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Infrared Wireless Headphones A Minor Project Report submitted in partial fulfilment of therequirement for the award of the degree

of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering (Under the guidance of Er. Krishan Kumar)By:Karan Sharma (07416)Piyush Yadav (07425)Kumar Rajeev Ranjan (07438) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERINGNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYHAMIRPUR177005, HP (INDIA) April 2010 2 CERTIFICATE We hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the Minor Project Report entitled Wireless Infrared Headphones is in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the B.Tech. and submitted to the Department of Electronics & CommunicationEngineering of National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur is an authentic record of our ownwork carried out during a period from Jan 2010 to April 2010 under the supervision of Er.Krishan Kumar (Faculty, ECED NIT Hamirpur). The matter presented in this thesis has notbeen submitted by me for the award of any other degree elsewhere.Karan Sharma Piyush Yadav Kumar Rajeev Ranjan(07416) (07425) (07438)This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidates is correct to the best of myknowledge. Date: April 25, 2010.Dr. Vinod Kapoor Er. Ashwani Kumar Mr. Krishan Kumar HEAD Sen. Lecturer E&CED E&CE DepartmentE&CE Department (Project Co-ordinator) (Project Guide) 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are very grateful to Er. Krishan Kumar, our project guide whose constant support andencouragement has helped us in conceiving the project and realise it today. We are alsograteful to other faculty members of our Electronics Department who have constantlywatched us and guided us especially Dr. Rajeevan Chandel.We extend our gratitude to Dr. Vinod Kapoor who has created such a wonderful learningambience in the department. We are also thankful to staff members of Electronics andCommunication Engineering Department who have given us their valuable guidance inmaking this project a successful one. 4 CONTENTS Page No. Abstract

1. Overview 6-101.1 Introduction1.2 Technology Overview1.3 Evolution of Infrared Communication System1.4 System configuration of Wireless IR CommunicationSystems678102. Objectives 113. Infrared Systems 12-143.1 Properties3.2 Advantages3.3 Disadvantages3.4 Applications121314144. Hardware description4.1 Design Considerations4.2 Block Diagram4.3 Circuit Diagram4.4 Working4.5 Power Consideration16-2016171819205. Simulation, Analysis and Amendments5.1 Simulation5.3 Observations5.4 Amendments212222226. Results and Inference 237. References 248. Appendix8.1 List of figures8.2 DatasheetPhoto TransistorInfrared DiodeTransistor BC 547OP-AMP 741-CLM 3862526-44 5 Abstract Infrared Rays form a part of the electromagnetic spectrum which has a wavelength ranging from 0.7 to 400 um. It is known widely for its heating effects and the role it plays inatmosphere. Infrared rays find large applications in electronic and wireless applications dueto certain advantages provided by its inherent properties. In the past few decades, an unprecedented demand for wireless technologies has been taking place. Mobiles, Laptops, assistants (PDAs), and mobile phones, to name just a few examples,are becoming part of the everyday life of a growing number of devices that communicatewirelessly. Radio and infrared (IR) are currently the main parts of the electromagneticspectrum used to transmit information wirelessly. IR is becoming more popular every dayand it is being preferred due to its inherent advantages like low power requirements, security,effective short distance communication as compared to its Radio counterpart. In this project we aim to design and build a hardware model of IR transmitter and receiver that is capable of communicating data over a short range. The device we plan to build could be integrated with the digital devices to transmit signals in the audio frequency range of 20Hz to 20000Hz over a range of 2 to 3 metres. Also we aim to study the properties of the IRcommunication in terms of the range acquired and the power requirements of the system. 6 Introduction In the past few decades, a demand for wireless technologies has tremendously increased.Both industrial and private customers are demanding products -for a wide range of applicationsthat incorporate wireless features, which allow them to exchange, receive, ortransmit information without the inconvenience of having to be fixed to any particularlocation.The benefits of wireless technologies are not limited to user convenience- in terms of mobility and flexibility in the placement of terminals. Significant reductions in cost andtime also can be achieved, in a number of applications, using wireless solutions.Reconfiguring computer terminals or microcontroller systems (in places such as laboratories,conference rooms, offices, hospitals, production floors, or educational institutions), forinstance, can be done relatively cheaply and quickly with wireless networks. Maintaining andreconfiguring wired networks, on the other hand, is usually carried out in more expensive,time-consuming, and complicated ways (especially in situations where cables are grounded orinstalled in inaccessible places). Furthermore, cables are susceptible to damage, which meanspotential disruption to the network operation. Radio and infrared (IR) are currently the mainparts of the electromagnetic spectrum used to transmit information wirelessly. By the term radio we refer to the radiofrequency and microwave parts of the spectrum, and IR to the near-infrared part of it. In homes, some member prefers to watch television while others dont. It becomes difficult

for younger member to go against the will of elder, especially in Indian scenario, so youngerhave to suffer in most of cases. Wired headphones do not give flexibility for mobility andmore users to accommodate (usually due to predefined design), so wireless headphones arerequired to meet the requirement. We in this project intend to make wireless system usingInfrared technology, so as to counter this problem. Thus, Infrared cordless headphones wouldbe used for watching TV and movies with full enjoyment but without disturbing the peace athome. 7 1.2 Technology Overview Radio and infrared (IR) are currently the main parts of the electromagnetic spectrum used to transmit information wirelessly. By the term radio we refer to the radiofrequency andmicrowave parts of the spectrum, and IR to the near -infrared part of it. Infrared rays have awavelength ranging from 0.7 to 400 m which corresponds to a frequency ranging from 1THz to 400 THz. Most of todays wireless communication is based on radio frequency but IR frequency is also being used and is becoming popular these days (due to its inherent advantages) over its radiocounterpart for a number of applications.From a spectrum management point of view, for example, IR offers potentially hugebandwidths that are currently unregulated worldwide. The radio part of the spectrum, on theother hand, gets more congested every year, and the allocation of radio frequencies isincreasingly difficult and expensive. Moreover, due the fact that the authorities that regulatethe allocation of radio frequencies vary from one country to another so device are to bemodelled accordingly in different country.Another advantage of IR over radio is its immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI).This makes IR the preferred option in environments where interference must be minimized oreliminated. In addition, IR does not interfere with and is not affected by radio frequencies,which is particularly relevant in hospitals, as explained in a number of published articles inthe area.IR also presents advantages over radio in terms of security. Because IR radiation behaves likevisible light, it does not penetrate walls, which means that the room where the energy isgenerated encloses the emitted signal completely (assuming there are no windows ortransparent barriers between rooms). This prevents the transmitted information from beingdetected outside and implies intrinsic security against eavesdropping. Further advantages of IR over radio include the low cost, the small size, and the limited power consumption of IRcomponents.Despite the advantages presented by the infrared medium, IR is not without its drawbacks.Infrared wireless links are susceptible to blocking from persons and objects, which can resultin the attenuation of the received signal. In addition, wireless IR systems generally operate inenvironments where other sources of illumination are present. If this background illuminationhas part of its energy in the spectral region used by wireless IR transmitters and receivers, itintroduces noise in the photodetector, which limits the range of the system.Moreover, optical wireless systems are also affected by the high attenuation suffered by theIR signal when transmitted through air, and by atmospheric phenomena such as fog and snowthat further reduce the range of the system and deteriorate the quality of the transmissionwhen operating outdoors [3] 8 1.3 Evolution of Infrared Communication Systems Optical wireless communication systems have experienced a huge development since the late1970s when IR was first proposed as an alternative way (to radio) to connect computernetworks without cables.IBM was one of the first organizations to work on wireless IR networks. The first reports on

IBMs experimental work were published between 1978 and 1981. They have described aduplex IR link that achieved a bit rate of 64 kbps using PSK and a carrier frequency of 256kHz [4] In 1983, Minami et al. from Fujitsu described a full-duplex LOS system that operated underthe same principles as the network described by Gfeller. That system consisted of an opticalsatellite attached to the ceiling and connected to a network node via a cable, and of a numberof computer terminals that communicated to the server via the optical satellite. It operated at 19.2 kbps (over 10 m) with an error rate of 106 when working under fluorescentillumination. By 1985, the Fujitsu team had managed to improve the data rate of its system to48 kbps, as reported by Takahashi and Touge. [A] In the same year (1985), researchers from two other companies (Hitachi and HP Labs)presented their own work in the area of wireless IR communications. In the case of Hitachi,Nakata et al. reported a directed-LOS network system that replaced the optical satellite on theceiling with an optical reflector. This system achieved a data rate of up to 1 Mbps with a BER of less than 107 for a distance of 5 m. [ 4] In 1987, AT&T Bell presented their work on optical wireless communications. They reporteda directed-LOS system that operated at 45 Mbps over a wavelength of 800 nm. [5] More recently, Showa Electric reported a 100-Mbps short-range IR wireless transceiver thatoperated over a maximum range of 20 m and used LEDs for the transmitter and avalanchephotodetector (APDs) for the receiver. Another system, proposed by Singh et al. in 2004 [24],was based on the idea of a base station attached to the ceiling and connected to the network via a backbone. The proposed network operated at 100 Mbps and was based on DPPM withcarrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) for the Media AccessControl (MAC) protocol. 9 Fig 1.3.1 Chronology of indoor optical wireless communication research 10 1.4 System Configurations of Wireless IR Communication Systems Optical wireless systems for indoor and outdoor use can be arranged in a number of configurationsdepending on the specific requirements of a system. In general, the topologies used for indoor opticalwireless communication systems are classified according to two parameters: (1) the existence of anunobstructed path between the transmitter and the receiver (LOS non-LOS), and (2) the degree of directionality of the transmitter, the receiver, or both (directed, non-directed, or hybrid).Fig. 1.4.1 Different configurations of wireless IR links. The dotted lines represent the different FOVs 11 2. OBJECTIVE The objective of the project is to design an efficient infrared transmitter-receiver system thatwould be capable of transmitting Infrared electromagnetic signals in the audio

frequencyrange of 20Hz to 20KHz over a range of 2 to 3 metres. The device would be used inconjunction with the multimedia devices, Computers and Laptops to transmit music from oneplace to a pair of cordless headphones by employing the principles of wireless infraredcommunication without any degradation in the quality of the music. Also we intend to studythe properties of the system in terms of the range and the power requirements.Special emphasis is being laid into the communication of the music signals over a large rangeand to study the degradation of the signal over a range. Also measures are being taken and astudy is being done to increase the angular range and the linear range of the system. Theobjective at end is to obtain a low cost effective IR system ready for marketing purpose. 12 3.1 Properties of Infrared System: Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300micrometres, which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 430 THz. Itswavelength is longer (and the frequency lower) than that of visible light, but the wavelength isshorter (and the frequency higher) than that of terahertz radiation microwaves.Fig. 3.1.1 Infrared SpectrumInfrared Radiation behaves similar to the visible light, so it exhibits all the properties that light doessuch asa) Reflectionb) Refractionc) Diffractiond) Diffusion Attenuation Atmospheric attenuation is defined as the process whereby some or all of the energy of anelectromagnetic wave is lost (absorbed and/or scattered) when traversing the atmosphere. Absorption Absorption, in the context of electromagnetic waves and light, is defined as the process of conversion of the energy of a photon to internal energy, when electromagnetic radiation is capturedby matter. When particles in the atmosphere absorb light, this absorption provokes a transition (or excitation) in the particles molecules from a lower energy level to a higher one. Scattering Scattering is defined as the dispersal of a beam of particles or of radiation into a range of directionsas a result of physical interactions. When a particle intercepts an electromagnetic wave, part of the waves energy is removed by the particle and re -radiated into a solid angle centered at it. Thescattered light is polarized, and of the same wavelength as the incident wavelength, which meansthat there is no loss of energy to the particle. 13 3.2 Advantages over RF a) Wider and Unregulated Spectrum

From a spectrum management point of view, for example, IR offers potentially hugebandwidths that are currently unregulated worldwide. The radio part of the spectrum, on theother hand, gets more congested every year, and the allocation of radio frequencies isincreasingly difficult and expensive. Moreover, due the fact that the authorities that regulatethe allocation of radio frequencies vary from one country to another. Device needs to bemodelled accordingly for different country so as to avoid a potential risk of system or productincompatibility in different geographical locations.b) High noise immunity: Another advantage of IR over radio is its immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI).This makes IR the preferred option in environments where interference must be minimized oreliminated. In addition, IR does not interfere with and is not affected by radio frequencies,which is particularly relevant in hospitals, as explained in a number of published articles inthe area. c) Higher security: IR also presents advantages over radio in terms of security. Because IR radiation behaves likevisible light, it does not penetrate walls, which means that the room where the energy isgenerated encloses the emitted signal completely (assuming there are no windows ortransparent barriers between rooms). This prevents the transmitted information from beingdetected outside and implies intrinsic security against eavesdropping. In addition, IR offersthe possibility of rapid wireless deployment and the flexibility of establishing temporarycommunication links.Further advantages of IR over radio include the d) low cost,e) the small size (Portable) andf) the limited power consumption. This is explained by the fact that wireless IR communication systems make use of the sameopto-electronic devices that have been developed and improved over the past decades foroptical fiber communications and other applications. One such component is the lightemitting diode (LED), which, due to its now faster response times, high radiant output power,and improved efficiency, is becoming the preferred option for short-distance optical wirelessapplications. 14 3.3 Disadvantages: a) Direct line of sight communication Optical wireless links are susceptible to blocking from persons and objects, which can resultin the attenuation of the received signal or in the disruption of the link (depending on theconfiguration of the system).That is ;the Wireless IR systems operate only in direct line of sight communication. b) Shorter Range Wireless IR systems generally operate in environments where other sources of illumination are present. This background illumination has part of its energy in thespectral region used by wireless IR transmitters and receivers, and introduces noisein the photodetector, which limits the range of the system.Moreover, optical wireless systems are also affected by the high attenuation sufferedby the IR signal when transmitted through air, and by atmospheric phenomena such asfog and snow that further reduce the range of the system and deteriorate the quality of the transmission when operating outdoors.

c) Restrictions to the emitted optical power due to eye safety. 3.4 Application : a) Infrared filter Infrared (transmitting/passing) filters can be made from many different materials. One type is made of polysulfone plastic that blocks over 99% of the visible light spectrum from white light sources such as incandescent filament bulbs. Infrared filters allow a maximum of infrared output while maintaining extreme covertness. Currently in use around the world,infrared filters are used in Military, Law Enforcement, Industrial and Commercialapplications.Active-infrared night vision: the camera illuminates the scene at infrared wavelengthsinvisible to the human eye. Despite a dark back-lit scene, active-infrared night vision deliversidentifying details, as seen on the display monitor. b) Thermography Infrared radiation can be used to remotely determine the temperature of objects (if theemissivity is known). This is termed thermography, or in the case of very hot objects in theNIR or visible it is termed pyrometry. Thermography (thermal imaging) is mainly used inmilitary and industrial applications but the technology is reaching the public market in theform of infrared cameras on cars due to the massively reduced production costs. 15 Thermographic cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagneticspectrum (roughly 900 14,000 nanometers or 0.9 14 m) and produce images of thatradiation. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures,according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to "see" one'senvironment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by anobject increases with temperature, therefore thermography allows one to see variations intemperature . c) Tracking: Infrared homing Infrared tracking, also known as infrared homing, refers to a passive missile guidance systemwhich uses the emission from a target of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared part of thespectrum to track it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as "heatseekers", since infrared (IR) is just below the visible spectrum of light in frequency and isradiated strongly by hot bodies. d) Infrared heating Infrared radiation can be used as a deliberate heating source. For example it is used ininfrared saunas to heat the occupants, and also to remove ice from the wings of aircraft (de-icing). FIR is also gaining popularity as a safe method of natural health care & physiotherapy.Far infrared thermometric therapy garments use thermal technology to provide compressivesupport and healing warmth to assist symptom control for arthritis, injury & pain. Infraredcan be used in cooking and heating food as it predominantly heats the opaque, absorbentobjects, rather than the air around them. e) Communications

IR data transmission is also employed in short-range communication among computerperipherals and personal digital assistants. These devices usually conform to standardspublished by IrDA, the Infrared Data Association. Remote controls and IrDA devices useinfrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plasticlens into a narrow beam. The beam is modulated, i.e. switched on and off, to encode the data.The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current.It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowlychanging infrared radiation from ambient light. Infrared communications are useful forindoor use in areas of high population density. IR does not penetrate walls and so does notinterfere with other devices in adjoining rooms. Infrared is the most common way for remotecontrols to command appliances. f) Spectroscopy Infrared vibrational spectroscopy (see also near infrared spectroscopy) is a technique whichcan be used to identify molecules by analysis of their constituent bonds. Each chemical bondin a molecule vibrates at a frequency which is characteristic of that bond. A group of atoms ina molecule (e.g. CH2) may have multiple modes of oscillation caused by the stretching and 16 bending motions of the group as a whole. If an oscillation leads to a change in dipole in themolecule, then it will absorb a photon which has the same frequency. The vibrationalfrequencies of most molecules correspond to the frequencies of infrared light. Typically, thetechnique is used to study organic compounds using light radiation from 4000 400 cm1, the mid-infrared. A spectrum of all the frequencies of absorption in a sample is recorded. Thiscan be used to gain information about the sample composition in terms of chemical groupspresent and also its purity (for example a wet sample will show a broad O-H absorption around 3200 cm1). 4.1 Design Consideration: Optical fiber technology has undergone major developments in the past decades; and aswireless IR communication systems use some of the same components employed in opticalfiber systems, wireless IR systems benefit from mature and efficient devices that are availableat a relatively low cost The selection of the opto-electronic components for the transmitterand the receiver is generally done according to the configuration desired for a system.Directed topologies require directed sources and detectors, while non-directed links requirewide emission beams and wide FOVs.One of the things that can be observed from the information of different systems developedso far is that wireless IR communications employs (1) light emitting diodes and (2) laserdiodes for wireless IR transmitters. LEDs present wider emission beams than LDs, whichmakes them the preferred option of the indoor non-directed and the hybrid configurations. Inaddition, they are generally considered as eye safe, which means that they can be used athigher emission powers than LDs Fig. 4.1.1 Channel model from transmitted signal power to generated photocurrent:(intensity modulation and direct detection) 17 4.2 Block Diagram Fig. 4.2.1 Block Diagram of system 18 4.3 Circuit Diagram:

Fig.4.3.1 Infrared TransmitterFig. 4.3.2 Infrared Receiver 19 4.4 Working Of the circuit: The circuit essentially can be divided into two major sub circuits:1. The transmitter circuit 2. The Receiver Circuit The transmitter Circuit: The transmitter circuit consists of the two transistor amplifier stage which is used to amplifythe audio signals supplied to the circuit. The audio signal ranges within frequency from 20Hz to 20,000Hz.The two resistors R1 ,R5 and R2 are used for the dc biasing of the transistorQ1 which is a BC547A npn transistor having a Base to Emitter Voltage rating of 6.0 V. TheRed LED is used for the biasing of the transistor Q2 which is a SK100 transistor which is anpn transistor capable of handling high currents. The resistance R4 is used to control theemitter current The transmitter circuit is provided with a power supply of 9V dc whichdrives the circuit. The power is supplied by means of batteries. The LED acts as an indicatoras well. The current from the transistor Q2 is used to drive the two IR LEDs which emit themodulated IR rays. The Receiver Circuit In the receiver circuit, the IR photodiode D1 receives the Infrared rays from the transmittercircuit and generates a proportionate photo current. The photocurrent is fed into the popularOpAmp IC A741to amplify the signals. The gain of the Op -Amp can be easily controlledby varying the resistance of the potentiometer. The audiofrequency amplifier IC LM386 isused to further amplify the signals. The output is provided to the Loudspeaker whichgenerates the music. 20 4.5 Power and Budget Considerations The power budget is one of the most important considerations when designing a Wirelesscommunication system because it defines the battery size and the operation time of portableunits. Power consumption is determined by a number of factors, such as the electronic andthe optical components used, the modulation scheme, the topology, and the emitted power of a wireless system. The type of technology used also affects power consumption.IR transceivers present a lower power requirement than their RF counterparts. An opticalwireless transceiver operating at 1 Mbps consumes 150 mW, while a radio LAN transceiverconsumes 1.5 W, which corresponds to a 25 Percent extra drain on the power supply of alaptop.The power consumption of a system is strongly affected by the power emitted by thetransmitter. This power should be high enough to cover the desired range of a particularsystem, as well as to supply the receiver with sufficient energy.The power at the receiver is determined by the range of the link, the topology used thegeometry of the room where the system is operating, and the reflective properties of its wallsand ceiling. In addition, the use of an optical collimating element can minimize the powerconsumption at the transmitter by transforming an extended source into a concentrated sourcewith narrow emission angles. When this is the case, care must be taken to comply with eyesafety regulations. The use of collimated sources also allows the use of narrower receivers,which, due to their directive nature, can present high optical gain increasing the sensitivity of the receiver and reducing the need for a high transmitted power for a given distance. The useof

angle-diversity receivers and multi-spot transmitters also helps to reduce powerconsumption while maintaining wide coverage. Optical Concentrators and Power Requirements Another way of improving power consumption is through the use of an optical concentratorat the receiver. This is possible due to the fact that an optical concentrator improves thesensitivity of the receiver, which means that a lower emitted power may be required at thetransmitter (for a given range) compared to the same system without a concentrator. Tooptimize the power consumption, it is also important to transmit only the relevantinformation, to use an effective signal coding, and to perform the required signal processingat low power if possible. 21 5 Simulation, Analysis and Amendments 5.1 Simulation: The circuit was simulated by the Circuit Maker Software to obtain the following plots at thetransmitter. Input Wave Fig. 5.1.1 Input Waveform Output at the end of the IR LED. Fig. 5.1.2 Output waveform at the end of IR LED

22 5.2 Observation: In order to study the range of the IR Transmitter-Receiver system, we supplied the transmitterwith a sinusoidal signal and observed the output wave form at the DSO. The output receivedat the receiver and the DSO was also observed to be sinusoidal for a range of 3 metres. Thequality of the music received was exceptionally good for a range of 1.5 metre after which itstarted deteriorating. An Optical Concentrator was then employed at the transmitting LEDside. It was observed that the volume and the quality of the music received were highlyimproved.

5.3 Amendments 1. Wider Line of Sight Infrared Communication is line of sight communication. Due to this if there is anobstruction placed between the transmitter and the receiver then the transfer of thedata stops. Improvements to this headphone technology will be provided by theproject team, where we will use a lens in front of the LEDs to diffuse the light toprovide a wider line of sight for the infrared headphones to catch thereby reducingchances of losing the signal .This method of diffusing the infrared beam also means the listener needs no longerto sit directly in front the infrared transmitter which plugs into your TV or otheraudio source. When it comes to TV/movie watching and untainted enjoyment of thesound infrared cordless headphones have a number of advantages which make themideal for a comfy relaxing viewing experience. 2. Better Range Use of power amplifiers and an array of high power LEDs arranged at different angleswill be used to increase the range of infrared transmission to cover more area. 3. Use Of Optical Concentrator By using Optical Concentrator at the Transmitting end, the IR Power getsconcentrated and a higher volume of the music and a better quality of musiccan be obtained. 23 6.1 RESULT: The IR Cordless headphones were successfully built and a detailed study of the Wireless IRCommunication was carried out. The range of the system was increased by using array of LEDs. Also optical concentrators were used to improve the power ratings , the amplificationand quality of the music received. Diffusers were also used successfully to increase theangular range. 6.2 FUTURE WORK In future we plan to study and work more on the IR systems.The IR systems provide apotential for future research work for short range communication because of its inherentadvantages.We plan to work on increasing the bit rate transfer of the IR systems so that theycan be used effectively in futurefor faster communication 24 7. Reference: 1. Optical Wireless Communications (IR for Wireless Connectivity) by RobertoRamirezIniguez, Sevia M. Idrus, Ziran Sun, (ISBN-13:978 0 8493 -

7209 4) Taylor& Francis Group, New York (2008). 2. Farshad Arvin and Khairulmizam Samsudin,Abdul Rahman Ramli, A ShortRange Infrared Communication, 2009 International Conference on Signal Processing Systems. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICSPS.2009.88Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 454 458.3. JOSEPH M. KAHN, MEMBER, IEEE, AND JOHN R. BARRY "WirelessInfrared Communications" PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 85, NO. 2,FEBRUARY 1997. 4. F.R. Gfeller, H.R. Muller, and P. Vettiger, Infrared Communication for In-House Applications, presented at IEEE COMPCON 78, Washington, D.C., 1978, pp. 132 138.5. T.S. Chu and M.J. Gans, High Speed Infrared Local Wireless Communication, inIEEE Communications Magazine, 25(8), 4 10, 1987. E-books: A. O. Takahashi and T. Touge, Optical Wireless Network for Office Communication,presented at JARECT, 1985, pp. 217 228. Websites: 1. http://www.wikipedia.org 2. http://howstuffworks.com

25 8. List of figures: Fig 1.3.1 Chronology of indoor optical wireless communication researchFig. 1.4.1 Different configurations of wireless IR links. The dotted lines represent thedifferent FOVsFig. 3.1.1 Infrared SpectrumFig. 4.1.1 Channel model from transmitted signal power to generated photocurrent: (intensitymodulation and direct detection)Fig. 4.2.1 Block Diagram of systemFig.4.3.1 Infrared TransmitterFig. 4.3.2 Infrared ReceiverFig. 5.1.1 Input WaveformFig. 5.1.2 Output waveform at the end of IR LED

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