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Ertek, G. (2007).

"Teaching warehousing concepts through interactive animations and 3D


models," in Facility Logistics: Approaches and Solutions to Next Generation Challenges, Editor:
Maher Lahmar. Auerbach.
Note: This is the final draft version of this paper. Please cite this paper (or this final draft) as
above. You can download this final draft from http://research.sabanciuniv.edu.

Teaching Warehousing Concepts through Interactive Animations
and 3-D Models
Grdal Ertek

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences
Sabanci University
Istanbul, Turkey


Chapter 11
Tcacbing Warcbousing
Conccpts tbrougb
lntcractivc Animations
and 3-D ModcIs
GurdaI Ertck
CONTFNTS
11.1 lntroJuction ................................................................................................. 292
11.2 Posourcos lor Warohousing EJucation ....................................................... 293
11.3 SoloctoJ Tochnologios anJ Toaching Approach......................................... 298
11.3.1 lntoractivo Animations ................................................................... 298
11.3.2 3-D VoJols ..................................................................................... 298
11.3.3 Toaching Approach........................................................................ 299
11.4 PolatoJ Work................................................................................................ 299
11.5 Toaching WorlJ-Class Warohousing Concopts (VoJulo 1) ........................ 300
11.5.1 Samplo Animation 1: OrJor-Picking Schomos .............................. 300
11.5.2 Samplo Animation 2: Pick-to-Iight Systom ................................... 300
11.5.3 Samplo 3-D VoJol ......................................................................... 304
11.6 Toaching Hov to Savo Warohouso Spaco (VoJulo 2) ............................... 305
11.6.1 Samplo Animation 3....................................................................... 306
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291
11. Othor Possillo Tochnologios anJ Approachos........................................... 30
11..1 3-D Virtual Warohousos ................................................................. 30
11..2 360 Panoramic Sconos .................................................................. 308
11..3 VoJia-EnhancoJ Caso StuJios....................................................... 308
11..4 Soltvaro Domonstration ViJoos.................................................... 308
11.8 Conclusions.................................................................................................. 309
11.9 luturo Work ................................................................................................. 310
AcknovloJgmonts.................................................................................................. 310
Poloroncos............................................................................................................... 311
Abstract A signilicant challongo in toaching varohousing anJ lacility
logistics is convoying tho important managorial anJ oporational concopts
to stuJonts olloctivoly. Thoso concopts alvays involvo tho prosonco anJ
intoractions ol roal-vorlJ oljocts such as lacilitios, vohiclos, matorials, stor-
ago anJ rotrioval oouipmont, anJ most importantly humans. Voanvhilo,
knovloJgo in tho montionoJ liolJs Joos not only consist ol concopts anJ
principlos lut also incluJos algorithms that solvo a varioty ol prolloms
oncountoroJ in practico. Trying to communicato this loJy ol knovloJgo in
vorJs vith tho holp ol photos anJ Jravings lroouontly provos insulliciont.
ln toaching his varohousing coursos tho author has roalizoJ that a sot ol
oJucational moJia composoJ ol intoractivo animations anJ virtual throo-
Jimonsional (3-D) moJols inJooJ lacilitatos tho challongos JoscriloJ oarlior.
Extonsivo oJucational moJia has loon JovolopoJat Salanci Univorsity in
a coorJinatoJ ollort ol unJorgraJuato stuJonts unJor tho suporvision ol tho
author, anJ vith tho support ol a multimoJia oxport. Tho moJia contont has
loon soloctoJ anJ organizoJ such that it can support anJ onrich classos anJ
coursos that voulJ lo lasoJ on tvo oxtromoly usolul looks, ono on implo-
monting vorlJ-class practicos invarohousing, anJtho othor on stratogios lor
saving spaco in tho varohouso. Tho JovolopoJ matorials aro lrooly availallo
on tho lntornot toovoryono, anJaro oxpoctoJto contriluto to tho avaronoss,
rocognition, anJ grovth ol tho liolJs ol varohousing anJ lacility logistics.
ln this chaptor tho oJucational matorials JovolopoJ, tho rationalo lor tho
tochnology soloctions, anJ tho toaching mothoJs in class aro oxplainoJ.
Voanvhilo, rosourcos lor varohousing oJucation aro roviovoJ oxtonsivoly
anJ potontial nov tochnologios anJ approachos aro highlightoJ.
11.1 lntroduction
ln a supply chain, physical proJucts aro JolivoroJ lrom thoir origin
points (sourcos) to thoir Jostination points (sinks) through transshipmont
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292

IaciIitv Ioistics
points. Warohousos aro critical compononts vithin supply chains, locauso
thoy may oxist in all thoso throo sots ol points anJ
AQ1
signilicantly impact
linancial anJ sorvico porlormanco ol supply chains. As ol 1995, thoro
voro an ostimatoJ 550,000 varohousos in tho UnitoJ Statos alono (AnJol,
1995). AccorJing to tho Vatorial HanJling lnJustry ol Amorica (VHlA)', an
inJoponJont organization lor varohousing prolossionals, tho consump-
tion ol matorial hanJling anJ logistics oouipmont anJ systoms in Amorica
oxcooJs $125 lillion por yoar, anJ proJucors omploy in oxcoss ol 00,000
vorkors.`` Thus tho lost oJucation ol varohousing prolossionals anJ tho
aJoouato Josign, implomontation, anJ oporation ol varohousos may havo a
largo positivo impact on tho oconomy.
Tho main goal ol this chaptor is to proviJo roaJors vith nov porspoc-
tivos on toaching varohousing anJ matorial hanJling. lor this purposo,
lirstly, oxisting rosourcos lor varohousing oJucation aro introJucoJ anJ
JiscussoJ. Noxt, a projoct carrioJ out at Salanci Univorsity, lstanlul, Turkoy
is prosontoJ. This continuing projoct has so lar rocoivoJ contrilutions lrom
11 unJorgraJuato stuJonts at Salanci Univorsity, anJ aims at Jovoloping
oJucational matorials lor varohousing. Until nov, tho projoct has involvoJ
tho Jovolopmont ol 31 animations that oxplain varohousing concopts, anJ
33 throo-Jimonsional (3-D) moJols ol varohousing oouipmont. linally,
othor altornativo tochnologios anJ approachos that can lo usoJ in varo-
housing oJucation aro proposoJ.
11.2 kcsourccs for Warcbousing Fducation
ln this soction, tho various varohousing oJucation rosourcos availallo in-
print anJ onlino aro roviovoJ. Thoso rosourcos havo loon JovolopoJ or
thoir Jovolopmont has loon suporvisoJ ly prolossional organizations, pul-
lishors, soltvaro companios, or univorsity prolossors. Tho rosourcos aro
sortoJ, lasoJ on a suljoctivo comlinoJ assossmont ol thoir ouality, accos-
silility, onlino availalility, cost, applicalility, anJ rolovancy to tho vork
JoscriloJ in this chaptor, as porcoivoJ ly tho author.
Tho look usoJ as tho toxtlook lor tho VS 420: Storago anJ Distrilution
Systoms`` courso at Salanci Univorsity is Wcrld-clcss Wcrc/cvsiuv cud
Mctcricl Hcudliuv ly lrazollo (2001). lt is suggostoJ that tho look Hct
tc Sctc Wcrc/cvsc Stccc. 15 1cstcd 1cc/uiqvcs, pullishoJ ly Distrilution
Group

also lo usoJ in varohousing anJ supply-chain coursos. Tho oJu-


cational matorials JoscriloJ in this chaptor aro JosignoJ to support thoso
tvo looks.
' http:vvv.mhia.org

http:vvv.Jistrilutiongroup.com
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1cachin Warchousin Conccpts throuh |ntcractivc Animations

293
VHlA' is a loaJing prolossional organization that sorvos varohousing
anJ supply-chain community. Tho VHlA caso stuJios Wol pago

contains
lriol caso stuJios that summarizo implomontations ol automatoJ storago
rotrioval systoms (ASPS) at companios anJ institutions in vory Jivorso
inJustrios. Articlos in tho Vatorial HanJling Classics anJ Vatorial HanJling
Porspoctivos soctions vithin tho VHlA Wol sito covor practically ovory
aspoct ol varohousing anJ matorial hanJling. Vatorial HanJling lnstituto
Bookstoro

hosts an improssivo colloction ol onlino looks anJ articlos,


vhich can lo JovnloaJoJ lroo ol chargo through rogistration.
John J. BartholJi at Goorgia lnstituto ol Tochnology
$
has maJo availallo
on his Wol sito a lroaJ colloction ol oJucational matorials lor varohousing.
Tho primary rosourco at BartholJi`s Wol sito is tho lrooly JovnloaJallo
onlino look Wcrc/cvsc c Distri/vticu Scicucc ly J.J. BartholJi anJ S.
Hackman. Tho look`s Wol sito also contains alunJant supplomontary
matorials to support tho look. Thoso incluJo soltvaro tools, past class
projocts vith all thoir rolovant matorials (such as prollom Joscriptions,
plant layouts, anJ Jatasots), virtual tours ol varohousos through photos
anJ toxt oxplanations, anJ a compiloJ list ol logistics novs. Ono ol tho
computational tools is tho Java applot BirJ`s Eyo Viov`` that visualizos a
givon location-lasoJ statistic vithin a givon varohouso. Tho applot roaJs a
Vicrosolt Excol sproaJshoot that contains a map ol tho varohouso, vith
ovory sproaJshoot coll roprosonting a soction ol racksholving or ompty
spaco. Tho colls that roprosont physical storago locations shoulJ lo laloloJ
uniouoly. Tho applot also roaJs a toxt lilo that contains tho valuos lor tho
statistic ol intorost lor ovory storago location. Onco tho color schomo is
soloctoJ, tho applot Jisplays a coloroJ lirJ`s oyo viov ol a varohouso,
vhoro tho storago locations aro paintoJ lasoJ on thoir valuos lor tho givon
statistic. BartholJi`s Wol sito also contains oxtonsivo inlormation on luckot
lrigaJos, a mothoJ ol organizing vorkors on an assomlly lino that rosults in
soll-lalancing ol tho lino.
Collogo-lnJustry Council on Vatorial HanJling EJucation (ClCVHE)

is
a prolossional organization vhich proparos anJ proviJos inlormation,
toaching matorials anJ various ovonts in support ol matorial hanJling
oJucation anJ rosoarch.`` EJucational rosourcos availallo at tho council`s
Wol sito incluJo 16 caso stuJios, 13 locturo rosourcos, classroom moJulos, a
list ol toxtlooks, anJ a list ol spocialty sitos vith tools lor varohousing
matorial-hanJling oJucators. Tho council also hosts tho Vatorial HanJling
' http:vvv.mhia.org

http:vvv.mhia.orgotot_caso_stuJios.clm

http:vvv.mhiastoro.org
$
http:vvv2.isyo.gatoch.oJupooplolacultyJohn_BartholJi

http:vvv.mhia.orgotET_VHl_ClCVHE_Homo.clm
Lahmar / Facility Logistics AU8518_C011 Page Proof page 294 13.8.2007 12:15pm Compositor Name: JGanesan
294

IaciIitv Ioistics
Taxonomy' Wol pagos that havo loon JovolopoJ ly Vichoal G. Kay at
North Carolina Stato Univorsity. Thoso Wol pagos aro availallo unJor Kay`s
ovn Wol sito,

as voll. This vory viJo colloction ol Wol pagos proviJos


taxonomy ol matorial-hanJling oouipmont, accompanioJ vith lriol inlor-
mation lor anJ picturos ol ovory oouipmont.
Vatorial HanJling VultimoJia Bank

is JovolopoJ ly Bonoit Vontrouil,


PicharJ Iogaro, anJ Jonathan BoucharJ at tho Univorsito Iaval, CanaJa.
Tho multimoJia lank contains a rich colloction ol picturos anJ viJoos,
losiJos application guiJos anJ inlormation on vonJor companios.
Anothor rosourco availallo on tho lntornot is tho lntoractivo Warohouso
$
a Java applot croatoJ ly Koos Jan PooJlorgon, a prolossor at Erasmus
Univorsity. Tho lntoractivo Warohouso allovs usors to loarn alout
algorithms lor orJor-pickor routing. Tho applot is lasoJ on an articlo ly
PooJlorgon anJ Do Kostor (2001). Tho applot valks tho usor through tho
stops ol sotting a varohouso layout, croating an orJor, manually croating a
routo, running ono ol tho knovn routing algorithms, anJ vioving
tho rosults.
Mcdcru Mctcricls Hcudliuv

anJ Icvistics Mcucvccut


=
aro tvo
inlluontial anJ valuallo traJo magazinos that can lo lrooly sulscriloJ
onlino (lolloving an ovaluation procoss). Onco sulscriloJ, ono can
roaJ tho lull oloctronic vorsions ol tho magazino issuos anJ can ovon
JovnloaJ tho issuos in AJolo Acrolat (.pJl) lormat. Both magazinos
ollor a voalth ol inlormation on varohousing, matorial hanJling, anJ
supply-chain managomont.
Mcdcru Mctcricls Hcudliuv magazino has also maJo availallo onlino''
sovoral guiJolino Jocumonts that contain varohouso Josign plans anJ
iJoas. Thoso guiJolinos havo tho lolloving thomos: Picking stratogios,
valuo-aJJoJ sorvicos, vorlJ-class varohouso proJuctivity, lacility layouts
lor thirJ-party logistics, anJ vorlJ-class lacility layouts lor o-commorco.
Distrilution Group

is a proviJor ol usolul practical inlormation anJ


novs lor Jistrilution prolossionals arounJ tho vorlJ. Soction 6 in this
chaptor Joscrilos tho oJucational matorials JovolopoJ to support tho look
Hct tc Sctc Wcrc/cvsc Stccc. 15 1cstcd 1cc/uiqvcs (Kuchta, 2004

).
' http:vvv.mhia.orgotmho_tax.htm

http:vvv.iso.ncsu.oJukaymhotax

http:vvv.contor.ulaval.camhmultimoJialank
$
http:vvv.rooJlorgon.comvarohouso

http:vvv.mmh.com
=
http:vvv.logisticsmgmt.com
'' http:vvv.contontconvorgonco.com2001voltocmain.htm

http:vvv.Jistrilutiongroup.com

http:vvv.Jistrilutiongroup.comhtsvs.php
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1cachin Warchousin Conccpts throuh |ntcractivc Animations

295
Dosch Dosign' is a soltvaro company that proviJos computor graphics
proJucts, incluJing 3-D moJols, toxturos, visualizations, imagos, anJ movio
clips lor liconso lroo`` uso ly companios. Tho lnJustrial Oljocts V2``
proJuct

croatoJ anJ markotoJ ly tho company contains 3-D moJols ol


inJustrial oljocts anJ oouipmont lrom vorkshop, lactory, anJ varohouso
onvironmonts. Tho 3-D moJols como in a varioty ol 3-D graphic lormats anJ
havo vory high ouality. Vany ol tho oljocts anJ oouipmont availallo in tho
montionoJ proJuct voro not moJoloJ vithin tho scopo ol our projoct.
Thoroloro, tho usago ol this proJuct is suggostoJ to support tho oJucational
matorials JoscriloJ horo. Tho company also ollors tho Utility Vohiclos``
proJuct,

vhich incluJos 3-D moJols ol a truck, a trailor, anJ a lorklilt.


Joroon van Jon Borg Consulting,
$
is a consulting company in tho Nothor-
lanJs that spocializos in varohousing anJ logistical inlormation systoms.
Tho company`s Wol sito contains sovoral pullications incluJing manago-
mont outlook roports anJ journal articlos. UnJor tho Posoarch link at tho
Wol sito ono can linJ WOIl, an onlino program lor computing tho suit-
alility ol -50 varohouso managomont systoms (WVS) lor a givon
company. Tho systom takos as input, ansvors to sovoral ouostions, incluJ-
ing rogion, numlor ol varohousing stall, varohouso surlaco aroa, anJ
orJor linos por Jay. Thon a computational ongino is run anJ tho WVS
proJucts availallo in tho WOIl Jatalaso aro rankoJ lrom most suitallo to
tho loast, accompanioJ vith scoros that Jonoto thoir suitalility. This is tho
only tool that vas lounJ on tho lntornot that proviJos such a Jocision-
support capalility. Vany consulting companios soll rosoarch roports that
proviJo similar inlormation lor a prico in tho scalo ol hunJroJs ol U.S.
Jollars. Thus tho WOIl tool is a highly usolul oxamplo ol Jocision support
lor tochnology anJ soltvaro soloction.
Tho Progross Group

proviJos logistics anJ ospocially varohousing


consultancy, anJ is lasoJ in Goorgia, UnitoJ Statos. Tho Pullications link
on tho company`s Wol sito loaJs to a compilation ol insightlul vhito papors
anJ articlos.
Tompkins Associatos
=
is a varohousing anJ supply-chain consulting
lirm lasoJ in North Carolina, UnitoJ Statos. Tho company Wol sito has a
varioty ol pullications availallo lor JovnloaJ unJor tho Pullications link.
' http:vvv.JoschJosign.com

http:vvv.JoschJosign.comproJucts3JlnJustrial_Oljocts_V2.html

http:vvv.JoschJosign.comproJucts3JD3D_Utility_Vohiclos.html
$
http:vvv.jvJlconsulting.com

http:vvv.thoprogrossgroup.com
=
http:vvv.tompkinsinc.com
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296

IaciIitv Ioistics
Thoso incluJo supply chain oJgo articlos,`` monographs, anJ vhito papors.
Tho Tompkins Pross looks aro also listoJ unJor tho Pullications link.
Armstrong 8 Associatos lnc.' is a supply-chain markot rosoarch anJ
consulting lirm lasoJ in Wisconsin, UnitoJ Statos. Tho company has a
listing ol its guiJos anJ rosoarch roports on its Wol sito.

Kock Virtual lactory Ial at Goorgia lnstituto ol Tochnology

hosts
tvo intoractivo tutorials on matorial-hanJling systoms, ono on ASPS
Josign anJ tho othor on lrom-to-chart`` analysis lor proJuct routings. Tho
tutorials havo loon JovolopoJ unJor tho suporvision ol Guntor Sharp at
Goorgia lnstituto ol Tochnology anJ Bala Pam at North Carolina A8T
Univorsity.
Hkplanot.not Ioarning Contor,
$
a portal croatoJ ly HK Systoms,

is proviJor ol matorial-hanJling solutions lor varohousing anJ manu-


lacturing systoms. This portal hosts a soloction ol inJustry articlos
anJ prosontations lrom Vatorial-HanJling 8 Iogistics Conloroncos. Tho
Virtual Warohouso
=
that can lo JovnloaJoJ lrom this Wol sito can
lo intoractivoly lrovsoJ through a joystick or mouso, anJ is a vonJorlul
oxamplo ol hov virtual 3-D onvironmonts can lo usoJ lor varohousing
oJucation. Tho HK Systoms Wol sito also contains various rosourcos,
incluJing vhito papors
''
anJ viJoos,

vhich can lo usoJ in toaching


varohousing.
Horagu ot al. (2003) roport tho Jovolopmont ol a multimoJia systom lor
varohousingmatorial-hanJling classos. Tho systom toachos ton principlos
ol matorials hanJling anJ throo oouipmont catogorios. Tho systom also
Jopicts tho inJustrial applications ol somo ol tho soloctoJ oouipmont in
oach ol tho throo oouipmont catogorios anJ toachos ouantitativo mothoJs
lor solving lacility Josign anJ tochnology soloction prolloms. Tho authors
also prosont rosults ol a lormal ovaluation ol tho systom anJ its moJulos
through survoys anJ intorviovs. Thoy roport that an ovorvholming num-
lor ol stuJonts porcoivoJ thoir intoraction vith tho moJulos to lo a valu-
allo oxporionco.`` Tho oJucational systom is JistrilutoJ on a compact Jisc
vith tho titlo 10 Principlos ol Vatorials HanJling`` anJ can lo purchasoJ via
tho VHlA Storo.

' http:vvv.3plogistics.com

http:vvv.3plogistics.comshopsitoinJox.html

http:lactory.isyo.gatoch.oJumhs
$
http:vvv.hkplanot.notloarning_contor

http:vvv.hksystoms.com
=
http:vvv.hkplanot.notloarning_contorvirtual_varohouso.clm
''
http:vvv.hksystoms.comPESOUPCESvhitopapors.clm?m48s1

http:vvv.hksystoms.comPESOUPCESmultimoJia.clm?m58s1

http:vvv.mhiastoro.org
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1cachin Warchousin Conccpts throuh |ntcractivc Animations

297
11.3 ScIcctcd TccbnoIogics and Tcacbing Approacb
ln this soction, tho soloctoJ tochnologios lor croating tho intoractivo anima-
tions anJ tho virtual oouipmont moJols aro oxplainoJ. Thon tho toaching
approach lollovoJ in class vith tho toaching matorials is outlinoJ.
11.3.1 tnteractive Animationv
llash tochnology ly AJolo' anJ tho AJolo llash authoring soltvaro havo
loon soloctoJ in croating tho intoractivo animations. Cortain signilicant
aJvantagos ol tho llash tochnology anJ AJolo llash soltvaro playoJ rolo
in our soloction incluJo:

Tho llash animations (vith lilo oxtonsion ol .svl) that aro croatoJ using
AJolo llash can lo playoJ lrom vithin almost any oporating systom.
Thoso animations can also lo accossoJ ovor tho lntornot anJ lo playoJ
vithin almost any Wol lrovsor that has a llash Playor aJJ-in.

A groat porcontago ol lntornot usors alroaJy havo llash Playor


installoJ on thoir computors.

Tho llash animation lilos (vith tho .svl oxtonsion) havo vory small
sizos, Juo to tho uso ol voctor graphics.

Tho AJolo Corporation has a vory strong prosonco on tho lntornot


anJ a groat inlluonco in tho soltvaro inJustry. Tho voll-knovn
AJolo Acrolat lormat (.pJl lilos) is tho almost-univorsal Jocumont
lormat in tho acaJomic anJ lusinoss vorlJ.

Tho action script`` programming languago vithin VacromoJia


llash onallos Jovolopors to croato oasy-to-uso graphical usor intor-
lacos (GUl) anJ ollors many ol tho capalilitios ol gonoral-purposo
programming languagos, such as C

.
ln Josigning anJ implomonting tho animations, spocial attontion vas givon
to making suro that all tho animations sharo tho samo usor-intorlaco
olomonts: Tho samo sot ol luttons, samo sot ol lont sizos, anJ tho samo
hoight-to-voight ratios voro usoJ in all tho animations. lt is loliovoJ that
this approach holps tho usors to porcoivo tho animations JovolopoJ ly
Jilloront pooplo as compononts ol an intogratoJ vholo.
11.3.2 3-D Modelv
Tho SoliJWorks soltvaro vas soloctoJ lor Jovoloping tho 3-D moJols ol
varohousing oouipmont. Tho main critoria that JotorminoJ this soloction
' http:vvv.aJolo.com
Lahmar / Facility Logistics AU8518_C011 Page Proof page 298 13.8.2007 12:15pm Compositor Name: JGanesan
298

IaciIitv Ioistics
voro tho oaso ol loarning anJ tho popularity ol tho soltvaro. Tho lact that
SoliJWorks soltvaro haJ loon alroaJy voll knovn ly somo ol tho stuJonts
in tho projoct also playoJ an important rolo in our linal Jocision.
11.3.3 Teachin Approach
Tho matorial JoscriloJ in this chaptor has loon usoJ vhilo toaching tho VS
420: Storago anJ Distrilution Systoms`` courso at Salanci Univorsity in
Spring 2006 somostor. Tho courso is olloroJ to sonior anJ junior stuJonts
anJ has no proroouisitos. Tho stuJonts havo loon oxposoJ to tho moJia
rolatoJ vith VoJulo 1 (WorlJ-Class Warohousing anJ Vatorial HanJling)
tvico throughout tho class. Tho animations anJ 3-D moJols havo loon
shovn to tho stuJonts ly tho instructor (tho author ol this chaptor) as part
ol tho locturos. Thon, in a soparato tvo-hour sossion, tho stuJonts havo
loon roouostoJ to lring thoir laptops to class vith tho AJolo llash Playor
anJ SoliJWorks Viovor soltvaro installoJ anJ tho animations anJ tho 3-D
moJols JovnloaJoJ. ln this soconJ oxposuro, tho stuJonts intoractivoly
oxploroJ oach ol tho animations anJ 3-D moJols in Jotail, vhilo tho
instructor oxplainoJ oach ol tho concopts anJ oouipmont onco again.
Tho author loliovos that such an approach is much moro rolust in toach-
ing tho concopts anJ animations to stuJonts at a univorsity vhoro English is
not tho nativo languago ol tho stuJonts. Hovovor, this hypothosis has to lo
tostoJ through lormal stuJios.
Tho animations in VoJulo 2 (Hov to Savo Warohouso Spaco) havo loon
shovn to stuJonts only onco, in anothor tvo-hour hanJs-on sossion vhoro
tho stuJonts intoractivoly oxploroJ oach ol tho VoJulo 2 animations vhilo
listoning to tho instructor`s oxplanations.
11.4 kcIatcd Work
Ono can linJ papors in onginooring-oJucation litoraturo that prosont
improssivo animation-lasoJ oJucational matorials in various liolJs ol ongin-
ooring. Ioung ot al. (2001) roport tho Jovolopmont anJ classroom uso ol an
animatoJ-simulation packago to toach oloctromagnotic thoory. Ong anJ
Vannan (2002) Joscrilo a Wol-lasoJ coursovaro to toach concopts
anJ principlos in motalvorking, locusing on motallurgy aspocts. Thoir
systom is JovolopoJ using AJolo llash (as in our vork) togothor vith
Vicrosolt lront Pago Wol authoring systom. Anothor systom is JovolopoJ
ly Ettounoy ot al. (2000) lor tho Josign anJ simulation ol thormal
Josalination procoss. Thoir systom has loon usoJ oxtonsivoly in graJuato,
unJorgraJuato, anJ training classos vith groat succoss.
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299
Ono can also linJ oxamplos ol acaJomic vork vhoro virtual 3-D moJols
havo loon usoJ: Ou ot al. (2003) Joscrilo tho implomontation ol a Wol-
lasoJ virtual roality systom that lacilitatos toaching ol computor-aiJoJ
Josign (CAD).
11.5 Tcacbing WorId-CIass Warcbousing Conccpts
(ModuIc 1)
lor VoJulo 1 ol tho oJucational matorials, intoractivo animations anJ 3-D
moJols havo loon JovolopoJ lor toaching varohousing concopts anJ
matorial-hanJling oouipmont. This moJulo is intonJoJ to support tho
look Wcrld-clcss Wcrc/cvsiuv cud Mctcricl Hcudliuv.
11.5.1 Sample Animation 1: Order-Pickin Schemev
This animation summarizos tho picking schomos in a varohouso, as
oxplainoJ in lrazollo (2001). lroo-lorm picking takos placo vhon thoro is
no zoning in tho varohouso. ln this sconario, tvo possililitios aro singlo-
orJor picking anJ latch picking (liguro 11.1a). ln singlo-orJor picking,
tho orJor pickor travols on a nov routo to pick oach nov orJor (liguro
11.1l). ln latch picking, tho orJor pickor picks tvo or moro orJors on tho
samo routo.
ln zono picking, oach orJor pickor is allocatoJ to a particular zono,
anJ is rosponsillo ol picking tho orJors in his or hor zono. Bocauso tho
itoms vithin tho samo orJor may lo pickoJ at Jilloront zonos simultan-
oously, thoro is a nooJ to comlino thoso picks into a singlo vholo. Tvo
stratogios to achiovo this aro progrossivo assomlly anJ Jovnstroam sorta-
tion. ln progrossivo assomlly, tho lirst orJor pickor picks tho itoms in an
orJor that rosiJo in his or hor zono, anJ puts tho toto or lox containing tho
incomploto orJor to tho origin point lor tho soconJ zono (liguro 11.1c). Tho
noxt orJor pickor soizos vhat tho procoJing orJor pickor has accumulatoJ
anJ continuos picking tho itoms in tho orJor that rosiJo in his or hor rogion.
ln Jovnstroam-sortation stratogy, tho orJor pickor in oach zono loavos
tho incomploto orJor, that ho or sho pickoJ, into a convoyor, anJ tho
convoyor carrios tho totos or loxos to a sortation point (liguro 11.1J).
11.5.2 Sample Animation 2: Pick-to-Liht Syvtem
OrJor picking in most varohousos involvos minimal tochnology. A typical
orJor-picking tour starts vith rocoipt ol a picking list, vhich Jisplays
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300

IaciIitv Ioistics
(a)
(b)
Freeform picking/singIe order picking
Figurc 11.1 Animation for iIIustrating picking scbcmcs in a warcbousc.
(ccutiuvcd )
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301
(c)
Freeform picking/Progressive AssembIy
(d)
Freeform Picking/Downstream Sortation
Figurc 11.1 (continucd)
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302

IaciIitv Ioistics
tho itom numlor (also rolorroJ to as stock-kooping unit (SKU) numlor), tho
itom location, anJ tho numlor ol units to pick. Tho orJor pickor
sorts tho itoms to lo pickoJ in his or hor minJ, anJ thon visits oach itom`s
location to mako tho picks (liguro 11.2a). Tasks that consumo timo Juring
this classical moJo ol orJor picking aro travoling, soarching, oxtracting,
anJ Jocumonting.
Ono prollom oncountoroJ in most orJor-picking oporations is tho
orronoous picking ol itoms. A pick-to-light systom is a solution that toch-
nology ollors to roJuco tho timos lor tho montionoJ tasks anJ to roJuco
orJor-picking orrors (liguro 11.2l). ln a pick-to-light systom, an inJicator
light anJ an oloctronic numoric Jisplay inlorm tho orJor pickor on vhoro to
pick lrom anJ in vhat ouantity. Tho orJor pickor is roliovoJ lrom tho
lurJon ol soarching tho itom locations anJ-to a Jogroo-roliovoJ lrom
othor tasks. Picking orrors aro also olsorvoJ to Jocroaso vhon pick-to-light
systoms aro implomontoJ. Thus tho pick-to-light systom is a viallo option
that can roJuco costs anJ incroaso orJor-picking accuracy in a varohouso.
ln this animation, tho usor is oxpoctoJ to pick tvo soparato orJors, lirst
lrom storago locations vithout any pick-to-light systoms anJ soconJ lrom
(a)
Figurc 11.2 Fick-to-Iigbt svstcm animation.
(ccutiuvcd )
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303
storago locations vith pick-to-light systoms. Evon though tho usor is givon
pick lists in loth sconarios, orJor picking is groatly lacilitatoJ ly tho pick-to-
light systoms in tho soconJ sconario. Thus tho usor oxporioncos lirsthanJ
tho lonolits ol pick-to-light systoms.
11.5.3 Sample 3-D Model
liguro 11.3 illustratos tho 3-D moJol lor automatoJ itom-Jisponsing
machino, as viovoJ lrom vithin a Wol lrovsor. lt is roouiroJ to
install tho SoliJWorks Viovor soltvaro lolorohanJ to lo allo to viov tho
3-D moJols.
Tho automatoJ itom-Jisponsing machino is also rolorroJ to as A-lramo,
locauso it is composoJ ol tvo rovs ol Jisponsors positionoJ in tho lorm ol
tho lottor A, vith a lolt convoyor running unJornoath. Tho inlormation
rogarJing tho itoms to lo pickoJ (JisponsoJ) is communicatoJ to tho
A-lramo anJ tho Jisponsors automatically kick tho lottommost packagos
ol tho itoms to lo pickoJ onto tho convoyor. Workors continuously looJ
tho Jisponsors vith itoms pickoJ lrom othor systoms such as tho gravity
(b)
Figurc 11.2 (continucd)
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304

IaciIitv Ioistics
llov rack (as in liguro 11.3). Pick (Jisponsing) ratos vith tho A-lramo
can roach up to 2000 picks por hour. Tho A-lramo is ospocially applicallo
in inJustrios vhich roouiro high throughput ol small itoms vith unilorm
sizo anJ shapo`` (lrazollo, 2001). Ono can linJ this oouipmont loing usoJ in
varohousos lrom vhich cosmotics, vholosalo Jrugs, compact Jiscs, anJ
pullications aro JistrilutoJ.
Onco tho 3-D moJol is oponoJ lrom vithin a lrovsor, tho usor is allo
to intoractivoly oxploro tho oouipmont moJol. Zooming, panning, anJ
rotating aro somo ol tho vays in vhich tho usor can intoract vith tho
moJol. Thoso actions onallo tho usor to locus on Jotails, locus at
spocilic soctions ol tho oouipmont, anJ to olsorvo tho moJol lrom tho
lost vioving anglo.
11.6 Tcacbing How to Savc Warcbousc Spacc
(ModuIc 2)
ln this soction, a samplo animation is oxplainoJ lrom VoJulo 2, Hov to
Savo Warohouso Spaco.`` Tho animation illustratos lJoa 2 suggostoJ ly
Figurc 11.3 3-D modcI for automatcd itcm-dispcnsing macbinc (A-framc).
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1cachin Warchousin Conccpts throuh |ntcractivc Animations

305
Kuchta (2004). lt shoulJ lo notoJ that somo ol tho animations in VoJulo 2
rolloct tho iJoas prosontoJ in tho Mcdcru Mctcricls Hcudliuv magazino
(VVH, 2004).
11.6.1 Sample Animation 3
liguro 11.4 illustratos hov to savo varohouso spaco through proviJing
lriJgos ovor cross-aislos. liguro 11.4a shovs a storago llock vithout any
cross-aislos, vhich lroouontly roouiros tho orJor pickor to Jotour arounJ
tho storago llock. This causos vastoJ timo Juring orJor picking. Tho classic
solution to romoJy this prollom is to ostallish a cross-aislo that proviJos a
ouick pass vay lrom ono siJo ol tho storago llock to tho othor siJo.
Hovovor, cross-aislos aro lroouontly implomontoJ so as to consumo tho
vholo vortical spaco, rosulting in loss ol storago spaco. Tho solution is to
proviJo lriJgos ovor cross-aislos as in liguro 11.4, vhich onallos tho
roclamation ol othorviso-lost vortical spaco.
(a) Provide bridges over cross aisles for convenient access
(b) Provide bridges over cross aisles for convenient access
Bridged
cross aisle
Bridged
end of aisle
Possible
additional
storage
Figurc 11.4 Animation sbowing bow to savc warcbousc spacc tbrougb providing
bridgcs ovcr cross-aisIcs.
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306

IaciIitv Ioistics
11.7 Otbcr FossibIc TccbnoIogics and Approacbcs
ln this soction somo ol tho othor possillo tochnologios anJ approachos,
vhich can lo applioJ in Jovoloping varohousing courso matorials, aro
JiscussoJ.
11.7.1 3-D Virtual Warehouvev
lnstructors can Jovolop or contriluto to tho Jovolopmont ol 3-D virtual
onvironmonts that simulato roal-vorlJ varohousos. Thoso virtual onviron-
monts can lo croatoJ using simulation soltvaro vith 3-D visualization
capalilitios, such as AutomoJ.' Simulation moJols ol varohousing systoms
havo loon usoJ to toach simulation (StanJriJgo, 2000), anJ can as voll lo
usoJ lor toaching varohousing concopts. Ono can also luilJ tho virtual
varohousos using 3-D visualization anJ animation soltvaro lilrarios or
gamo onginos.
,
Dovolopors ol such loarning onvironmonts can loarn a
groat Joal lrom practicos ol high-prolilo companios that proviJo loarning
solutions vith intoractivo 3-D graphics. Ono such company is 3-Dsolvo.
$
Tho company proviJos soltvaro platlorms lor collalorativo simulation-
lasoJ training, incluJing implomontations through tho opon-sourco Cro-
ouot oporating systom.

Anothor vay to construct virtual varohousos is to tako 3-D photos or


lilm 3-D viJoos
=
anJ shov thom to tho stuJonts as thoy voar 3-D glassos.
Thoso picturos anJ viJoos, soon through 3-D glassos, givo tho looling ol
olsorving tho roal vorlJ. Vany HollyvooJ lilms, incluJing titlos such as
S/rc/ anJ St, Kids D Gcc Otcr aro availallo as 3-D movios anJ como
vith 3-D glassos lor homo ontortainmont. ln tho moan timo, many tochnol-
ogy companios incluJing Philips, Vitsulishi Eloctric, anJ lBV havo alroaJy
JovolopoJ prototypos lor throo-Jimonsional tolovision (3-D TV), vhich vill
rovolutionizo tho oloctronics, moJia, anJ ontortainmont inJustrios. Thoso
tolovisions onallo vioving ol high-rosolution 3-D contont vith laro oyos,
vithout tho nooJ lor any spocial apparatus such as 3-D glassos. Croating
3-D varohousing-oJucation contont lor thoso tolovisions may groatly con-
triluto to tho rocognition anJ aJvancomont ol tho liolJ ol varohousing.
' http:vvv.lrookssoltvaro.com

http:on.vikipoJia.orgvikiGamo_ongino

http:vvv.Jovmastor.notonginos
$
http:vvv.3Jsolvo.com

http:vvv.oponcroouot.org
=
http:vvv.vhurl.notpagos3Jgallory.php
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307
11.7.2 360 Panoramic Scenev
Virtual varohousos can also lo croatoJ through immorsivo 360 panoramic
sconos. A panoramic scono is constructoJ through stitching togothor a
sorios ol imagos covoring tho 360 surrounJing viov using spocializoJ
soltvaro.
', ,
Somo panorama soltvaro proJucts onallo ostallishing hypor-
links to othor sconos through hot spots vithin a givon scono. ln using this
tochnology ono can croato a multituJo ol 360 sconos vithin a varohouso
anJ can thus proviJo tho usors a virtual tour ol tho lacility.
11.7.3 Media-Fnhanced Cave Studiev
Supply-chain managomont classos typically involvo Jiscussion anJ assign-
mont ol lusinoss caso stuJios. lmplomontation ol thoso caso stuJios can
signilicantly lo onhancoJ ly Joscriling tho prolloms using animations
anJ 3-D virtual vorlJs. Caso stuJios covoring supply-chain managomont
anJ varohousing can lo lounJ in various toxtlooks, tvo ol vhich aro
ly Dornior ot al. (1998) anJ ly Simchi-Iovi ot al. (2002). Somo ol tho casos
in thoso looks aro lrom tho HarvarJ Businoss School (HBS) Casos colloc-
tion,
$
tho richost sourco ol lusinoss casos in tho vorlJ. Tvo caso stuJios
lrom tho HBS Casos colloction that aro ospocially suitallo lor aJopting in
varohousing classos aro tho lolloving:

Amazon.com`s Evrctccu Distri/vticu Strctcv,,`` ly Janico Ham-


monJ, HBS Casos no: 9-605-002

Vcl/, Pctrctiu,. Prcvvc,`` ly William Coylo anJ Jay Pao, HBS


Casos no: BAB013
lt is proposoJ that tho Jiscussion ol tho alovo tvo casos anJ othor rolovant
casos can lo onhancoJ through oJucational moJia JoscriloJ oarlior.
11.7.4 Software Demonvtration Videov
Discussion anJ toaching ol soltvaro tools aro major contrilutors totho ouality
anJ usolulnoss ol a varohousing courso. lt is suggostoJ that instructors
' http:vvv.uloaJ.comcool360

http:vvv.360Jol.com

http:vvv.oasypano.com
$
http:vvv.hlsp.harvarJ.oJul01oncasoscasos_homo.jhtml
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308

IaciIitv Ioistics
Jovolop, contriluto to tho Jovolopmont ol, or at loast uso soltvaro
Jomonstration viJoos lor toaching various soltvaro tools that aro usoJ in
varohouso planning, Josign, anJ managomont. Soltvaro packagos that can
lo taught incluJo WVS, Jocision-support soltvaro, sproaJshoots, Jatalasos,
anJ moJoling onvironmonts lor simulation anJ optimization ol varohousing
systoms. Tho soltvaro Jomonstration viJoos aro croatoJ ly lirst capturing
tho on-scroon actions anJ rocorJing any auJio input as tho usor porlorms
actions, oJiting tho capturoJ scroons anJ auJio, anJ thon linally pullishing
tho rosulting viJoos in popular multimoJia or viJoo lormats, such as .avi
anJ .svl (AJolo llash animation lormat), rospoctivoly. Onco a soltvaro
Jomonstration is rocorJoJ, it is also possillo to onhanco it ly aJJing
captions, imagos, luttons, anJ highlights. Ono highly capallo commorcial
packago that onallos croation ol soltvaro Jomonstration viJoos is AJolo
Captivato.' DomoChargo

is an altornativo commorcial packago lor croating


such viJoos: DomoChargo is availallo at a lovor prico anJ has tho aJvantago
ol croating viJoos in various lormats, incluJing Java applots. Hovovor it
lalls lohinJAJolo Captivato vithrospoct tooJiting ol capturoJscroon actions
anJ incorporating othor moJia (such as AJolo llash animations) into
tho soltvaro Jomonstrations. Tho author has lounJ this viJoo-lasoJ mothoJ
to lo much moro suporior in toaching soltvaro applications vhon comparoJ
to othor approachos, such as static tutorial Jocumonts.
11.8 ConcIusions
This chaptor prosontoJ oxisting rosourcos, somo novly JovolopoJ
rosourcos usoJ at Salanci Univorsity, anJ altornativo tochnologios anJ
approachos lor toaching varohousing anJ matorial hanJling.
Tho oJucational matorials JoscriloJ in this chaptor havo loon maJo
lrooly availallo on tho lntornot through tho VlT Iiconso.

Thoy can lo
accossoJ through tho lroo lnlormation lountain link at http:vvv.ortok.
inlo. Tho VlT Iiconso givos comploto lrooJom to anyono to uso tho matorial
in any vay ho or sho likos, suljoct to tho conJition that tho authors vill not
lo holJ liallo in any vay lrom any unlavorallo situations that might ariso.
This liconso vas soloctoJ locauso it vas lounJ to lo tho most lrooJom-
granting`` soltvaro liconso among thoso approvoJ ly tho Opon Sourco
lnitiativo.
$
' http:vvv.aJolo.comproJuctscaptivato

http:vvv.yossoltvaro.com

http:oponsourco.orgliconsosmit-liconso.html
$
http:vvv.oponsourco.orgliconsos
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309
11.9 Futurc Work
Ono luturo path to improvo tho oJucational matorial JoscriloJ horo is to
convort tho JovolopoJ 3-D moJols to othor lilo lormats so that thoy can lo
omloJJoJ into simulation soltvaro proJucts vith 3-D animation capalility,
such as AutomoJ, Arona, PromoJol, Ouost, anJ Taylor ll. lor oxamplo, tho
AutomoJ soltvaro' supports importing ol tho VPVI (.vrl), Opon lnvontor
(.iv), 3D StuJio (.3Js), AutoCAD (.Jxl), anJ IightWavo (.lvo) 3-D graphic
lormats (Avtccd 11.u Uscrs Gvidc, 2003). Hovovor tho moJols Jovol-
opoJ in our projoct aro currontly availallo in SoliJWorks graphic lormat anJ
havo to lo convortoJ to ono ol tho montionoJ lormats anJ tostoJ. This may
lo a vory timo-consuming task, locauso our trials to convort tho moJols to
VPVI lormat lrom vithin SoliJWorks rosultoJ in unsatislactory output.
Anothor luturo vork is convorting tho moJols into 3-D graphic lilo
lormats vhich onallo thom to lo omloJJoJ Jiroctly into Wol pagos,
vithout having to install spocial viovor programs. Ono notallo company
that proviJos tho tochnology lor such lunctionality is Domicron,

vhich
proviJos tho soltvaro that onallos Wol-lasoJ intoraction vith 3-D moJols
lrom vithin Java applots.
Enhancing tho intoractivo animations through roal-vorlJ viJoos, lottor
graphics, anJ lottor usor intorlacos, anJ implomonting tho tochnologios
JiscussoJ in Soction 11. aro yot othor possililitios lor luturo vork.
Ono important consiJoration lor thoso luilJing o-loarning onvironmonts
is to conlorm to voll-ostallishoJ spocilications anJ stanJarJs, such as
sharoallo contont oljoct roloronco moJol (SCOPV).

Unlortunatoly, tho
o-loarning matorials roportoJ in this chaptor voro not JovolopoJ in con-
lormanco vith any such stanJarJs. Povising tho JovolopoJ matorials anJ
tho gonoral structuro ol tho loarning moJulos accorJing to ono ol tho voll-
accoptoJ stanJarJs is honco anothor possillo aroa lor luturo vork.
AcknowIcdgmcnts
Tho author is thanklul to tho lolloving curront anJ past stuJonts ol Salanci
Univorsity lor contriluting to tho projoct JoscriloJ in this chaptor: Halil
Koskin, O

mor Gurarslan, \igit Husoyin Gulor, Hasan Sahin, Sohmuz Cacina,


Ali Can Akkas, Eron VaJon, Kivanc Kolukisa, Emir Covhori, Emir Coyhun,
Guliz Vonku, anJ Giray Haci Turan. Tho author thanks Dr. Kutluk
O

zguvon, nov at Dogus Univorsity, lor his insightlul suggostions rogarJing


' http:vvv.lrookssoltvaro.com

http:vvv.Jomicron.com

http:vvv.aJlnot.govscorm
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310

IaciIitv Ioistics
tho Josign ol tho intoractivo animations. AnJ linally, tho author thanks
Salanci Univorsity unJorgraJuato stuJonts Hakan Kalolioglu anJ Umut
Karaarslan lor thoir guiJanco in solocting tho most lrooJom-granting``
liconso, namoly tho VlT liconso, loloro making tho oJucational matorials
availallo on tho lntornot.
kcfcrcnccs
AnJol, T. (1995) Got lit lor tho luturo. 1rcustcrtcticu c Distri/vticu, 36(1), 83-9.
Avtccd 11.u Uscrs Gvidc (2003) Brooks Automation lnc., CholmslorJ, Vassa-
chussots.
Dornior, P.-P., Ernst, P., lonJor, V., anJ Kouvolis, P. (1998) Glc/cl Otcrcticus cud
Icvistics. 1ct cud ccscs. John Wiloy, Nov \ork.
lrazollo, E.H. (2001) Wcrld-clcss Wcrc/cvsiuv cud Mctcricl Hcudliuv. VcGrav-
Hill, Nov \ork.
Horagu, S.S., Gravos, P.J., Valmlorg, C.J., Jonnings, J., anJ Novman, D.I. (2003)
VultimoJia tools lor uso in matorials hanJling classos. Evrctccu }cvrucl cf
Euviuccriuv Edvccticu, 28(3), 35-393.
Kuchta, J. anJ tho stall ol Gross 8 Associatos (2004) Hct tc Sctc Wcrc/cvsc Stccc.
15 1cstcd 1cc/uiqvcs. Distrilution Group, Nov \ork.
VVH (2004) 20 Spaco Saving lJoas. Mcdcru Mctcricls Hcudliuv, January,
pp. 26-2.
Ou, S., Sung, W., Hsiao, S., anJ lan, K. (2003) lntoractivo vol-lasoJ training tool
lor CAD in a virtual onvironmont. cctvtcr Attliccticus iu Euviuccriuv
Edvccticu, 10, 182-193.
PooJlorgon, K.J. anJ Do Kostor, P. (2001) Pouting mothoJs lor varohousos vith
multiplo cross aislos. Iutcructicucl }cvrucl cf Prcdvcticu Rcsccrc/, 39,
1865-1883.
Simchi-Iovi, D., Kaminsky, P., anJ Simchi-Iovi, E. (2002) Dcsivuiuv Mcucviuv t/c
Svttl, c/ciu. VcGrav-Hill, Nov \ork.
StanJriJgo, C.P. (2000) Toaching simulation using caso stuJios, in J.A. Joinos,
P.P. Barton, K. Kang, anJ P.A. lishvick (EJs.), Prccccdiuvs cf t/c 2uuu
Wiutcr Sivlcticu ccufcrcucc. lnstituto ol Eloctrical anJ Eloctronics
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AUTHOR QUERY
[AQ1] The running head is edited from chapter title is okay. Please check.
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Lahmar / Facility Logistics AU8518_C011 Page Proof page 312 13.8.2007 12:15pm Compositor Name: JGanesan