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Transformer Manual

1. Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 General Features of Transformers Applicable Standard Technical Specifications, General Arrangement Drawing, Rating & Diagram Plate Transporting Transformers Unloading Transformers Inspection on receipt of Transformers

2. Preparing to erect the Transformer 2.1 2.2 2.3 Precautions Equipment for Erection and Commissioning Site Preparation

3. Transformer and its Components 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Fittings and Accessories Standard Fittings Terminal Arrangement General Description of Fittings and Accessories

4. Tests & Commissioning 4.1 Pre-commissioning Tests 4.1.1 Checking of Ratio, Polarity and Phase Relationship 4.1.2 Resistance measurement of windings 4.1.3 Insulation Resistance 4.1.4 Magnetizing Current and Iron loss 4.1.5 Oil 4.1.6 General Checks

Transformer Manual

5. Maintenance of the Transformer 5.1 General 5.2 Maintenance Procedure 5.2.1 Precautions 5.2.2 Physical inspection 5.2.3 Core and winding 5.2.4 Off-circuit Tap Switch 5.2.5 Gaskets 5.2.6 Bushings 5.2.7 External connections, including Earthing 5.2.8 Transformer oil 5.2.9 Precautions 5.2.10 Testing of oil 5.2.11 Crackling Test 5.2.12 Electrical strength 5.2.13 Drying of transformer 5.3 Various methods are in use of drying out the transformer 5.3.1 Hot oil circulation method 5.3.2 Short circuited drying of windings by Vacuum 5.3.3 Hot air drying 5.3.4 Caution 6. Un-tanking and Tanking details General Annexures 1) Commissioning Report 2) Maintenance Schedule 3) Factory Test Report 4) Transformer History

Transformer Manual

We introduce ourselves as a manufacturer of various types of Transformers for Electrical & Electronic Equipment. Our company was incorporated in 1988 in Collaboration with Kitamura Kiden Co. of Japan to manufacture R-Core transformers for Indian market. In last 15 years we expanded ourselves from a turnover of Rs.5 lakhs to Rs. 58 Crores. Out of this almost 50% is from Exports. We supply to customers in countries like USA, France, Germany, Israel, etc. During current financial year we expect to reach turn over of more than 100 Crores. In last 15 years we added new products every year and did backward integration to start manufacturing major raw material of Transformers like Cores, Laminations and Bobbins. Today we are considered to be one of the top 5 manufacturers in India producing more than 7 lakhs transformers every month, have ISO 9001:2000 Certification and approval of various International Standards like UL, CSA, CE, etc. As a plan of growth and expansion we started manufacturing Single Phase and 3 Phase Oil Cooled and Dry Type Distribution Transformer since last Two & Half year. In this short span we have supplied transformers to GEB, BHEL, ABB, Suzlon, Torrent, Reliance, Vestas and many other companies. We have also type test for various different capacity of transformers and we have manufacturing facility up to 2MVA transformer of 33 KV class and during year 2005 -06 we manufactured 600 MVA against install capacity of 750MVA. Our capacity is 1350 MVA per annum We have newly established state of art facility to manufacture Power Transformer up to 25 MVA, 132 KV Class. The facility is fully operational from January 2007.Our capacity is 1200 MVA per annum. We have newly established Line Production, State of the Art facility to manufacture Oil Cooled Single Phase up to 25 KVA and Three Phase Transformers up to 200 KVA. Capacity is 1500 MVA per annum.

We have established proper quality system and are committed to supply quality product to all our valued customers. The purpose of this manual is to explain how power and distribution transformers should be installed, commissioned and maintained during their service. We have also provided separately another set of drawings, including general arrangement drawings, for each transformer. All these drawings should be carefully studied before carrying out any work on the transformers supplied. They should be energized only after completing all the necessary work and pre-commissioning checks and tests described in this manual.

Transformer Manual


Core Construction The core is built with high grade non-ageing cold-rolled grain-oriented (CRGO) silicon steel lamination, which has high permeability and low hysterisis loss. A three-legged, mitred and interleaved type core construction is adopted. The yokes are rigidly bolted by core channels to ensure adequate mechanical strength and to prevent vibration during operation. Winding Construction The windings are so arranged to ensure free circulation of oil and thereby to reduce hot spots. Materials used in the assembly of the windings are in soluble, non-catalytic and chemically inactive in hot transformer oil and is not soften or otherwise affected under the operation. The windings are secured axially as well as radially with pressboard cylinders and clamp rings, so that they will not be displaced (or) deformed during short circuits. All leads from the winding to the tap-changer and bushings are rigidly supported to prevent injury from vibration. Core Coil Assembly The completed core and coil assembly is dried in a vacuum and immediately impregnated with oil after the drying process, to ensure the elimination of air and moisture with in the insulation Tank The tank is manufactured with cooling fins (corrugated tank), using a special cold rolled sheet steel, with 1.6 mm thickness. These fins have a sufficient degree of elasticity to absorb the expansion in volume of the liquid, due to the cooling medium heating (insulating oil), at the same time they provide a large dissipation surface to cool the same cooling medium. The steel thickness and the fins depth, combined with the steel wall height determine the fins elasticity and the limit of acceptable tank over pressure. The internal pressure never exceeds 0.25 kg/Cm, even under the maximum.

Transformer Manual


In addition to the instructions given in the manual, references to the following would be useful.
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Standard Spec. No. Description IS 2026 (P-1) Power Transformers (General) IS 2026 (P-2) Power transformers (Temperature rise) IS 2026 (P-3) Power transformers (Insulation level and dielectric tests) IS 2026 (P-4) Power Transformers (Terminal markings, tappings and connections) IS 2026 (P-5) Power transformers ( Transformer / reactor bushings Minimum external clearances in air) IS 2029 Bushings for alternate voltages above 1000 V IS - 3347 IS - 6600 IS - 335 IS - 1866 IS - 5216 IS - 3043 IS 5 IS - 2099 IS 3639 IS - 7421 IS - 10314 IS - 12444 IS 9335 IS 1576 IS 1271 IS 5561 IS 10028 IS 2071 (P-2) CBIP Manual Dimensions for transformer bushings (porcelain) Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers New insulating oil for transformers and switch gear Code of practice for maintenance and supervision of insulating oil in service Guide for safety procedures and practices in electrical work Code of practice for earthing Specification for colours for ready mixed paints Bushing for alternating voltage above 1000V Specification for fittings and accessories for power transformers Specification for porcelain bushings for alternating voltage upto and including 1000V Specification for ceramic bushings for terminals Specification for Cu. Wire rods Specification for insulating kraft paper Specification for insulating press board Classification of insulating materials Electric power connectors Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of transformer (Part-I, II & III) Method of high voltage testing: Part-2 test procedure Manual on transformers

Transformer Manual

SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 PARAMETERS Type of Transformer Phase Continuous Rating Rated No Load Voltage a) HV Secondary Delta b) LV Primary Star Neutral coming our through bushings Frequency Tapings a) Type b) No of positions c) Tapping Range d) Each Step Voltage Vector Group Insulation Class Winding Impulse withstand Voltage/Insulation Level with 1.2x50 micro seconds No Load Current at 100% Voltage (V Nominal) and rated frequency No Load losses at rated Voltage and Frequency Copper Losses at rated Voltage and Frequency at 75C Temperature Rise above average ambient air temp 40C:IS 2026-I clause3.1 a) Oil b) Winding Percentage Impedance at rated Frequency at 75C (Max) Terminal Arrangement a) HV b) LV No kVA Volt Volt UNIT SPECIFICATIONS Step-up Transformer with ONAN Cooling sealed with corrugation 3 950 33000 400

5 6


50 Off Circuit, Bridge 7 +/- 2.5%, +/-5%, -7.5%, -10% 2.5% Dyn11 Class A HV 170

No % % (Volt)

7 8 9

KV Peak Amp Watt Watt


10 11 12 13

< 10 Amps on LV Side (Approx.) IS Tolerance is applicable 1100 Max 10500 Max

C C %

45 55 6.0 Max -3 Nos. outdoor type bushings -4 Nos. of bushings in a cable box suitable for 10 single core 300 copper cable (3 per phase & 1-neutral) with detachable gland plate Cover mounted core coil assembly Refer Transformer drawing for sizes (EIL/E48/120-0) CRCA 1.6mm thick All the 4 sides excluding of cable box 45 min 1.6 Welded

17 18

19 20

Construction Corrugation a) b) c) d) e) Type Numbers Clearance Thickness of corrugated sheet Detachable / Welded

mm mm

Transformer Manual

SR. NO. 21

PARAMETERS Overall dimensions - Transformer - Cable Junction box


SPECIFICATIONS Following drawing of EIL dated Drawing: EIL/E48/120-0 As per sketch L 1800 mm B 1530 mm H 2325 mm 3725 1025 Kg / 1250 Liter 1650 Kg


Overall weight a) Total weight b) Total weight of oil c) Weight of the core and winding

Kg Kg Kg

Transformer Manual

Transformer Manual

Transformer Manual

1.4 TRANSPORTING TRANSFORMERS After testing and inspection at our work, transformers are dispatched to the destinations according to the mode of transport specified by the customer in the purchase order or agreement.


i) Despatch Conditions Transformers are dispatched with protection cover & packing box. They are to be stored carefully until required. For transformers dispatched, the inside pressure should not drop below the atmospheric pressure so that core and windings are not exposed to moist air. ii) Lifting Two lifting lugs are provided on the top cover of the transformer. These are designed to take the weight of the entire unit. These two lifting lugs only shall be used while handling and also in lifting the complete transformer. For identification they are painted Yellow. Transformer should be unloaded using mobile (or) overhead cranes or other lifting devices of sufficient capacity. Parts other than the lugs should not be used for lifting. Tested sling (or) ropes alone should not be used. Accessories should be handled in their right position, as shown on the cases, while handling, damage to bushing and instruments packed inside should be avoided carefully. Please refer General Arrangement (GA) Drawing and Technical Specifications for Weight & Dimensional details before unloading A) UNPACKING INSTRUCTIONS 1) REMOVE TOP COVER OF BOX ON TRUCK ITSELF 2) LIFT TRANSFORMER USING YELLOW PADS ON TOP COVER OF TRANSFORMER 3) REMOVE SIDE COVERS FROM ALL SIDES 4) UNBOLT TRANSFORMER FORM BASE OF BOX AND REMOVE BASE 5) UNPACK PLASTIC FILMS 6) INSPECT FOR DAMAGES, IF ANY

Transformer Manual

B) UNLOADING INSTRUCTION REMOVE TOP COVER AND LIFT TRANSFORMER USING YELLOW LIFTING PAD ON TOP COVER OF TRANSFORMER ii) Storage It is recommended that the transformer should be stored in a dry place where any corrosive gas does not exist. It should be stored and covered properly. Adequate care must be taken while shifting the same from the storage area, to avoid damages.


The transformers are dispatched as per the requirement. Before unloading the transformer from the carriage, examine if there is any missing parts or deformation, and if there is, inform the manufacturer before starting repair. The transformer is carefully manufactured to have sufficient strength to stand any vibration in transit, and so if no abnormality is found after checking every part, it can be operated immediately.

The transformer shall be subjected to the following pre-commissioning & erection checks / tests prior to its installation and then energize.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Standard packing list.

Visual inspection for leaks, cracks, loose nuts etc Meggar value Ratio measurement Winding continuity resistance Low voltage excitation test Test of transformer oil for break-down voltage

Transformer Manual


Transformer oil is inflammable upto 140C as per IS-335. Under certain circumstances and in a confirmed space, the oil may become explosive. Hence, naked lights and flames should never be brought or kept near the transformer.

As far as possible, no work should be carried out during the monsoon to avoid moisture absorption by the transformer. Extreme care should be taken to prevent any foreign material from being dropped into the transformer. Workmen/engineers with access to the interior of the transformer should empty their pockets of any loose articles. Spanners and other tools used should be tied with strings to the hand of the workmen, so that they can be recovered if accidentally dropped.

Fibrous cleaning material should not be used, since the presence of loose fibres suspended in oil can reduce its insulating properties. If any cleaning or wiping is necessary, it should be done with clean and dry oil for cleaning and with soft, non-fluffy cloth for wiping, before fitting on transformer.

The transformer oil and cellulose-based solid insulation normally used in transformer construction absorb moisture easily, particularly when cold. If access is needed to the interior of the tank during erection the transformer is best protected from moisture hazards by circulating dry and hot transformer oil until temperature is slightly above the ambient, prior to allowing access to the interior.

Transformer Manual

2.2 EQUIPMENT FOR ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING The tools and equipment required at the site for erection and commissioning of transformers include: Oil purification / Filtration Plant (One unit). Specifications: Capacity : Rating : Micro rating : 2,250 Lph (500 gph) at 10 m head: Continuous <2 micron

Plant to include necessary oil pumps, filters, pre-and post-heaters, vacuum pump. Vacuum chamber, valves, gauges and control panel board. Two 10m inlet and outlet PVC rubber hoses for degasifying, dehydrating, drying and heating (70 - 80 C) insulating oil (IEC-296) used for power transformers. Performance to be as under: Performance parameter Electric strength kV Water content, ppm Gas contents by volume, % Vacuum Pump with Motor (one unit) Specifications Pump to have sufficient capacity to drain oil from 5 kl 20 kl tanks to ultimate vacuum of <0.1 torr in two hours. Before one pass 30 50 10 After one pass > 60 <5 0.1

Transformer Manual

Other Equipment and Requisites S.No. Equipment / Quantity Supplies 1 Electric strength 1
2 Ratio meter 1

Remarks / Purpose To check BDV of oil upto 60 kV across 2.5mm gap (IEC-296) To measure voltage ratio between windings; range 1:4 100 : 1; (minimum test count :0.001) Capacity : 10 20t; maximum lift 10m Type : Mcleod; Range : 0.001 torr With center pointer; pressure range 1 to + 1 kg / cm

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Mobile crane Vacuum gauge Compound gauge Meggar 0 to 500 V/1000V Meggar 0 to 2000V Electric hand lamp PVC Hose Sling and shackles Lifting jacks Chain and pulley block Scaffoldings Spanners Screw drive (+) Screw drive (-) Knife Tailors scissors Reducer pipe Nipple M.S. bolts, nuts (washers plain and spring) Alcohol or gasolene Rag cotton cloth Unstarched milcloth Water proof sheet Painting brush Oil sampling bottles Electric Power supply

1 2 1 1 1 2 30m To suit 4 1 2 sets 2 sets 1 1 2 1 4 sets 2 As required 10 L 10 kg 10 m 20 m 3 3

60W, 230V with sufficient length of flexible lead and bulb protector Transparent, 25mm ID/50MM O/D x 6mm thick wall 1 t to 25 t capacity 10 t to 25t capacity 1 ton Suitable for working at height of 4m All standard sizes suitable from M8 to M42 / BS to 1 6 screw driver 6 screw driver For cutting insulation parts / cable For cutting insulation With std flanged 50 dia NB to 25 dia NB For 12 dia PVC hose, flanged to 3639 threads BSP to 1 BSW x length 1 to 2

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

For cleaning purpose For cleaning purpose For cleaning exposed parts For covering exposed parts , 1 & 2, 3 size Lab reagent glass bottles (with glass stoppers) cap: 500ml 3-Phase, 400V, 50 Hz, 100 A

Transformer Manual

2.3 SITE PREPARATION The transformer should be erected on a level foundation or surface, which should be designed by a structural or civil engineer. It should be able to bear the weight of the transformer and prevent accumulation of water. A foundation design incorporating a special oil drawing facility during fire and emergencies is strongly recommended for large rating transformers. The transformer should be installed with easy access provided all round. All instruments and valves should be easily read and operated. Sufficient clearances from various live points of the transformer to earthed parts should also be maintained as per electricity rules. For transformers installed indoors, the room must be well-ventilated, so that hot air can escape easily and is replaced by cold air.


3.1Fittings and Accessories Fittings listed below are normally provided on the transformer for correct and safe operation of the unit. 3.2 Standard Fittings HV bushing 12 kV / 250 A (Ceramic) LV Bushing 1 kV / 2000A (Ceramic) Extra neutral bushing 1 kV / 2000A (Ceramic) Earthing Terminal M12 Lifting lug to lift complete transformer Lifting lug to lift empty tank Skid base channel (ISMC 100 x 50) Off Circuit tap switch (Paragon make) LV terminal box LV cable junction box Rating and terminal marking plate Filter valve 25mm Filter and cum drain valve 25mm Pressure relief valve without contacts (setting pressure: 3.6PSI) Copper busbar 100 x 10 1 No / Phase Supporting insulator Inspection cover

Transformer Manual

Foundation angle MOG (Moving Oil Gauge) with NC contact STL logo plate

3.3 Terminal Arransgement

HV Bare bushings (Ceramic bushings) LV Bushings with connectors, bus bars and cable box

3.4 General Description of Fittings And Accessories

Standard Fittings: Rating and Diagram plate The transformer is supplied with rating and diagram plate made of noncorrosive metal. It contains information regarding the rating, voltage ratio, amperes, connection diagrams, weight details, oil quantity, vector group, work order number, serial number and year of manufacturing. Logo plate The transformer is supplied with logo plate made of non-corrosive metal. It is showing manufacturers logo. Tap changing arrangement Off-circuit tap changing switch : The distribution transformer is normally fitted with an off-circuit tapchanging switch to obtain the required tap voltage. It can be handoperated by a handle, mounted on the tank cover. Movement of the switch handle drives the switch shaft which, in turn, rotates the switch-connecting ring. The circular movement of the ring is limited, since the other end of the connecting link is fixed and connected to tapping taken from the transformer. The switch mechanism is such that it can be locked only when it bridges two contacts on any particular tapping position; it cannot be locked in any intermediate position. As the term off-circuit implies, the transformer must be electrically isolated before operating the switch. It is dangerous to approach the location of the switch from both primary and secondary sides of the transformer. Operating the switch when the transformer is energized will

Transformer Manual

damage the switch contacts due to severe arcing between the contacts and may damage transformer winding.

TAP SWITCH SHALL CONDITION ONLY. Earthing Terminals The CRGO assembly is connected to the core clamping frame which is, in turn, connected to the tank. Two earthing terminals are provided in the transformer tank. These should be connected to the earthing system or the earthing station. Active part Lifting Lugs These are provided on the cover for untanking or tanking the active parts, as cover-mounted jobs are specially designed. Tank Lugs Two lugs are used only for lifting the tank. indicated in the general arrangement drawing. Filter cum Drain Valve The drain valve is mounted at the bottom of the tank and filter valve at the top of the tank. It is useful for filtering and easy draining of the tank. These valves are of flanged type and are provided with dummy flanges. Pressure relief device At the time of an accident the inner pressure rises to push the valve upwards and the spring operates. When the pressure reaches a certain limit, the PRD will open and the pressure is let out and then close after pressure reaches normal valve. Moving Oil Level Gauge (MOG) MOG is fitted with buffer oil tank . This gives the optic indication when the oil inside a sealed transformer decrease under a security level due to a leakage or to a permanent deformation of the tank. Normaly closed(NC) contact is also given to signal for Enercon WEC when oil level goes low. Lifting lugs are clearly BE OPERATED IN DE-ENERGIZED

Transformer Manual

Oil filling Plug It is provided on the top cover. It is used to fill the oil. Inspection cover It is provided on the top of the LV terminal box for easy connection or removal for copper connection bus bars. Foundation angles Foundation angles are provided at the bottom of the transformer attached to the bottom skid. This helps in securing the transformer in position by using foundation bolts, nuts and washers. Supporting insulators Epoxy type supporting insulators are provided in order to support the copper bus bars which are connected to LV bushing terminals.


If the foregoing instruction have been carefully followed, the transformer can now be safely put into service after pre-commissioning tests. 4.1 Pre-commissioning Tests The following pre-commissioning tests shall be carried out. 4.1.1 Checking of ratio, polarity and phase relationship The ratio shall be checked on all taps and between the windings and the results should tally with the manufacturers factory test results. Turns ratio meter should be used. Polarity and inter-phase connections shall be checked 4.1.2 Resistance measurement of windings Winding resistance measurement kit (Eltel make or equivalent) (ohmmeter) should be used for the measurement of resistance. Tapped winding resistance shall be measured at all tap positions. 4.1.3 Insulation resistance IR values between windings and between windings to earth are checked; while checking these values no external lines, lightning arrestors etc., should be in circuit. Bushings are thoroughly cleaned before taking IR values. A 5000/2500/1000 volts meggar preferably

Transformer Manual

motor operated should be used for measuring IR values. Care should be taken that the lead wires of the meggar do not have joints.

4.1.4 Magnetizing Current Magnetizing current is measured using three-phase 415 volts supply for all phases individually and compare the results with manufacturers factory test results. 4.1.5 Oil Oil samples from top and bottom of transformer tanks are tested as per IS-335. DGA tests are to be done after start of commercial operation to obtain bench work results. 4.1.6 General Checks a) b) c) d) e) f) All oil valves are in correct positions, closed or opened as required All air pockets are cleared Thermometer pockets are filled with oil Oil is at correct level in the transformers Earthing connections are done Arcing horn gaps on bushings are properly adjusted

If all the above tests / checks are found satisfactory, allow a settling time of at least 24 hours for oil and release air from all points wherever applicable. Now the transformer can be energized after ensuring all connections are made strictly as per the requirement. Wherever possible, the voltage should be built up in steps. Any abnormality during commissioning such as vibration of parts, hum etc., should be observed. After a few hours of energisation at no load, the transformer shall be switched off. Abnormalities noticed should be corrected. Transformer should not be re-energized suddenly and loaded gradually. After commissioning, the following details should be furnished to the manufacturer: i) Details of transformer including its serial number ii) Date of commissioning, with test results

iii) Substation / generating station where commissioned iv) Protection given to the transformer such as lightning arrestor, differential

Transformer Manual

protection, circuit breaker on HV / LV etc. v) Loading details 5. MAINTENANCE OF THE TRANSFORMER 5.1 General If a transformer is to give long and trouble-free service it should receive a reasonable amount of attention and maintenance. Following are the causes of breakdown of transformers. a) Incorrect erection, operation and maintenance b) Wear and tear, ageing and other deterioration c) Accidents A rigid system of inspection and preventive maintenance ensures long life, trouble-free service and low maintenance cost. Maintenance consists of regular inspection, testing and reconditioning where necessary. Records must be kept giving details of any unusual occurrence and also if any test results taken. The principal object of maintenance is to maintain the insulation in good condition. Moisture, dirt and excessive heat are the main causes of insulation deterioration and avoidance of these will in general keep the insulation in good condition. No work should be done on any transformer unless it is disconnected and isolated from all external / energized circuits, and all windings have been solidly earthed.

Factors affecting the life of a transformer Transformer oil readily absorbs moisture from the air. This reduces the dielectric strengths of the oil. It is also reduced by solid impurities present in the oil. Care should be taken that moisture does not penetrate inside the transformer. The presence of oxygen because of air remaining in oil causes the formation of sludge which blocks the free circulation of oil. The adverse effect of oxygen which is aggravated by catalytic action between hot oil and bare copper, increases the operating temperature rapidly. All preventive steps should be taken to eliminate air from the transformers by filling the transformer under vacuum.

Transformer Manual

Because of the repeated movements of the transformer, coils may be displaced from their original position which can cause electric and magnetic unbalance. It is, therefore, required that the tie rods or pressure screws should be tightened.

5.2 Maintenance Procedure 5.2.1 Precautions 1. Under any circumstances, work on the transformer should never be undertaken unless it is disconnected from all external electrical circuits and all windings have been solidly earthed. Naked lights and flames should be kept well away from the transformer while working. Oil level should be so maintained as to keep all insulation under oil and lowered to a reasonable level before slackening and removing bolts and nuts on the top cover.



5.2.2 Physical Inspection The transformer tank cover and other parts should be inspected periodically for oil leakage, peeling of paint, or rust formation. Rusted portions should be properly cleaned and repainted. Oil leakage should be immediately attended to clamping bolts on gasketed joints should be tightened properly and if required, damaged gaskets replaced. Leaks through welded joints should be stopped by welding again (this should be done without any oil in the transformer tank and radiators)

5.2.3 Core and Winding The core and windings should be removed from the tank for visual inspection as per the maintenance schedule given below. Winding should be examined to ensure that no sludge deposit blocks oil ducts. All loose nuts and bolts should be tightened. The rods / coil clampings should be adjusted. Screws provided should be tightened to bear evenly and firmly on coil clampings, block/rings, if there is any slackening of windings.

Transformer Manual

Earthing strips provided for core earthing and any other locking provided for core clamping should be removed. Connections between the barrier board and the transformer tapes should be removed. The core and windings must be removed with great care to a dry place. If this is not possible, a visual inspection of the transformer tank should be carried out. 5.2.4 Off-circuit Tap switch This is an integral part of the transformer. It must always be operated carefully. The transformer should be switched off form line before operating the switch handle. The switch is operated by unlocking the operating handle by removing the locking strip/pin, moving the handle to the required position and relocking. Tapping position numbers can be seen through the window of the handle, or alternatively on the handle arrow provided. 5.2.5 Gaskets Gaskets sometimes shrink during service. The tightness of all bolts / fastner of gasketed joints, therefore, should be checked. Bolts should be tightened evenly around the joints to avoid uneven pressure. Leaky gasket should be replaced as soon as possible. 5.2.6 Bushings Porcelain insulators and connectors should be cleaned at convenient intervals and mainly examined for any crack or other defects. Small or narrow crack are difficult to detect; however, they are likely to deteriorate rapidly. All such bushings should be replaced. The cause of any serious loss of oil should be investigated. If there is any sign of oil leakage in the bushings, necessary precautions like replacement of bushings must be taken immediately. 5.2.7 External connections, including earthing All external electrical connections should be reasonably tight. If they appear blackened or corroded, they should be unbolted and cleaned down to bright metal finish with emery paper. The connections should be remade with a heavy coating of grease. Heavy current connections should be properly maintained.

Transformer Manual

5.2.8 Transformer oil The transformer oil supplied generally complies with IS-335. It is used as coolant and dielectric medium in the transformer. Therefore, keeping it in a good condition will assist in preventing the deterioration of the insulation which is immersed in it, but is always exposed to air to some extent. Therefore, in the course of time, it may oxidize and form sludge. 5.2.9 Precautions A flexible steel hose is recommended for handling insulation oil. PVC hoses are also suitable. Ordinary rubber hoses should not be used, as oil dissolves the sulphur from the rubber and gets contaminated. The hose should be clean and free from loose dust, rust or scale.

The acidity is normally between 0.3 to 0.5mg KOH per g of oil. If it increases rapidly or exceeds 0.5 mg KOH per g of oil, the cover should be removed to check the condition of the interior of the tank, core and winding. Oil should be treated or discarded if some sludge or corrosion is evident. 5.2.10 Testing of oil After filtration, the oil should meet the requirement of IS-335. However, to know the conditions, the following preliminary tests can be carried out. 5.2.11 Crackling test A rough test can be made by closing one end of a piece of steel tube 2.5 cm in dia, heating the closed end to just under dull red heat and plunging it into the oil sample with the ear close to the open end. If the oil has high moisture content, a sharp crackle will be heard. Dry oil will only sizzle. 5.2.12 Electrical Strength When tested in accordance with IS-335, electrical strength (BDV) should not be less than 50 kV RMS. This test should be carried out six times on the filled sample cell. The arithmetic mean of the six results should be used.

Transformer Manual

5.2.13 Drying of Transformer Repeated filtration of transformer oil and entry of moisture can result into oil degradation i.e. increase of acidity, increase in water content and decrease in BDV of oil. All these factors together result into poor IR value and ingress of moisture into insulation, which is normally not measurable. In addition, the slackness of the winding due to natural setting and pulse setting a total overhaul comprising taking out of the active part from the tank, its through inspection, drying the active part in a vacuum oven to ensure removal of moisture during the service life of eight to ten years. During the shipment or in the field installation, vital parts of the transformer are often subjected to inadvertent exposure. Danger of moisture pick up by the insulation is likely; therefore, precaution should be taken to avoid entrance of humid air into transformer. Continuous purging with dry air and an application of a positive pressure of dry nitrogen are usually practiced. Even with these precautions, maintaining transformer dryness is not certain. Therefore, the condition of the transformer is to be confirmed by conducting an insulation resistance test, to determine whether a dry out is needed. 5.3 Various methods are in use for drying out the transformer: 5.3.1 Hot oil circulation Method With this method, the moisture is removed through the use of suitable oil filter, which enables hot oil at approx 85C to be circulated in the transformer until a positive indication of the drying out of the winding is obtained. The rate of water extraction depends upon the extent of saturation of filter papers. 5.3.2 Short-Circuited Drying of Windings by Vacuum This method requires a source of 3-Phase supply voltage, depending upon the impedance of the transformer, to be applied to HV and LV sides. Windings should be short-circuited. The short circuit current should not exceed the rated current of the transformer. A suitable vacuum pump is required to extract moisture from the insulation. A refrigerated condenser trap in a vacuum line to collect water is also required.

Transformer Manual

The transformer should be filled with oil above the core and coil but with room for expansion. The outside of the tank should be blanketed to reduce the heating loss to a minimum. A vacuum pump should be connected to a suitable valve at the top of the tank. The winding and insulation temperatures should not reach dangerous level. The winding temperature should not exceed 80C. The current applied to the winding and the top temperature should be frequently measured. The secondaries of the current transformers of the tank should also be short-circuited. In case of forced oil-cooled transformers, the oil pump should be operated while the transformer is being heated. Cooling medium like air should be shut-off for self-cooled transformers initially. Full rated current may be used while the transformer is cold; it has to be reduced as it approaches the rated temperature. After the desired winding and oil temperature have been reached, power supply should be disconnected and oil drained from the transformer tank, the drain valve should be closed and the vacuum pump started. This should continue until water extraction stops. The procedure may be repeated as many times as necessary to attain the desired degree of dryness. The minimum water content in the insulation, which can be obtained for any given temperature and vacuum conditions can be estimated from a moisture equilibrium chart. Water extraction from the insulation will stop when the vapour pressure of water in the insulation at the temperature and pressure prevailing equals the partial pressure of water vapour in the tank at these conditions. 5.3.3 Hot Air Drying Thermometers should be positioned in the inlet and outlet air streams and the quantity of air circulated should be such that only a small difference between the inlet and outlet temperatures is obtained. The temperature of the inlet air should be about 90C. 5.3.4 Caution :When drying oil soaked insulation with hot air, care should be taken to avoid any open fires near the transformer, particularly near the air exhaust where oil vapours will be concentrated. The flash point of transformer oil is approx 140C. Fire extinguishers, preferably the carbon-dioxide type (CO2) should be located near the transformer before drying it.

Transformer Manual

The volume of air required to obtain minimum drying time varies with the size of the tank. The following is an approximate guide.

Area of tank base, m Volume of air, m / min

2.8 28.0

5.6 56.0

9.3 85.0

10.6 114.0

14.0 140.0

6. Untanking And Tanking Details

General (for transformers assembled with bushings & pipe work etc.) Before removing the top cover from the tank, the following precautions should be taken: 1. 2. 3. 4. All bushings should be disconnected and removed: Oil should be drained out below the tank curb level All isolating valves should be closed Core and windings (live parts) should be disconnected from external supply, to avoid damage while removing the cover from the tank. Before lifting the core and coil assembly, slings should be solidly fixed to the core clamps.


Transformer Manual


1. Insulation Resistance Details of Megger Make : A. Transformer at HV EARTH LV EARTH HV LV Remarks : C Megaohms Megaohms Megaohms S.No. Volts


Power cable at Type : U Phase Earth V Phase Earth W Phase Earth U Phase V Phase V Phase W Phase W Phase U Phase Remarks :

C Rating : Megaohms Megaohms Megaohms Megaohms Megaohms Megaohms

Transformer Manual


Ratio Test Apply 3-Phase, 3-wire, 416 volts to HV side 1U1V = 1V1W = 1W1U = ________________Volts Details of meters used : 1) 2)

Tap No. 2U2V 2U2W 2V2W 1 2 3 4 5





All measurements in volts Magnetizing current in normal tap No. 1U :_______mA; 1V:__________mA; 1W:________mA


Oil Test Oil Tester Make :_____________ Type : Auto / Manual ____C BDV Values : A. Main tank oil : Top : Bottom: kV/mm AV kV/mm AV Gap:2.5mm/4.0mm @

Transformer Manual


Commissioning Checks (Preliminary) 1. 2. 3. 4. Valve connecting to main tank and cable box open All sampling and filtration valves closed Air released from main tank and bushings Arcing horn gap set for HV: mm, and for LV: mm Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No


Details of Accessories 1. HV Bushings Make :_______________________ kV No. :_______________________ :_______________________


Testing A. Excitation with rated voltage( if LV is more than 1.1kV class: Isolate neutral wherever possible) apply 3-phase, 3-wire, 416V.

Applied Volts 2U2V 2V2W 2W2U 2U2n 2V2n 2W2n

Measured current 2U2V 2V2W 2W2U

Transformer Manual


Vector Group Test Short 1U and 2U, apply 3-phase, 3-wire, 416 V to HV Measure : 1U 1V :__________________ 1V1W :___________________ 1W1U:___________________ 1U2N___________________ 1V2N:___________________ 1V2V:___________________ 1V2W:___________________ 1W2W:___________________ 1W2V:___________________

Conditions for Dyn11 1) 2) 3) 1U1V = 1U2N + 1V2N 1V2V = 1V2W 1W2W < 1W2V

Therefore vector group is _______________________

Transformer Manual

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE FOR TRANSFORMERS OF CAPACITY 950 kVA Action required if inspection shows unsatisfactory conditions ---

S.No. Inspection Items to be inspected Frequency 1 Hourly i. Load (amperes)

Inspection Notes

Check against rated figures Oil temperature and ambient temperature Check against rated figures Check transformer Oil level

ii. Temperature


iii. Voltage

--If low, top up with dry oil. Examine transformer for leaks If loose, tighten Clean or replace


i. Oil level in transformer

ii. Connections 3 4 Quarterly Halfyearly Yearly Bushings ii. Gasketed joints, gauges and general paint work i. Oil in transformer

Check tightness Examine for cracks and dirt deposits Inspect

ii. Earth resistance

Check for dielectric Strength and water content. Check for acidity and sludge. ---

Take suitable action to restore quality of oil. Take suitable actions if earth resistance is high

5 Yearly


Overall inspection including lifting of core and coils

Wash by hosing down with clean dry oil.

Transformer Manual

Annexure-3 Factory Test Report

Transformer Manual

Annexure - 4




13 14

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S.No. 15








Please feel free to contact: For Service: Mr. Bhavin Parikh, Manager Production Mob. 09924448172 Mr. T. J. Shah General Manager (Operations) Mob. 09924448176

For Any other assistance / information:

Transformer Manual