bir
mimari tespit
III. Tun mimari ikinci evresi,
bir apsisle temsil edilmektedir (Resim: 2). Bu
apsis byk edilen bir apsidal veya oval
eve aittir. Apsise gre evin istikametinde
gerekmektedir. Ait kapatan apsis, muhtelif
karakterde bir grnmndedir. Bu
yer yer 0,30 m'ye Apsis bu
ise 0,70-0,80 m du-
vardan ok, dolgu karakteri Bu nedenle
edilen bir evin i dolgusu
Apsis grnmndeki dolgu esas olursa, 5,20 m ge-
gerekir. belirleyen herhangi bir mimari ize

236
III. Orta Tun mimari nc ve son evresi ok
daha belirgin mimari zelliklerle temsil edilmektedir (Resim: 2). Bu ev-
reye ait 9,40 m bir duvar, is-
tikametindedir. 0,60-0,70 m
Korunan ise 0,86'm dir. Bu duvann levha halindeki
kire ve dzensiz toplama birlikte Bu duvar
dik bir yapmakta ve y-
nelmektedir. Bylece belli bir alan uzun duvarla ka-
da G-
duvar, ikinci evrenin apsis
byk lde tahrip Fakat buna 5,60 m
iten, yani g-
2,20 m, i ,80 m, 2,00 m duvarlarla blnerek
1,70 ve 1,10 111 iki dar mekan elde Ara du-
belirgin iin bu uzun-
belli Ara blme duvarlan de olsa tahribata
bu nedenle zgn Tm olumsuzluklara
burada byk bir Bu iindeki
moloz dar mekanlar daha ok depo grnmndedir. Bu
byk kesimiyle ilgili herhangi bir ele ge-

Bu byk kuzeyde Eski Tun gneyde ise Orta Tun
daha eski iine Bu nedenle arazinin ku-
zeye Eski Tun birlikte ve bu yk-
selenalanda Orta Tun
III. Tun mimari evresinde de seramik ola-
rak daha ok ince nitelikli, veya devety renkli kase tipi kaplar
grlmektedir. yzl kaplar tabakalarda gibi bu ta-
bakada da Bu nemli bir buluntusu da
bir seramik maymun Gvdeden kopan Orta Tun
Liman Tepe'de bir sanat ortaya Se-
ramik maden ve seramik tekstil ara gereleri daha n-
ceki gibi retim bir yan-
Gene bol miktarda ele geen halkalar. bir para
birimi olarak kkl bir ekonomik gndeme getirmektedir.
IV ORTA TUN ACI
alanmda yer alan LO x 10 m'lik amadan kuzeyde bulunan
iki tanesinde 1995 iin durdurulurken, gneyde bu-
lunanda ve Iv, Orta Tun mimari ait ka-
237
Mimari ala-
gneyinde nemli bir tespit Bu 1994
mimari
mektedir. Bu sonucunda istikametinde uzanan
oval bir ev tm ortaya (Resim: 3). Oval evin
9,20 m, ise 4,70 m'dir. Duvar 0,40-0,50 m
boyutlarda top-
lama ve levha halindeki kire bir arada Du-
varlar en iyi korunan 0,35 m st ste iki
Belli bir yoktur.
duvar iinde bazen yan yana iki halinde, bazen tek halinde,
bazende gruplar halinde Bu nedenle kerpi rg
iin yeterli bir zemin sylenemez. Bu oval evde duvar ya-
daha ok gz nnde Mev-
cut duvar bu daha kolay Ya-
1994 grlen 1,10 m
bir Bu durumda
istikametinde uzanan bu oval
bir blme duvan burada tek bir
sz konusudur. kuzey ve gneyinde yer yer kaba
lardan Gene i do-
duvar nnde 1,46 x 1,10 m bir oval ocak
Bu ocak seramik Bu taban
0,23 m alttaki ikinci bir ocak zerine
Daha nceki ortaya ve tmyle iin
apsidal ev olarak plam da', bu
oval ev sayesinde 1995
rultusunda, ie meyleden bu de oval ev
gerekir. Bu dururnda Liman Tepe' de Orta Tun
mimari birden fazla oval ev ortaya ol-
Bu tr oval evler Ege'de ok olmasa bile Neolitik
dan beri . Liman Tepe oval evleri daha ge
bir dnemde bu' blgesinde devam ka-
ortaya
(8) H. Erkana! ve S. Gnel, .. 1993 Liman Tepe XVi. KST I. Ankara 1995, 268-269,
4, Res. S.
(9) A. J. B. Wacc ve M. S. Thompson, Prehistoric Londra 1912, 132-133, Res. 80-81;
S. Sinos, Die vorklassischen Halis/ormen inder Agiiis, Mainz am Rhein 1970. 81 vd.
(10) E. Akurgal, Eski i, Ankara 1983, 16-17, ,ek. Sa-b, Lev.4-S.
238
.. _--------
Oval evin kuzeyinde mimari V. Orta Tun
mimari iine olmakla beraber, LV. Orta Tun mi-
mari rn olarak (Resim: 4). Bu mimari bu-
luntular bir duvar de olsa ok iyi Kuzey-
gney istikametine uzayan bu
tedrici olarak boy dzensiz toplama
larla kr duvar edilen 4,20 m bu. duvar,
de olsa bir dolguya Bu dolgu
iinden V. Orta Tun mimari seramik rnekleri ele ge-
1,52 m ykseklikte korunan kr rampa
yz zerinde, levha halindeki kire bir
Buradaki levha ok byktr. Bu ba-
1,30 m'ye, ise 0,78 m'ye
Bir zerinde keski izleri grlmektedir. Kr duvann dzgn
yzn kaplayan bu sanki yukardan
bir iindedir. Fakat nereden olabilecekleri
veya nereye ait olabilecekleri konusunda bir iz tespit
kr duvar bir teras olarak kabul edilirse,
bu levha halindeki teras zerindeki bir olmalan

Kr hemen ok dar bir mekan iinde ok
byk bir kpn alt tespit (Resim: 4). Kpn korunan
1,10 m'dir, Cidar ise 0,04 m'dir. Dibi silindir
linde olup ktlevidir. Hamuru ve astan devety rengindedir. Hem ii
hem de Bu evresinden V. Orta Tun
mimari iinden ise IV. Orta Tun mimari ta-
rnekleri ele Bu durumda gerek kpn ge-
rekse evresindeki V. Orta Tun mimari iine
fakat Iv, Orta Tun mimari ait ol-
Bu kr duvar ile
LV. Orta Tun mimari ait 0,90 m bir
p ukuru, buluntular nem Oval evin
tespit edilen ukurun alan iinde
Bu ukurda Orta Anadolu Koloni kkenli seramik rneklerle, Orta
Hellas Devri'ni temsil eden mat seramik rnekler bir arada bu-
R. Ege Blgesi mat ilgili
Liman Tepe ince nitelikli
(Buff-Green Ware) girmektedir. Mat rneklerde genel olarak
(11) R. Buck, "Middle Hclladic Pottery", Hesperia 33. 1964.241.
239
astar hamur rengine Boya bezemeler ise kahverengidir. Motif
olarak birbirlerine paralel yatay bantlar grlmektedir (Resim: 5).
yatay ve dikey bantlar birbirlerine paralel ince izgiler halinde
zikzak motifi mevcuttur (Resim: 6). Bu tr bezeme Atina
Eutresis-', Asine!', PyloSIS, Aspis". Midea!", Aigina'" ve Keos
Ayia de'? Orta Anadolu kkenli seramik ise
ince ve ile dikkati eker (Resim: 7). Bu tr
kaplar iinde halka dipli, keskin profilli, ke-
kaseler nemli kltr blgesinin karakteristik
zelliklerini seramik yan yana kronolojik
byk nem
V. ORTA TUN AGI
Hemen hemen tm kaplayan dolgu V. Orta Tun
mimari aittir. 994 bu tabakaya ait iki bir
mimari tabaka ve bunlarla tespit
Fakat 995 dolgu hibir mimari kahnuya rast-

TUN AGI II KLTR
Orta Tun mimari
devam ve knzeyinde
V. Orta Tun mimari ait bir dolgu ktlesiyle
Bu dolgu, Eski Tun mi-
mari byk lde tahrip Bu tahripten daha ok
Eski Tun ait 1. ve II. mimari tabakalar bu nedenle
her iki mimari tabaka ancak kenar kesimlerinde par-
alar halinde tespit (izim: 2).
(L2) S. A. Inunerwnhr. TheAthenianAgora. New Jersey 1971, 62.80. Lev. 20: 302.
(13) H. Excavations at Eutresis inBoeoa, Cambridge 1931. 150, Res. 206:3. 207.
(14) S. Dietz. Il. Results of the Excavations East of the Acropolis 1970-1974, Stockholm
1980.92. Res. 85.
(l5) C. Blegcn v.d.. The Palnce ofNestor at Pyfos in Western Messenia, Cineinnali 1973.33,
Res.137:1!.
(L6) E. J. Forsdyke, Aegean Pollery I, Londra 1925,49. Res. 51.
(17) G. Walberg, "Excavntions on the Lower Terraces at Miden", Atheniensia 19.
1992. 25, Res. 7.
(L8) H. B. Sicdeutopf Kerem/ik der Mill/eren Mainz Rhein 1991,
56, Lev.
(L9) J. C. Overbeck. Keos.Ayia Irini. Period IV. Mainz Rhein 1989.98. Lev. 59: 17 b-c.
240
i. TUN AGI II
1994 ortaya "koridorlu evin" gney koridorunun
bu Bu ykseltilerek l.
Eski Tun II mimari Fakat bu
koridorun 5,80 m uzun-
ve 1,20 m bir koridor blm yeniden de-
Bu tabakada da koridorun i 0,50-0,60 m ara-
Koridor iindeki ince ara da
Bu mimari tabaka koridor
ara gelecek bir
mekan iine, yani bu oval 1,40
x 1,04 m 0,05 m amur hartan
0,13 m ykseklikte 7 kat amur
harla 7. zeri seramik
Bu evresinde ok kaba mutfak ve 3 adet
tespit sonucu ortaya kl ise
hemen nne, yani Gerek uzun bir sre kul-
olan gerekse buluntular dikkate bu dar
mutfak olarak gerekir. Mutfak olarak kul-
bu koridor 1,5 ko-
ridor zerinde, gene bu tabakaya ait gereken bir
oda tespit (izim: 2). Dik ko-
ridor 0,70 m, 0,50 m ka-
ok dar bir alanda bu gerek
Fakat koridor bir mimari btnlk iinde
imkan dahilindedir. Burada sz konusu olan duvarlarda belirli bir
grlmemektedir. Daha ok levha halindeki kire
sanki bir yerden gibi
ralanrnalan, duvar iinde dikmelerin olma ihtimalini
ortaya
Bu tabakaya ait bir mimari
Burada dik yapan bir duvar g-
alanlar iinde devam eden
2,60 ve 2,90 m'dir. Yas kire edilen kenarlar
ok muntazam bir sahiptir. Buna i daha ok
dzensiz toplama bir dolgu malzemesi olarak
bu ktlevi bir grnm Ust ste
korunan bu ne amala belli
Bu ktlevi 1,00 paralel
uzanan duvar da mimari tabakaya aittir.
241
istikametindeki bu 2,30 m'dir.
Bu alan iine girmektedir. Ka-
kesiminde 0,80 m, kesiminde ise O, 60
m'dir, Bu durumda dzensiz top-
lama edilen 0,30 m tek ko-

istikametinde
uzanan bir duvar da mimari temsil etmektedir.
duvara paralel uzanan bu da
alan iine girmektedir. Levha halindeki kire daha muntazam
bir i?rlen bu 1,90 m, ise
0,60 m'dir, Ust ste iki 0,20 m'dir,
tabakaya ait olan, gene istikametinde
uzanan bir duvar kuzey
iki duvara paralelolan bu 1,00 m,
ise 0,46 m'dir. iki duvarda gibi bu da g-
alan iinde Daha ok d-
zensiz toplama bu duvann korunan st ste iki
0,30 m Bu hemen kuzeyinde grlen
levha halindeki kire
Bu mimari son duvar kuzey ke-
V. Orta Tun mimari ait
hemen tespit Dzensiz toplama kr duvar
linde bu mimari dzgn
istikametinde alan
iine girmektedir, 4,80 m bu kuzeydeki arka
yz bir dolgu dolgu
alan iinde devam karakteri Ust ste 3
korunan 0,50 m dir. Birbirleriyle ol-
mayan tm bu duvarlarm gerek mimari karakteri, ancak alam ge-
ortaya konabilecektir.
Il. TUN AGI il
1994 ortaya "koridorlu evin" gney koridor uzan-
Eski Tun II mimari gibi, bu tabakada da
5,80 x 1,20 m koridor
1,50 m ana koridor bir
teknikle Burada levha halindeki kire
yan yana bir nceki tabakada gibi bu tabakada da ana
242
duvar iindeki sanki bir yerden veya gibi
dikme ihtimalini akla getirmektedir. Ana
duvar ince duvarlarda teknik bir sz
konusu Bir nceki aksine, bu tabakada koridor
uygun olarak depo (izim: 2;
Resim: 8). Bu depodan 1995 Troya II kltr karakteri
ok iri kap rnekleri elde tabaka iinde,
fakat deponun bulunan bir depas, daha ok Troya zellikleri ta-
. Gri renkte hamur ve astara sahip olan bu rnek,
dz dipli ve silindirik gvdelidir. Dip kulp izleri
mevcuttur. Daha ok duvar kenarlanna veya dizilen kaplar ara-
bir ritonu da, bu tabakaya yeni bir
boyut
Depo olarak koridor bu tabakada
byk bir ama iin Burada levha ha-
lindeki kire yatay ve dikey kullanma suretiyle koridor ge-
ok bir taban elde (izim: 2). Bu d-
taban, bir nceki mimari tabaka devam
etmektedir. Bu muntazam "koridorlu evin" ana veya gi-
birine ait imkan dahilindedir.
II. Eski Tun II mimari dahil gereken 2 saf-
bir
Bu her iki da bir nceki mimari ta-
baka Iki safhadan daha yeni 1,50 x
5,30 m'lik bir mimari zelliklere uygun olarak
kuzey istikametinde bu alan
iinde devam etmektedir. Daha ok dzensiz toplama tek veya
ift halinde bu 0,25 m yksekliktedir. Bu
hemen ikinci sadece bakan 4,46 m
grlebilmektedir. Bu stteki
nazaran gneyde 0,68 m kadar daha Ku-
zeyde ise her iki Alttaki hem
teknik hem de istikamet benzemektedir. Ust-
teki gibi tmyle daha fazla
lama
(20) Benzer zellik gsteren rneklere A45 tipi Troya II d-g evrelerinde
C. Blegen v.d., Troy. General In/roduction the First and Second Settlements,
1950,285-286.327.339. Lev.381: 36.844, 35.852, 35.857 vd. tip P. Z. Spanos
DI grubu olarak P. Z. Spanos, Untersuchung ber den be; Homer
"depas genannten Gefiij3typus, Tbingen 1972, 89, Lev.6, Res.
243
Gene bu tabakayla bir mekan kuzey
tespit duvarlardan biri 1,66 m
ve 0,50 m kuzey-gney istikametinde uzan-
Kuzey alan iine giren bu duvar, du-
varla dik yaparak istikametinde uzanan
duvar ise 1,96 m ve 0,40 m Her iki
da levha halindeki kire Bu
henz iki Ait
1995 iin bilgi
vermek mmkn
bulunan 4,20 x 1,70 m'lik
bir istikametinde uzanan bu
ancak belli bir oranda sonra ya-
Bu ancak II. Eski Tun n mimari ta-
kadar Daha eski tabakalar i 996

III. TUN AOI LI
i 994 i Ox LO m'lik bir ok az bir ortaya
"koridorlu evin" 1995 da devam
(izim: 2; Resim: 8). Gerek depo olarak 7,40 x 1,20 m bo-
koridor gerekse koridor
belli taban seviyelerine, hatta sondaj mahiyetinde
alanlarda taban seviyelerinin Koridor
iinde ilk nce 0,55 m seviyesine fakat gneydeki ana
ait devam etmesi zerine a-
devam Neticede 0,06 m seviyesinde ana
en alt Bu sonucunda 1,50-2,20 m
ana 2,00 m ykseklikte
Ana duvarda 2,00 m kadar belli bir sistemi devam et-
mektedir. Bu sisteme gre levha halindeki kire her iki
kenan ok muntazam bir rlmekte, duvann i ise amur
ve dzensiz toplama ana duvar
edilmeden nce zemin kk
Koridoru salondan paralel duvar ise daha ok dzgn olmayan
toplama olup 0,50-0,60 m bir ge-
sahiptir. Orta koridor iine stten
meyleden bu tam zerine n. Eski Tun n mimari
Bu daha dzgn
bir Bu duvar ana aksine daha yksek bir
seviyede, 0,90 111 seviyesinde kesilmektedir.
244
Koridor yani "koridorlu evin" salon st
tabakalara ait duvar yerinde buna bu ta-
bakalara ait 0,43 m seviyesine kadar de-
Bu seviyelerde yer
yer Hem levha halindeki kire
hem de dzensiz toplama ka-
byk bir ihtimalle III. Eski Tun II mimari
yani "koridorlu evin" salon aittir.
"Koridorlu evin" gneyana da a-
devam Burada 0,91 m seviyesinde Eski Tun i
kltrne ait bir tabaka iine Bu durumda "koridorlu evin"
ana 1,00 m'den daha fazla bir derinlikte,
daha eski bir kltr iine kabul etmek gerekir. Depo
grnmndeki koridor byk zernin Bu
mekanlar zerinde bir da bu des-
teklemektedir. Salon seviye olarak ok
daha Bu salon, koridor rnekanlanna nazaran daha
yukarda Tm bu konular
kazanabilecektir.
Depo olarak koridor ve evresinden ele
geen seramik rneklerin %70'i orta nitelikte, kahverengi hamurlu, koyu
gri ve Kap olarak dz dipli, yuvarlak gvdeli,
ie veya basit anaklar (Resim: 9). Bu tr
anaklar Troya'da da ok grlmektedir". bunlar Yu-
nanistan'a kadar uzanan bir sahiptir". kap
killeri silindirik boyunlu mlekler, dz dipli veya ayak-
olarak fazla miktarda Orta nitelikte ve kaba
rnekler ince cidarh, seramik rnekler de ele
Yerel seramikle birlikte bulunan Yunanistan kkenli "ur-
firnis"sos kaplan kronolojik byk nem Salon
bulunan en nemli ve eser grubunu phallos rnekleri
ol Muhtelif bu rnekler silindirik bir
gvdeye, dik durabilmeleri iin dz bir dip ve yuvarlak bir
Ele geen 5 rnekten gvde ve biri
gvde Bir rnek ise tam olarak ele
(21) C. BIegen v.d., Troy. General Introduction the First and Second Princeton
Lev. 375-376.
(22) L. Bernab Brea, Preistorica NeW isola di Lemnos, Roma 1964, 635, Lev.
138a; E. Kunze, Orchomenos lll. Die Keramik der Friihen Mnih 1934, 62.64,
Res. 25:2,4; M. R. Popham ve L. H. Snckett. at Lefkandi, Euboea 1964-1966,
Atina 1968, 8. Res. 7:3.
245
(izim:3). Bu 5 rnekten gvde sadece dini
sanat da nem Gre bu
maymun (Resim: 10). Bu maymun gereki sti-
liyle dnemin Liman Tepe'deki sanat ortaya
Oval grnme sahip seramik, bir plaka da dini bir olarak de-
(izim: 4). Bir atal bir
taraftan Alacahyk bronz taraftan ise Kiklad
Bu sayesinde Liman Tepe "koridorlu evi" dini .
bir karakter
KU7;EY TUN
AGI i E AIT
1994 kuzey gneyinde,
yolunun hemen kuzey uzun bir duvar
bu duvarla beraber Eski Tun Il'den daha eski bu-
luntu1ara (izim: 1/1,5). Bu konuya getirmek zere
1995 alanda daha eski tabakalara ynelik

TUN AGI
1994 ilk kez uzun duvar,
istikametinde (izim: 5; Resim: 11).
0,90 m'dir. ana kadar tespit edilen ise 15,50 m'dir. Bu duvar
her iki istikamete uzamakta ve alanlar iinde devam
etmektedir. Duvar levha haliudeki kire
Bu yan yana dizi1erek duvar bir rme
kesiminde 1,50 m du-
varla 3 adet grlmektedir. Bu 0,24 x 0,24 m
yani gueye bir Roma
Dnemi tahrip edilen bu tr
mevcut korunan kesin alt ka-
bilinmemektedir. ana kadar tespit edilen
1,20 m'dir, n, yani gney dzensiz toplama
larla Bu kaplama alttan rampa gneye ge-
Bylece alt kaplama g-
Ust bu tr bir nleme gerek

n alttan rampa glendirilen bu kuzey
yani arka dar bir alanda bu kesimdeki
getirilmek Bu sonucunda du-
246
korunan en st seviyesinden 1,20 m derinlikte bir taban ve 2
adet tespit (Resim: 12). bir tanesi, zerindeki
Eski Tun II Bu kuzeye
Eski Tun II kalan 1,46 x
1,48 m ve seramik d-
0,08 m olup sadece amur kul-
byk Eski Tun II al-
yani kuzey Bu 1,15 m gneyinde,
hemen kuzeyinde ikinci tmyle ko-
kuzeye ikinci yuvarlak bir sahip
olup, 1,42 x 1,50 m'lik bir iri seramik par-
Gerek kubbesinde gerekse sadece
amur Kubbenin tabandan 0,44 rn'dir,
Kubbe byk Bu nedenle daha fazla bir
sahip gerekir. Bu iinde bulunduran mekana ait belirgin
bir tespit Sadece kuzey yz bu
gney Her iki evresinde ok sa-
seramik rnek Bu rnekler dz
veya da (Resim: 13). gre hem
duvar, hem de ait tabaka Eski Tun i kltrn
temsil etmektedir.
Eski Tun i kltrn temsil eden bu mimari zelliklerin ze-
rini kaplayan kerpi dolguya, 1994 gibi 1995 da
Kerip dolgu iinde Eski II seramik
Koyu kahverengi bir grnmde olan dolgu kerpilerinin
0,06 m ise ta-
bakalar halinde sadece dolgu malzemesi olarak kullamlmak zere re-
Bu dolgu bir taraftan Eski Tun II duvarlan
taraftan gney alamndaki bastiyonun i

Eski Tun re tarihlenen duvar bir i kalenin savunma
sisitemi olarak Eski Tun II kltr bu eski sis-
temi ve mimari zellikleri kerpi bir dolguyla bu dolgu
zerinde kendi mimari ortaya Kendi
savunma sisitemine ait da daha nceki kltr
dayayarak, ilk nce kerpi dolguyla daha sonra
kaplayarak Bu yntemle bir taraftan daha byk ya-
iin bir zemin elde taraftan ise i kalenin bo-

247
ALTINDA KALAN KISMI
1994 Urla Belediyesi ektirilen bir hava
zerinde, Liman Tepe'nin kuzeyinde, deniz ka-
(izim: 1/4). Bu Liman Tepe'nin to-
pografik uyum zerine konu
ve 1995 su da yer
Bu sonucunda su arazi ve ya-
ana tespit Bu tespite gre Liman
Tepe'nin deniz iinde kademeli bir al-
almakta ve uzayarak bir burun Bu
burun, gneyindeki koyu bir gibi bir ko-
Bu olanaklar Liman Tepe kltrleri de-
ve gnmzdeki deniz seviyesi -3,00
m kadar uzanan burun
zerine de byk bir bastiyon grnmnde bir mendirek edil-
Bu ve deniz burna
uyum 100 m ise 35 rn'dir,
30 m ve 5 m
bir Bylece kuzey ve
etkisi tamamen gemiler iin emniyetli liman
Liman iinde bulunan 15 m ve 2 m ge-
mendirekle bir iskele olarak de-
mmkndr. Hemen bu iskelenin mimari
ve karaya, yani
gnmzdeki Liman Tepe sahilinin 40 m kuzeyinde bir kavis
yapmakta ve 50 m karayla Ku-
mimari bir duvar daha tespit
Bu duvar 15 m uzunlukta ve 2 m olup,
istikametindedir. Deniz iine uzanan bu ikinci da iskele olarak
mmkndr.
ana kadar yrtlen sonucunda Liman Tepe'nin g-
nmzdeki topografik daha ok Eski Tun II dneminde
Daha ge dnemlerde griilen bu
topografik iinde Bugn deniz kalan mimari zel-
likler Liman Tepe uyum hatta bir yerde a-
deniz tespit edilen mimari zellikler gerek
teknik, gerekse plan olarak Eski Tun II dnemi karakterini ta-
Bu nedenlerle bugn deniz kalan mimari zelliklerin
ve bilhassa liman tesisinin byk apta bu dneme, yani Eski Tun
II dnemine ait
248
Deniz iindeki da gz nne olursa, Liman Tepe
Eski Tun II dneminde 300 m ye oval g-
rnmde bir i kaleye sahiptir. Karada ve byk denizde de
bastiyonlarla gl savunma sistemi, bir yerde iinde iskeleleri
de bulunan liman tesisileriyla Bu i kalenin gneyinde
ise bir yelpaze gibi ve daha ok zel ikamete tahsisi edilen
kalenin odak "koridorlu ev" olarak ta-
saray byk Bn evresinde daha ok
resmi karakter binalar ve byk depolar yer al-
Bylece i kalesiyle, liman tesisleriyle rnek bir
(izim: 1).
249
; 1=:S
ISea
LiMAN TEPE
1__-_
izim 1: Liman Tepe'nin ve genel grnm
250

u
U
\"''>:
,
:
i
l. _
" .J\"j.H


v

tl
y
N
tA
.....
izim 2: Eski Tun mimari ait
-e-
-e-'
izim 3: Eski Tun Il'nin mimari ait bir "phallos"
.----\,
i
\
-.
\\
i
/
r
/
/
,
-=-3cm
r-r--,
\ \
, ,
:
252
izim 4: Eski Tun H'nin mimari tabaka-
ait bir serarnik klt
-t-
+ + + +
+ +
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
-*
~
+ +
'5
.!i
.i!l
"'
" + e
"=
<:
..
""',1-
~
-
,e.
" u'
+
!
= ,.,
: ;
"'
+
'" on
,5
+ + +
. ~
253
+ +
u'
Resim 1: Orta Tun IT. mimari tabakalan ve su kuyusu
Resim 2: Orta Tun I. III. tabakalarura ait mimari zelliklerin genel
254
Resim 3: Orta Tun mimari ait oval ev
Resim 4: Orta Tun mimari ait
255
256
.--.
Resim 5: Orta Tun IV. mimari ait mat boya se-
ramik

Resim 6: Orta Tun IV. mimari ait mat


seramik

Resim 7: Orta Tun IV. mimari ait Anadolu kkenli bir


rapa
Resim 8: Eski Tun III. ait "koridorlu ev"
257
258
Resim 9: Eski Tun ll'nin III. mimari tabaka-
ait bir anak

Resim 10: Eski Tun lllnin
III. ait
bir maymun
Resim 11: Eski Tun a I, savunma sistemi
Resim 12: Eski Tun a J, f r m l a r
259

260
Resim 13: Eski 'I seramik
1995 BAKLATEPE
Hayat EIJKANAL*
Turhan OZKAN
Menderes ilesinin de iinde
bir taraftan kuzeydeki Krfezi'ne, taraftan ise ze-
rinden Kk Menderes Vadisi'ne Bu gneydeki
alak kesimini istikametinde kateden
evredeki yksek yerlerden kaynaklanan ok kk ayla bir-
glenmekte ve terketmektedir.
daha sonra yer yer kanyon grnmndeki bir vadi iinden akarak
Gmldr'de denizle
hemen vadisi
edilen imesuyu kil dolgu tipi bir baraj, gerek 9 kmlik va-
dide, gerekse vadinin hemen bulunan
alak kesiminde byk apta bir neden Baraj
gl iinde kalacak arkeolojik Ar-
keoloji Mzesi uzmanlan bir sonunda,
nemli merkezler ve tespit Bu merkezler
yer alan Bulgurca Ky'ndeki Bakla Tepe, prehistorik bir yer-
olup ilk kez Numan Tuna tespit pre-
historik bir sonra da Recep Meri de-

(*) Prof. Dr. Hayat ERKANAL, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi, Proto-
historya ve Onasya Arkcolojisi Anabilim
Dr. Turhan Ozkan, Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr,
(1) Numan Tuna Tepe'yi "Bulgurca ve M.O.
Erken 3. bine ait kk bir merkez olarak N. Tuna, "lonin ve Data
Arkeolojik Yzey 1984". III. AST, Ankara 1986, 215.
(2) Recep Meri Bakla Tepe'de Troya i ilc Erken Bronz
Kumtepe Ib ilc Ge Kalkolitik malzemesi de tespit R. Meri, "1985
ve Manisa Yzey IV.ASI'. Ankara 1987, 302. _
261
Menderes ilesine Bulgurca Ky alak
takriben yer Gmldr'n, de-
nizin 15 km Tmyle su kalacak olan kyn
kuzey Menderes'e giden yolun hemen bu-
lunan bir kaya ykseltisi. prehistorik iermekte olup eskiden
daha ok bakla iin Bakla Tepe olarak
Bakla Tepe konumu nedeniyle gerek ekonomik, gerekse stratejik
dan byk nem hemen ve Cu-
hakim bir yerde tepeye ekonomik ynden nem ka-
gene kuzeydeki Kr-
fezi'yle ve Kk Menderes Vadisi'yle iinde ol-
vadisiyle, Gmldr'le tepeye stra-
tejik ve ticari da nem Bakla Tepe g-
Ahmetbeyli'ye ile Deresi vadisiyle
gibi Kolophon ve Klaros gibi antik merkezleri bu vadi iinde

Her ynyle nem blgede Bakla Tepe tek mer-
kez Fakat baraj gl nedeniyle tehdit bulunan tek pre-
historik merkez burada arkeolojik
1993 ve 1994 yzey ve
sondaj sonra, 1995 gerek
Liman Tepe Kurulu bilimsel
Bakla Tepe. Devlet Su Genel
maddi Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr Turhan
yrtlen Kurtarma Projesi erevesi
iinde
Bakla Tepe deniz seviyesinden 65,50 m, ovadan ise 20 m yk-
sekliktedir (izim: 1). Tepe zerinde 70 m yapay bir dz alan bu-
Tepe zerinde yzey
Ge Kalkolitik Roma Devri'ne kadar uzanan
ve dnemlerin malzemesi bir arada
(3) 1995 Bakla Tepe kurulu yeleri: H.. Edebiyat Fa-
yesi Yard. Do: Dr. Tuba Okse; H.D. Edebiyat Fakltesi G-
revlisi Derya Y niversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakltesi yesi Eyyp
Ay; A.U. Dil ve Fakltesi Yerlikaya; H.._.Edcbiyat Fa-
kltesi Koray Kurlcebe Meryem Kocabay, Mehmet Ozmen,

(4) 1995 Bakla Tepe Devlet Su Genel D.S.Y Blge M-
Kontrol ve Mzeler Genel M-
Arkeoloji Mzesi
Buradaki ilgili yneticilerine ve tm zverili ve destekleri
iin candan ederiz.
262
tigrafik ortaya koyma ilk tepenin or-
(izim: I). Bu ilk amada tepe yzeyinden 1,5 m de-
ancak kuzey kesimde tabakalar tespit edi-
Bu bir sonradan doldu-
Dolgu iinde ok devirlere ait se-
ramik rnekler bir arada Seramik rnekler
kovanlar ve M.S.20. ait
tespit Bu ilgin durum Bulgurca Ky'nn
mracaat edilerek tepenin eski bilgi edi-
Gerek verilen bilgiler gerekse bu amadan ele geen buluntu ve
bir sonula ka-
Bakla Tepe'nin stratejik konumun-
dau byk bir askeri mevzi ve buraya byk bir
top Daha sonraki arazi sahibi tepeyi
amala isteyince, top mevzi olarak ukuru top-
rakla Fakat dolgu araziden antik
bir nitesinden dolgu, birlikte bu nitede tem-
sil edilen kltrlere ait seramik rneklerde Bakla Tepe'ye ve tepe
yzeyi tesviye edilirken tm alana bir Bu
durumda olarak yzey malzemesi tepenin gerek ko-
nusunda bir sonu ortaya merkezi amada,
daha dar bir alanda devam yzeyden
4,5 m inilmesine duru bir tabakaya
Bu nedenle ana tespiti veya varsa ana kaya zerindeki en
eski ortaya 1996
KALINTilAR
Merkezi kuzeyinde Eski Tun i
zerine, daha sonraki tepenin kuzey
(izim: I). 30 x m bu yeni alanda gene
Eski Tun i dnemine ait drt ev ve bir sokak tespit
(izim: 2). .
Drt evden en kuzey-gney istikametinde uzan-
(izim: 2; Resim: I). 1995 bu evin rgl iki uzun
ortaya Takriben 0,80 m duvarlar, x
m lik kuzey ve gney kesimlerinde devam et-
mektedir. Bu durumda evin gerek m den daha fazla ol-
grlr, ise duvar dahilolmak zere 5,80 -
5,40 m uzun duvar yer yer 2 m
(Resim: 2). Evin i kuzeyinde 1,30 m uzun-
kuzey-gney istikametinde uzanan oval sahip bir ocak
263
Bu ocak iki kadernelidir (Resim: 1).
evin kk boy Bu tr
taban iki safha halinde evin gney rast-
(Resim: 2). Bu ev byk ikinci bir safhada dol-
durularak tadil ve yeniden Evin gneyinde g-
rlen m ara blme ve daha yeni
olan ikinci safhaya aittir. 2 m en st
da bir sahiptir. Bu durumda ev zerinde
nc bir safha tespit
Bu ev zerinde grlen her mimari safhada da ay-
orta byklkte dzensiz toplama ve
amur har iri daha ok ke-
narlarda zen fakat bunun genel ola-
rak gzel yan yana veya st ste dizilerek duvar ortaya
Gerek malzemenin gerekse sonucu,
duvarlarda byk apta Her ne kadar
tespit olsa da, bu rg st
de olsa kerpile imkan dahilindedir.
Bu evin iri boy kat halinde d-
bir sokak (izim: 2; Resim: 1). 1995
bu ancak bir tespit kenar ka-
alan iinde iindeki gz nne
olursa, bu 2 m zerinde bir sahip ge-
rekir. kuzey-gney istikametinde uzanan bu
sokak, tepenin kuzey
rampa Bu grnmyle byk yer-
merkeziyle ana veya ana biri
Gerek bu sokak gerekse istikamette uzanan yk-
sek uzun ev tepeninkuzey yamalannda da devam
gstermektedir.
gneyinde, sokakla ve evin en eski mi-
mari yani nc seviyesinde bir toprak mezar tespit
Bu mezar byk birinci safhaya aittir.
gre, bu mezar iindeki iskelet gen-
bir bireye aittir. istikametinde uza-
nan iskeletin kaburga kemikleri ve kol kemikleri ok tahrip ol-
kemikler ise ele ve kemikler
zerindeki izleri, l gmme adetiyle grlmemektedir,
ve ok yanma nedenlere
mezar olarak seramik rnek tes-
pit Bu rnekler de kemikler gibi noksan ve
264
zellikle ok iyi korunan bu evin muntazam bir
sokak bulunurken, da sokak 1,60 m bir
yer istikametinde uzanan ev, bu
dik gelecek (izim: 2). Yan yana
edilen bu evden ortada iki uzun yan byk lde
ortaya 0,60 m her iki yan
18 m dir. Bu uzun duvarlar
alan iinde devam etmektedir (Resim: 5). Bu durumda evin gerek uzun-
20 m olabilir. uzun duvar mesafe, yani evin
ise 4,40 m dir. iki ev gibi bu evin de n
yani Klasik tahribat sonucu bo-
Tahribata ana hemen gney bu-
lunan bir ambar ortaya (Resim: 3,4). 2 x 1,90 m
bu ambar kare grnmyle gneyde evin
ise evin blme ve kuzeyde ise 0,20
m kendi duvanyla evrilidir. Kk boy rlen bu
duvar nedeniyle fazla yksek Bu
gene kk boy bir tabakayla Bylece toprak
zeminin etkisi ortadan rutubetsiz bir ortam elde
Bu ev dikkate daha ge bir mi-
mari safhada n me-
kandan, ara blme bulunan 0,80 m
ana mekana geil mektedir. Ana gene
oval bir ocak tespit (izim: 2; Resim: 5). Bu ta-
bir kor ukuru Ana arka
veya evin arka alan iinde
Bu l grubun bulunan evle, kuzeyinde ve gneyinde bu-
lunan evler uzun duvarlan Bu evlerden gneyde
Fakat bu taban ancak bir yerde
evde iki safhaya ait iki oval ocak ta-
tespit (izim: 2). Kuzeyde bulunan
evin ok az bir alanda ancak bir
ara grlebilmektedir, Birinci evde gibi bu evde de
mimari safhalar Fakat bu safhalar ana sis-
temi yani evlerin planlan
Bu evde de duvarlar teknik birinci eve benzemektedir.
Duvar rlrken iri daha belirgin bir kenarlarda kul-
bunun bir sistem Blok ha-
265
linde edilen bu tr uzun evlerin dz ol-
genelolarak kabul edilmektedir'.
gibi Bakla Tepe'de sokaklara uzun ev-
lerden bir sz konusudur. 20 m ye yak-
4-5 m bu evlerin ileri zaman zaman ara duvarlarla
blnerek ana mekan daha mekanlar elde
Bunun evler iinde ambar, oval ocak gibi mimari zel-
likler de grlmektedir, Evlerin de olsa
ok az bir byk Bakla
Tepe'de radial sisteme uyum
Bakla Tepe'de ortaya modeli, Anadolu'da ve Ege
merkezlerde temsil edilmektedir. Anadolu'da Aph-
rodisias-, Beycesultan? ve bir lde Demircihyks bu sistemi yan-
Buna Ege Midilli'deki (Lesbos) Ther-
mi'de" Bakla Tepe'ye en modeli tespit Bakla
Tepe ile olan ve radyal sisteme gre dzenlenen Thermi n. ta-
bakada sokaklar ana iki taraftan bas-
tiyonlarla Sokaklara uzun evlerin r-
gdr. Bu st kerpi
Buradaki uzun evler genelolarak ara
duvarlarla iki veya rnekana Dizi halinde
bu tr dizi evler de denilmektedir'v, Evlerin
dz birbiriyle bylece blok iindeki evlerin a-
ortak Thermi (Chios) Emporio'da
bir alanda tespit edilen mimari daha ok birbirleriyle
bir uzun ev grubunu Eski Tun n dnemine
mevcut yeterli dzeyde ortaya iin bu
konuda girmek Sisam'daki (Samos) He-
raion" ve Limni'deki (Lemnos) Poliochni!-, olsa da
uyum merkezlerdir. Ege bu
(5) S. Sinos, Die vorklassischen Hansformen inder iig;s, Mninz nru Rhcin 1970,27-28.
(6) M. S. Joukowsky, I, 1986,168 vd.
(7) S. Lloyd veJ. Mellaart, Beycesultani, Londra 1962, Res. 17, 21.
(8) M. Korfmann, "Dcmircihyk", 29. 1979, 13.
(9) W. Lamb. Excavations al inLesbos, Cambridge 1936. plan 2.
(10) S. Hiller. "Early and Late Hclladic Megara: Questions of Architeetural Conlinuity in Bronze
Age Greecc", Early Helladic and Urbanization, yay. haz. R. Hgg ve D. Kon-
sola. Gtcborg 88.
(11) S. Sinos, a. g. e., 27-28.
s. Hood. Excavations incu 1. Oxford 1981, 157.
(13) V. Milojcic, f. Die Siedlung untcr dem Heraion, Bonn 1961, plan 1.
(14) L. Bemab-Brca, Po/ioclmi i, Roma 1964, Lev. 22-25.
266
\. merkezlerin Yunanistan'da bile merkezlerde bu yer-
izlerini tespit etmek mmkndr. Bir taraftan Ege dn-
taraftan Anadolu'nun i kesimlerinde belli bir konut
inimarisine bu modeli, Bakla Tepe sayesinde ilk olarak
Anadolu sahil kesiminde ortaya Bylece iki blge, yani
Ege ve Anadolu'nun i kesimleri belli bir birbiriyle


1995 Bakla Tepe hyk yzeyine de-
rinliklerde yer yer Klasik seramik rnekleri ele Bu durum
Klasik tepe zerinde tahribattan kay-
bir Klasik veya tepenin bu
herhangi bir sz konusu Tepe, alanlar
gz nne sadece Eski Tun i dneminde iskan
Buna olarak da tm mimari sadece bu
dneme ait seramik rnekler tespit
Bakla Tepe nemli bir ve kaba nitelikli
hamur Ince nitelikli rnekler yok denecek kadar
Hamur iinde maddesi olarak en fazla beyaz kalker grlmektedir.
Kalker tanecikleri rneklerin gre iri veya daha kk ola-
bilmektedir. olmak zere hemen hemen tm r-
neklerde mika tanecikleri B az da olsa
kuvars, bitki ve maddesi
olarak
Ele geen rnekler genellikle orta derece
ok alak derecede rnekler de
Bu tr rnekler gri renkte bir ze sahiptir.
olarak hamur renkleri kahverengi-devety
Gri veya siyah renkli hamur rneklerine de rast-
Buna astar renginde siyah ve gri Kah-
verengi ve devety renkli astar mekleri daha az miktarda kar-

Tm elde seramik rnekler kap olarak daha
ok tunel kulplu, ie ekik keskin omuzlu anak ve kaseler
tespit Bu tr rnekler Troya'da Al2 tipi olarak ta-
B zerinde boynuz
(15) C. W. BIegen v.d., Troy General The First and the Second Settlements, Prince-
267
linde olan anaklar"; iten ve
iten dz kenarh anaklar olduka
dz bir anaklar Troya A6 tipini temsil
eder". anaklar ie ve ekik mlekler ve
bunlara ait kapaklar (Resim: 6) en ok grlen seramik trleridir.
Tm bu rnekler mimari safhalann hepsinde gs-
termeden
Bakla Tepe'de seramik olarak nemli bir
grubu ya dz ya da
tir (Resim: 7). Bu tr Liman Tepe'de gene Eski Tun i d-
nemi olduka fazla grlmektedir. bu ka-
Ege Eski Tun merkezlerinde de 19.
Ele geen seramik rnekler zerinde kulp olarak dikey kulplar, oluk-
lu dikey kulplar>, ip delikli tutamaklar ve tunel kulplar
dipleri ise dzdr. Ancak rneklerde fazla uzun olmayan
bir kaide mevcuttur.
1995 ele geen bir mlek Kiklad
nem Bu boynu koniktir, Bu zellik Kiklad ada-
Karya blgesindeki Iasos Eski Tun me-
da tipi temsil eden rnekler ele 22.
Bir seramik rnek ise kimya tarihi nem Geleneksel
Bakla Tepe tm zelliklerini siyah bu kap
daha ok kse grnmndedir. i derin bir
oluk Bu oluk instilasyon iin Bu kap, Bakla
Tepe'de byk kokulu (parfm) retimi gs-
ton 1950. Lev. 223a A12, Lcv.243: 20-21; 258-261, 263-64, 267: 36.685.
(16) C. W. Blegen v.d.. a. g. e., Lev. 246: 5-9, 253: 18-19; W. Lamb, Excavations al in
Lesbos, Cambridge 1936, Fig. 26:8, 28; 3-4, Lev. X: 111,
(17) 1. W. Spcrling, "Kum Tepe in theTrend. The Trial Excavations", Hesperia 45/4,1976, Fig.
13: 406; D. H. French, "Late Chalcolithic Pottery North-West Turkeyand Aegea", An-
atolian Studies ll, 1961, Fig. 5: 10,48.
(L8) H. Z. ve J. Sperling, Troad'da Drt Yeri. Istanbul 1936,41 Tip A; W.
Lamb, a. g. e., Fig 28, No.5; C. W. BIcgen, a. g. e., Lev. 223. tip A6, Lev. 253-255; J. W.
Sperling, a. g. e.; Fig.23: 705; P.E. Pacorclla, La Preissorica di Iasos in Caria,
Roma 1984, 69, no. 7.
(19) W. Lamb, a. g. e.: Fig. 45.
(20) C. W. Blegen v.d.. a. g. e., Lev.247:28-31.
(21) J. Thimmc, Art and of Cycledes in the Third Millennium B.C.. Karlsruhe 1977,
525 no.370, 526 no.374.
268
termektedir-', Biraz daha ge dneme ait olmakla beraber, ka-
rakterde bir instilasyon Aigina'da ele
Tm bu seramik rneklerin ele geen ok ve
bir etmektedir. Seramik kap r-
neklerine ait hamur ve yzey ve
da grlr.
Bakla Tepe boya bezeme, izi bezeme, kertik bezerne ve
kabartma bezerne gibi ssleme trleri Bunlar
boya bezerne en trdr. Bu tr temsil eden tm rneklerde beyaz
boya Astardan sonra srlen boya, beyaz renkte olup
durumlarda glkle farkedilir. Motif olarak en ok diyagonal iz-
gilerle genler, apraz izgiler, kafes grnts veren iz-
giler ve yatay paralel izgiler grlr. Boya bezerne en ok iten ka-
i ve iki taraftan
zerinde Boya
bezerne siyah, kahverengi ve devety astar zeline Tek
bir rnek Bu rnekte beyaz yerine
boya Boya bezeli rneklerde gibi izi bezeli r-
neklerde de geometrik motifler hakimdir. Ozellikle kp
kabartma bantlar zerine izme yoluyla diyagonal bantlar ve
kulp zerine motifleri Kertik bezemeyle
daha ok yan yana belli elde izi ve kertik bezemeler
zaman zaman beyaz bir dolguya sahip olabilmektedir. Kabartma bezerne
daha ok at yumru ve zig zag motifi
Bakla Tepe Eski Tun i dnemi seramik buluntulannm en
paralelleri Liman Tepe'de ele Bu dnem Liman Tepe'de
henz ok dar bir alanda Fakat ele geen mekler gerek
teknik gerek ve gerekse bezerne Bakla Tepe'ye ok ya-
karakterde rnekler evresinde yzey
da yerlerinde de grlmektedir.
Bu durumda, Bakla Tepe'de temsil edilen Eski Tun i dnemi kl-
tr en tm blgesine
Konu daha bir ereve iinde ele olursa,
ok daha byk bir alana grlr, Bakla Tepe seramik rnekleri
bir taraftan Anadolu Anadolu Bl-
(22) P. E. Pacorella, a. g. e.Fig. 5. Fig. 6: 35-38. Lev. XLIII 170-171. XLV 182.
(23) Bu bilgiler kimya tarihi Ural Akbulut'aaittir.
(24) Aigina nleyen birkaptr olarak H. Walter ve F. Fel-
269
gesi'ne taraftan Sisam, Limni ve Midilli gibi Ege
kadar ok bir alana nmzdeki ger-
bu yeni boyutlar ve bu
Bakla Tepe'nin nemi ok daha belirgin bir
kilde ortaya
KK BULUNTULAR
Kk buluntular idoller Bakla Tepe din
nem 1995 ele geen rnekler seramikten Alt
Kollar birer halinde
ok kk hayvan tespit Fakat ok
kaba grnmde belirgin
Bakla Tepe'de bir kemik endstrisi
Basit byk dini karakter yan
idol benzeri da (Resim: 8).
Kemik endstrisi endstrisi de rneklere yan-
Obsidiyen ve sileksten kesiciler, baltalar ve bir
adet sap delikli balta, bir (Resim: 9).
Madencilik konusunda ortaya teknik Bakla Tepe'nin
en nemli zelliklerinden birisidir, 1995 tespit edilen mimari
safhadan ikincisinde ele geen seramik bir ok muntazam
dikkati ekmektedir (izim: 3). metal
olursa, ok az Bu zerinde bir haner ne-
gatifi Bu evresinde ve alanlarda ele geen
cruf Bakla Tepe'de gerek bir metal endstrisinin or-
taya ve ok metal rnek
Bu rnekler bulunan helezon bir
bronz (?) sa ve yuvarlak halkalardan bir zincir
(Resim: IO) bir teknoloji rndr.
Metal rnekler bulunan bir sadece ma-
dencilik kltrel da byk nem
(Resim: II). Bu kresel grnmdedir.
iki izilerek "X" ssler mevcuttur. st
boyun bir ve iki yanda delikleri bu-
Bu tr Kikladlar'da ve zellikle de Naksos Ada-
zelliklere dayanarak Kikladlar'da bu
tr denmektedir. Naksos'daki me-
270
Avdheli" ve Rhodhinadhes'den" birer rnek ele
kesin yeri belli olmayan, ama Naksos kkenli olan
daha rnekler mevcuttur" Tm Naksos mekleri hem
nedeniyle hem de zellikleri nedeniyle Bakla Tepe be-
zemektedir. Bakla Tepe Eski Tun i in en yeni, yani birinci
Buna Naksos en eskisi
Erken Kiklad II ye tarihlenmektedir. Bu durumda Bakla Tepe tm
benzer rnekleri en eski gibi seramik r-
nekler madeni buluntular da Anadolu ile Kikiadlar ara-

Devlet Su Genel yetkililerinin bilgiye gre
1996 sonunda su tutmaya Bakla Tepe ol-
duka yksek bir konumda bu merkezde daha sene a-
devam edebilecektir. gldeki su seviyesinin yk-
dikkate Bakla Tepe'nin tmyle su altmda
Ancak tepe 5,5 m bir ada g-
rnmne Bu nedenle Anadolu sahil kesimi pre-
byk nem bu merkezin korunabilmesi
iin bir koruma ve uygulama a-
daha 1995 ada durumuna
gelecek Bakla Tepe'nin suyla olacak kesimlerinde bir koruma ku-
ve bylece suyun nlemektir.
1995 koruma
faaliyete geilerek, 1995 tm mi-
mari zeri bir Bundan sonraki
larda da mimari by-
lece ilerde ancak bir tekneyle tepenin, tm mimari
zellikleri etkenlere koruma
ten,Alt-Agina lll,l. Die Stadt, Mainz amRhein 1981, 100.
(25) C. Doumas, Early Age Burial Habits in the Cyclades, Gteborg 1977. 125. Lev.
XLIXh.
(26) C. Doumas, a. g. e., 128. Lev. Ld.
(27) C. Telavnntou, "Drcss-Jewcllery-Adonunent", Cycladic Culture. Naxos in the 3rd Mil-
B. C., yay. haz. L. Marangou. Atina 1990,57 kat. no. 35.
(28) Bu konuda bykbir zveriyle lzmir Arkeoloji Mzesi elemanlanna. Rlve
Dairesi teknik personeline ve gerekli tm Devlet Su Genel M-
yetkililerinecandan ederiz.
271
1 2 3 L 5 6 7- 8 9 10. 11 12 13 11'
A
8
/p
'/:i
;f
/
, r
,
// / /
./v J J / 1/ V,
c
\ /
, '
/, \
\ \ i
/; ,\ i
K
l
M
\ \ / i
,
, ,
\ '
\ \
\ ,
BAKLATEPE
!",,_J'3 i' ! _ o Lo 20101.
izim 1: Baklatepe'nin ve 1995
272
..." '\.1-_..
~
~
,
:
,
,
,
, ,
L 1
~ .
273
274
_-==__ 'om
izim3: Eski Tun t ; a g i dnemine ait seramik maden k a h h
Resim 1: Eski Tun a i dnemi d o u y a p s ve sokak
Resim 2: Eski Tun a i dnemi d o u y a p s
275
Resim 3: Eski Tun a i dnemi b a t uzun evleri
Resim 4: Eski Tun a i dnemi ambar.
276
---------------
277
Resim6: Eski Tun a i dnemine ait bir seramik m-
lek k a p a
.. ..
278
Resim7: Eski Tun a i dnemine ait bir seramik
b a l k
Resim 10: Eski Tun i dnemine ait bir bronz
(?) zincir
- -
Resim 11: Eski Tun i dne-
mine ait bir

-
Resim 9: Eski Tun i dnemine
ait bir sap delikli balta

ii
ii
ii
Resim 8: Eski Tun i dne-
mine ait bir kemik idol

279
1995 PANAZTEPE KAZILARI SONULARI
ERKANAL*
1995 Panaztepe Seyrek Beldesi Belediyesi'nin,
ve Mzeler Genel Hacettepe Universitesi'nin ve Institute
for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP-New York)' maddi ve manevi
ile Bu vesile ile tm ilgililere
ekibi Prof. Dr.Hayat ErkanaL, Yrd.Do.Dr.Sevin Gnel,
Aykurt, Bora Uysal,
Arkeolog Ahmet Sleyman
Tufan; arkeoloji Mustafa Akyzl, Hakan Aslan, Nili.ifer
Ayten, Kadir Bykulusoy, Umit Sinan, Suzan Ka-
radeniz, Seil Koca, Meryem Kocabay, Fatma Ozdemir, Ozan Corrado
Rijavec, Glay Yonca ve Glay Yirci'den
temsilcisi olarak Arkeolog zcan
yrtlmesinde geen tm ekibe zverili
tr en iten sunmak isterim. kk buluntu fo-
ve konservasyon yrtlmesinde bizzat des-
tek ve Mzesi Arkeolog
Mehmet Trkmen'e de bir bor bilirim.
1990-1995 arasmda yrtlen sonucunda,' Pa-
naztepe'nin kesiminin iin en uygun
Bu blgenin olarak devirler boyunca
hi yoktur ki, iklimlerle ve egemen ynleriyle
(*) Prof. Dr. ERKANAL. Hacettepe niversitesi, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Blm,
Protohistorya ve Onasya ArkeolojisiAnabilim Beytepe/ANKARA
(1) Panaztepe ile ilgili kaynaka iin A. ErkanaL, "1994
XVII. KSI I, 329, dn. Sz konusu sonucu Hayat Erkanal ya-

281
bir ierisindedir. Bu blgenin kuzey
bir konumda da glendirir. Bununla birlikte,
yine bu kesim delta nce, belli dnemlerde liman kent-
lerinin dair nemli bir eder.
1995 srdrlen ele geirilen ka-
en ge ve Bizans dnemlerine ta-
(Resim: I). Bu O'''-U'''15 Bizans D-
nemi'ne ait profan bir byk bir 94
m' lik bu 3 1995
(Resim: 2). Sz konusu yzeye anlam ve
nemini in-situ malzemenin gnmze byk
lde 1994 Bizans
ile, muhtemelen tarihlendirilmesi sz konusu olan bu ya-
da, sadece temelleri olarak gnmze Basit
ocak ile belli bir zen gsterilmeksizin temel du-
0.53-0.80 m, korunan yksekliklikleri ise 0.12-0.28
m ler ait yer yer ve ki-
remiti kaplanmaya izlenmektedir. Sz konusu ya-
ok amphora tr kap mlekler, "Istanbul
beyaz bir anak (Resim: 3), bronzdan cam bir
lambaya ait olabilecek bronz bir kevgir sikkeler,
cam kap ve bilezik ve cam bir yzk ve
lenmesinde bir teknikte kesilerek bir boncuk
tanesi ele geirilen eserler nemli bir yer tutar. Bu
genel sonucunda bu 12. ile 13.

1994 ve 1995 bu iki Bizans Anadolu
arkeolojisi iin byk bu' nem gibi Anadolu'da Bizans
Dnemi mimarisi ok llerde r-
nekler de daha ok st dzey sanat rnleridir. Bu tr yerel r-
nekleri ve bunlarla kltrel zellikler Bizans kltr
tarihine kadar Panaztepe'ye ve yresine de yepyeni bir
boyut
(2) Bu tr seramiklerin en erken rnekleri 9. tarihlendirilir. Bu konuda bize bilgi veren
M. Acara'ya ederiz. V. Zalesskaya,"Byzantine white-day painted
bowls and cylix-type cups": R. Morris (ed.) and Peopte in Byzantinm. for
the of Byzantine Studies Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies,
Manchester1986, Birmigham. 1990, s. 215-224.
282
Erken Bizans kltr ile halde, daha sonraki kltr ta-
ele geirilen iki byk kp devrin depolama yn-
temlerine getirmektedir. Bunlann zerlerindeki grafitti isimler ya
zel ya da belli ifade etmektedir. Deukitis ve Serges
isimleri Gene daha eski kltr yer alan bir
p ukuru iinden ok iri tespit Bu
konservasyon tamamlanarak 1996 Dr.Peter
Ian Kuniholm'e teslim edilmek zere
Bizans sonucunda M..l. ve 2. binin ikinci ait
katmanlar olduka tahrip olarak Panaztene'nin
bu kesiminde Demir Devri'ne ait seramik ele ge-
Ancak mimari birlikte
henz mmkn Bizim iin bu bilgilerin ele ol-
bile, tarihinin rekonstrksiyonunu yapabilmek ve
Eolya'mn gney kesimlerindeki dnemlere ait so-
zmlenmesinde byk bir yapacak bo-

kadar kltr bizim iin en
nemli birisi, M.O.2. bin nekropolyle
incelenmesiydi. Bu nedenle, biz, problemleri zebilmek, politik,
ekonomik ve sosyal 1990 bu
yana, iki blgesinde inceleme yapma ola-
bulduk (Resim: 1). Bu sonucunda, bu
yerlerde ge yle tahrip olduk ki, bu ne-
denlerden kesin bir neticeye anki mm-
kn Btn bu olumsuzluklara ele geirilebilen mimari
dayanarak, malzemesi olarak, ok
ve bir ol-
saptayabiidik. Sz konusu bu en-
kazlan zaman zaman bun-
henz da tam olarak belli
bir kadar rlerek ykseltilen bu tr
Ne ki, in-situ durumunda
bu tr bir duvar henz ele
Ge Tun Dnemi mimarisi ile kesin olan ve ta-
rafmuzdan avlu ya da benzeri st rnekanlara ait d-
(3) Bu isimlerin n Temsilcisi zcan
Kendisine ederiz.
283
rtlmesinde iri boy levha biimli
yer yer ele geirilen dayanarak
(Resim: 4).
Profan mimariyi bize olan bir ilgin
buluntuyu da, anakaya zerinde 0.12-0.25 m aplanndaki yuvarlak
mmkn Ne ki, bu tr
zgn mimari ve bugn iin
mmkn Ancak sz konusu bu
dikmeler iin "negatif mimari" izleri d-
.
..Tm bu olumsuz ele geen
M.O. 15-12. kentin bu kesiminde byk ve olan
sivil mimari rnekleri stilize
insan biiminde bir ocak bu tr konutlarda mimariye
gelerin de olsa
Mimari yetersiz olan bu bilgilere burada ele
geirilen buluntular yerli ve ithal Myken de nemli bir
yer tutar. Bu ve nekropol sz konusu
dnemin mhr, silah, seramik, ara-gere ve malzemelerden ya-
zengin ss gibi bu kentte
belli bir stne
Ozellikle bu ele geirilen ithal Myken seramik
de bu destekler niteliktedir.
Sz konusu bize tarih, M.. 2. bine ait
tarihi ile uyum ierisinde olup, tm Ege gibi Myken
kltrnn en etkin Ge Hellas III A-B dnemine aittir ve yak-
M.. 14.-13. tarihlenir.
1995 daha
sonraki dnemlere, yani: Ge Hellas III B-C evrelerine ait seramik
rnekleri de Ne ki bu bulgular henz tam olarak bir
olarak ele Ge Tun Dnemi'nin
Panaztepe'de ne zaman ve son anlayabilmemiz
son derece nemli olan bu da incelenmesi, eki-
bimizin ileriki en nemli grevlerinden birisi
1995 en nemli hedeflerinden bir
bu ynelik olarak ger-

284
Ge Tun Dnemi'ne verilen bu evrenin son evresiyle olarak
iki adet ele Ben-
zerlerini Yunanistan'da Atika Blgesi'nde yer alan Perari'nin Bl nu-
oda bu ilgin eserler, deniz ba-
gsteren nemli bir
Ge Tun Dnemi tabakalanmn "'-V"'/6-7 amalannda kal-
sonra 1.80 m koduna kadar ve 1994 bir
ve in-situ durumunda ilgin seramik
ele kesiminde Bu a-
sonucunda bu Ge. Tun Dnemi kat-
ok daha iyi bir Bunun
nedenini Ge Tun Dnemi'nde byk bir tesviye
aramak gerekir.
Ele geirilen mimari henz bir tm
burada da byk boyutlu ilgili
bir mimarinin
Orta Tun Dnemi'nde buluntular en nem-
li yeri seramik Ele geirilen kaba nitelikli
mutfak kaplanna aittir. Iki evreli seramik buluntulanna gre
Orta Tun Dnemi'nde ana gru-
bunu gri renkli Minyas seramik is-
tatistiklerine gre, bu % SO'ye Ele ge-
irilen kap yiv bezemeli anaklar, kantharoslar ve
fincanlar nemli bir yer 1995 saptanan nik bir
kap, gri renkli minyas ait ilgin bir
(Resim:5). Bu boynu stilize ve sanatkarane bir
ko biiminde olup, (bu
layan emzik Bu kaba doldurmak iin
ikinci bir boyun, omuza olup, eksenin
Bu bu kap bir taraftan geleneksel Ege kap bi-
imleriyle gsterirken, taraftan da Anadolu'dan
rythonlar ya da hayvan biiminde libasyon
ile anlam gsterir. espride bir kap Kltepe'nin Ib ta-
5.
(4) H.-G. Buchholz undV. Karagorghis, Altaegaeis und Altkypras, Tbingen, 1971, s. 54,
res. 622; The Vassiliki Adrymi-Sismani ve Mycenaean World. Five Centuries of
Early Greek 1600-1100 1988, s. 240,244-245 (eserlerinrenkli re-
simleri
(5) T. zg. Il. Eski Ticaret Merkezinde Yeni
Trk Tnrih V. Dizi-SaAI, Ankara, 1986, s. 54 t/84), 47.
285
1995 onuncu Pa-
naztepe 16 Eyll 1995 gn evinde dzenlenen bir trenle
Gerek bu nedenle gerekse Habitat II Kent Zirvesi top-
sonucunda, bugn Panaztepe'de son on
devirlerde kurulan kentlerin
bir yapmakta yarar grmekteyiz
(Resim: I). En az 2 km bir alana dnemlere ait ka-
Panaztepe'nin blgelerindeki gre, Os-
ve Bizans dnemlerinde, yamata bir
olarak Roma Dnemi'nde fakir bir
halk Arkaik, Klasik ve Hellenistik dnemlerde
sadece Akropol kesiminde bu arada ve
byk komplekslerinin ve daha sonraki dnemlerde
ise Akropol'n iskan ve Akropol'de sz konusu bu ge d-
nemlerden en nemlisinin Arkaik Dnem ortaya
Panaztepe Anadolu arkeolojisine en nemli
netice ise, onun Orta ve Ge Tun dnemlerindeki
gibi, tahrip edilmekteyken kurtarma sonucunda l-
Ge Tun bir taraftan nik eserleri de
ieren ile, raftan da bu sahiplerinin ya-
blgenin nedeniyle son derece nem
Sz konusu bu bugne kadar
sonucunda, sadece Panaztepe'nin Burada
insanlar Panaztepe'nin ve kuzey me-
yapmak iin uygun ve nekropollerini bu blgelere kur-

tm bu dnemlerde ve
iin belli noktalardaki bir taraftan burada ku-
rulan kentlerin byklk ya da kklklerine, dnemlerinin tarihi-
nemlerine ve bir kara ya da liman kenti

Panaztepe'nin son on bize en nemli bir gerek
ise, onun Orta Tun Dnemi'nde ne denli nemli bir kent
olarak ortaya Bu dnem grkemli bu-
Ge Tun Dnemi en az
bir Buna gre bu Pa-
naztepe'nin hemen hemen tmnde de-
sonucunda zetlenebilir: Akropolde, byk bir ola-
yneticilerin ve st
atlyelerin ve burada an-
286
Panaztepe'nin ok bir alana
bir liman dikkati ekmektedir. Hi
yoktur ki, burada bulunan liman ile, I Anadolu, Ege Denizi ve
Akdeniz'le li bir ticaret eder.
Panaztepe'nin bu konumu Eski Tun Dnemi'nde de benzer bir biimde
zorluklar nedeniyle Panaztepe'nin daha erken dnemleri
doyurucu bir biimde henz
Sz konusu dnem, Anadolu'nun tarih buna
olarak siyasi ticaret ve
kltrel belgeler ile bir hale gel-
Anadolu arkeolojisinin ve tarihinin en can dnemlerinden bi-
risini Anadolu'dan Acernhyk ve Kltepe gibi ok
byk bu dnemde, Panaztepe'de 2 km'lik bir
alana Orta Tun Dnemi'nin ol-
Anadolu'da egemen olan sis perdesinin ara-
Ianmaya mjdelemektedir,
Bylece 1985-1995 blgesi arkeolojik
projemiz Bakla Tepe, Liman Tepe ve Panaztepe'de
sonucunda, M.O. 2. bin iin son derece nemli bilgilere ula-
ve bunun sonucunda Ge Tun ve Orta Tun dnemlerinde bu-
rada iskan eden ekonomik ve sosyal durumu ana ile ortaya
konmaya Ne ki, bu dnemlerde burada
ait blgesi ve tarihi beklenen ya-
belgeleri henz ele Bu nedenle ait ol-
siyasi-kltrel evre ve ticari-ekonomik ynleri, kendilerinden
edinilen bigilerle henz Bu tr belgelerin bir ge-
lecekte mit ediyoruz. Ancak belgeler ele ge-
irildikten sonra, Anadolu'da, Hititler'le Hititler'in rakiplerinin kim
ve burada egemen olan siyasi otoriteler ka-
daha-
287
288
Resim: 2
Resim: 3
289
290
Resim: 4
Resim: S
VORLAUFIGER BER DIE
AUSGRABUNGSERGEBNISSE AUF DEM
VON 1992-1995
Barthel HROUDA*
Die Ruine westlich des gleichnamiger Ortes' am linken Ufer des
Flusses Ceyhan, des antiken Pyramos, gelegen und ca 40 km stlich von
der heutigen Provinzhauptstadt Adana entfernt, hat eine Ausdehung von
ca. 350 x 400 m bei einer Hhe von ca. 30 m (Abb.!). Er gehrt
neben dem weiter im Westen gelegenen Misis, dem antiken
Mopsuthjestia-, zu den grBten Ruinenhgel im "ebenen" Kilikien, deren
heutiger Name "ukurova" auf trkisch (ukur-Mulde, OvaeEbene) das
gleiche ausdrckt. dieses Gebiet Kizzuwatna.! Weiter
im Westen lag das im klassischen Altertum so benannte "rauhe" Kilikierr'
Sirkeli wie Misis lagen an einer wichtigen Heer - und Handelsstrafie,
die den Osten mit dem Westen und umgekehrt verband. Bis var kurzem
verlief die einzige SU'aBe von Adana nach Gaziantepbzw.
direkt an beiden Orten vorbei, und auch die Eisenbahn, die legendare
Baghdad-Bahn, wurde zumindest an Sirkeli vorbeigefhrt, Die StraBe
wird heute als "Alter Weg=Eski Yol" bezeichnet im Gegensatz zur neuen
vierspurigen StraBe, die weiter nrdlich verlauft. Var kurzem wurde auch
eine Autobahn fertiggestel1t, teilweise wiederum sdIich des Alten Weges
(Abb.2). Sie verbindet jetzt Ankara mit dem Sden und dem Osten der
Trkei.
(') Prof. Dr. HRUDA, Sternstr. 4b 82110 Germering ALMANYA
(1) Der name "Sirkeli" wohl trkisch "sirke" Ungerzicfer abzuleiten. Vgl. M.V. Seton-
Williams, AnatSl4.
(2) Von H.Th.Bosserl kurzuntersucht. Vgl.JfKF 1951. 293 f.
(3) H.M.Kmmcl, "Kizzuwatna'' in RlA V.I976-80, 627 ff.
(4) Zum Namen "Kilikien' im Altertum Studia Mediterranea, Festschrift
(1979) 429 Pauly 111, 1979, 207 ff.
291
Diese Lage und die Nahe zum Mittelmeer - der antike Hafen Aegeae,
modern Ayas bei lag nur ca. 30 km entfernt - fhrten zweifel-
los zur Bedeutung und GrBe von Sirkeli wie von Misis>, Wahrend der
Kreuzzge nahm ihre Stelle die gegenber an dem nrdlichen
Ufer des Ceyhan gelegene Kalesi ein, eine noch
heute sehr eindrucksvolle Ruine (Abb.20)'.
Auf die Bedeutung weist auch das 1934 entdeckte Felsrelief des Mu-
watalli Il.hin? (Abb.3), zu dem es jetzt, wenige Meter nrdlich ein zwei-
tes gibt, daB aber weniger gut erhalten ist, da im Altertum bereits "aus-
radiert" (Abb.4-6)s. .
Die frher vorgeschlagene Gleichsetzung mit Tarhuntassa (frher
Dattasa), der neuen hethitischen Residenz, eben jenes Muwatalli, laBt
sich aber nach den geographischen Angaben in der 1986 in ge-
fundenen Bronzetafel nicht mehr aufrecht erhalten", Sie muB weiter im
Westen, bestanfalls im rauhen Kilikien lokalisiert werden.
Bevor wir mit unserer Grabung 1992 begannen, hatte schon J. Gar-
stang 1936 eine Testgrabung unternommen. Er legte 5 Schnitte an, die er
mit A-E benannte (Abb.?), nnd fand dort Material, hauptsachlich Ke-
ramik aus dem l.und 2. Jts.v.Chr. Ferner eine Saulen-eder Pfeilerbasis?,
bestehend aus zwei Lwen mit extrem groBenAugen, die eine Datierung
(5) Bei unscrem 1994 durchgcfhrten survey um Sirkeli, hauptschlich im sdlichen Bereich,
konnten wir keinen grcrcn Hgel als Sirkcli Hyk u.Misis uusmachen.
(6) Ygl.zu ihr und den anderen Burgruinen: O.R.Young, Anat St 15.1965, 113 ff., besonders 125
rr .
(7) Diese Entdeckung verdanken wir den trkisehen Archilclogen Ali Riza Yalgm und Hamit
Zbeyr Vgl.zur Litcratur: HaF 4.1982.260, Nr.317.
(8) Es wurde von uns 1994 (wiedcr-) entdeckt: H'Ehringhaus. Antike Wclt 256,1,1995.66 u.
26.2,1995, Aber P.Neve hat es nach seinen Aussngen schon 1990 gesehen, P.Neve, An-
tike Welt 27,1.1996, 19ff.Nach schautc der Knig wie nuf dem ersten Relicf nach Sden
und nicht wie bei uns nach Norden. Der von H.Ehringhaus angefcrtigten. cntzcrrtcn Um-
zeichnung liegcn phctographischc Aufnahmen des Grabungsphotographen K.Stupp zu-
grunde, die er 1995 von cineni Gerst aus direkt machen Leider wurde das Relief
im Altertum mit seiner Insehrift? getilgt, so da13 wir zwar anhand des Typus' eben-
falls auf einen hethitischen Knig schlie13en drfen. aber nicht sagen knnen, wer es war.
Die wahre Blickriehtung werden wir in der kommenden Kampagne, Herbst 1996, berprfen
und danaeli berieliten. Dies in der Tat geschchen, und die neuen Aufnahmen nach einem
Papiernbklatsch (Abb.5) und Streiflicht (Abb.) beweisen nun deutlich, daf die Figur
nach Nordcn bIickt.
(9) H.OUen, die Bronzetafel von (1988). Dazu D.Srcnhagcn, OLZ 87, 1992, 342
ff.Zuletzt zur Lage von Tarhuutassa: S.Alp, Atti del il Congresso (1995)
i ff.
292
in die spathethitische Zeit als mglich erscheinen HiBt
lO
Er verlegte aber
spater seine Tatigkeit bekanntlich nach Mersin".
1951 besuchte im Rahmen ihres survey M.V.Seton-Williams den Sir-
keli Hyk und stellte bei einer Hiigelbegehung fest, fuBend auf den bis-
herigen Beobachtungen, daB es hier Funde von der rmischen Zeit bis
zum Chalkolithikum gebe'",
Unser Unternehmen begann mit einer Vorinspektion, die im Herbst
1991 von P. Spanos und dem Berichterstatter wurde, nach-
dem uns Prof. Tahsin Ozg geraten hatte, diesen Hgel als
Kandidaten fr eine Ausgrabung ins Auge zu
Die eigentliche Ausgrabung fand vom 6.10 bis zum 26.10.1992. Sie
war eine Art joint-Expedition zwischen dem Blge Mzesi in Adana und
der Universitat Miinchen unter der gemeinsarnen Leitung des damaligen
und jetzigen Direktors in Adana, Ismet Ipek, und des Berichterstatrers-'.
Unsere vornehmliche Aufgabe bestand in dieser wie auch in den
Kampagnen darin, im besonderen zu klaren, in welchem
AusmaB der Sirkeli Hyk des spaten 2.Jts.v.Chr.besiedelt war,
als der hethitische GroBknig Muwatalli II., der mutmaBliche Sieger in
der Schlacht von Qades (1275 v.Chr.) gegen Ramses II., sein Felsrelief
hier anfertigen lieB (Abb.3).
Aus diesem Grund wurden drei Schnitte/Areale (1-3) (Abb.1) an-
gelegt. Fr das erste Areal wurde der stliche Bereich der Nordterrasse
gewahlt, nachdem schon J.Garstang im westlichen Bereich in tieferen
Lagen auf Funde und Befunde des 2.Jts.gestoBen war," Da unser Areall
(8 x 8 m) tiefer als sein Schnitt E lag, erhofften wir uns bessere Auf-
schlsse ber die Besiedlung aus der Spaten Bronze-Zeit,
(10) AAALiv 24. 1937. 52 ff., bes. 64 u.AAALiv 25. 1938. 12 ff., bes.20 ff.Die Diese Basis steht
heute im Gerten des Archllol. Museums von Adana. Wohl erste bildlichc Verffentlichung
durch HAlkim. Belleten 16. 1952, Abb.2 undden nachfolgenden Hinweis zurDa-
ticmug ins 2.Jt.v.Chr.verdanke ich Dessa Rittig). Wirhieltensic zunachsrwegen der groen
fr byzantinisch. Sic knntc aber auch lllter als spilthethitisch seiu und die Zeir derLwen
von Aanadatieren. die ebenfalls bcr unnatrlich groe Augenverfgen.
(ll) J.Garslang, Prehistoric Mersin (1953).
(12) Anat St 4,1954.121 rr., bes.l30 ff.u.l68.
(13) Der ursprngliche Plan, uach cinem geeigneten Grabungsorlnrdlich von Nusaybin/Nisibin
zu suchenundein gemcinsames Untemahmen mit H.Erkanal zu untemchmen. der bereits in
Girnavaz tatig war, empfahl sich wegen derschwierigen politischenLage dortnieht.
(14) Die rtlichen Grabungsleiter warenSt.Kroll und A.UnaL. Als weitere Mitglieder arbeiteten
A.Hausleiter M.A.O. Schertler caud. phil. sowie mehrerc trkische Grubungsfacharbeiter
aus dem Museum Adana.
(15) AAALiv 24, 1937.
293
Aber bis auf das Stempelsiegel mit der Inventarnummer Si nn
(Abb.8) aus dem frhen sich hier keine weiteren
Spuren, nur solche aus wesentlich spateren Perioden, aus hellenistischer
und rmischer Zeit. das Stempelsiegel mit dreiblattriger Stem-
pelflache, auf dem ein Greif ber einem Feliden dargestellt ist
l6
, ist hier
nicht in situ gefunden worden, sondem wurde wahrscheinlich von einer
hher gelegenen Stelle herabgeschwemmt.
Die Areale 2 und 3 auf der Akropolis angelegt, wo Garstang
nicht gegraben hat (Abb.!). Ein Anreiz mehr mr uns, hier Unter-
suchungen durchzufiihren. Im Areal 2 mit einer Ausdehnung von 4 x 12
m stieBen wir bis zu einer tiefe von 3,50 m vor und konnten dabei vier
Bauschichten unterscheiden, oben mittelalterlich, rmisch, hellenistisch,
eisenzeitliche Besiedlungsreste mit einer stark Burg-
mauer am Hang. In etwa 2,5 m Tiefe folgte das 2.Jt.mit zahlreichen be-
malten Scherben der sog. syrisch-kilikischen Keramik (Abb.P)", Nach
Verbreitung von Westsyrien bis nach Mersin mit der Haufigkeit in
Kilikien ist sie mehr ein kilikisches als ein syrisches Produkt.
Das Areal 3 (5x20) im Westen der Akropolis (Abb.!) erbrachte noch
altere Funde, und zwar solche aus dem Chalkolithikum bzw.der Frhen
Bronze-Zeit des 4. und 3.Jts.v.Chr.Sie tauchten hier in 3 m Tiefe auf. Ent-
sprechende wurden aber bereits im Verlauf ihres Surveys
von M. V. Seton-Williams auf unserem Ruinenhgel beobachtet'". In der
folgenden Kampagne 1993 setzen wir die Untersuchungen auf der Akro-
polis an zwei Stellen fort'", und zwar in den Arealen 4 und 6 (Abb.!).
Dazu kamen spater noch zwei Testschnitte im westlichen Bereich der
nrdlichen Terrasse (Nr.5 = 4 x 4,50 m) und auf dem Plateau hinter den
Felsreliefs, dort wo 1995 Areal 13 angelegt worden ist (2 x 9 m). Sie
brachten beide keine nennenswerte Ergebnisse.
(16) Vergleichstcke: R.M.Bochmcr (H.G.Gtcrbock. Glyptik aus dem von Bo-
!Haltusa XIV (1987) 26 u . Taf. V.55.56: VI, 63. N.Ozg Seals and Seal
of Level TB from Kanisli (1968) Tar: XXXI, 2 u. XXXII. Hicr jedoch
nicht klecblattfrmig. Diese Form, jedoch mil anderen darsrellungen fand in Kar-
ahyk bci Konya (1968) Abb. 22, 3-8 u. Taf. 19,47.
Unser Sicgel bestaht aus cinem dunkelgraucn Stcin, Knauf oben abgebrochen. echo H.2,4
cm. Ausdehnung derSiegelflachc 3.0 cm.
(17) Vgl. B.Hronda. Forsch 19,1957,27 ff. Iraq 15,1953,57 ff. G.Wild
-Wlker, JEOL 25, 1977-78, 35 ff.
(18) AnatSt 4,1954.130 f.u.168
(19) Diese Kampague dauerte 1.10.-13.11.93 und daran habenneben dem be-
richterstattcr die Damen und Herren Iris Gerlach, Cornelie Wolff A.Unal, P.Spanos.
M'Harnest. O.Schertler und Als trkischc Mitarbeiterin fungierte Frau Nurhayat
Duran. Zuvor wurde im Frhjahr(I2.4.-l5.5.93) cin neuer topographischer Plan des Hgels
vom Institut fr Photogrammetrie und Perncrkundung der TU-Mnchcn unter der Leitung
von M.Stepilani angefertigt.
294
In 4 und in 6 mit einer Gesamtflache von ca:. 267 qm stieBen wir bei
ca. 3.00 m unter der heutigen auf Uberreste aus der ersten
Halfte des 2.Jts. mit Mauern aus groBen Steinen in 4/1 Sd (Abb.lO) und
solchen aus Lehmziegeln eines ebenfalls groBen Formates 50 x 30 x LO
cm in 6/2 Nord. Die Datierung ergab sich ans den hier gefundenen Scher-
ben und grBeren der bernaiten syrisch-kilikischen Keramik.
Durch das lckenlose Aufeinanderfolgen der einzelnen Bauphasen var
allem im Areal 4 lieB sich eine Schichtenabfolge als
bisher aufbanen (Abb.II), beginnend bei i oben. Die tiefsten die
in 4 und 6 erreicht wurden und eben in die erste Halfe des 2. Jts.v.
lagen bei +46.!5 m bzw.bei +45.50 m.
In gleicher Weise wichtig ist der Hinweis auf Handelsbeziehungen
mit der Agais durch einen Amphorenhenkel (Si 93/33) mit dem Tp-
femamen EmrONOL;. Ein weiterer mit dem Namen APIL;TOKAEIL; (Si
95/1) wurde 1995 im Schnitt 12gefunden.
Besondere Funde aus der hellenistischer Zeit waren eine mit weilier
Farbe angemalte weibliche Bste mit einem Kalathos auf dem Kopf (Si
93/51) (Abb.!2) und Henkel von Skyphoi mit Satyr-Masken (Abb.!3). Zu
der Bste gibt es nach A. Spycket Parallelen, wenn auch von unter-
schiedlichem Aussehen in Susa und auf Failaka. Henkel mit Satyr-
Masken sind aus Delphi, Pergamon und jetzt aus Hani in
Syrien bekannt (Hinweis von P. Spanos).
Neben der bernaIten Keramik aus dem 2.Jt.v.Chr.fanden wir mit ihr
vergesellschaftet eine, Berichterstatter bisher unbekannte Keramik,
die sich durch ihre und durch ihr schwarzes Aussehen
auszeichnet (Abb.!4). /
Wahrend der 1994, die von Herrn geleitet Wurde-
der Berichterstatter fhrte in der gleichen Zeit mit Agnes Spycket und
Herrn Jeiser einen survey in der naheren und weiteren Umgebung von
Sirkeli durch (siehe auch S.).
In den neu angelegten Arealen 7- (Abb.!) stieB man wie schon 1992
auf chalkolithische Schichten des 4. Jts.v.Chr.Wichtigster Fund war ein
RolIsiegel (Si 94n) mit einer Tierdarstellung (Abb.l5). Diesem RolIsiegel
fehlt aber die sonst bliche Langsdurchbohrung.
Ansonsten ahnelt das Erscheinungsbild der Keramik wahrend des
1.und 2.Jts.auch mit Hinweisen auf Importe aus Zypern dem von Tarsus,
das ja nicht allzuweit von Sirkeli entfemt liegt?",
(20) H.Goldman, Tarsus 1(1930) (1963).
295
Zahlreiche runde, durchlochte Scheiben aus Ton und Stein dienten
wohl zur Beschwerung von Netzen, mit denen man Fische aus dem
Ceyhan/Pyramos fing, der sich wohl immer in der Nahe des Sirkeli
Hyk befand, wenn er auch nicht wie heute stlich an der Ruine bzw.
der darin befindlichen Stadt im Altertum vorbeifloB, sondem eher weiter
nrdlich, wie ein altes FluBbett bekundet.
In der Kampagne 1994wurde ein survey in der naheren und weiteren
Umgebung von Sirkeli Darber wird demnachst aus-
flihrlich berichtet werden", Hier sei nur darauf hingewiesen, daB wir sd-
lich wie nrdlich, am stabhang der Kalesi ca 60 rmische Graber
entdeckt haben, die als (Abb.J6) oder als Kammergrber
(Abb.J7) in den Felsen eingetieft und mit Steinplatten abgedeckt waren
bzw.unzuganglich gemacht worden sind.
Vom 25. September bis zum 20 ktober 1995 fand die 4. Kampagne
statt, deren wichtigstes Ergebnis das Auffinden eines grBeren Stein-
gebaudes in den Arealen 13-15 war. Diese Abschnitte liegen auf einem
Felsplateau hinter, westlich der beiden Felsreliefs (Abb.l.l8-21)". Hier
wurde schon 1993 ein 2 m breiter Testschnitt angelegt, der aber keine Be-
funde erbrachte. .
Die nun entdeckte Anlage verfgte zwei m dicke aus groBen
gut verlegen Steinen, die im Areal 13 einen 8, 20/9, 20x 7, 00/8, 20
grollen Raum umschlossen (Abb.l8-20). Sein einziger
Eingang von 1,20 m Breite und ber drei Stufen zuganglich befand sich
im Westen. Davor in Hhe der untersten Stufe lag ein sorgfaltig hin-
gelcgter Rinderschadel, der nach der Untersuchung von Angela von den
Driesch der eines Zebus gewesen ist (Abb.22). In der Sdostecke des
Raumes zeichnete sich die Umrisse eines an den FluBfelsen angelehnten
Podest ab. Alles zusammengenommen, die dicken Mauern, der "feudale"
Eingang mit dem Zebu-Schadel davor und das Podest sowie die Lage
direkt hinter den Felsreliefs, zn den vielleicht auch zwei runde Ver-
tiefungen, sog. cup-marks oben auf den Felsen gehrten, lassen den Ver-
dacht zu, daB es sich hierbei um ein auf den GroBknig Muwatalli II. zu
beziehendes Bauwerk gehandelt habe, vielleicht sogar um das ebenfalls
in der bereits Bronzetafel aus erwahnten E
NA4 hekur SAG.US. Leider ergaben die im Gebaude und in seiner Um-
(21) Dcr Beriolu darbcr wird 1997 in einer von W. Schirmen-Karisruhe herausgegcbenen Pub-
likation erscheinen.
(22) Teilnehmcr dieser Kampagne wnrcn neben demBcrichrcrstaucr Horst Ehringhaus, Corneilie
Wolff Michael Harncst. Kurp Stuppundals Vetreterin des trkisehen Antikcndienstes Frau
Oya Arslan.
296
gebung gefundenen Kleinfunde keine genaue fr die Erbauung
und Benutzung dieser Anlage, auch nicht die 1996 erfolgte Untersuchung.
Das hier beobachtete Material ist wohl zum grBten Teil von hheren
Lagen eingeschwemmt worden.
Danksagung: Die Finanzierung bernahmen bis zur Kampagne 1994
das Bayerische Staatsministerium fr Unterricht, Kultus, Wissenschaft
und Kunst und die Ludwig Maximilians-Universitat Mnchen. Diesen
beiden Institutionen gilt in erster Linie unser Dank, besonders aber Herrn
der regen Anteil an
Arbeit genommen und sie in jeder Weise hat. Die Kampagne
1995 wurde in erster Linie von Herrn Prof.Dipl.Ing.H.Ehringhaus, selbst
Mitglied der Grabung, finanziert, Einen kleineren Betrag stellte hierfr
auch die Bayerisehen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Die
Akademie auBerdem wie im Falle der Ausgrabungen von Isin
und Assur im hak die Schinnherrschaft. Ihnen gilt ebenfalls unser herz-
licher Dank.
Zu danken haben wir aber auch den trkisehen Behrden, der Ge-
neraldirektion fr Ausgrabungen und Museen in Ankara, unter ihrem da-
maligen Leiter Prof. Dr. Engin Ozgen, dem Archaologischen Museum in
Adana und hier besonders den Direkteren und Frau Messer
fr ihre Hilfsbereitschaft und fr die reibungslose Zusammen-
arbeit zu danken. Aber nicht minder gilt unser Dank den politischen und
militarischen Behrden in Adana, Ceyhan und in fr ihr Ent-
gegenkommen und fr ihre unbrokratische Untersttzung bei der
Durchfhrung unserer Ausgrabung. Besonders sei in diesem Zusammen-
hang die schnelle Bewilligung unseres Wunsches erwahnt, Luft-
aufnahmen vom Sirkeli Hyk zu machen (Abb.20). Sie ware aber ohne
die Untersttzung von Herrn Erol dem Direktor des Landes-
denkmalamtes in Adana nicht mglich gewesen. Er stellte auch die n-
tigen Verbindungen zum Flughafen und zu den Piloten her. Ihm sei daher
herzlichst gedankt.
Ferner gilt mein herzlicher Dank allen meinen Mitarbeitem, Trken
wie Deutschen, die in jeder Weise dazu beigetragen haben, daB unser Un-
ternehmen verlief. Besonders hervorheben mchte ich aber
Frau Wolff und Herrn Stupp, die schon seit langen. seit
der ersten Kampagne in Isin/Irak, 1973 meine Mitarbeiter
waren.
Ein besonderes Bedrfnis besteht aber fr mich, Herrn
und Frau Prof.Dr.Dr.h.c. Tahsin und Nimet zg, Herrn und Frau
297
Prof.Dr.Sedat Alp, Herm und Frau Dr.Hayat und Erkanal sowie
nicht zuletzt Frau Prof.Dr.Halet ambel, unserer Nachbarin auf dem Ka-
ratepe, von ganzem Herzen fr ihre Freundschaft, wissenschaftliche Be-
ratung und Gastfreundschaft zu danken. Durch sie ist uns die Trkei zur
zweiten Heimat geworden.
Yerzeichnis der hier Abkiirzungen:
298
AAALiv
AnatSt
HaF
IstPorsch

FEOL
JfKF
OLZ
RlA
Annals of archaeology andAnthpology, Universityof Liverpocl
Anarolian Studies
Baghdader Forsehungen
Istanbuler Forschungen
Mineilgungen
Jaarbericht van hel Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Geneetsehap. Ex Oriente Lux
Jahrbuch fr Forschungen
Litcratur-Zeitung
Reallexikon fr Assyriologic und Vorderasiatische Arcaologie.
CE Y.H AN

. .
'TO!'OGIW'HlSCHER PlANDES
\.EHlS11JI-lES FLR PHOJOCRAMMf7RE
DER TECHNISCI-EN .v.ONCHEN
(:RQANZT 07.1U995 KEHlNGHAUS
'LO
SIRKELI HYK
.o .50 .
r-__--i
M
Abb 1: Plan von Sirkeli Hyk
299
w
o
o


V
\ir Mopsueslia
(Misis)
Abb 2: Lage VOl< Sirkeli und Umgebnng
Abb.3: Reliefs Muwatalli II. Aunaltme 1994
DAS 1994eN-rOECKTE, ZV/EITE SIRKRI-FRSREllEF
ENTZERRTE DARSTE1.lUNG
Abb. 4: Neues Rellef NI'. 5= Papierabkla-
tsch NI'. 6= Streiflichtaufnah-me
Auf der Abb.5 sieht man deutllch
die rechte Hand der Figur mit dem
oberen Tell des lituus
301
302
Abb.5: Neues Relief Nr. 5= Papierabklatsch Nr. 6= Streif-
lichtaufnahme Anf der Abb.5 sieht man deutlich die
rechte Hand der Figur mit dem cheren Teil des lituus
Abb.6: Neues Relief Nr. 5;;:: Paplerabklatsch Nr.
6= Streiflichtaufnahme Anf der Abb.S
sieht man deutlich die rechte Hand der
Figur mit dem oberen Teil des l i t u s
---- ---
N
t
'010W.401O
o
S RKElI
1937
seercu f'LAIi
\
,
,

/
.... !/
~ y !
.;/
71
7
.'
i
f
s eos r-
j HITtltE
/ MOlJltP
Abb. 7: Grubutgsplan von I. Garstang 1937
o 2cm
= = = . ~ = = = = " .
tl.bb, 8: Stempelsiegel Si 92/7 Abb.9: Oberteil einer Augenkanne
der syr.-kilik. Keramik 93/
40 H: 11.5 cm
303
SIRKElIJ993
Afll;AL
..
Abb. 10: Areal 4 Steingerechter Plan
304
5lRKELI 1993
AREAl4fl S
$chematischl!r !'>Ian
Bauphasan, _ 1<1
lIi
rlllltl
lIllIlb
2
-,.
i' bb. ll: Areal d Schematlscher Plan mit del" ten-
abfolge
Abb. 12: Weibliehe Bste aus Ter-
rakotta, w e bemalt si
93/51 H: 12.5 cm
r
Abb.13: Henket mit Satyr-Masken
305
,
,
{
i
/
{
i
i
i
J
i
i
i
i
i
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\


Keramik
'\
\
,
,
,
\
\
\
\
i
i
r
i
i
,
i
i
i
,
i
i
/
i
/
/
/
,
306
Abb.15: Rollisiegel Si 9417 aus Hmatlt H: 2.8 cm
Abb. 16: Kistengrab, sdlich yon Sirkeli
Abb.17: Kammergab, sdlich yon Sirkeli
307
13.0
AREAL 13
AREAL 14
tML'( f"\J J

i
: L
c,
o
i
M 1,100
AREAL 15
SIRKELI HYK 1995
AREALE 13. 14, .15
5
i
!Om

Abb. 18: Areal 1315, Steingebiiude mit 1995
308
SIRKELI HYK 1995
AREAL 13
~ ~ ~ ~
M 1:100
s 10
11111111l11 i i i i 1 i f i 1
EHS95
Abb.19: Arenl13-l5. Sleingebiiude mit Luftaufnahme 1995
309
310
Abb, 20: Steingebude mit 1995
,
Abb, 21: Areal 13-15, Steingebude mit Luffaufnahme 1995
Abb. 22: Zebu-Schadel vor dem Eingang des Steingebudes
311
-------
KAZI42

APHRmSIAS 1995
Roland R.
New York University's campaign at Aphrodisias in 1995 (27 June to
30 August) was the fifth season of archaeological work at the site since
the death (in 1990) of the former director Professor Kenan Erim. Projects
were pursued in the fields of regional survey, excavation, site
documentation, geophysical survey, and restoration, site
presentation, and infrastructure development. The major aims of the
expedition's program remain to document and publish the buildings and
sculptures discovered by Prof.Erim and to investigate the urban plan and
street system of the ancient town.
New York University's expedition at Aphrodisias is sponsored by the
Institute of Fine Arts and the Faculty of Arts and Science of New York
University, with generous support from the National Endowment for the
Humanities in Washington, from the Friends of Aphrodisias in Istanbul,
London, and Paris, and from several private donors. The
expedition is most grateful to the Minister of Culture and the Director of
Monuments and Museums in Ankara for their kind permission and
continuing support for this project. The expedition's staff is made up of
specialists from Austria, England, France, Turkey, and the U.S., and of
students from New York University, Pennsylvania University,
Philadelphia, and Ankara University. Warm and collegial assistance was
provided in all matters by the government representative
Ukun (Antalya Museum). .
i. Regional Survey
Continuing region al survey (as requested by the General Directorate
of Monuments and Museums in 1993) focused on a newly identified site,
C') Prof. Dr.Roland R. New York University Institute of Fine Arts 1 East 78th Street,
New York, N.Y.l00Zl, USA.
313
perhaps called Pigindai, located in the region of Illegal
exeavation had uncovered some buildings, inscriptions, and statues, and a
brief survey of the site was carried out at the suggestion of the
Aphrodisias Museum. the inscriptions and statues are now in the
Museum and will be published by (inscriptions) and
M.Tuna (statues). (There is also apparently a fourth statue in the
Museum.) The survey, conducted by e.Ratte and L.Bier, made a
preliminary map of the site and studied some of the buildings. The site is
a steep, walled hill settlement, and the buildings from which the statues
came were outside the walls and seem to have been tombs. Remains
possibly of a theatre were also identified. The site will be further studied
by
2. and Site Recording
The program of exeavation and site recording, begun in 1993 and
designed to investigate the urban plan of the site, was pursued under the
direction of .Ratte. The season's work may be grouped under three
separate headings: excavation, geophysical survey, and site
documentation.
A. Exeavation . Exeavation was conducted in several areas of the
city centre (Fig.l).
North Agora. A new trench was dug in the southwest corner of the
North Agora which successfully located the inner angle of the south and
west stoas, preserved at stylobate level (Fig.2). Some forty fragments of
statuary were found here, re-used as packing in a Iate floor in front of the
stylobate. The discovery of the southwest corner has now supplied the
line of the (missing) west side of the North Agora. And it can now be
seen that the square was planned together with the Bouleuterion which
was situated precisely on the axis of the Agora (Fig.3).
Bouleuterion Complex. Work in the area behind the Bouleuterion,
begun in 1994, was continued with exeavation in the northwest part of the
complex, designed to investigate its earliest levels, and in the southwest
part, where the south end of the western stoa was identified and a system
of drains investigated. This work clarified the complicated phasing and
building history of the area,
Southwest Complex. Further investigation and digging was
in the 1994 trench that located the north-south street running
beside the large Basilica. The western side of the street and the drains
314
---." .
were explored. A detailed seetion drawing was also completed of the
east-west street that is preserved to the east of the Triconch Church.
B. Geophysical survey. New field projects this year included a
geophysical survey, designed to explore the broad flat area in
the part of the city, between the Templeof Aphrodite and the
Stadium, and to try to map the main outlines of this part of the site
without total excavation. Both magnetometer and electronic resistance
surveys were made of the area, and preliminary computer maps
produced. Three trenches .were then dug in different places to test their
results: they demunstrated the essential accuracy of the
survey. A major road and large were easily matched with
geophysical map. it seems clear that the centre city grid was continued in
the unexcavated part of the site, and preliminary study suggests
that the block size of the city grid was on average 35.5. m, which is 120
ancient feet. The work was directed by L.Somers.
C. Site documentation. The program begun in 1993 to clean and draw
detailed plans of the major monuments of the site was continued with
work by a team of architects and archaeologists. State plans were
completed of the Bouleuterion (L.Bier), the East Bouleuterion area
(M.Saltzman), and the North Temenos House (H.Mark). Detailed
archaeological documentation was also in the Stadium
(K. Welch, ALeung), and in the South Agora (N.de Chaisemartin,
A.Lemaire).
3. Site and presentation
A new program was begun to conserve the exposed walls of
ancient monuments on the site with lime mortars. The Triconch Church,
after its detailed and study in 1993-1994, was chosen for
treatment first. A team of workers was trained in the use of
and the conservation of the walls was completed during the
season. The work was directed by T. Proudfoot.
Other site work included the moving of sculptures from
the garden ofthe exeavation house to the front of the mu to enhance
the museum entrance and the square in front of it. A colossal lion, two
colossal consoles from the Hadrianic Baths, and more ninety blocks
of mask and garland frieze from the South Agora were moved and set up
in newand accesssible locations.
315
4. Sculpture documentation
Much of the work of sculpture documentation was concentrated on
the inventory of the material in the museum depots. The recording of
sculpture in Depots i and 2 was completed, and the great quantity of
fragments in Depot 3 and its basement was fully reorganized. In total,
3178 inventoried sculpture fragments were reeorded and put on shelves in
a new depot behind the museum (Stoa Depot). 200 boxes of fragrnents
were alsa eleared from an old study area in the back of the exeavation
house and taken to the Stoa Depot.
Some important 'finds' were made in the process of recording these
fragments: (I) the head of Apollo from a seated statue found in the
Bouleuterion, (2) the toes of the large statue of a Satyr carrying the Child
Dionysos, and (3) fragments of an and a knee belonging to the statue
of the Old Fisherman.
Studyand research for publication were pursued on the following
groups of material: the mythological reliefs from the Agora Gate (P.
Linant de Bellefonds), the mask and garland frieze from the South Agora
(N. de Chaisemartin), the unfinished sculpture from the Sculptors
Workshop (I. van Voorhis), the statuary from the Bouleuterion (C.Hallett),
and the Ninos panels from the Basilica (B. Remaining
fragments from the Sebasteion reliefs were drawn by K. Grkay, as well
as all the upper of the complete Sebasteion panels by V. Druga.
5. Sculpture restorotion
After the eompletion of the Zoilos frieze in 1994, a new conservation
project was undertaken to restore an important marble figure called the
Young Togatus (Inv, 83-64)-- a fine and virtually complete portrait statue
of a aristocrat of the Hadrianic period (Figs. 4-5). The statue had
been restored soon after its discovery at the Agora Gate in 1983, but had
to be dismantled in 1992 the dowels were off-centre. A
new fixing was designed for the statue using a cast bronze bedding, a
stainless steel mast, and steel plate concealed in the pedestal. The statue
was installed in the museum at the end of the season. The work was
directed by T. Proudfoot, with the elose cooperation of the Aphrodisias
museum and its staff.
The over-lifesize portrait statue (H: 2.15 m) represents a youth with
handsome, finely worked, somewhat mannered features, and a
wreath-Iike hairstyle of thick curling locks that frame forehead and
316
temples. The portrait belongs in the period ca. AD 120-140, in the
immediate environs or following of the long-and soft-haired portraits of
Antinous, the emperor Hadrian's favourite. The figure wears plain soft
boots and a toga, and carries a scroll in the left hand which also wears a
prominent ring on the fourth finger. At the back the hair is a smooth
unarticulated surface and the back of the statue is flat and unworked.
These features suggest display in a niche, and the find place, in front of
the Agora Gate, suggests it was originally part of the facede's decoration.
The statue contains some clear signs of the youth's political and
cultural statues. The toga shows that he had the Roman citizenship, and
the scroll alludes to a literary education. The particular kind of soft plain
leather boot without straps (a Roman caIceus) preserved on his right foot
was worn by ranks below those of senator, often by members of the
equestrian order, Gold were a privileged mark of a Roman knight,
and taken together with the non-senatorial footwear, the prominent ring
on the left hand could well be an allusion to equestrian rank. The youth
or one of his family would have achieved equestrian status through
imperial service, that is, in a Roman government post away from home.
The statue combines formal Roman dress with an openly appealing and
helienizing portrait with soft curling hair. The role projected by the statue
might be formulated thus: aristocratic local youth as Roman knight.
One other continuining sculpture restoration project may be
mentioned: the plaster of the statue of the Old Fisherman
(begun in 1994). This year, new moulds were made of the remaining
fragments at Aphrodisias--plinth, leg, arm, knee, and head
These moulds will be used to make a plaster reconstruction that puts
together the Aphrodisias fragments with the torso in Berlin.
6. Infrastructure development
The program of renovation and development of facilities at the site
was continued with extensive restoration work on the exeavation house
(begun IO April), directed by G.Paul, T. Kaefer, and O. Atvur. The main
house and dining area were completely renovated (roofs, ceilings,
windows, interiors). Severalold depots in the exeavation house were
cleared, re-designed, and equipped to create the following facilities: a
new a darkroom, a small-finds conservation room,
and two architects drawing rooms.
A cornplete new depot for sculpture fragments (Stoa Depot) was
behind the museum in the form of an L-shaped stoa and
317
equipped with 90 steel shelf units. A further forty shelf units were
installed in museum Depot 3, and another twenty shelf units were set up
in two depots in the exeavation house. A fonner village house behind the
museum was also restored and equipped with shelves to serve as a
pottery depot. A total of more than 1000 sq.l11.of steel shelving was
installed during the season.
318
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322
1995 YILI VE

Jrgen SEEHER*
1995 20 Ekim tarihleri ya-
Geen gibi, bu da ana nok-
tada Arazinin yeni topografik iin l-
mler; 2. Bykkaya zerindeki 3.

Topografik lmler
Yeni topografik harita iin lmler Dipl.Ing.H.Birk ve
H.Schriever 12 hafta kadar sren bir ile sr-
ve Plato hari, Potemli
Sura kadar lmleri Budakz Deresi'ne kadar
da tmnn lm Bugne kadar
toplam 33 500 nokta olup, l400' eski or-
taya plana oturtulabilmesini
kontrol en sarp kesimlerde, Istanbul Tek-
(*) Dr. Jrgen SEEHER, Arkecloji Enstits, Camii Sokak 48. TR 80090
TANBUL
(1) Dr. Jrgen Seeher ekip arazide: Dr. Baykal-Seeher. Dr.
Rainer..Czichon. Cihangir Ergl, Demet Etkin. Mathias Flcnder M.A.. Bemhard Lck M.A.,
zdemir. Claudin Schmidt'ten Dipl. Biol. Reinder Neef (Bot-
nnik). Ing. Hans P. Birk ve Hcnning Schriever (Jcodezi). Prof. Dr. Heinrich Onen,
Prof. Dr. Erich Neu, Christel Rster (Ankara Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi'nde ve Bo-
ivi tabletlcriu incelenmesi), Dieter ve Nurhan Akkaya (buluntu
Dr. Iris Wundcrlich Gney Kale ve Pluto
Frig incelenmesi). Ozel ve Murat Can (arazide plan izimleri), Grbz
Ozel (anak bahesinin idaresi). Ahmet Derin teknisyeni ve mimari restorasyon), Yu-
suf Badak Adem Arabul. Kadir Baykal ve Osman Demiralan (buluntu re-
storasyonu) dan Aynca Mzesi'nden Arkeolog Halis
lar ve Muzeler Genel temsilen yer
323
nik niversitesi uzmanlannca geen fotogrametrik e-
kimlerin CAD (Bilgisayar destekli grafik) ile entegre edilmesi
srmektedir.
Bykkaya
Bykkaya zerinde geen olan kesimde,
1000 m- lik bir alanda devam (Resim: I).
Hitit Dnemi iinGe ait, Kuzey LO m
kadar gneyinde, iki evreli, haliyle 2 m
ve 4 x 5 m oval, daha sekiz biimli ilgi e-
kiciydi (Resim: 2). ve
herhangi bir birlikte, buraya iki
kanal, bu Kuzey rlp sonra su depolamak
iin etmektedir. Kuzey hemen ar-
ilk bu iin hi uygun gibi gzkmekle birlikte,
bu zaten tm fazla suyunun kanalize yer
ve burada zaten kanal ve gz nne
bu yerin Biiminin
evrelerinin
Bu yuvarlak sur kadar olan ke-
hibir iki adet oval ukur (Resim:3)
ve bir de sura delikli byk bir (Resim:4) ortaya
Her da, ama zellikle de ncs mleki
olmaya ok Ancak bunlarda mleki fmnlannda bolca bu-
lunan paralara hi ukur fmnlar ev-
resinde 40 adet adak ve destek olarak kul-
kk ok bu
iin ipucu iin
yol st olmayan bir kesimde, yani Kuzey ve su de-
posunun hemen bu alanda, adak kaseciklerinin
bir mleki atlyesi fikri akla gelmektedir.
platosunun geen tek deneme
kesimde, bu ynnde uzanan 19 metre
bir hat zerinde 8 plankarede (Resim: 5). Bu
alandaki Hitit Demir ve tahribatma
maruz Plato'nun 1993
paratorluk ait kare biimli hemen geen
elektrik rezistans lmleriyle kesimde,
400 m? lik bir alan Bu alanda hemen
stne duvar temelleri ortaya ancak bu ya-
324
taban seviyeleri daha Bu alanda Demir
ve erozyon daha fazla yorum engellemektedir.
Daha tabakalar daha birden fazla
Hitit (Resim: 6). Eski Hitit D-
nemi'ne ait daha kk boyutluyken, ait
byk boyutlu ait temeller ele Bunlar,
temel ile birlikte ele kuzey sur yak-
30 m kadar mesafede, byk boyutlu teras
Bu hem Plato'da hem de Orta Plato'da yerlerde,
Hitit Imparatorluk son dnemlerine ait byk boyutlu, drtgen
"ukur'Tar
(Resim:?). Benzer ukurlardan iki tane, Bykkaya'da Orta Platonun ba-
1952 da ele 3 ila 10
metre sarp, hatta ola-
bilmektedir ve rneklerden biri 2 m derinliktedir. Kenarlara ke-
simlerde, organik malzeme
. (duvar, ya da duvar/ukur olarak ya
da Bu ukurlardan birinin direk yeri d-
bir delik ki, bu da bir
edebilir,
Bu byk boyutlu konusunda henz kesin bir
sylemek iin erkendir. Tabandaki yzeyi
gibi bir hal Bu durum
olabilecekse de, belgeleyecek ka-
ya da kle bu akla
ukurlar kullammdan sonra bilinli olarak
nedenlerden de kaynaklanabilir: En ola-
bu ukurlarda asit ihtiva eden maddelerin rnleri) de-

Yine bu da Plato'da amalardan LO adet byk 'fe iyi
ivi tablet H.Otten, bun-
daha evvelki Byiikkaya'da tabletler gibi
edebi metinler ve ierikleri malzemesi olarak
de, daha ok ktphane malzemesi olarak grlmeleri
Filolojik metinler M.O. 13
tedir, Bu tarihleme, elde edilen arkeolojik verilere de uy-
Tablet hibiri Hitit in situ olarak bu-
Demir Hitit tah-
ribatla birlikte, Ge ait bu tabletler Demir

325
buluntular bir rahip mhr (Resim: 8),
rdek biimli Hematit (Resim: 9) ve sert siyah bir hey-
kelin ait para (Resim: 10) En benzerleri
Kltepe'de bulunan rdek biimli (4125 gr tm Asur Koloni
tarihlenmekte ve Resim LO daki Hitit
slubuna hi uymayan heykel Mezopotamya kkenli
Bu mevsiminde, Bykkaya surunun kuzey kesiminin
da, zellikle 13 ve 14 kulelerin kalan kesimdeki i du-
varda (Resim: ll).
Bykkaya zerinde, dek en erken Demir
Bu Bykkale II olarak ad-
dnemden daha eski olup, btn ele ge-
gml, temelli kk drtgen ya-
ibarettir (Resim: 12). ve sonradan zerine
alanlarda, boy ve ukurlar
Buluntular, esas olarak tek bir dneme ait gs-
termekle birlikte, evrelerinin gze
Demir daha ge bir dnemine tarihlenebilecek buluntular, yal-
mzca yzey ve yzeye yakm yerlerde olarak ele
Bu mevsiminde ilgin olan, Kalkolitik ait ok
anak tek tk ok ve belirli tabakalarda paket ha-
linde Bu tabakalar, ilerinde bulunan keramik
bulunmlardan zere, daha erken bir Hitit evresinde Kalkolitik
situ
bu buluntular, Bykkaya tip
nem

alanlarda Gney
Kale'nin Kutsal Havuz'un olan ke-
ve her iki Havuzun b-
bir fikir vermek iki uzun kenar, 15-20 metre
kadar, yzey zerinde (Resim: 13). Havuzun
tmn bu gsterebilmek iin, sorulara cevap bulmak ama-
burada birka sondaj gerekmektedir.
hemen kuzeyindeki Kuzey Kompleksi'nin res-
torasyonu, ta-
(Resim: 14). dek birbirine paralel iki
326
------- - -------------
duvar grnm veren, Bykkale kral viadk, iki duvar
toprakla suretiyle gerek uygun rampa
grnmne
Plato'da, 1989ve 1992 olan Hitit suru
ile, Frig temelleri restore Kral 1966
yerine olan gerek
gerekse isteyerek tahribattan du-
ruma Bu bu betondan bir dktk ve
yerine koyduk (Resim: 15). en iyi
olan bu koruma sistemini daha iyi bir hale getirmek
iin, surun ve ona kule birka yk-
ve kuzey kulesine (Resim: 16).
Bykkale zerindeki E- 90 nceki ka-
beri, hava maruz kalan, yerde
ayakta kerpi duvar plastik
folye ile rtlp, zerleri toprak dolgulu rtld.
Poternli surun gelen yol yer
alan byk poterninin moloz ve
duvarnun birka byk ile rekonstrksyonu ta-
Daha gneydeki iki poternin de temizlenerek

M..l3. ait Bykkaya sur sisteminin kuzey res-
torasyonu Bu kesimde arazinin meyilli
tr, Bykkaya Hitit sur iin tipik olan duvar
tm Hattusa'daki en iyi grlebilen haline (Resim: 17).
gneyindeki, seksenli restore ancak
geen iinde yeniden tahribata Bizans kilisesi yeniden
daha nceki
erevesinde kaplama ve otlardan te-
ve zarar
yeniden elden zere, sit ev-
relcyen tel it obanlarca kesilerek, alana hayvan srleri
Bu nedenle nne geebilmek ite byk
apta ilaveler Birinci derece sit evreleyen, su-
runun geen itde i
kalan kaplayan itler, restore kesimler ev-
resinde, bu kesimlerin neminin izereesine Bu yeni
nlernin ne derece ancak zaman gsterecektir.
327
Gerek gerekse de nedenlerden zellikle
ve Byk Mabet'te zarar mimari kon-
servasyonuna ynelik ve da yerinden
yerlerinde konusunda ve uzun
vadeli bir planlama iin, zellikle restorasyonunda uzman, Restoratr
Joehen Seebach bir rapor
km yer alan Deli Ky'nde bahe
zereyken
hiyeroglif Mzesi'ne Tudhalya
IV'n isminin bu iki para halindedir
(Resim: 18).
Son olarak ta harabe iinde nemli noktalara 12
adet Alminyum levhaya istiyorum. Bunlar Trke, Almanca,
olmak zere dildedirler.
328
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329
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330
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333
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334
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336
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Resim: 16
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337
338
Resim:18
1995 YILI

Aygl
Mustafa SUEL
orum ili, Ortaky ilesi ierisinde yer alan Hitit kenti Or-
1995 18 Temmuz-IS Ekim tarihleri

1995 ncelikle, 1990
bu yana devam HA"
HA" Hitit kentinin zerinde yer pla-
tonun ortalannda bulunmakta olup, platonun hakim bir yerinde
grkemli plato zerindeki konumuyla uyum
ierisindedir (Resim: 1). HA" gney ve ynlerinde
temenos ortaya ncelikle
kaynaklardan da gibi, Hitit saray, ve resmi
savunma tesisleri bu ile
ilgili olarak grevlilerin denetiminde koruma
Monumental HA" evresinde bir koruma mev-
(*) Prof. Dr. Aygl SEL, Ankara niversitesi Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi yesi
. ..
Dr. Mustafa SEL, niversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakltesi Grevlisi.Bl.IkSsv.
(1) Prof. Dr. Aygl Sel Arkeolog Dr. Mustafa Sel.
Cengiz Erol, Hititolog Erol zen, grevlileri Dr. Yasemin
kan, Leyla Murat, Trkmenistan Kltr Arkeolog Victor
Arkeolog Canan Baza, Mze Koray Restcratr
Cemal Ali Murat Kara, Salih nal, Zbeyde Reyhan
Biyolog Dr. Emel Oybak ve Arkeometri ve kimya li-
sans ve yksek lisans Mercan Esen Ertem, Ali Akyol, Samsun M-
zesi 'nden Necati Kcdalak yetkili temsilcisi olarak
Kendilerine zverili etmeyi bir bor biliriz. Bu
Kltr ve M-
zeler Genel orum ve Belediye Ankara niversitesi
Ankara Universitesi Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi T.T.K.
Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi'ne ve maddi manevi destek veren
kurum ve ve sunuyoruz.
339
cudiyeti bilinmektedir. arazinin yeterli ne-
deniyle yer yer arazilerin bulunan bu
kendi arazimizdeki iki alanda
Bunlardan gney ynndeki iin "A" 80
m gneyinde ve r, K', L', M', N', 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 plankarelerinde bu-
alan olup, burada (Resim: 2). a-
hemen istikametindeki duvar ka-
bir ortaya ancak, nedeniyle byk bir
1 m'ye gsteren
ift kabuklu kuru duvar olarak her iki yznde
iri orta moloz dolgu
grlmektedir (Resim: 3). Hitit mimarisinde gr-
blokaj yer yer i yznde, yer yer
yznde izlenmektedir. Ancak ilerleyen
bu konuda sonulara varmak mmkn
yzde bolca ele geen seramik ve kk adak bu hemen
bir mevcut zaman ierisinde
tamamen tahrip bize gstermektedir.
ynnde ve Y, Z, 36, 37, 38, 39 plankarelerinde
ise, temenos tarla ile tam
ele (Resim: 4). Bu alanda da fa-
aliyetlerin tahribat gzlenmektedir. Binaya bakan i
kire dzgn taban
burada da devam edecektir.
"A" 'nda bir ise: gney cep-
hesindeki ve bu blgeden
layarak Bu alanda 1994
binadan yer yer 3 m kadar
devam eden dzgn blokajlarla bir ve bu-
radaki molozun st kat ile ka-
3 no'lu e Bu bu bl-
gede 5x5'lik 3 ama ile E' 25, 26 plakarelerinde yer alan bir alanda
devam Arkeolojik buluntular
zamanda bu istikametteki binadan ker-
pilerin istikameti Bina yer alan orak
bu iindeki (Resim: 5).
Bu alanda dzgn plan vermeyen kk bir izleri tespit edil-
Buradaki da devam edecektir.
340
Bu bir ise, "A" 150 m do-
yer alan "B" en yk-
sek 2.25 m ykseklik gsteren Hyk mevkiinde, K', L',
M', N', 38, 39, 40, 41 plankarelerinde yer Buradaki a-
arazinin yksek bir Ust tabakada
dzgn mimari plan vermeyen temel izlenmektedir.
Demir ait bu yksek etek-
lerine faaliyetlerle tamamen yok Oneelikle ge
dneme ait bu mimari tespiti ve Hitit inil-
5x5'lik 9 amada ilk daha sonra ara du-
varlarm 15x15 m bir alanda
devam (Resim: 6). Ge dnemin bu alanda
yer yer Hitit tahrip grlmektedir. Burada
kanlmaya Hitit temellerinde dzgn bloklar kul-
(Resim: 7). 160 m temeller "A" kadar
ve grkemli olmamakla beraber Hitit mimari zel-
liklerini gstermektedir, Bu 225 m? lik bir alan
ve depo bir ii kplerle dolu
bir blm Bu byklkteki bir alanda iki
ile bize ip
(Resim: 8).
Bu iki gzlenen temel et-
duvar hemen stnde, 110 cm 43x 22 cm
kerpilerin duvarlar ykselmektedir. Kerpi yk-
seklikleri ortalama 10 cm'dir, Kerpi stnde yksek hararetli
renge 3.5-4 cm
saman ok dzgn bir yz per-
gzel ve bir iki noktada da kire izlerine rast-
Burada bir zemin en az bir st mevcnt ol-
ve kereste Bu st kat
dknts ile birlikte ken kerestenin sonraki ele
(Resim: 9). Bu mekan gerek kplerin ve ge-
rekse alan dikkatlerimizi ekmektedir. Buradaki
kplerin 90- i 25 cm ller vermektedir.
Sivri dipli olan kplerimiz 3'l, 4'l ve gruplar halinde yer-
olup, bu kerpiten dzgn
ve hemen hemen kpn kadar uzanan yu-
kan 30 cm kadar gsteren bir platform ile
10). dnk sahip bu kplerin meydana ge-
(2) Bu konuda iin Prof. Dr. Peter Cuniholm ve ekibine ederiz.
341
platformlar 30-40 cm de-
iine sivri dipli testilerin g-
(Resim: 11). Bu kanallar iine olan uzun bo
yunlu testiler sivri dipli kpklerin de mevcudiyeti tespit edil-
ve restorasyonuna
Bu monumental kerpi ve iindeki
kplerin restore edilerek 2863
hkmleri seyyar stnde yk-
selen hafif konstrksiyonla bu zeri suretiyle ko-
runmaya (Resim: 12). Bu gney istikametinde yer
alan da bir kapatma
Bu granit ve serpantin gibi sert maddelerden
genlerden bir grup, ele geen gel-
mektedir. iki adet kil toprak zerinde mhr metal bir
ssleme testiler (Resim: 13) ve kk ritual
(Resim: 14), kaseleri dz ve derin tabaklar (Resim: 15). Ay-
SOO' tablet ve tablet
bir geen olarak mektuplar, fal
metinleri, ritualler ve listelerdir.
Bu seneki ele geen buluntular bir
malzeme iin ncelikle ekibimizdeki btn fevkalade dik-
katli ve byle bir malzemeyi bilim ka-
sunmak istiyoruz. Bu mal-
zeme, "B" kp
sivri dipli, uzun boyunlu bir testinin in situ olarak bu-
yerden omuz blgesinde ele
(Resim: 16). Anadolu ve Hitit kltr tarihi iin ok nemli bir bulgu olan
bu malzeme bir tekstil Kl halinde ve
3x3 cm llerinde olan bu malzeme, ncelikle yerde kon-
serve ve gerekli koruma tedbirlerinin ve ma-
hiyetinin cam bir fanus iinde Anadolu Me-
deniyetleri Mzesi 'nde koruma Bu malzeme zerinde
bilimsel -ki bu O.D.T.. Ar-
keometri Blm yelerinden Do. Dr. Demirci
(3) Bu konuda olan Ankara Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi Mdr
Temizsoy'n, ve restoratrlerine sunmakistiyoruz.
(4) Bu konuda Mze Mdr Koray ve Latif Ozen'e te-
birbor biliyoruz
342
bir grup sonra
orum Mzesi'nde ye-
rini
343
344
Resim: 1
Resim: 2
Resim: 3
Resim: 4
345
346
Resim: 6
Resim: 7
Resim: 8
347
348
Resim: 9
Resim:11
Resim:12
349
350
Resim: 13
Resim: 14
Resim: 15
Resim: 16
351
ALACAHYK 1995 YILI
Hate BALTAC/oGLU*
Alaca Hyk ulu nder Atatrk'n ile, Trk
Tarih Kurumu gen Trkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin ilk biri
olarak 1935 Kendilerini ve rahmetle an-
Remzi Hamit Zbeyr ve Mahmut Akok'un
zamanlarda yrttkleri 1983 kadar
devam Bu tarihten 1994 kadar da hibir a-

Hykde 22 1935 - 4 1935 tarihleri y-
rtlen ilk mevsiminde, ve Sfenksli
gneyindeki tarlalarda ve arslan ile ilgili
. Tarlada olarak yer alan bu
eserleri, daha nce G.Perrot, E.Chantre, Th.Macridy, H.H.von der Osten
ve E.Schmidt gibi da
genel bilgiler arslan ve tas-
virlerinin bir sergilenmek zere, bugnk eski mzenin
konu olan arslan ise, yer-
lerinde
ve 1935 Sfenksli
gneyinde, ynnde (A,B,C,,D 6 son-
dajdan en gneyde bulunan "A" taslaklan ile il-
gilidir' ve Sfenksli 96 m O tarihlerde zel
mlkiyette bulunan arsadaki toprak
(.) Dr. Hate BALTACrOGLU, Ahmet Sak. ankaya-06550ANKARA.
(1) RO. 1937: 20-28.
(2) G. Perrot-C. Chipiez Chantre Th. Macridy 1908:25; HB. vonder Osten
Lcv. 7; E.F. 1931:23, res. 41; H. Th. Bossert 1942: 83 no. 1057.
(3) R.O. 1937:16, 20.
353
amalayan "A" sonunda andezitten dar blok-
lar zerine arka ne ol-
sve ve eserlerin bir kul-
zere Hem bu sondajda,
hem de Sfenksli daha kuzeyde 5 sondajda, 1m
ye bir derinlikte zeminin
Bu saptama, hafirler zeminin bir

1974 ise, Sfenksli 34-53 m g-
LXIV-LXVI/68-72 plankarelerinde 3 x 3 m lik 6 sondaj
ukuru Bu kaba bir zemine
ise, bir ait duvar sap-
ileriki devam kay-
dedilmesine daha sonra ile ilgili bu-
rada herhangi bir konusunda bir
bilgiye
Sfenksli eserleri zerindeki
zellikle evrelerinin nemli gr-
arslan 1935 bugne kadar, ara-
dan geen sre iinde bir blmlerinin toprak
ve o tarihten soma bu eserlerle ilgili bir
bizi burada bir temizlik gerekli ol-
hem ve
burada bir konusundaki hem de arslan tas-
veya uzak evresinde yer te-
mizlik burada gerekli
Daha nce bu alanda yer alan ve eski mzenin
gtrlen eserler de dahilolmak zere ele geen
eserleri bir btn olarak gznne Alaca Hyk'n kendi
gereksinimlerini iin bir heykel atlyesi olarak da gr-
Bu nedenle, sz konusu hey-
eserlerinin ilk iin
olup sorusuna da cevap aramak zere, burada ya-
ihtiya Ancak, ana ama
ile bugn evrede yer alan
bir bulunup ve bu bir mi-
mariye olup
(4) R.O. 1937:17.
(5) R.O. 1937:16-17 21, 25.
(6) H. Z. M. Akok 1976:6. plan 1.
354
1994 orum Mzesi'nin maddi
temizlik
Bu nce bir blmnn toprak s-
tnde grlen andezitten bir blok da ka-
zerinde biri byk lde tahrip iki arslan
Taslak halinde du-
rumdaki arslan protomunun stili ve Alaca Hyk hey-
eserlerinden Bu eserin Alaca
Hyk'de zellikle hyk evrenin
byk gereksinim Eser zamanda, bugne
kadar ele geen arslan tasvirleri iinde yeni bir tipi temsil etmesi ba-
kurundan nem kazanmakta ve Alaca Hyk'de bilgilerimizin
yeni elde de gstermektedir.
Bugne kadar Alaca Hyk'de merkezi,
kk sondajlar hep hyk 1935
layarak, yetersiz ve teknik
sonucunda ve bulunan eserlerle
Anadolu arkeolojisine ok nemli Ancak,
gn getike artan elde edilen yeni bilgilerin
hykde yeniden gereksinim duyulmakta ise de, bu
gibi, ncelikle Hitit iin zmlen-
mesi gereken sorunlara ynelerek hyk ok az bir
alanda daha uygun bulunuyoruz.
Evvelce zellikle Assur Ticaret Kolonileri
ve Hitit hykle
belirlenmesine ynelik herhangi bir Hykte
bulunan Assur Ticaret Kolonileri zellikle
Karumu Ib bir var yoksa yer-
hykle mi Eski Hitit ve Hitit yer-
bugne kadar kadar gibi so-
kadar Mesela, 1937-1939
-3. kat gneyindeki Sfenksli
(izim: I). Bu duruma gre,
3. kat 2. kat en Sfenksli
daha bir en grkemli d-
nemi olarak 2. mdr gibi
soru ile de
(7) H. 1996: res.3.
(8) H. 1996: res.5-8.
(9) H. 1995: Lev. la-d. 2d.
355
Hitit suruna ait kabul edilen Sfenksli
ssleyen ierikleri ve sfenksinin hemen nn-
deki Cup-Mark gznne burada trenlerin ol-
Bu dnemde ka-
koruyucu sahip
eserlerinin yer grlmektedir". Ancak, Alaca Hyk, Sfenksli
koruyucu zellikteki sfenkslerden dinsel
ierikli ynnden ay-
bu zellik Hitit Ge Hitit
bir yenilik o zaman Sfenksli bir ola-
ihtimali hem bu ihtimalin ge-
hem de arslan yerlerinde
durup ve bir mimari ile olup sap-
gerek Bunun mze bahesinin
ve zel mlkiyette bulunan tarlalarda yer alan
belirlenmesine ve arslan ile ilgililerinin
ihtiya arslan
rnze bahesinin bloklarla incelenmesinin de ge-
rekli Bu nedenlerle, Kltr
lar ve Mzeler Genel Mzesi
bir iin izin Sz
konusu iznin ok ge verilmesi nedeniyle ancak 12.10.1995 ta-
rihinde
orum Mzesi'nin kendilerine te-
borlu Ankara University'si Dil ve Fa-
kltesi yelerinden Do.Dr.Aliye Oztan, orum Mzesi Mdr
Arkeolog Ediz, Arkeolog Onder Ipek, Arkeolog Hatice Ipek, Ar-
keolog Nurperi Ayengin, ve Mzeler Genel Hi-
titolog Meliha ve benden heyet ile
arslan toprak
ynelik 1995 1994 temizlik
da iine almak suretiyle 15 x LO m lsnde
kuzey-gney ynndeki bir amada Ancak 22.10.1995 ta-
rihinde, zeminde su nedeniyle, 1996 devam
edilmek zere son (Resim: I). Bu
arslan ls 2.90 x 2.07 x 0.89 m dir. Tek para an-
dezitten dar bir olan arslan taslak halindedir.
(10) K. Bittc! 1976: res. 258. 266.
(11) MJ. Melling 1981:18.
356
gvdesi ve sve ukurunun blm, kademeli bir
suretiyle bloktan
yapacak biimde blgesi ve ehrenin
ene gz ukurlan kabaca kulaklar
ve blm kare biiminde
dzeltilerek ile penelerin yer
peneler (Resim: 2). Bu arslan tas-
Alaca Hyk'te arslan tasvirleri ile birlikte de-
sonucunda, onun ikinci ait bir rnek
Bu zerindeki Frig ikinci
kez da bilinmektedir".
ok ka-
1935 iti-
baren tarihlerde, bu alana hyk ge-
1935 toprak da bu alanda
Daha sonra hykte top-
bir arslan da iinde mze bahesine
getirilerek tesviye ile bu husus
bir biimde Ele geirilen anak mlek
hykte btn kltr ait Ge
Kalkolitik veya Eski Tun ait yongalar da bu anak m-
leklerle birlikte -
Sve ukurlan nedeniyle bir ait arslan
yerlerinde duruyorsa, o zaman mzenin bu alana ya-
ne kadar bir kez daha grlecektir. Mzenin
nce ve sonra, hafriyat bir ev-
rilmesini zere, bu alana ok bir am di-
Gerekesi ne olursa olsun, kesin olarak
bu tip bilimsel
ve toprak eserlere telafisi mmkn olmayan zararlar
bu alana tuvalet, havuz, kameriye ve beton yol gibi tu-
ristik edilmesinin Bu alanda
ve sondajlar ile 1974
sondajlarda saptanan belgelerin ve elde edilen bilgilerin, hangi nedenle
olursa olsun, dikkate ise, konunun en zc
(L2) A.H. Suyce 1926: 34; C. Le Jcunc 1984: 240-241 (P. 05) "vasus kanute(... ot, Lev.
CXXIIII-2. CXXIlI/I-2;MJ. Melling 1993: 296.
357
Bu alanda arslan durumunu ay-
ile, ileriki da bir bi-
imde devam edilecektir.
Bugne kadar Mzesi'nin maddi kat-
ve heyet yelerinin ile
Genel Mdrlk. maddi kaynak sa-
dece izin vererek manevi desteklemektedir. Bu da ok
Onmzdeki bu ikilemin ortadan kal-
ve yeni bir dzenlemeye umuyoruz.
KAYNAKA
R.O. 1937 Trk Tarih Alaca Hyiik Hafriyon. 1935 deki a-
ve Ait IlkRapor. Trk Tarih Kurumu V-I. Ankara.
BALTACIOOLU. H.1995 "AI.c. Hyk ift Arslan (UR.MAH) Protomu Bel/elen
L1X/225:285-293.
1996 "Alaca Hyk'de 1994 evre Dzenlemesi ve Temizlik VI.
Miize Kurtarma Kazilan-Didim 1995. Ankara: 91-99.
BITTEL. K. 1976Les Hiuites, Paris.
BOSSERT, H.Tb. 1942 Handwerk in Kleinasien von den Anfiingen Bis
Vlligen Der Kultur, Berlin.
BRIXHE. 1984 COIJms des InscriptionsPaleo-Phrygienncs I-II. Paris.
CHANTRE. E. 1898 Missionen Cappadoce, Paris.
Y, H.z.-AKOK.M. 1976 "Alac. Hyk'te 1974 Tiirk Arkeoloji
Dergisi XXIIIIl:S-II.
MACRIDY. Th. 1908 La Porte des Sphinx tl Euyuk. Fouilles du Muse Imperial Ouoman, Mit-
Icilungen dcr Vorderasintischen Gesellschaft 13. Berlin.
rvIELLINK. MJ. 1981 "Discussion'', R.D.Barnctt. "Bringing the Gad inro the Tcrnple'', Temples
and Places in Biblical Times, Jerusalcm 14-16 March 1977 (cd.A.Biran), Jerusa1cm:

1993 "Phrygian Trnits of Phrygian Writing", lstanbuler Mitteilungen
43:293-298.
OSTEN. H.H.vondcr 1929 Explorations in Central Anatolia Season of 1926 (Researches in Ana-
to1ia 1). TheUniversity of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications V. Chicago.
358
PERROT, G.-CHIPIEZ.C. 1890 History of Art in Sardinia, Indaea, Syria and Asla Minor II, New
York.
SAYCE, A.H. 1926 "The newNeo PhrygianInscriptions'', The ofHellenic Studies 49:2?-
34.
SCHMIDT, E.F. 1931 Anatolia Through the Ages. Discoveries cuthe Mound 1927-29. Ori-
ental Institute ll, Chicago.
359
360
'0
...
... ' __
izim:
):,
i;?,
, r
, .
,
....1
Resim :1
Resim: 2
361
1995
Altan *
Haluk
Van-Ayanis Kalesi 1995 3 Temmuz-l 5
tos 1995 tarihleri Ege Universitesi'nden Prof.
Dr. Yrd. Do. Dr. Zafer
Derin, Gr. Haluk ve Dr. Anna Lucia D'Agata ta-
E.U. Edebiyat Fakltesi lisans ve yk-
sek lisans Avusturalya Melbourne Universitesi'
nden Arkeolog Lorenne Wilks
V No lu Ama / Gney Sur (Resim:l; izim:l)
ii kuzeyindeki C35d-C36b ile ii
D36c plankarelerinde yer alan i ve II nolu me-
kanlarda ii kuzeyinde, 5xl2 m bo-
bir sondaj ile geen sene ii kuzeyinde bul-
kerpi yzn Arazinin
iin daha ok ynnde ger-
C35 -C36b plankarelerinde -20.45/-20.80 m seviyesinde
ok sert ve kerpi dkntleri ile dolu
-20.85 in seviyesinde C35d plankaresinin ve
bu alanda ok miktarda amorf ve keramikler bulundu.
C35d plankaresinin gneydeki ii du-
bir duvar ortaya
C35d plankaresindeki da bu duvara
gzlendi.
(*) Prof Dr. Altan tLlNG1ROGLU, Ege niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve
Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim
Haluk SAGLAMTEMlR. Ege niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve nasya Ar-
keolojisi Anabilim
363
C35d ve C36b plankarelerinde kerpi
C36a ve C36c plankarelerinde devam edilmesini
Bu alandaki C36c plankaresinin -21.35 m seviyesinde blo-
kaj tabana C36a plankaresinde -17.85 m'de toprak ok sert ol-
kerpi derz izleri grlmez. C36c plankaresinde blokaj
zerinde ynnde ve st
in situ olmayan bir pithos bulundu. Bu alanda buluntu olarak
amorf demir ok amorf bronz paralar ve
ortaya
Gney surdaki ikinci blmnde C36b ve D36c
plankarelerinde 1994 ortaya i ve II no lu mekanlarda
devam edildi. D36c plankaresindeki geen
-23.07 m' den itibaren devam edildi. II no lu
plk olarak gsterdi. ; gney
Im, kuzey 0.51 m 0.72 m
ii bir ortaya
iinde yo-
Bu alanda curuf ok
miktarda ve keramikler ele geti. Ele geen arnorf ke-
ramiklerin bir boyun daha nceki da grlen
hamur ay mleki ve nok-
tadan l
Geen II no lu kuzey olarak bulunan
kerpi stun 0.60 m sonra sona erdi. Dknt keramikler kerpi
stunun da 0.80-0.90 m bir tabaka halinde devam et-
mektedir. Kerpi stunun tam -23.25 m taban seviyesi zerinde,
kuzey olarak tam kk bir kpn
st elde bir ocak bulundu. Kpn bir
iine adet plaka ve konularak ta-
kuzey zerinde yan-
madan is II no lu mekanda -23.25 m seviyesinde
sert blokaj tabana zerinde daha ok mlek tr ke-
bulundu. II no lu ve kuzey en al-
temeller ve nnde 0.30 m
O. LO m mekana bir basamak veya seki var-

C36b plankaresindeki i no lu mekana geilerek geen sene
-23.15 m seviyesinden itibaren devam edildi. -23.50 m se-
viyesinde irili tabana
364
- --------- ------- ----------
VI. No lu Alan / Payeli Salon (Resim:2; izim:2)
1995 VI no lu alanda C26b, c, d ve D26c plan-
karelerinde Bu kalenin O
4.20 m'ye kadar iniidi. 4 no lu paye ve gney ta-
rafta kesiti olarak alanda bu payeye 2.19 m
yer alan 5 no lu paye ortaya Ortaya 4 no lu payeye
ait bazalt 5
no lu payenin ise gney kesitte iin bu paye ile ilgili a-
nmzdeki olarak 1993
ortaya .ye gney bir rizaliti fazla olan 2 no lu
payeye benzemektedir. Ustteki veya devrilme
bazalt kuzeye 4-5 cm 5 no lu paye
bu yndeki son paye ynne 5.0 veya
6.0 m sonra kuzey gney ynnde uzanan bir duvar zerinden
grlmektedir. 5 no lu payenin ise ierisinde
olup gelecek zere 4 no lu ve 5 No.lu paye
st kattan ve byk oranda harap
adet sadak, bir adet bronz kalkan, bir adet bronz ucu,
adet demir ok ucu ve 63 adet demir nuzrak ucu ele geti (Resim: 3). Bu
buluntular -3.50 m seviyelerinden -4.15 m'deki taban
zerine kadar olan seviyelerde olarak bulundu. kerpiler
ortaya bu buluntu grubunun ikinci kata ait
Bu alanda kire 0.46 m, yk-
0.20 m, alt delik 0.06 m olan huni biimli bir ortaya
(izim: 3). 6-7 cm'lik blm olan
bu kaba olarak
zaman bir toprak ierisinde -4.50 m seviyelerinde gney ve
kuzey bloklardan yuva zerine grld.
Bu kalenin devam etmektedir. Taban ze-
rindeki bu da 1994 a-
bilmekteyiz. Bu alanda kanal
bir Kesin olarak bu li-
basyonla ilgili
Daha nceki ortaya ve Kuzey
olarak kerpi da 6.0 m'lik blm te-
mizlenerek bu tabandan
3.50-4.00 m'ye kadar olan kerpi grld.
Daha nceki ve duvar zelinde yer alan mavi duvar
bu da bulundu. Ancak daha nceki 2.70 m
kadar olan boya izleri bu tabandan itibaren 1.20 m yk-
365
seklikte ortaya Bu duvann nnde C26c plankaresinde bronz
ile birlikte ortaya halka mozaik ilgintir. Bu
liyle ilk kez ortaya bu buluntunun bronz duvara
veya gsteren adet ivi (Resim: 4).
objelerin de bu duvann nnden ele d-
bu objelerle d-

Ele geen buluntulann geen gibi kuzey
ile 4.nolu paye alanda ortaya Bu alandaki a-
dolgu ierisinden ok kk bu-
luntu ele geti. buluntular az keramik, bronz
zerine kaplama aslan (Resim: 5; izim: 4) , 5 adet rozet,
varak ok kap paralan.
halkalar, bir adet bulla, ii
siyah gz, boncuklar, kartal demir iviler,
amorf bronz ve demir sayabiliriz.
VII No lu Alan / i No lu Magazin (Resim :6; izim: 5)
VII no lu alanda yer alan i no lu magazinde ncelikle geen ka-
magazinin en gneydeki ve bylece
uzanan knkn gneydeki ortaya (izim:5). i No
lu magazininin gneyindeki mimari ortaya
J15d ve J16b plankarelerinde, magazinin ku-
zeydeki gney-kuzey uzanan ve
takip eden yeni alanlar J16b ve J15d
4.00x3.50 m'Iik alanda, -10.84 m seviyesinden -12.30 seviyesine
kadar Bu seviyede, plankarelerde bir kerpi duvar ortaya
uzanan ve bu bu
ancak gneye bakan yz ortaya ve bundan sonraki
bu gneyinde devam etti. IV no lu magazini de i no
lu magazin gibi gneyde, yatayolarak kesen bu
bu magazin iindeki 2.50 m, 4.75 m, ise
3.30 m'dir. IV no lu magazin ile i no lu magazini yatay olarak
. rultuda kesen kerpi kuzeye bakan yznde, yine
her iki magazin kuzey-gney kesen ve magazinleri
birbirine bir koridor ortaya Ancak bu koridorun i no
lu .magazinin iine giren ve ilerleyen a-

kerpi gneyinde Jl6b ve Jl5d
plankarelerinde srdrlen magazinin kuzey-gney
366
rultusunda uzanan ortaya Bu plankarelerdeki a-
magazinin ne kadar tespit edebilmek
3.00x3.50 m'lik, Kl6a plankaresindeki yeni bir alan daha ek-
lendi ve -12.77 m seviyesinden Tm bu a-
magazinin kerpi duvanyla bek-
lenen Ancak bu alanda sadece
kesitte, kuzey-gney 3.60 m devam eden ve
kerpi m dikdrtgen kerpi bloklar
ortaya Bu sebeple Jl6b ve Kl6a plankarelerinin
7.15x3.15 m'lik, Jl6d plankaresinde yer alan yeni bir daha
Bu gneyinde -13.21 m seviyesinde, kuzey-gney
uzanan, fakat magazinin kuzeydeki
takip etmeyip, daha devam eden kerpi bir
bir blm ortaya
sonuna kadar uzanan'
kerpi gneyi olarak bu alan daha sonra, i no lu
magazinin gneyindeki oda olarak Bu
-14.30 m seviyesinde, 2.50x2.50 m bir kap-
layan sonucu bir renk kerpi dknt ve blok-
ve bir alan -14.27
m seviyesinde -14.67 m'ye kadar ele geen
ok miktarda rnekleri ele geirildi. ala-
sonucunda,
rultusunda uzanan kerpi kuzey-gney
rultusunda uzanan iki Bunlardan
kerpi ve magazinin yas-
lanarak gneye bir gney ucundaki kerpi bloklar da dahil
olmak zere 4 m' dir. ise 0.52 m olan bu ku-
zeydeki st seviyesi -14.33 m, gneydeki st seviyesi ise -15.52 m'dir.
yer alan ile 74 cm'lik bir ara
85 cm ve kuzeyden gneye 3.95 m devam eden bu
kuzeydeki st seviyesi -14.45 m, gneydeki st seviyesi ise -15.51 m'dir,
Bu iki kuzeyde kerpi
0.65 m'lik temeli ortaya Bu temelin 55 cm
zerinde duvarda, her iki gelen kesimde, zeri
oval ve alt 0.70 m, ortadaki en ise 1.20 m
olan bir dknt kerpilerle grlmektedir.
Bu duvara olan gneydeki
0.46 m'dir. bu zellikle i
magazinin tm boyunca ve zamanda iki
izlerine
367
Bu alandaki nemli buluntu gneyinde, duvara 94 cm,
gney kesite ise 82 cm ve -15.07 m seviyesinde ele geirilen,
ters bronz bir Bu kazan biraz tahrip ol-
lleri 1.10xO.85 m llerindedir.
kapsayan 9 adet pithosun da sap-
Bu ilk tanesi
ve kerpi hemen gneyinde yan En
kesitteki kerpi
VJINo lu / IV Nol u Megazin
Magazinin gneydeki ortaya J15 a
plankarede kuzey-gney 7.0x3.50 m'lik alanda
ve -10.53 metreye kadar -10.00 m seviyesinden iti-
baren izleri grld. bulunan ha-
zemine kadar devam
Kuzey boyunca istikametinde -12.15 m seviyesinde
ve 0.5 m eninde bir seki ya da platform yer k-
- 11.60 m seviyesinde bir st platform Kuzey du-
seki/platform, kesintisiz olarak da devam et-
mektedir. gney i no lu magazinle irtibat
bir koridor Koridorun 1.25 m,
2.50 m dir. sekinin bitim yerinden du-
uzanan 2.40 m ve 0.35 m bir alt
seki de mevcuttur.
Kuzey temeller belirgin olarak
Kademe iinde zellikle duvar izleri g-
Gney -12.33 m seviyesinde, ise-
12.04 m seviyesinde 2.0 m be-
lirlendi. 3. kademede yer alan ve incelemek ama-
yerinde ve -11.02 m
seviyesinde bir pitos daha Gney
yer alan gney ynnde bir sonraki kademeye bir
koridor belirlendi. koridor boyunca
devam etmektedir. Koridorda -13. II m seviyesine kadar
Gney gney istikametinde 2.50 m be-
Bu gneyinde yer alan ve koridorla 4. kademeye
blm "5. kademe" olarak Alt platformnn kn-
zeyinde kalan dar blmde -13.60 m, gneyinde kalan ve magazinler ara-
koridorun yer alan alanda ise -13.47 m seviyesine
kadar
368
VIII NoluAlan (Resim: 7; izim: 6)
Kalenin yer alan magazin VIII no
lu alanda bu ZZ30 b-d plankarelerinin gney A30 a-c
plankarelerinde devam edildi. seviyelerden itibaren yer
yer dknt kerpiler; Urartuve Orta ait muhtemel ke-
ramik Ust seviyeden itibaren alan iinde ok sa-
bazalt 1.0 x 0.50 x 0.25 m veya
0.60 x 0.55 x 0.35 m gibi ok boyutlarda olan
bulunan bir binaya ait
Bu A30 a-c plankarelerinde pitoslu ma-
gazinin olan alan iinde, -7.00 m seviyesinde i No.lu, -7.78 m se-
viyesinde II no lu Pitoslu Magazin'in -7.80 m
seviyesinde III no lu ve -7.40 m seviyesinde ise IV no lu iskelet olmak
zere, Orta ait toplam drt adet iskelet ortaya Tm
iskeletler, ynnde uzanan, basit toprak grn III
No.lu iskelet bir kandil, II no lu islekette ise in situ halde bir
demir ivi ele
Pitoslu Magazin'in A30a-c plankareleri iinde, hi bir yap-
madan devam ortaya aksine
tamamen ortaya Her iki duvann da zellikle taban
izine Olduka bir or-
taya -8.80 m seviyeleri ara-
kmesine Bunun ise 5 adet
pitos ortaya -9,60 m seviyesine kadar alanda yer
alan pitoslar daha nce gibi iki halindedir. 14ve 15 no'lu
byk bazalt Tm pi-
kabartma bezerne bu-
bezeme, gvde ortaya pitos gv-
delerinde de 12 no lu pitosun zerinde, hamur
parmakla dikey dalgadan bir
369
370
"
\
, h
~ ~ ~
ii]',
.. i
izim 2: VI no lu alan/Payeli Salon
izim 3: VI no lu alanIPayeli Salon t a Iibasyon k a b
371
o
izim 4: VI no lualanIPayeli Salon bronz zerine a l t n kaplama arslan b a
372
izim 5- VII
. no lualan/I .
no lu mag .

. izim 6- VIII
. no lu alan


373
374
Resim 1: VI no lu ama I, Gney Sur
Resim 2: VI no Lu alan IPayeli Salon
Resim 3: VI no lu alan/Payeli Salon
o 3cm
Resim 4: VI no lu alan IPayeli Salon bronz y u v a l t a halkalar
375
370
Resim 5: VI no lu atan/Payell Salon bronz zerine a l t n
kaplama arslan b a
Resim 6: VII no lu alan II no lu
magazin y a p s
377
1995 YILI VE YUKARI ANZAF
URARTU KAZISI
Oktay
Kltr ve Mzeler Genel izniyle
yrtlen ve Anzaf Urartu Ka-
leleri 10 ve 11 Eyll 1?95 tarihinde sona er-
1995 bilim kurulumuz Ankara Universitesi Veteriner
Fakltesi Anatomi yelerinden Prof. Dr. Merih
Erzurum Atatrk niversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakltesi Tarihi
Anabilim yelerinden Yrd. Do. Dr. Alparslan Ceylan,
Trakya niversitesi Fakltesi yelerinden Yksek
Mimar (M.A.)mit Sirel, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Tarihi Blm ye-
lerinden Sema niversitesi Edebiyat Fa-
kltesi Tarihi Anabilim Gr. Bahar
anabilim yksek lisans Oznur Kayhan, Olcay Zengin,
Emre Erten ve Madrid Universitesi Arkeoloji Blm'nden (M.A.) Pedro
Fructuoso Martinez'den (M.A.) An-
kara Hacettepe, Van Yznc Ege ve Trakya niversitelerinden top-
lam 18 lisans grevini ise,
* Prof. Dr. Oktay BELLt. niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, Tarihi Anabilim
i Van Blgesi Tarih ve Arkeoloji Merkezi Mdr 34459 -
ISTANBUL
(1) 1995 ve Anzaf Urartu Kaleleri lisans olarak Istanbul
niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Burhan Esen, Tijen
Zeynep Grhan, Ayla Yksel, Gngr, Yasemin Berna Gler,
Trakya niversitesi Fen-Edebiyat ..Fakltesi Arkeoloji ve Sanat Tarihi Blm
rencilerinden elebi, zgr Ozkarasu, Serkan Ege niversitesi Ede-
biyat Fakltesi Arkeoloji ve Sanat Tarihi Blm Cilve Ankara
Dil ve Fakltesi Sanat Tarihi Blm Lokman zbek, Van
Yznc Fakltesi Arkecloji ve Sanat Tarihi Blm
Orhan Turgut Bilgin, Ankara Hacettepe Universitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Arkeoloji ve
Sanat Tarihi Blm Davut Ekici. Mehtap ve Deniz ka-
Byk bir sorumluluk bilinciyle etmeyi vazgeilmez
bir gnl borcu olarak grmekteyim.
379
Van Mzesi Arkeolog Hanifi Biber ok
bir sorunlara rnek bir bilimsel
ve byk bir zveriyle itenlikle
etmeyi vazgeilmez bir gnl borcu olarak grmekteyim
Anzaf Kalesi'nden ve ve
Mzeler Genel niversitesi
Fonu ve Van il Ozel Idare maddi kat-
bu jnaddi
ve Muzeler Ge!1e1. LU. Fonu Yrtme
ve Van Ozel Idare etmeyi zevk-
li bir grev
YUKARI ANZAF KALESi
Urartu (Van Kalesi) II km yer
alan Anzaf Kalesi, bugnk modern kara ve de-
miryolunun hemen gneyinde (Harita: 1). Kral Menua
(M.O. 810-786) evresindeki ve verimli topraklarda ya-
elde edilen rnleri depolamak iin kurulan Anzaf
Kalesi, gneyinde bulunan Kent ile birlikte 200.000 m' den fazla
bir alana (izim: 1). Bugnk Derest (Anzaf) Ky
iinde kalan ve kale ile birlikte planlanarak Kent,
erken dnem Urartu merkezlerinin en gzel rneklerinden bi-
rini
kuzeyde de Transkafkasya'dan Urartu
kenti gelen nemli ticaret son yer
alan Anzaf Kalesi bir ekonomik retim merkezinin
Anadolu Blgesi'nde Van
Blgesi'nin durumunda olan Anzaf Kalesi evresindeki ve-
rimli topraklarda elde edilen rnler, kalenin de-
biriktirilmekteydi. Kalenin 900 m kuzeyinde ise, Kral
(M.O. 830-810) askeri amala kurulan Anzaf Kalesi bu-
1995 Anzaf Kalesi'ndeki
mimari ile Kent daha ok yo-

(2) Grevini byk bir titizlikle aksatmadan yapan ve bilim kuruluyla
Hanili Biber'e, Anzaf Kaleleri
(3) Proje No: 717/260495.
380
ALANLARI
KENT DOGUKAP/SI
Kalenin hemen gneyinde ve bugnk Anzaf Ky iinde
bulunan Kent, olarak 141.000 m? lik bir alana ya-
Kent'in gl bir sur ile ev-
relenmekte ve kuzeyinde ykselen Anzaf Kalesi'nin gney
(izim: 1). Kenti evreleyen ve b-
Himleri ortalama 2 m olduka iri
Kentin gney ise, bu kesimde ykselen ve tepclerin ete-
1 m Gney
ve gibi nedeni, arazinin el-
olmayan engebeli savunma ynnden yarar
yznden Iri kalker bloklardan byk bir zenle du-
kyller konutlarda zere
bir sklilmesine temel bozulmadan gnmze
Bu kadar bir alana kentin
birden ok Bu birinin ba-
kuzeyde, tekinin de yer
1995 tm
ortaya
Ortaya Anadolu Blgesi'ndeki kent
biimi, ve konusunda olduka nemli
bilgiler kentin sur kalenin gney ete-
surlara yere (izim: 1). Bugnk
ky ilkokulunun 40 m kadar yer alan kent olduka
bir plan vermektedir. Karrnir-Blur'daki kentin
kuzey gibi, iki duvar bir Ta-
ile olmayan 4.30 m (Resim: 1).
ift ieriye iri kalker
bloklardan zenli bir rlen 1.70 m ka-
Ky skmesi yznden duvar
ne kadar bilemiyoruz. anda 60 cm du-
bir dizisi Askeri ynden sa-
glendirmek her iki
gereken kulelerin yer grlmektedir,
(4) B. B. Piotrovski, Kingdom o/Van and Art 1967, 92. res. 63.
381
kent kalenin eteklerinde ok
bir alana ve baraja gitmek iin kul-
tarlalardan ve barajdan kente gelen
eski yol, tepelerin kuzeyeteklerinden geen ve fazla dik olmayan bir
nlerine kadar gelmektedir (Resim: 2). Ortalama
olarak 4.5-6 m yol, ki g-
nmzde bile Anzaf kylleri tarlalara ve baraja gitmek iin
hala bn eski yolu Kral Menua d-
neminde kale ve Kent ile planlanarak Bu yzden
anda Urartu Anadolu, Transkafkasya ve
Blgeleri'nde yer alan merkezlerindeki kent en
erken iin ok byk bir nem
KUZEY KAPISI, GNEYBATI YAPILARI
Anzaf Kalesi'nin amtsal zerinde
yer Cepheden zaman grnmeyen ve bu yzden
gizli bir nitelik Gney ve Kuzey olmak
zere ikiye Gney ve saraya, Kuzey Ka-
ise atlye, depo ve mekanlara Tek ve ok gl
bir kuleyle korunan her iki da, Urartu hisar en eski r-
(izim: 2-3). Urartu hisar tarihsel
bu tarihi
ok byk bir nem Kuzey avlusu, Byk Kule
ve Kuzey gibi ok bykbir Byk
Kule'nin 1.40 m ek bir duvar ya-
Byk Kule Kuzey ve ka-
nne ek duvarlarla da, 3.80 m
1.60 rn'ye (izim: 4-5). Kuzey avlusu da,
yer alan amtsal kuzey ynde kalenin ilerine
devam eden uzun bir teras ile (izim: 5).
Ortalama 1.5-2 m teras ynne
tmyle birden ok ya-
iri rlen gl ve 2 m n-
Nitekim son kuzey
itibaren, teras temellerine vanncaya tahrip
grlmektedir. bu denli bir tahrip 01-
kalenin zirvesiyle teras 25-30 m'lik bir yk-
(5) O. Belli, ve Anzaf Urartu Kaleleri 1993", ve Mzeler Genel
16. I, 1994,292-293.
382
seklik ve kalenin st yer alan byk ya-
ynne bir byk
etkisi Hatta ynne akan
teras yerlerinde g-
iri rlen yksek bile n-
hemen
yer alan ve ynne uzanan teras 6.5 m
bir blm, ynne akan
tmliyle tahrip (Resim: 3).
Kalenin iindeki depo ve atlyelere devam eden teras
M.. 9. planlanarak Byk Kule,
Kuzey ve iri kyklopik olarak
edilen kaba ve ok az kk
ile teras
kalan ortalama 2.5-3 m hangi
belli Hangi nedenlerden Kuzey ile i
avlusunda bu nemli mimari kesin
olarak bilemiyoruz. bu nemli mimari M.. 7.
ait devam ettirilecek
ortaya yeni mimari ile ve
kk kalede bu nemli mimari de-
nedenlerine bir zm
Kuzey i avlusunda gibi, teras g-
ve hatta kare
bodrum iinde, bu sene de ok ve zellikle k-
hayvan iskeletleri ortaya (Resim: 4). Daha nceki
ok hayvan is-
keleti Kuzey i avlusunda ortaya Birden ok
olan Byk ynne tonlarca
ve kalarak ezilen hayvan iskeletleri, kare
bodrum Daha nceki
da gibi, kaleye
Kent'te halk ve ile birlikte geici olarak
kaleye kaleye
kalenin birok rken ve byk
bir panik iinde iin ynelen hayvanlar,
yznden Kuzey avlusunda ve dumandan
birbirinin zerine
bir yanan ve daha sonra birden ok Byk
Kule'nin ynne tonlarca ve ker-
383
pi kalan iskeletler, (Resim: 5-6).
Buna ok zenli bir sonucunda,
hayvan kemikleri tek tek toplanarak
Ortaya hayvan kemikleri zerinde, bilim kurulu
yesi Ankara Universitesi Veteriner Fakltesi Anatomi Anabilim
retim yelerinden Prof. Dr. Merih Ha-
bilgiye gre, ortaya hayvan is-
keletlerinin 264 tanesi hayvanlara, 23 tanesi de hay-
vanlara aittir. i adet kpek, 1 adet de ait iskelet ka-
hemen hepsinin
ise koyun ve keiden gz-
Bugne kadar herhangi bir at iskeletinin ise
ilgintir. Dr. M. son beri ortaya hay-
van iskeletleri zerindeki devam etmektedir. Son
beri ortaya hayvan iskelet top-
lam olarak 77'ye, hayvan iskelet da 446'ya
Hayvan iskeletleri zerinde sonucunda,
M.O. ilk Van Blgesi'ndeki hayvan ilk
kez ortaya bilim
Kuzey avlusunun hemen bir duvar
ile ikiye iki bodrum ait odalar bu-
Her iki da kalenin sur
olarak (izim: 3). Olduka iri kyklopik ola-
rak edilen bu duvar 3-3.5 m de-
Bu nemli kalenin ile
birlikte Kral Menua M.O. 9. plan-
lanarak ilk yk-
selen birden ok Byk Kule ve ynne
yznden bir tahrip Bu ya-
bodnun her iki ii de, ok bir
ve toprak
Bu iki bodrum 9.80 x 11.00 m b-
kareye bir plan gstermektedir, Kalenin tam
yer alan bu ve kalenin
sal sur Kalenin iinde ykselen birden ok
ynne ve n ok dik
yznden gibi, kalenin iri kalker
bloklardan byk bir zenle rlen gl sur da tahrip ol-
maktan Kareye bir plan gsteren zemin ta-
da, kalenin sur bir
384
ynne yznden tahrip Bu yzden
olarak sur
belli (izim: 3). Tahrip olan ve taban
iri taban olarak g-
rlmektedir. Bu en az tahrip olan 5-6
dizisinden yerlerde 2-2.40 m'ye kadar
Zemin bu zellikle du-
olan blmlerinde, Kuzey avlusu ile teras du-
zerinde dumandan len ve daha sonra Byk
Kule'nin ynne ve kerpi s-
rklenmesiyle gelen hayvan iskeletleri ve k-
hayvanlara ait ok bir ve toprak al-
iin paralanarak grlilmektedir.
hayvanlara ait iskeletlerin ve gvde
olarak hayvan iskeletlerinin Bu yzden
herhangi bir veya hayvana ait iskelet tm
olarak ortaya
Bu kire ile badana
kerpiler zerindeki beyaz badana izleri
fazla etkilenmeyen
kilden grlilmektedir. Hatta st
bile bir kire ile etkilenmeyen bu ke-
simde, tavandan ve saz izi
belirgin olarak grlmektedir. Bu ve gney duvanna
olarak iki ocak (Resim: 7).
olarak daire biimli stne duvar
zgn biimi olarak 1.20 m
fazla byk olmayan ya-
evresi, gney olarak ya-
evresi gibi, 40-50 cm bir kl
Her iki ocaktan oda ta-
bana grlmektedir,
gney olarak daire biimli ocak,
duvan nne ocaktan daha byktr. i
m, ise 2.10 m'dir (Resim: 8).
kuzey ynne zerinde 3 delik g-
rlilmekteyse de, deliklerinin 3'ten fazla an-
Bu da st ve olarak gney
tahrip Fazla byk ol-
mayan ocak fark-
385
gstermekle birlikte, 50-60 cm zellikle
duvara olan gney kalkerden duvar
zarar vermemesi iin daha Ocak i
ise Bu evresinde de 35-40 cm
bir kl Kl iinde k-
hayvan kemikleri ile keramik da olarak
Ocaktan kl n evresine
serilerek ayakla keramik
hemen hepsinin, kaba olarak mutfak
Kemiklerin tm, ocakta yenilen k-
hayvanlara aittir. Bu kemiklerin Kuzey avlusunda du-
mandan ve daha sonra yksek ak-
gelen hayvan kemiklerinden en nemli taban
zerine kl iinde mutfak birlikte bu-
olarak 2500 bed siyah kln rengi,
nemin de etkisiyle hayvan kemiklerinin iine ve kemiklerin
siyah bir renge neden Hangi nedenlerden
ocaktan kllerin ve yenilen hayvanlara ait ke-
miklerin oda byk bir zenle
kilden ve gibi beyaz bir kire ile badalanan
taban zerine bilemiyoruz. Hi
bodrum yukardaki odaya bir merdiven ile geilmesi, ocaktan
Ancak bu
kk zahmet yznden ocak ok uzun bir sre
bu sefer de bodrum kul-
lamlamayacak durumda tavana kadar kl ile Oyle an-
ki ok nemli bir nedenden ve acil bir sre iin
ocak Bu nemli nedenin ise tm
Anadolu Blgesi'ndeki Urartu kalelerini yerle bir eden ol-
kaleye ve uzun sre
devam savunma savunma ynnden ok gl
iin kalenin
ile da, Kent geici olarak ara-
yer Bu ylizden uzun sre devam samlan sa-
vunma askerlerin ve kaleye Kent yi-
yecek gereksinmesinin bir buradaki ocaklarda ve ocak
iin de, tabana se-
rilmeye
Bu ve iki hemen
gney yznde, at ait bronz bir umbo ile demirden ya-
bir ile 3 adet demir ok ucu
386
ve biimindeki ok nemden etkilendikleri
iin, derecede bn odada
bir kk buluntuya Kk az ol-
oda ynne
da byk etkisi olabilir. Bu kuzeyindeki dikdrtgen odadan.
3.5 m bir ara duvar kalker bloklardan zen-
li bir ara da, her iki oda
gibi ynne (Resim: 9). Ara tabandan yk-
ise i m zellikle kuzey
duvar ile kerpi sal loyfer ta-
in-situ olarak zerinde bundan sonra
kerpi gstermektedir. Bu duruma gre iki oda ara-
herhangi bir geidin
9.80 x 20.00 m dikdrtgen bir plan gsteren oda ta-
gneyindeki kare gibi kalenin
sur ynne yznden tahrip ol-
(Resim: 10). Oda en yine du-
5 dizisinin 2 m
grlrnektedir, Ilk oda 2.70 m - 2.80
m Bu da,
gibi kilden Ancak oda
gneyindeki kare oda ortalama 50 cm daha yksektir.
Gneyindeki oda gibi, bodrum bu odaya da stteki
odadan bir merdiven ile ki bu
ve en kk bir izi grlmemektedir. Ay-
bu aksine en kk bir buluntuya da
Bu yzden bodrum bu hangi
amala kesin olarak bilemiyoruz.
TAPINAK AVLUSU, KUZEYBATI YAPILARI
Anzaf Kalesi'ndeki Haldi (Sar-
Kale, ve (Irpuni)
gibi bir cella'dan ibaret yer alan avlu ve av-
luya odalarla bir (izim: 8). Ta-
yer alan avlu ve odalara, ana kayadan byk bir zenle
oyularak 9.5 m koridordan girilmektedir. Kaya ko-
ridorundan ilk koridorun
her iki yani kuzey ve gney birer
Kaya koridorunun gney yzne bi-
olan 2 m 1.70 m
2 m Ana dzeltilmesiyle duvar ya-
387
zerine duvar 1.20 m du-
zerinde bulunan kerpi duvar mevcut 50
cm kadarsa da, bunun orijinal 1.60 m'den fazla an-
duvar ile kerpi ince
sal bir loyfer ta-
avlusundan sur ve ana
kaya iine byk bir zenle oyulan kanal, bu ge-
irilerek, gney sur
ana st de, byk bir zenle ortalama 10-14 cm ge-
ve 18-25 cm dikdrtgen

hemen yer alan
ile birlikte bir yanarak Yan-
kalker bile
gre, 3-4 cm an-
LO m bunun tek ka-
bir ve ieriye gstermektedir. Ka-
bronz levhalarla kabara ivilerle
perinlenen bronz levha Bu kk ve nemli
zellikle kuzey blmne, Haldi adanan bronz ve de-
mirden ve
Ancak ve direklerin kaleye
yznden bir
kilde zellikle bronz levhalar ile birlikte bronz ve
silahlar ok byk zarar ve yer yer ergiyerek form de-
1991 ortaya 13 kilodan fazla bir
sahip olan bronz ve silah byk bir cruf kl-
esine
1995 bu kk oda-
daha nce bulunamayan kuzey ortaya
gibi, kuzey ve
da byk lde etkilenerek tahrip
kalker atlayarak ve
Kuzey olduka dik olan kuzey ynne
duvarlar zerinde ykselen kerpi duvarlar da
renkli bir Bu yzden 8 m
2
dik-
drtgen bu zellikle kuzey blm, sanki kumdan
bir grnm (Resim: ll). 1996
bu ile avlusu kalan
kuzey ortaya
388
Kk Buluntular
Haldi'ye adanan ve av-
lusunun bu kk odada 1995
demirden ve bronzdan birok silah ve
daha ortaya Demir silahlar 1 adet
4 adet sgt biimindeki ok ucu ile i adet 31.5 cm
ucu en dikkate Bronz ve si-
lahlar gibi demirden ve ok da ve
nemden derecede oksitlenerek
Bulunan bronz iki ok ucundan biri Urartu, de aittir.
ait olan ift mahmuzlu ok ucu, ortalama 2 cm ve
11 cm Bu ok ucunun benzeri, 1992 ta-
avlusunda ortaya omuzlu ve tek mah-
muzlu teki bronz ok ucu ise, kalenin tahrip
belgeleyen ikinci nemli buluntuyu Benzer biimli ok
ucunun ilk de 1992 bu-
Bu ok ucu da kaleye
ve gstermektedir. saplanarak yanan
ok ucu, daha sonra nemden etkilenerek ve mahmuz
ve nemden etkilenerek okside olan ve
paralara bronz levha bir ya-
ait engeli bronz fibula ise, Yu-
Anzaf Kalesi'nde bulunan ilk Birok bronz
da, hangi ve silaha ait kesin olarak belli ol-

Kalkamn evre ait byk bronz
ise, en ilgincini (Resim: 10). Or-
talama 78 cm 18 cm ve 3.5-4
mm olan kalkan da, ve silahlar gibi
ve nemden byk lde etkilenerek paralara ay-
Bundan da nemlisi kalkan ok-
sitlenmeden karton gibi 1991 ortaya
ve ergiyerek birbirine kaynayan
metallerden temizleyerek elde irili yzlerce
bronz levha bir da, kalkana ait an-
Burada sevindirici olan en nemli zellik, temizlenerek
konservasyon levha zerinde yer alan
resim sahnelerinin, kalkan zerinde bulunan tan-
veya sahnelerinin
en ok tahrip olan ve yzlerce paraya da, orta blmdr.
389
kalkamn zerindeki figrler nem ve ok-
sitlenmeden derecede etkilenerek yer yer ve bunlardan da
nemlisi, metal kabuk figrler, ,grlemeycek duruma gel-
Bu yzden bronz levha Istanbul Teknik Universitesi
Nkleer Enstits'nde birka kez rntgenleri ve rnt-
genler zerinde izgilerin daha belirgin grnmesi
ekilen rntgenler zerinde sahnelerinin, araba ve hay-
ve giysilerinin en
kk kadar gibi, ivi var ol-
da
100 cm Figrlerin be-
alan 6 cm olup, ve st birer izgiyle
Bu izgilerin ve stnde yer alan 1 cm ge-
tomurcuk motifleriyle Ana
konuyu sahnede, hayvan ve birka hayvan
zerinde ayakta duran
ve ellerinde silahlar Urartu arslan ve kar-
birlikte Assur ordusuna ve byk
bir panik iinde yenilgisi imgeselolarak Bugne
Urartu resim benzerine rastlamlmayan bu nemli sahnede,
zellikle ulusal Haldi ve resmi
devlet dini bilgi veren ve sunulacak kurban
belirleyen Meher kaya vurgulanan zelliklerine uygun
olarak sembol, silah ve birlikte ok gereki bir
kilde Kalkan zerindeki ilgin figrleri,
silahlar ve kutsal hayvanlan, bugne Urartu dini konusunda ya-
speklasyonlara bir son vermekte ve Meher ka ya
da Urartu dinine ilk kez yepyeni boyutlar
Ana sol taraftaki Urartu bir ile
yer alan sahnesinin kalkan
zerinde yer sevinilecek en nemli zelliklerin ba-
gelmektedir. Soldan giden nnde ve
sahnesinin sol Urartu ulusal Haldi yer al-
Haldi bugne grlmeyen bir be-
Haldi solundaki aksine hayvan zerinde
ayakta ve Haldi'nin en
nemli zellikleri da, ve sanki ev-
resine dairesel bir demeti nnde gsterilmesi gelmektedir.
demeti Haldi'nin ve evresinde ola-
rak gsterilen her iki dizinin da
390
devam etmektedir. kez bylesine etkileyici bir demeti iinde gs-
terilen Haldi'nin, ve
vurgulanmak Haldi sol elinde bir yay, elinde de uzun bir
gvde ve da
Bylece hem silaha bir ka-
hem de Haldi'nin vurgulanmak Urar-
tu ilk kez Haldi ve askerlerine
lm saan (Resim: 13).
Haldi'nin aslan zerinde ayakta duran ve her iki elin-
de demetlerini tutan Meher kaya ya-
2. yer alan Hava
(Resim: 13). Urartu ilk kez her iki eliyle
demetini tutarken betimlenmektedir. hemen ar-
diski iinde ve zerinde ayakta duran tan-
ise Meher kaya 3. bulunan
vini'yi Bylece
kutsal arslan grlmektedir (Resim: 13).
hemen birok hayvan bir-
zerinde ayakta duran her iki eliyle
de uzun iki Bu Meher kaya 4.
yer alan ve zelliklerinden "Kavga olarak
Hutuni (Resim: 14). Bu
hemen ise birka hayvan ka-
kei zerinde ayakta duran ve ileriye sol eliyle kal-
kan, arkaya eliyle de topuz tutan bir tann bu-
Bu da Meher kaya 5. yer
alan Turani Yandan gsterilen n
yznde, konik biimli yer (Resim: 14). Bu tan-
hemen yine birka hayvan olu-
ejder zerinde ayakta duran ile-
riye sol eliyle nnde bnlnnan bir kalkan,
arkaya eliyle de ilgin bir balta (Resim:
14). Bu Meher kaya 6. yer alan ve Van
Gl'nn blgesinin yerel olan Ua sa-
Bu hemen at zerinde ayakta
duran ve ileriye sol eliyle n bu-
lunan bir kalkan, arkaya eliyle de tutan bir
Bu da Meher kaya 7. yer
alan ve Ua gibi VanGl'nn blgesinin yerel tan-
olan Nalaini (Resim: 14). Bu hemen
ise sfenks zerinde ayakta duran ileriye sol
391
eliyle bir yay, yere paralelolarak eliyle de 2 ok
Bu da Meher kaya 8. yer alan Urmiye
Bu hemen ar-
ise, bir ejder zerinde ayakta duran ne sol
eliyle nnde bulunan bir kalkan, arkaya
eliyle de ilgin bir topuz Kare biimli topuz,
topuzlara benzememektedir. Bu da Meher kaya
9. yer alan ve gibi Unuiye
olan Arsimela Bu hemen
sfenks zerinde ayakta duran ileriye sol eliyle nn-
de bulunan bir kalkan, arkaya eliyle de bir topuz
Bu da Meher kaya yer
alan Bu ise birka
hayvan ko zerinde ayakta
duran ileriye sol eliyle nnde bulunan
bir kalkan, arkaya eliyle de Bu tan-
da Meher kaya lL. yer alan Dieduaini
Bu ise sfenks zerinde ayakta
duran ileriye sol eliyle nnde bulunan
bir kalkan Bronz yznden
arkaya eliyle ne bilemiyoruz.
Bu da Meher kaya 12. yer alan Ay

ve ise, Assur as-
kerlerinin bozguna sahnesi (Resim: 15).
Panik iinde askerlerin sahnesinin en byk
ok bir yntemle Haldi'nin
evresinden saan askerlerinin
son vermektedir. askerlerine kanallar ve da
grlmektedir. Ozellikle arslanlar Assur svarilerini at-
al etmektedirler. birok Assur bir
veya birden ok ok ile grlmektedir (Resim: 16). Yani
Haldi'nin zafer ve
sahnesi ve bir yntemle Bu
tr bir ynteminin benzerine ise bugne Urartu sa-

Olduka kk ve ancak rntgen okunabilen ivi
gre, bu ilgin Urartu n
Menua ve ait
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izim 7: Byk Kule, Kuzey tenis ve nnkesiti
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izim8: Haldi T a p n a ve evresi
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Resim 2: Kent, ve eski )'01,
400
Resim 3: Tahrip olan teras
Resim 4: Teras duvarmda ortaya hayvan iskeletleri
401
Resim 5: K a r k olarak bulunan b y k b a ve k k b a hayvan kemikleri
Resim 6: K a r k olarak bulunan b y k b a ve k k b a hayvan kemikleri
402
Resim 7: ve gney nne ocaklar,
Resim 8: Gney nne byk ocak, gneyden
403
Resim 9: ortadan duvar,
Resim 10: tahrip olan dikdrtgen oda,
404
Resim ll: Haldi adanan Ye dikdrtgen oda.
gneyden
Resim 12: etkilenerek paralara bronz kalkan
405
406
407
408
409
ULUCAK HYK
VE PALEO-COGRAFYA
Zafer pERiN *

Ulucak Hyk ve Belkahve
hemen yer Bornova-Ankara karayolunun 15. ki-
lometresinde,. anayoldan 150 metre ieridedir' (Harita).
Seyrek zeytin ile 100 metre tepe (Resim: 1),
kk boyda alak seviyeli hyk gibi grnrnesine ala-
daha (Plan: 2). Hyk evresinde
ele geen yzey bu niteliktedir. Gney ve
evresindeki sanayi ait arazi d-
zenlemeleri ve Ulucak'a giden karayolu ile (Resim: 2). Te-
penin st dz bir grnme sahiptir. Deniz seviyesinden 220.86
metre ykseklikte yer alan tepe kuzeye hafif bir
(215.60). Bu Ulucak Hyk'n grnen
5.00 metre

Anadolu'nun
biri zerinde Ke-
kuzeyinde Manisa gneyinde ise
(*) Yrd.Do. Dr. Zafer DERlN, Ege niversitesi. Edebiyat Fakltesi, Arkeolojive Sanat Tarihi
Blm., 35100 Bomova-lZMIR...E.MaiL.
Yrd.Do.Dr. NER, Ege niversitesi. Edebiyat Fakltesi, Blm. 35100

(1) Hykteki ilk bilimsel Dr.David French 1960
Bak. French 55 ; Hyk daha sonra 1987ve 1988 Prof.Dr.Recep Meri ta-
ziyaret (Meri 1989, 387; Meri 1990,362).
411
ykselir. Ova Ulucak beldesi evresinde 220 m kadar
yksekliktedir. Manisa ve Jeolojik (Me-
sozoik) ait eski Manisa 'nda kayalar, Ke-
'nda altta stte yine ka-
yalar hakimdir. Bu yksek ktleler knt
akarsularla ta-
gen sedimanlarla
nemli bir olay da,
Krfezi-Bornova blmnden Belkahve ile ay-
bir uzun ukurluk olan
(Turgutlu) daha sonra Belkahve zerinden ku-
daha
ok kerken, blm birlikte do-

Bu jeolojik modeli iinde erevede Ulucak H-
'nn yeri zellikleriyle dikkati ekmektedir. Ulucak
Hyk fakat Belkahve ile Bornova
bir i kenarmda Buna gre burada yer-
ilgisinin denizden ok karaya ynelik bek-
lenmelidir. Bunun Ulucak yeri ile i
ovalar bir geit zerinde bulunmakta ve je-
omorfolojik ve buna stratejik konumu, su ve toprak zelliklerinin
semelerinde etkili grnmektedir.
buna blgenin iklimini ve
eski ok daha zengin bitki rtsn
de eklemek gerekir.
Ulucak , bugnk Ulucak beldesinin zerine bu-
eski bir birikinti konisinin yer Bunu
turan etek birikintileri, kuzeydeki yamalardan Plio-
Kuaterner'de iklim sel tipi rejimindeki
sularla bu yamalardan materyal
eteklerde Hyk byle bir dolgu zerinde
i 995 ilk ncelikle bu yzeyin be-
lirlenmesine Bunun iin gneyinde niversal te-
sisleri daha nce temel iin alanda sondajlar de-
(Tablo). Hyk ve eski birikinti
(2) Ege niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Blm, Fiziki
Ana Bilim yesi Prof. Dr. Kayan bir ekip ile

412
konisini dolguya Eijkelkamp el burgusu ile 1-1.5 m'den fazla
inilmesi mmkn Bununla birlikte, hyk gneyindeki
ttn bahesinde denemede yzeyden en az 2 m de-
rinlere kadar hykten yollarla ile gibi)
evreye keramik Fakat bu alanda in-situ
herhangi bir arkeolojik bulguya hyk ze-
rinde sondaj denemelerinde ise hemen
nedeniyle derine Blmmze yeni "percussion"
(kompresrl) sondaj ile bu alanda yeni bir sondaj


Ulucak Hyk'teki arkeolojik Arkeoloji Mzesi y-
netiminde. Prof.Dr.Altan 'nun bilimsel Ege
Universitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Ana-
bilim yeleri 1995
ve eyll da devam 1995
da hyk hale getirildi. Oneelikle h-
ve evresindeki metrelik bil' to-
Tm alan lxl Om'Iik karelere grid
(Plan: 1). Gerekli lmlerin sonra
iki alanda, hyk zerinde ve etek-
lerinde srdrlmesine karar verildi. Ilk gneyinde
Universal Ttn iinde kalan ve tescil ncesinde
alanda Plan kare olarak Z8b grid'ine giren
bu alanda gneye ve sap-
tamaya ynelik olarak 5x5 m'lik bir ama (Plan: 2); Ancak
srdrlen sonucunda mimari bir ve
alanda durumda dnemlere ait anak-mlek par-
ele
Hyk zerindeki eyll
Bu amala dz olan st 5x5 metrelik P12c plankaresi
220.55 metre seviyesinde
hyk zerindeki yzey
(3) ana bilim Yrd.Do.Dr.Zafer Derin,
Yrd.Do.Dr.Glriz Kozbe ve Grevlisi Haluk denetiminde uygulama
srdrlmektedir. Bylece protohistorya dnemi boyunca
teorik bilgileri uygulama, dnya teknolojisinin arkeoloji bilimine
optik ve mekanik aletlerini kullanma
Ulucak Hyk ve Ulucak Belediyesi, Universal Ttn.
Tetrapak, Yabim, Arkas ve Pakmaya gibi zel ve Fon Say-
(ED.1994.001 No'Iu Proje) ile srdrlmektedir. iin sz
konusu kurum ve ederiz.
413
ilk bulgulara gre st ve erozyon
sayesinde byk oranda tahrip olarak ortadan ve bu sayede
hyk konisinin
Hykte P 12c karesinde yzey 0.15-0.20 metre
tahribata ilk kltr tesbit
220.39 metreden itibaren 0.30-
0.40 metre orta boy ortaya (Plan: 3).
Byk bir kesitte kalan bu her-
hangi bir mimariye olup Bu se-
viyelerde olduka sert olan toprak iinde yer
yer dknt kerpilere de 220.32 seviyesinde
dibek veya sve insitu ol-
mayan bir ortaya
Sz edilen alandaki ve yzeyinde
olarak Hellenistik-Roma Ge Neolitik kadar giden
dnemlere ait keramikler Ele geen keramik
Ge Neolitik ve Kalkolitik ait kahverengi ve koyu gri ha-
murlu , kahve kum, saman ve mika kat-
keramikler (izim:1-2). Ulucak Hyk'de n-
cesinde da tesbit edilen bu tr ke-
ramikler-. Hykteki ilk Ge Neolitik
gstermektedir. Yzeyde ele geen malzeme grubu
iinde ie dnk ve basit mleklerin ve yksek kaide ya
da dz kabaca elde orta derecede
ve tamamma da
Hykteki yzey iinde Balkan kkenli d-
Orta Kalkolitik ait iki keramik dikkati ek-
mektedir(izim: 2:1, 106). Hamur keramiklerin yzleri bir
alet ile entikler
yzleri i yzleri
Demircihyk'n ET ncesine tarihlenen anak-mlekler iinde
bir grup keramik'; Ulucak' m sz edilen kaba yzl ke-
ramikleriyle benzerlik gsterir, zellikleri bu tr keramikler
Balkan-Anadolu-Ege kltrleri belirlemeye yar-
(4) D.H.Frcnch, Early Pottery Sites from Western Anatolia, of the Institute o/Are-
haeology 5,1965, 19-20, fig.5-18; R.Mcri, Prc-Bronze Age Settlements of
Anatolica XiX, 1993,145; Meri 1989, 387. .
(5) J.Seeher. Demircihyk. Die Ergenbnisse der Ausgrabungen 1975-1978. Die Keramik 1,
Band IJU, Mainz am Rhein 1988, 33, tnf 21,1-5, 1ev.1,2,4.
414
olacak ilk bulgular olarak kabul edilebilir'. 4.
grup keramiklerinin gelen bezeli anak-mlekgrubu iin-
de yer ya da Toptepe 2 ve 3. evrelerinin- karekteristik "ka-
mal ile benzer keramik tr ile ol-
belirtebiliriz. Orman ve
lareli gibi bulunan Vina
grubu mallarla zelliklere sahip bu tr keramiklerin? art-
ya da tabaka olarak tesbiti, Anadolu'nun Balkan kltrleri ile
olan yeni bir boyut
Yzeyi keramiklerin yzeyinde
ve yzey iinde ok miktarda Erken Tun ait basit
anak, mlek, kase minyatr kaplar ve kulp par-
alan!" (izim: 3-4).
Ulucak'ta yzey buluntusu olarak iki tr Tun tesbit
Bunlardan ilk grubu devety, kiremit ve kah-
verengi hamurlu kaplar (izim: 5). Astar ya hamurun renginde
ya da daha koyu bir tonda olabilmektedir. kum, deniz hay-
van ince kum ve mika Kaplar arkta bi-
iyi ve ok iyi derecede Yzey
kerarnik grubu ele geen paralar tespit edilen
ie .. dnk. anak ve kaseler zellik olarak
M..ILbin I Anadolu kcramiklerinden Gerek yzey
(6) Balkanlar'da alanlannda grlen (Hermann-Mller Karpe, Handbuch Der
Vorgcschicte, Band II, Jungstenzeit Tarcin, Mnih 1968, Taf.141 A.14, B.2. 143: C.13, 162:
D.6,7,9) bu tr keramiklere Nca Nikomedia ve Otzaki'deBalkan Neolitik Dnem'e ait bu-
luntular iinde de Bak.M.Scfcriades, La Grece I, Atlas du Neolithique Eu-
ropeen. Orientale. B.RAU.L. 1993,6-7, p1.2.
(7) 1986 AST, V.Il., Ankara 1988,
330-331, Res.9 b-e; A.Koyunlu. 1986 a-
ve Gzlemler", Arkeoloji ve Sanal 32/33, 1986, 14.
(8) A Surface Survey for Prehistoric and Early Sires North West Tur-
key , National Geographic Socienty Reports. 1979. fig.3;
N.B.Dede, 1989 Toptepe Kurtarma Kaz1SI, Arkea/oji Fe Sanal 46/49, 1990, 18-19,
Res.20,22,23; 1989 Marmara Blgesi ve Toptepe
KST XIU, 1991,355, res.18:3021,3033.
(9) Benzerleri iin bak. T.Efe, Orman 1992-1994 Kur-
tarma KSr XVII.!, 1996; 100; An InlandAnatelian Site With Pre-Vina Elements:
Orman Germania, 68, 1990, 108-113, fig.13; French 1967, 58;
1984 Trakya ve Marmara AST III, 1986, 415;
1993 Kaz1SI, KST 54.
(10) Tutamaklar iinde mantar (knobtype handie) olanlar dikkati ekmektedir. Bu tr form-
lara Benzer rnekler iin bak: Blegen 1951, Taf.80. 34.331; Jo-
ukowsky 1986a, fig.342.12; 1986b, fig.385,22 (l598f.22); Podzuweit 1979, taf.22 G.
415
ve gerekse Liman Tepe, Panaztepe ve Pekmeztepe gibi ka-
Orta Tun keramikleri ve por-
takal renkli rnekleri'? ile bu tr keramiklerin ben-
zerleri, Beycesultan ve Demircihyk'n Orta Tun da
ele Ulucak'ta OT da anak mleklerin o-
ince olarak Ince ya-
biri kiremit ve ve ie dnk
keskin profilli keramikler Troya VI Beycesultan V-IVb,
st evreleri (4-5), Ib ve Eski Hitit ile
OT 5 ve alt Karahyk, Kusura C, Yanarlar, III-
V ve Gordion ile benzemektedir.
Yzeyde bulunan Orta Tun ait anak mleklerin ikinci
grubunu "Gri Minyas " tr keramikler (izim: 6). ka-
basit ve dnk anaklarda hamur ve
astar renkleri daha ok gri ve grinin Kum ha-
mika zerrecikleri de tespit arkta
iyi ve orta derecede a-
gvde zerinde birbirine paralel yiv ve oluklar
grlr, anak formundaki bir
ykselen halka kulplar
Ulucak Hyk'de ele geen Tun Ana-
dolu ve Anadolu' nun i kesimleri ile
Buluntular iinde bugne kadar hykte
Orta Tun Anadolu'nun i kesimi ile olan
bir gstergesi olarak kabul edilebilir.
Gerek hykte gerekse hyk eteklerinde srdrlen
Hellenistik-Roma Dnemi'ne ait keramik ve kiremiti da
(izim: 7).
Hykte tesbit edilen ilk kltr iinde ele geen keramikler
Erken Tun II dnemi zelliklerine sahiptir. Keramikler iinde
Bak. French 64; 1969.69; 'I'Bfc, Ktahya, Bilecik ve Illerinde
YZer Asr.VII. 1990, 405vd., res.3; 1990 Ktahya, Bilecik
ve llerinde Yzey AST.IX, 1992. 562vd.; 1993
Ktahya, Bilecik ve Yzey ASrXU. 1995. 251,
res. IS.
(A.-R.Erkana! 1983. 168-170. Taf. IV:1.16; 1994. 364. Erkanal-Gnel
1995.270; 1996.308; Joukowsky 1986. fig.485:22.23.
(13) SLloyd-Llvlellaart, Beycesultan LI, Middle Bronze Age and Londra
1965, fig.1.2,12; B.KulI, V, Die Mninz am
Taf. 3;9.10,12,15.
(14) Ulucak tck rnek olarak Nemrut Hyk'de Mikeri
Bak. Meri 1989. 387, re'.73.
416
anak ve kase tabak, mlek ve gaga
testi, memecikli gvde ve kulplar, ayaklar ve dipler bu-
(izim: 8- 15). bir ip delikli makara kulplar
yer Sz edilen keramiklerin byk bir gri, siyah, kahverengi
devety hamur ve astara sahiptir. kum, deniz
ve mika elde Ele
geen keramiklerin zellikleri dikkate daha ok Troya, Ga-
vurtepe. Kusura, Beycesultan, Limantepe, Baklatepe ve
Pekmeztepe ile Kaplar iinde ie dnk
ve ie dnk -keskin profilli anaklar Erken
Tun II. dneminin tipik Keramiklerin i ve
yzeylerinde boyama ya da insize bezemeye anak
ve kase fonnundaki bir gvde uzanan
sivri ulu ayaklar bulunur'> (izim: 14).
Ulucak Hyk'te keramikler toprak ve sapan
kemik delici, ift yzl ve yonga ele
(izim: 16). Buluntular ok miktarda midye ka-
tespit Deniz "cerastoderma
edule glaucum" tr midyeler hykte ve bir da delik
kolye olarak Bu tr kabuklar zellikle Erken
Tun daha
(15) Tipik benzer rnekleriin bak. C.Blegen, Troy and the Trojans, Londra, res.ll; Pod-
zuweit 1979. l l O: Joukowsky 1986.. 338 vd.; 1986b. fig. 421:27-28.33.509/19-22.514/26;
1993, fig.6:13,15.17; S.LIoyd-lMellaart. Beycesultan J , Londra 1962, fig.P.36:4, s-to,
P.39:13; P.43:5-6,8-9.
417
VE KAYNAKLAR
AST Sonu/an
BLEGEN 1951 C.Blcgen-M.Rawson-lSpcrling, Troy LI the Third, and
SeUlemenfs,Princeton .
FRENCH 1967 D'Prench. Prehistoric Sites Northwest Anatolia Anatolian Studies. XVII,
58vd.
FRENCH 1969 D'Prench. Prehistoric Sites in the Northwest Anatolia, i, The and Ak-
hisar/Manisa Aren. Anatelian Studies XIX, 41-98 .
JOUKOWSKY 1986a M.S, Joukowsky , PrehistoricAphrodisias 1,Newyork.
JOUKOWSKY 1986b M.S, Jcukowsky , Apilrodisias II, Newyork.
KST
MERI 1989 R.Meri, 1987 Yzey 385-392
MERI 1990 R.Meri, 1988 . Manisa llleri Arkeolojik Yzey AST VII,
361-366.
PODZUWEIT 1979 dcr Mainzam
Rhein.

izim 1: GeNeolitik ve Kalkolitik
-No.96, basit a.k, mlek, hamur kahve, astar kiremit , kum, ili
saman el orta ap: ISem, Kod.AAH,
-No.20, basit a.k. mlek, hamur ve astar kiremit , iri , saman
el orta ap: 11 cm, Kod.AAB.
-No.3 , basit a.k, kase, hamur ve astar koyu devety, kum, kk
, saman el orta apl4 cm, Kod.AAA.
-No.. 9, basit a.k.anak, hamur kahve, astar kum, saman,
el iyi ap: 30em, Kod.AAA.
-No. I 64, basit a.k. mlek, hamur ve astar koyu gri, kum, iri ,
saman el orta a:.21 cm, Kod.AAL.
418
-No.26, dar mlek, hamur gri, astar kiremit, kum, iri
saman el kt ap:2Scm, Kod.AAB.
. -No.SI, a.k. mlek, hamur gri, astar devety,
kum, iri saman el orta Kod.AAB.
izim 2: Ge Neolitik-Kalkolitik
-No.I, gvde hamur gri, astar kahve, kum, saman el
orta Kod.AAA.
-No.106, gvde hamur gri, astar kahve, kum, kk
saman el orta Kod.AAM.
-No.S?, dip, hamur ve astar devety, kum, iri mika,
saman el kt ap:6cm, Kod.AAB.
-No.4, dip, hamur ve astar kahve, knm, kk , saman
el orta ap: 14 cm, Kod.AAA.
-No.S, dip, hamur koyu gri, astar kum, kk ,
saman el orta ap: 10 cm, Kod.AAA.
-No.6, dip, hamur gri, astar devety, kum, saman el
orta ap:8cm, Kod.AAA.
izim3: Erken Tun bulumulan
-No.12, basit a.k.mlek, hamur gri, astar siyah, kum, kk
el iyi ap:llcm, Kod.AA!
-No.13?, basit a.k.mlek, hamur kiremit, astar kahve, kum, ,
deniz hayvan el orta ap, 8cm,
Kod.AAJ.
-No.89, basit a.k. kase, hamur kahve, kum, kire mika el ya-
iyi ap: l Scm, Kod.AAG.
-No.44, basit a.k.anak, hamur ve astar kahverengi, mika, kum kat-
el orta ap:24cm, Kod.AAB.
-No.43, basit a.k.anak, hamur koyu kahve, astar siyah, ince kum
ark ok iyi ap: 24cm, Kod.AAB.
419
-No.65, minyatr kap, hamur g11, astar devety, kum, mika
el orta ap:4.7cm, Kod.AAD.
-No.39, minyatr kap, hamur koyu devety, astar devety, kum,
kk el Kod.AAB.
izim 4:Erken Tun
-No.l26, ie dnk a.k.kase, hamur kiremit, astar siyah, kum, deniz
hayvan el orta ap:15cm,
Kod.AA!.
-No.93, basit a.k.anak, hamur kahve, astar gri, kum, iri
el iyi ap: 14cm, Kod.AAH.
-No.92, ie dnk a.k.anak, hamur ve astar koyu kahve.kum
el iyi ap:15cm, Kod.AAH.
-No.1l7, ie dnk a.k.anak, hamur kahve, astar devety, kum
kk el orta Kod.AA!.
-No.158, tutamak, hamur koyu gri, kum, mika el , iyi
Kod.AAK.
-No.12, ip delikli tutamak, hamur gri. astar kahve, kum el ya-
iyi el Kod.AAA.
-No.90, tutamak, hamur ve astar kahverengi, ince kum el ya-
pum, iyi , Kod.AAO.
-No.94, kulp, hamur kahve, kum, el orta
Kod.AAH.
-No. 139, kulp, hamur gri, astar kahverengi, kum el ya-
iyi Kod.AAJ.
-No.121, kulp, hamur siyah, astar kahverengi, kum, kk
el orta Kod.AzvI.
-NoAO, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, kum el iyi
Kod.AAB.
-No.l2, mantar tutamak, hamur kirernit, astar koyu gri, ince
kum, mika el iyi Kod.AAB.
420
-No.34, mantar tutamak, hamur kahve, astar siyah, kum
el iyi Kod.AAB.
-No.19, mantar tutamak, hamur kahve, astar siyah, kum
el iyi Kod.AAB.
izim5: Orta Tun
-No.l, a.k. anak, hamur kirernit, astar de-
vety, kum ark iyi ap: 18cm,
Kod.AAA.
-No.77, a.k. anak, hamur ve astar kiremit ,
kum ark iyi ap: 16cm, Kod.AAE.
-No.97, a.k. mlek, ve astar koyu de-
vety, ince kum ark iyi ap:21cm,
Kod.AAH.
-No.I, a.k. kase, hamur ve astar kahve, ince
kum ark ok iyi Kod.AAH.
-No.Il, a.k. anak, hamur kiremit, astar de-
vety, ince kum ark ok iyi Kod.AAH.
-No.95, kulp, hamur devety, astar kiremit, ince kum
el iyi Kod.AAH.
-No.l3, kulp, hamur kum orta el
orta Kod.AAA.
izim6: Gri tr keramikler
-No.78, a.k.anak, hamur ve astar gri, ince
kum ark iyi ap: 19, Kod.AAE.
-No.1l4, dnk a.k.anak, ve astar gri, kum, mika kat-
ark iyi ap:26, Kod.Azvl.
-N0.17, basit a.k.anak, hamur ve astar koyu gri, ince kum , mika
ark iyi ap:21, Kod.AAB. .
-No.16, kenan yivli anak, hamur ve astar koyu gri, ince kum
ark ok iyi ap:22, Kod.AAB,
421
-No.28, yivli gvde hamur ve astar koyu kahve, kum, kk
ve kire ark orta Kod.AAB.
-No.98, ekik a.k. kase, harnur ve astar gri, kum; mika
ark iyi Kod.AAH.
-No.61, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, ince kum, mika el
iyi Kod.AAC.
-No.I08, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, kum, mika el iyi
Kod.AAH.
-No.82, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, ince kum el iyi
Kod.AAE.
-No.66, kulp, harnur ve astar gri, kum, iri mika el ya-
iyi Kod.AAO.
-No.80, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, ince kurn el iyi
Kod.AAE.
-No.68, kulp, hamur ve astar gri, kum, mika el iyi
Kod.AAO.
izim 7: Hellenistik ve Roma bulumulan
-No.73, dip, hamur ve astar kiremit, ince kum, mika ark ya-
ok iyi ap: 11 cm, Kod.AAE.
-No.75, dip, hamur ve astar kiremit, ince kum, mika ark ya-
pum, iyi ap:6 cm, Kod.AAE.
-No.14, a.k. mlek, hamur kum; kk
ark orta ap:24cm, Kod.AAA.
-No.15, kiremiti, hamur kirernit, astar kahverengi, kum, ,
mika ark iyi Kod.AAA.
izim 8: Erken Tun
-No.146, ie dnk a.k.anak, hamur kahve, astar kiremit, kum,
kk el orta ap:22, Kod.AAK.
-No.144, ie dnk a.k.anak, hamur ve astar kiremit, kum, iri
mika el iyi ap:27, Kod.AAK.
422
-No.16l, basit a.k.anak, hamur ve astar devety, kum, kk
deniz hayvan ark iyi ap:24,
Kod.AAK. .
-No.153, basit a.k.anak, hamur gri, astar koyu gri, kum
el iyi Kod.AAK.
izim 9: Erken Tun
-No.14l, dnk a.k.anak, hamur ve astar kahverengi, kum,
kk el iyi ap:28cm, Kod.AAK
-No.l40, dnk a.k.anak, hamur gri , astar kahverengi, kum,
kk el iyi ap:28cm, Kod.AAK
-No.165, dnk a.k.anak, hamur ve astar devety, kum,
kk el orta ap:14cm,
Kod.AAL.
-No.188, dnk a.k.anak, hamur ve astar gri, kum, kk
el orta Kod.AAN.
-No.182, dnk a.k.anak, ve astar kiremit, kum, kk
el iyi Kod.AAN.
izim l: Erken Tun buluntulan
-N0.184, ie dnk a.k. anak, hamur koyu gri, astar koyu kahve,
kum, el orta cm, dip
Kod.AAN.
-No. 157, ie dnk a.k. anak, hamur gri, astar siyah, kum el
iyi ap:.20 cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.186, ie dnk a.k. anak, hamur kahve, astar gri, kum,
el orta 6 cm, Kod.AAN.
-No.187, ie dnk a.k. anak, hamur kahve, astar gri, kum,
el orta ap: 19cm Kod.AAN.
-N0.185, ie dnk a.k. anak, hamur kahverengi, astar gri, kum,
kk mika el iyi Kod.AAN.
423
izimll: Erken Tun bulumulan
-No.l79, basit a.k.kase, hamur koyu kahve, astar siyah, kum, kk
orta ap:l5cm, Kod.AAM.
-No.l Sl , ie dnk a.k.kase, hamur kahve, astar koyu kahve, kum,
el kt ap:l6cm, Kod.AAN.
-No.l55, a.k.kase, hamur gri, astar koyu gri, kum, kk
el iyi ap: l3cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.l63, ie dnk a.k.kase, hamur gri, astar gri, ince kum,
mika el orta ap:l4cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.l22, basit a.k.kase, hamur gri, astar koyu kahve, kum,
el orta Kod.AAM.
12: Erken Tun
-No.l90, ie dnk a.k.mlek, hamur kahve, astar kiremit, kum,
mika el iyi ap:22cm, Kod.AAN.
-No.l Sl , ie dnk a.k.mlek, hamur devety, astar kahve,
kum el iyi ap:l6cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.l9l, ie dnk a.k.mlek, hamur gri, astar devety, kum,
mika el orta ap: l5cm, Kod.AAN.
-No.l80. gaga testi, hamur ve astar kahve, kum, kk
el iyi Kod.AAN.
izim 13: Erken TU/i
-No.l7l, dnk a.k.mlek, hamur koyu gri, astar siyah, kum
el iyi ap: l l cm, Kod.AAL.
-No.l67, basit a.k.mlek, hamur ve astar kahve, kum, kk
mika el orta ap: l7cm, Kod.AAL.
-No.l60, dnk a.k.rnlek, hamur ve astar koyu gri, kum, iri
el orta ap:20cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.l77, dnk a.k.mlek, hamur ve astar gri, kum, mika
ark okiyi ap:24cm, Kod.AAM.
424
-No.170, dnk a.k.mlek, hamur kahve, astar siyah, kum, iri
el orta Kod.AAL.
-No.169, dnk hamur kiremit ve astarkahve,
kum, mika, iri el orta ap:30cm,
Kod.AAM.
izim 14: Erken Tun
-No.189, gvde hamur ve astar gri, kum, kk kat-
el orta Kod.AAN.
-No.178, gvde hamur ve astar kahve, kum, kk
el iyi Kod.AAM.
-N0.162, kulp hamur astar kahve, kum, kk
el orta Kod.AAK.
-No.l56, kulp hamur ve astar kiremit, kum el ya-
pum, orta Kod.AAK.
-No. 145, kulp hamur kiremit, kum, kk el
orta Kod.AAK.
-No.152, kulp hamur gri, astar siyah, kum el
iyi Kod.AAK.
-No.183, kulp hamur kiremit, astar gri, kum
el ona Kod.AAN.
-No.154, ayak, hamur kiremit, astar koyu gri, kum, iri
el iyi Kod.AAK.
-No.69, ayak, hamur devety, astar kahve, kum, kk kat-
el iyi Kod.AAM.
-No.149, ayak, hamur ve astar kiremit, kum, iri el
orta Kod.AAK.
izim 15: Erken Tun
-No.176, dip, hamur gri, astar koyu gri, kum, iri mika
el kt ap: IOcm, Kod.AAM.
425
-No. 147, dip, hamur koyu gri, astar kiremit, kum, kk
el kt ap: 12cm, Kod.AAK.
-No.168, dip, hamur gri, astar devety, kum, iri el
kt ap:lOcm, Kod.AAL.
-No.l73, dip, hamur ve astar devety, kum, ki.ik ,
el orta ap:7cm, Kod.AAL.
-No.l59, dip, hamur kahve, astar gri, kum, iri el ya-
kt ap: 7cm, Kod.AAK. .
-No.l 75, dip, hamur kahve, astar koyu gri, kum, iri el
kt ap:5cm, Kod.AAM.
izim 16: Erken Tun kk
426
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TEPE 1995
A SUMMARY F THE PRINCIPALRESULTS
John Nicholas POSTGATE*
The work of the joint expedition of the Silifke Museum and the
British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara continued for a second season
at Kilise Tepe during July to September 1995. The location of the site is
deseribed in earlier reports': it stands at the south-east end of the Mut
close to the point where the Gksu river plunges between the
rocky walls of the Taurus, to enter the 20 km gorge which will be flooded
when the Kayraktepe barrage is eventually constructed (Fig. 1).
The lake formed behind the barrage will flood a long but narrow
stretch of river. Some sites, like the Hittite rock relief above the village
of Keben, and various Hellenistic and Byzantine will remain above
the water. However, in the Mut basin itself all the hitherto identified
prehistoric sites will be lost, including At Tepe near Mut, and ingene
Tepe, just across the Gksu from Kilise Tepe (Fig. 1). it is to be hoped
that delays in starting the Kayraktepe barrage will afford enough time for
a satisfactory investigation of these other sites, and also for a detailed
surface reconnaissance of the area to be flooded, although at present the
first priority of our expedition is Kilise Tepe itself.
At Kilise Tepe in 1995 we had three main objectives: in Level I to
investigate the Byzantine settlement and the church (kilise) from which
the site gets its name; to recover stratified potteryand associated artefacts
to create a cultura! sequence from the foundation of the settlement
(perhaps in the Early Bronze Age) down to the end of the Middle Bronze
(*) Prof. J.N. POSTGATE. Trinity College. Cnmbridge CB2 ITQ.!NGn.TERE
(I) See XVLL. Sonulan 1(1996) 4W431; Anatolian Studies 45 (1995) 139,
191.
441
Age (below Level III); to excavate a sequence of buildings from above
the Middle Bronze Age through the Late Bronze (Level III) into the Iran
Age (Level II).
Our first practical task in 1995 was to complete the surface elearance
of the site. As in 1994, the mound was eleared of sherds, stones,
and other artefacts, recorded in 10m squares, Work this year was
principally on the southem and eastern slopes of the mound, where there
was a higher proportion of Bronze Age sherds than on the summit of the
tepe (the western and the northern slopes being too steep for
the surface information to have any value). The distribution of Byzantine
U-shaped terracotta drain fragments recorded in 1994 was perhaps
significant in the light of the architecture subsequently exposed in this
area, as was that of roof tiles. In general, the distribution of
sherds the composition of the mound as having 2m or more of
Byzantine, and in same areas Hellenistic, occupation, sitting on top of a
more or less continuous build-up of prehistoric levels from at latest ca.
2300 to ca 700 BC.
Later Levels
This sequence of levels was attested in a 5 x 50 m trench opened as a
strip the north halves of squares 114, at the western edge of the
tepe, eastwards to M14 near its centre, thus bisecting the western half of
the site (Fig. 2). This exposed two main architectural levels: Byzantine
builclings immediately below the and Hellenistic walls, on a
slightly clifferent alignment beneath. These walls were all of irregular
unmortared stones, and no prepared floors or even detectable living
surfaces were regularly present, so that they may be no more
foundations. Indeed, from the occasional fire installation, there was
very little indication that these buildings had ever been occupied. A few
stray finds were of interest, hinting at something other than
a domestic lifestyle. KLT 58 is the base of a terracotta statuette
showing a pair of sandalled feet decorated in red paint (Fig. 5), The level
at which it was found, and a similarity in execution to the red-painted
Monastic Ware pottery, suggest a Byzantine date, although parallels for it
are not known to us and its purpose can only be guessed at. Possibly
from a piece of ecelesiastical equipment is a miniature omamental copper
column KLT 62, which also came from the same
The Church
If so, it is not too surprising to discover that not much more
10m to the was indeed an ecclesiastical building. During the
442
surface elearance we had already strips lacking vegetation
which suggested walls very close to the with the removal of the
topsoil in Jl6-17 we exposed a regular tripartite plan which undoubtedly
belongs to a church (Fig. 3). The three parallel rooms have an interior
length east-west of 10.20 m, while the the main central room or nave
measures 5.60 m and the northern (and presumably originally alsa the.
southern) side aisles 3.90 m in width. The foundations were formed of
rough stones in lime mortar: in one place on the foundation a few
squared ashlar blocks stili stood on these foundations, but everywhere
else il seems likely that the,original walls have been quarried by locals
over the centuries as an easy saul'ce of ready-shaped masonry, Towards
the end of the main central room there does however remain an
area of paving or berna, flanked at the NW and SW comers by a circular
column base of about 50 cm diameter. Immediately in front of this (i.e.
to irs west) there lies an untidy row of roughly square blocks, furrowed
on their upper by the ploughshares, which seems likely LO be the
remains of a faIlen arch. from scattered mosaic tesserae in blue,
red and gold glass, the onlyother distinctive architectural element from
the building is a slender rnonolithic column found Iying outside the
western wall (as shown on Fig. 3), which probably comes from a chancel

Other Byzantine Remains
It is possible that a couple of full-sized column capilals found
elsewhere once belonged to this building. One of these, with acanthus
leaf decoration similar to a fragment found at the site, was observed on
the verandah of the prirnary school in where we were kindly
allawed to photograph and draw it. The other, a flat capital with an Ionic
scroll, is more unusnal, and according to Dr. Stephen Hill, is only
paralleled in this part of Turkey by a column from Anavarza. It was
fonnd reused as part of the stone lining of a pit near the northem end of
the tepe. Evidently there can be no certainty that either piece originated
from the church itself, since there could well have been other
ecclesiastical bui1dings (and work in 1996 shows that same such
ecclesiastical architecture was dismantled well before the abandonment
of the site). The pit containing the Ionic piece was itself sunk into
Byzantine levels: here, in K20 and Kl9 we recorded two distinct
of Byzantine architecture. Of the upper phase only foundations were
(2) Information given by Dr. Stephen Hill, to whom i am grateful for explaining other
aspects of ecclesiasrical renninology, andfor commenting011 the column capitals
shortly to be
443
preserved, but some of the walls of the lower phase retained their
mud-brick superstructure, and pottery and other artefaers were lying
among ashy debris on the associated floors. The most unusual items
were a collection of some 24 globular clay loom weights which lay
scattered around. They were uniformly made of coarse,
vegetable-tempered baked clay, and most were of very similar shape and
weight (between 670 and 800 grammes), although one much larger and
more hemispherical piece weighed a good deal more.
Sunk this phase there were also numerous pits, one of which
contained fragments from at least seven very large jars, and from pits in
this area we also recovered pieces of Monastic Ware, including
the piece with painted crosses illustrated as (Fig. 6.)
The Sol/ilc/ing: Be/ml' Leve/III
Because the summit of the mound is covered by thick Byzantine
deposits, the pre-Classical levels are easily accessible only round its
sides. Sornc work was done in 1995 on the East side, in R18 outside the
fortification wall, and in Il4 on the West side: these will be deseribed
briefly below. The major work of the season was concentrated on the
of the tepe. Here the lowest level reached in H20c, at
the base of a robber trench dug some decades ago clandestinely by
villagers, is at +90.76m, so 10m below the top of the mound and no more
than 1.35m above the natural conglomerate rock, which outcrops nearby
at +89.40m. It must therefore be the first or nearly the first occupation
level at the site. This lowest !eve1 has not yet been excavated, merely
observed in the eress-seetion of the pir. Above it, also observed in
cross-section, there seem to be the remnants of solid burnt mud-brick
masonry (provisionally designated "phase g"), standing in places up to
Im high. These must deriye from the desu-uction by fire of a substantia!
of Early Bronze Age date, at present we
have no ceramic to this. Immediate1y above this a
subsequent Early Bronze Age layer, yielding potteryand flints, was
designated "phase f", and above this again is building level
("phase e"), with plastered mud-brick walls on stone foundations,
standing 0.65m high. Among the pottery recovered from this phase are a
red-cross bow1 (Fig. 7), and the lower of a vessel decorated with
incised chevrons, which has close parallels among Iate Early Bronze Age
pottery on Cyprus (Fig. 8)3 AIso from here came a sandstone mould for
(3) For one instance of incised tulip-shaped bowls Dr. D. Collon reters me to D. Frankel, Cor-
pus of Cypriorc Antiquitics 7: Earlyand Mideilc Bronzc Age material in the Mu-
seum. Oxford in XX:7. Gothcnburg 1983), PI. 21.
444
copper weapons (KLT 60), and several of the rare flint implements so far
recovered from the site. Immediately abave this was "phase d", anather
burned building from the end of the Early Bronze Age two rooms of
were excavated in i 994. To east of two
conternporary deposits were cleared, exposing no new
features but locating a cluster of over 20 clay loom-weights lying among
other burnt material on what was presumably a courtyard floor.
Levellll: The Late Bronze Age
No Middle Bronze Age material c") was excavated this
season, but Late Bronze Age Ievels, first encountered in 120 in 1994,
were followed further south, and also exposed in J20 to the east and HI9
to the south-west, In the main area excavated, a courtyard or open space,
we can now distinguish two Late Bronze Age phases. On the lower
surface the tumbled of the mud-brick walls were lying:
the ceramic material associated with this consists predorninantly of
unpainted wares, many shallow bowls with internal rims, and
fragments of fine red wares !ibation arms. These are
attributable to the time of the later Hittite empire, when we are sure that
the Gksu valley fell within the frontiers of the empire, or at least of the
kingdom of Tarhuntassa-, and well stratified layers with the same types
were in HI 9b to the south-west, The upper phase in I20 was also
marked by burning, but here the black ashy deposits may have come
from an oven in nOa, at the eastem end of the openspace, and were
notable for including carbonized hazelnuts and particularly a quantity of
carbonized figs, which from their shape and their central perforations had
evidentiy been stored dried on a string, a practice attested textually for
Mesoporamia in the 3rd millennium' and still current in the region today.
To the west of the courtyard wall the small area currently accessible
was excavated to the upper Late Bronze Age level, exposing a
probably interior surface with the base of a large jar still in situ.
Surrounding this on the floor were sherds of a thick clayey coating which
must once have surrounded the jar, and which shows within its thickness
the impression of a cane or sirnilar round the clay
coating had been formed. Running above the walls of this room is
stratified associated a short stretch of stone wall (Wall 108)
(4) Sce Hawkins, Studies 45 (1995) 144-146.'
(5) See Ll. Gclb, Zikir Assyriological Studies preserued to F.R. Kraus (Leiden 1982),
67-82.
445
which is all we have at present of a still later phase, which promises to be
betwecn the Hittite levels and the following Iron
Age. Unfortunately it is at present impossible to correlate these building
phases directly with the material in 120, because of the many large pits
concentrated in the SE corner of 120 and adjacent space. However, the
sherd corpus associated with Wall 108 and recovered from these pits is
clearly distinct from the earlier phases of Level III. Most types continue,
but we note for instance much less red ware, an absence of
libation arms, and the appearance of bands of red paint on bowls and jars,
and simple red painted patterns on a few jar sherds, foreshadowing later
Iron Age types at the site. From one of the pits, apparently the earliest in
the series, came a bifacial lentoid stamp seal in dark red stone, with the
name Minuwazi in Hittite hieroglyphs on each face (KLT 40; Fig. 9).
Level//: The Iron Age
Levels belonging to this transitional period have been
reached elsewhere on the site, principally in R18 on the eastern slope just
outside the fortification wall. Here the wall itself is constructed above a
pebble-based hearth of a type characteristic of Level II at the north-west
end, and this hearth stands at the top of a succession of horizontal
deposits much cut by regular circular pits of the same type as in 120.
Pottery from here, and from the scraps of mud-brick architecture
immediately below this "pit phase" shows some continuity with the Late
Bronze Age repertoire, but also a number of new features, including an
increased use of painted decoration, mainly rather carelessly executed in
red paint on hand-made jars (e.g. Fig. 10) but also some tidier designs in
black on a light background. Some of the Middle Iron Age wares
attested among the Kilise Tepe surface material, notably concentric
circles or "targets" and bichrome design s known at Tarsus (Fig. 11), are
absent here, suggesting that these RI 8 layers must belong in time
between the Late Bronze Age and the Middle Iron Age, but we are not
yet in a position to determine how many ceramic periods can be
distinguished, nor whether theyare continuous or there is an
in the sequence. Similar material also comes from the bottom of the
sounding dug in K14a, at a level of approximately +97.40m, where the
undifferentiated later levels give way to a well defined layer of fine
orange-brown sandy material. to the west, on the very of the
mound, in I14a/b the highest well preserved structure was associated
with a floor lying at approximately +97m. In this same square, sealed by
the floor of a Byzantine house, we came unexpectedly on a massiye
V-shaped ditch or pit cut through the Iron Age levels: it is at least 3.50 m
446
in and 5.20m in width from west to east, with steep sides. It has
been backfilled from the west side with large, very loosely tumbled,
stones mixed with layers of discarded occupation debris a
considerable amount of animal bone. Both stratigraphically and from the
ceramic material, this ditch would appear to date to the later Iron Age,
but we have not yet identified any other deposits of this date elsewhere.
The same affects the end of the tepe. Here
below the Byzantine Level i material the next coherent remains are a
Level II building stratum excavated in K19/20 and J19/20 (Fig. 4). The
walls of this stratum are generally of plastered mud-brick on stone
foundations, and throughout the area excavated they had been destroyed
by a conflagration which has blackened the wall and floor plaster and left
the roorns filled with large quantities of bunu mud-brick mixed with ash,
and Iying up to 0.70m deep on the floors. The structures so far excavated
appear to belong t two main units on different alignments, provisionally
called Units A and B. Unit B is principally represented by a long wall in
K20 running north-east to south-west: to its south-east there is a
triangular courtyard area (Rooms II and 12) part of which, containing a
number of fire has been closed off by two short walls at
(Room 10). The south-west side of the courtyard is formed
by another long wall which ran from the south-east corner of K20 to the
centre of I20. Its face delimits the whereas its
south-west face the wall of two rooms of Unit A with plastered
floors. The floor of Room 2 lies at +99.10 m, lower than the
and directly beneath a considerable depth of architectural debris.
To its west lies Room i whose end has been removed by the
erosion of the mound and later cuts; where its floor survives it is well
plastered but slopes very steeply down to the north, probably as a result
of subsidence into an earlier pit. Against the east wall of Room 1 was a
plastered bench, standing 0.30 m above the floor, and built to
accommodate a pottery jar, part of which survives in situ. On
north-west face of this bench is a faint design in red paint. The
debris in Unit A can be seen to have continued further south
into J19, where there are also fragments of walls surviving at
the same Ievel, but the details of architecture here are too much cut
about by pits to yield a coherent plan at present.
Above the walls and fill of Dnits A a