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Characteristics of ionic compounds : The following are some of the general properties shown by these compounds (i) Crystalline

nature : These compounds are usually crystalline in nature with constituent units as ions. Force of attraction between the ions is non-directional and extends in all directions. Each ion is surrounded by a number of oppositely charged ions and this number is called coordination number. Hence they form three dimensional solid aggregates. Since electrostatic forces of attraction act in all directions, therefore, the ionic compounds do not posses directional characteristic and hence do not show stereoisomerism. (ii) Due to strong electrostatic attraction between these ions, the ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points. (iii) In solid state the ions are strongly attracted and hence are not free to move. Therefore, in solid state, ionic compounds do not conduct electricity. However, in fused state or in aqueous solution, the ions are free to move and hence conduct electricity. (iv) Solubility : Ionic compounds are fairly soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in non-polar solvents. This is because the polar solvents have high values of dielectric constant which defined as the capacity of the solvent to weaken the force of attraction between the electrical charges immersed in that solvent. This is why water, having high value of dielectric constant, is one of the best solvents. The solubility in polar solvents like water can also be explained by the dipole nature of water where the oxygen of water is the negative and hydrogen being positive, water molecules pull the ions of the ionic compound from the crystal lattice. These ions are then surrounded by water dipoles with the oppositely charged ends directed towards them. These solvated ions lead an independent existence and are thus dissolved in water. The electrovalent compound dissolves in the solvent if the value of the salvation energy is higher than the lattice energy of that compounds. AB + Lattice energy A+ + B These ions are surrounded by solvent molecules. This process is exothermic and is called salvation.
A+ + x(solv.) [A(solv.)x]+ + energy

B + y(solv.) [B(solv.)y] + energy

The value of solvation energy depend on the relative size of the ions. Smaller the ions more is the solvation. The non-polar solvents do not solvate ions and thus do not release energy due to which they do not dissolve ionic compounds. (v) Ionic reactions: Ionic compound furnish ions in solutions. Chemical reactions are due to the presence of these ions. For example
Na2SO4 2Na+ + SO42

BaCl2 Ba2+ + 2Cl

COVALENCY This type of valency involves sharing of electrons between the concerned atoms to attain the octet configuration with the sharing pair being contributed by both species equally. The atoms are then held by this common pair of electrons acting as a bond, known as covalent bond. If two atoms share more than one pair then multiple bonds are formed. Some examples of covalent bonds are

Sigma and Pi Bonding: When two hydrogen atoms form a bond, their atomic orbitals overlap to produce a greater density of electron cloud along the line connecting the two nuclei. In the simplified representations of the formation of H 2O and NH3 molecules, the OH and N H bonds are also formed in a similar manner, the bonding electron cloud having its maximum density on the lines connecting the two nuclei. Such bonds are called sigma bonds (-bond). A covalent bond established between two atoms having the maximum density of the electron cloud along the line connecting the centre of the bonded atoms is called a bond. A -bond is thus said to possess a cylindrical symmetry along the internuclear axis. Let us now consider the combination of two nitrogen atoms. Of the three singly occupied p-orbitals in each, only one p-orbital from each nitrogen (say, the px may undergo head on overlap to form a s-bond. The other two p-orbitals on each can no longer enter into a direct overlap. But each p-orbital may undergo lateral overlap with the corresponding p-orbital on the neighbour atom. Thus we have two additional overlaps, one by the two py orbitals, and the other by the two pz orbitals. These overlaps are different from the type of overlap in as-bond. For each set of p-orbitals, the overlap results in accumulation of charge cloud on two sides of the internuclear axis. The bonding electron cloud does no more posses an axial symmetry as with the s-bond; instead, it possess a plane of

symmetry. For the overlap of the pz atomic orbital, the xy plane provides this plane of symmetry; for the overlap of the pyatomic orbitals, the zx plane serves the purpose. Bonds arising out of such orientation of the bonding electron cloud are designated as bonds. The bond formed by lateral overlap of two atomic orbitals having maximum overlapping on both sides of the line connecting the centres of the atoms is called a bond.A -bond possess a plane of symmetry, often referred to as the nodal plane. -Bond


s-s overlapping


s-p overlapping


p-p overlapping

- Bond: This type of bond is formed by the sidewise or lateral overlapping of two half filled atomic orbitals.


A covalent bond results from the sharing of pair of electrons between two atoms where each atom contributes one electron to the bond. It is also possible to have an electron pair bond where both electrons originate from one atom and none from the other. Such bonds are called coordinate bond or dative bonds. Since in coordinate bonds two electrons are shared by two atoms, they differ from normal covalent-bond only in the way they are formed and once formed they are identical to normal covalent bond.

It is represented as []

Atom/ion/molecule donating electron pair is called Donor or Lewis base. Atom / ion / molecule accepting electron pair is called Acceptor or Lewis acid [] points donor to acceptor

NH4 , NH3 has three (N H) bond & one lone pair on N atom. In NH4 formation this lone pair is + donated to H (having no electron) NH3 + H NH4
+ +

Properties of the coordinate compounds are intermediates of ionic and covalent compounds.