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n integrated theory of job satisfaction, utilising Parsonian action theory.

dissatisfaction in work. Few studies take a wide scan of a large number of related variables at one and the same time. Examination of the literature on job satisfaction shows that it is split into a number of different schools of thought, each with its own particular focus. There is what can be called the psychological needs school. Those psychologists such as Maslow, Herzberg, Likert, etc., who see the development of motivation as the central factor in job satisfaction and concentrate their attention on stimuli which are believed to lead to motivation the needs of individuals for achievement, recognition, responsibility and status (see for example [2-4]). A second school devotes its attention to leadership as a factor in job satisfaction. Psychologists like Blake and Mouton and Fiedler see the behaviour of supervision as an important influence on employee attitudes and they therefore direct their observations at leadership style and the response of subordinates to this[5,6].

Job Satisfaction:
A Method of Analysis
Enid Mumford

A third school, strongly represented at the Manchester Business School by Lupton, Gowler, Bowe and Legge, approach job satisfaction from a quite different angle and examine the effort-reward bargain as an important variable (see for example[7,8]). This leads to a consideration of how Personnel Review, Vol. 20 No 3. 1991, pp 11-19 MCB University Press. 0048-3486 the wages and salaries of particular groups are constructed, and the influence on earnings and attitudes to these of factors such as over-time pay and the state of the labour market. Some psychologists maintain that Enid Mumford examines the extremely nebulous concept people have a subjective perception of what is a fair day's of "job satisfaction" and attempts to define it and provide work. They believe that if this is not obtained then job a method for establishing how good a fit there is between satisfaction will not be high. exployees' needs, expectations and aspirations in work and their actual work experience. Yet another school of thought approaches job satisfaction from an entirely different angle and sees management ideology and values as an important influence. Writers such Job Satisfaction as a Concept as Crozier[9] and Gouldner[10] identify differing value Job satisfaction is a nebulous concept. Managers talk about systems in organisations. For example, Gouldner it a great deal, but, if pressed to explain exactly what they categorises certain forms of management behaviour as mean are hard pushed to provide a precise definition. "punishment-centred", "representative" and "mock" Vroom has described it as: "the positive orientation of bureaucracy. an individual towards the work role which he is presently occupying"[1]. This rather cumbersome phrase can be Punishment-centred bureaucracy is the type of freely translated as: "an individual liking more aspects management behaviour which responds to deviations from of his work than he dislikes". rules and procedures with punishments. Representative bureaucracy is the kind of management practice which This is a definition which most people would accept as today would be called "democratic". Here rule and substantially correct but again it is vague and tells us procedures are jointly developed by management and nothing about the components of job satisfaction. The workers to meet a group of shared and mutually agreed literature on job satisfaction is of equally small help in objectives. Mock bureaucracy is when an organisation has providing us with an understanding of the totality of the rules and procedures but neither management nor workers concept. There appear to be no all-embracing theories identify with these or accept them as legitimate. of job satisfaction and much of the work on the subject Consequently they are generally ignored. Although a has been focused on single or small clusters of factors discussion of values as such does not appear often in the thought to be related to feelings of satisfaction or job satisfaction literature, it is clear that the ethics and moral philosophy of a company, together with the kind of legislation that management formulates and employee First published in Personnel Review, Vol. 1 No. 3, 1971.



perceptions of the legitimacy of this, must have an influence on job satisfaction. Last, there are behavioural scientists who say that the factors described above are extrinsic to the tasks an employee is required to carry out, and therefore a less important factor in job satisfaction than the work itself and the way it is structured. This group concentrates on the content of work and on job design factors. In Europe they are represented by Cooper at Liverpool, Herbst, Thorsrud and Gulowson in Norway and the Tavistock Institute in London (see for example[11-14]). All the writers referred to above have made important contributions to the theory of job satisfaction although they may not have consciously set out to do so. For example, Lupton, Gowler, Bowey and Legge would regard their work as a contribution to control theory with earnings as a key factor, and not just as a contribution to job satisfaction. Similarly the Crozier, Gouldner school are examining different manifestations of bureaucracy and only indirectly relate these to concepts of job satisfaction. Nevertheless a coherent theory of job satisfaction must embrace all these ideas. Some contributors to thinking on job satisfaction , and this would include the Herzberg school, seem to suggest that it is only necessary to identify the needs of an employee. The organisation for which he works must then ensure that these needs are met if it wishes to secure the advantages of a labour force performing at a high level of satisfaction. This approach appears to ignore the very real constraints under which most firms operate and which may severely limit the satisfaction which they can provide. We would see the most important of these constraints as arising from the pressure of the firm's product market, but other constraints will be imposed by the firm's culture, technology and administrative structure. A more realistic approach to job satisfaction may be to look at the individual's needs in work and the extent to which these are being met; but also to examine the pressures and constraints, internal and external to the firm, which influence the demands it makes of its employees and hinder its ability to provide maximum job satisfaction. The company, as well as the employee, has needs and these needs must be met if it is to survive and flourish. This approach leads us to consider job satisfaction in two ways. First, in terms of the fit between what an organisation requires of its employees and what the employees are seeking from the firm, and second, in terms of the fit between what the employee is seeking from the firm and what he is receiving. A good fit on the first leads to what we shall call "mutually beneficial" relationships. A good fit on the second to employee "job satisfaction". It is hoped that the ideas set out in this article will contribute to an integrated theory of job satisfaction which is meaningful from both the firm and the employee points of view. The framework for this theory is derived from the ideas of Talcott

Parsons, in particular his analysis of pattern variables[15]. A summary of this analysis is set out below. Parsons sees an individual's behaviour as influenced by a number of personal conceptions. The first is what an individual wants from a particular situation in which he finds himself. The second is how he sees the situation and the third, how he intends to use the situation in order to get what he wants from it. In other words how he develops his plan of action. Parsons believes that we evaluate all situations in terms of two things (see for example[11-14]): (1) what we expect to happen; and (2) what we can influence in the situation in order to give ourselves a choice of outcome. Parsons sees an individual in a situation as being presented with a series of choices which must be made before the situation becomes clear and meaningful and he can take specific action. These choices can be categories into five dichotomies, which Parsons calls "pattern variables". Pattern variables are the Parsonian terms for a tendency to choose one thing rather than another in a particular type of situation. This choice will be made in terms of personal expectations, needs and objectives. These pattern variables cover the following choices: (1) between seeking immediate gratification or deferring this until a future date; (2) between seeking to further interests private to oneself or interests shared with others; (3) between deciding to accept generalised standards in the interests of conformity and control or to seek for an acceptance of individual differences and a unique approach which may be a response to emotion rather than intellect; (4) between evaluating people and things because of what they are their attributes, or because of what they do their achievements; (5) between choosing to react to a person or a situation in a widely differing manner according to the perceived requirements of the situation or reacting to a situation in a limited and specific way. For example, an individual may seek a variety of satisfactions from work or require satisfaction only on the earnings variable a fair day's wage for a fair day's work. Parsons names his pattern variables: Affectivity affective neutrality Self-orientation collectivity orientation Universalism particularism Ascription achievement Specificity diffuseness. These pattern variables are helpful when considering job satisfaction for two reasons. First, Parsons uses them at



three levels; that of personality, social system and cultural system. This means that they can be used to describe the orientation of an organisation, a group, or an individual and thus translated without too much difficulty into the concept of a "fit" between organisational demands and employee needs and hence into the idea of mutually beneficial relationships. Second, as Parsons claims, they are very comprehensive categories which appear to cover all the factors that researchers have considered to be incorporated in job satisfaction. Unfortunately, as currently phrased and defined they are intellectually cumbersome and need some redefinition and simplification before they can be used operationally to study job satisfaction. A first attempt at this simplification led to the following set of definitions [16]. These were related to an organisation's role expectations the behaviour which it expects from its staff in the roles to which they have been allotted. And to an individual's need dispositions what he himself wants from his work situation.

It can be seen that we are now starting to approach a coherent framework for examining job satisfaction, although even these new definitions are somewhat vague, especially number one which appears to subsume all the rest. A more workable approach follows Parsons by viewing work relationships as a series of contracts between management and employees. These contracts are implicit rather than explicit and indicate that if the employer will meet the employee's needs then the employee will help further the employer's interests. Contractual areas are set in Table I and all except the first hold closely to the Parsonian model. If an employee's needs in these five areas are met then we can hypothesise that there will be high job satisfaction. If an employing organisation's needs in these five areas are also met then that firm should be satisfied with the performance and attitudes of its employees. A. mutually beneficial work environment for both sets of interested parties will have been achieved. The "fit" between company and employee needs may be good on all five variables or it may be good on some and poor on others. If the latter is the case then the question "why is this" must be asked and answered. On the employee's side, they may see their needs as not being satisfactorily catered for because they have unrealistic expectations of what may reasonably be required of the employer. On the employer's side, the environment in which the firm is operating at a particular moment in time may prevent it meeting some of its employee's needs. For example, the economic climate may prevent it providing what its employees regard as an equitable effort-reward bargain; the technology it uses may make it impossible for it to meet employee needs for a task structure which permits interesting and varied work, or increased competition in its product market may make it essential to tighten quality standards and controls and increase output. All of these things can inhibit the ability of the firm to satisfy its employees and can result in a bad "fit" between what the company wants and what its employees want.

1. Company Job Requirements Personal Job Requirements

What the company wants from the individual and what the individual wants from the company in terms of attitudes and behaviour. Some of these needs will be urgent and immediate, others will be deferred. That is, the company and the individual will hope to achieve a number in the short term and others in the long term.

2. Company Interest Self Interest

The extent to which the firm expects its employees to identify with its interest and to forego their own. The extent to which an employee wishes to pursue his own interests in the work situation.

3. Uniformity Individuality
The extent to which a firm's objectives cause it to introduce uniform policies, methods and standards to which its employees must conform. The extent to which an individual wishes to behave in a unique and individual way (to express his own individuality, "do his own thing") and seeks a work situation which allows him to do this.

4. Performance Personal Quality

The degree of emphasis the firm places on performance as opposed to social and character qualities. The extent to which employees wish to be recognised for what they are, as opposed to what they do.

Product Market, Technology Administrative Functions and Structure, and Culture as Factors Affecting the Fit between Organisational and Employee Needs Product Market
Product market is likely to exert the strongest influence on organisational needs. The product market in which a firm operates is made up of those external groups which seek its goods or services. The pressures of this market influence all the firm's activities; the product which it makes and how often this changes; its marketing and production activities, and the social climate which it creates for its employees. Non-commercial organisations also have

5. Work Specificity - Work Flexibility

The degree of work specificity which arises from the firm's technology and organisation. The degree of work flexibility which individuals require to match their skills, knowledge and personality.



Table I.
The firm The knowledge contract Needs a certain level of skill and knowledge in its employees if it is to function efficiently Needs employees who are motivated to look after its interests The employee Wishes the skills and knowledge he brings with him to be used and developed Seeks to further interests private to self, e.g. to secure: achievement recognition responsibility status Seeks a personal, equitable effortreward bargain, and controls, including supervisory ones, which are perceived as acceptable Seeks to work for an employer whose values do not contravene his/her own Seeks a set of tasks which meets his requirements for task differentiation, e.g. which incorporate variety, interests, targets, feedback, task identity and autonomy

The psychological contract

The efficiency/rewards contract

Needs to implement generalised output and quality standards and reward systems Needs employees who will accept the firm's ethos and values Needs employees who will accept technical and other constraints which produce task specificity or task differentiation

The ethical (social value) contract The task structure contract

a product market. With hospitals this is the community which they have been set up to serve and the sick people who form part of this community. In the case of a national or local government body the product market is the section of the community for which it is providing facilities and services. Factors in a product market which exert most influence on an organisation are first, demand how much of the product does thefirmhave to produce in order to meet its customer' needs? and, second, the stability of this demand. Do customers require the same product all the time or does the nature of the demand vary so that the product has to be altered at intervals to meet any new requirements? Third, the stability of the market. Does demand fluctuate so that the organisation has to vary the amount of goods and services which it produces? Fourth, competitor behaviour. Does the firm have to be continually reviewing its production and marketing policies, in order to maintain its profits and share of the market and prevent encroachments from competitors? The pressures the product market exerts on particular groups of staff in an organisation will depend on their closeness to it. Marketing and production departments will always require a capacity for fast response, but this may be less important in other areas such as personnel or sections of R&D.

the product market and what will sell there, for the nature of the product must affect the technology that is used to produce it. Technology can be defined as "any tool or technique, any product or process, any physical equipment or method of doing or making, by which human capability is extended" [17]. Using this definition technology is seen to stretch from rudimentary aides such as simple filing systems, to complex automated processes for operating and controlling production plants. An organisation's technology will affect the demands it makes of its staff in a number of ways, but particularly in the nature of the tasks it allocates them, and the degree of freedom in the way in which these tasks can be performed.
Administrative Functions and Structure

Technology is the second major influence on the demands an organisation makes of its staff. This is itself related to

The way an organisation defines its product market assists it in answering the critical question ' 'what business am I in?" The manner in which it organises its technology helps it to answer the question "how shall this business be carried out?" Both of these answers lead to the organisation recognising that it has certain functions which relate both to its external environment, and its ability to cope with this and to the conduct of its internal affairs. In turn, the way these functions are defined and arranged produces an administrative structure which affects the demands it makes of its staff. In organisations which make a product, the role and functions, of staff will be influenced by how the firm interacts with its product market and how it arranges its internal affairs in order to supply this market in the best way. Similarly, in service organisations the role



and functions of staff will be related to the needs of those external groups the organisation has been set up to serve, and to internal administrative decisions on how best to meet client needs. Organisational Culture Organisational culture is the fourth factor seen as influencing employer-employee relationships, although this influence is likely to be much less direct than that of product market and technology. An organisation's culture emerges as a result of a variety of historical factors[18]. It stems from the origins of the firm and from its early business interests. It is greatly affected by powerful men at senior level who inculcate their personal values into the rest of the company. It is shaped by the perceptions of employees at every level of what the firm's business is and how it shall be carried out, and these perceptions exert a particularly strong influence on skill and knowledge demands. A firm which defines its objectives purely in economic terms and maintains "we are in business only to make a profit" will be interested in acquiring staff whose knowledge and values will assist in the maximisation of profits. A company which sees itself in a professional service and problem-solving role and which has clearly defined codes of conduct, will look for staff with an appreciation of professional ethics and with a good all round problem-solving ability. A significant part of organisational culture is expressed as norms and attitudes. Norms are the way a group expects its members to behave and may take the form of patterns of work behaviour which are seen by management as counter-productive. Participating in such work patterns will not necessarily affect an individual's job satisfaction but relationships will no longer be seen by management and workers as mutually beneficial. Management attitudes and ideology are also influenced by organisational culture. A firm with paternalistic traditions will tend to influence its managers to adopt paternalistic attitudes to their subordinates, while a market orientated company will generate attitudes associated with major efforts to sell the product. When considering the fit between organisational and employee needs, it is difficult to understand constraints and requirements unless the factors set out above are examined. This involves careful scanning of the environment in which the company is operating and it is not an easy task for a researcher as much of the necessary information will be located at senior management level. Ascertaining employee needs is likely to be easier as these can be established through the usual interviewing processes. The Five Contractual Areas by which the Fit between Organisational and Employee Needs is Examined The Knowledge Fit Once a firm has decided what its skill and knowledge requirements are, it has either to recruit at this level or to

train to this level. If it cannot do either of these then it is likely to have difficulty in surviving in its business environment, for it will be operating with low quality personnel. Whether it can recruit or train to meet its requirements will be a product first of the state of the labour market and the availability of skills there and second, of its own training specialists and procedures and their capacity for developing staff to the required skill and knowledge field. Looking at the individual employee there appears to be considerable differences in the extent to which people recognise their own skill and knowledge potential and once recognised, wish this to be fully utilised. For example, research into the attitudes of clerks has shown that many older clerks are looking for an easy life in work and do not want to be mentally stretched. In contrast, another clerical group, bank clerks, who entered employment with good educational qualifications, complained that their jobs were too easy and that they were not able to utilise fully the skills and knowledge which they possessed. Studies of highly qualified groups such as engineers and scientists show that their group norms and expectations are such that they seek actively challenging work. They pride themselves on their problem-solving and creative ability. From a firm's point of view the desire of staff to have their skills and knowledge fully utilised can have both advantages and disadvantages. If the firm can meet this desire then it has a group of effective problem solvers who feel that an important part of their job satisfation needs are being catered for. If it cannot do this then it is likely to have a frustrated group with a high labour turnover one that is easily lured away by the opportunity of a more intellectually challenging job in another firm. As the number of specialists in industry increases it seems certain that firms will have to pay more attention than they do at present to ensuring that there is a good "fit" on the knowledge variable. All the manpower predictions suggest that in the foreseeable futures there will be a worldwide shortage of high talent personnel. Specialists who are lost to a firm because they believe themselves to be underutilised will be very difficult to replace. The Psychological Fit Mutually beneficial relationships imply that the firm has motivated staff for positive and not negative reasons; a great deal of attention is now being paid by behavioural scientists to those aspects of work which motivate individuals to identify with their employers' interests. The theory behind this research is that we all have powerful psychological needs, many of which we seek to gratify within the work situation. If the employing organisation can ascertain and meet these needs then it will develop motivated employees. Psychological needs are influenced by a variety of personal factors including sex, family



background, education and class. They tend to vary over an individual's life cycle so that the needs of a person starting his career are likely to be different from those of a person nearing retirement age. The studies of motivation undertaken by Herzberg suggest that certain psychological needs are common to a majority of people [2]. Herzberg and his fellow psychologist Maslow also believe that there is a hierarchy of needs and that as certain basic needs become satisfied so they become less urgent and are replaced by others which are seen as having greater urgency. Most investigators of job satisfaction would agree that needs within a work situation must not be viewed as being the same for all people. As an individual succeeds in meeting his lower level needs for food, safety and social relationships, so he proceeds onto higher level needs such as a desire for status, respect and self actualisation. The theories of both Maslow and Herzberg stress achievement as a motivating factor although Maslow calls this the need for esteem and self actualisation. This need appears to be very much a quality of western culture, particularly middle-class western culture. Evidence suggests that scientists and professional men are above average in their desire for achievement and that as an individual progresses up an organisation so this need becomes greater rather than less.
The Efficiency Fit

Work controls is our second factor and wefindthat firms vary greatly in the controls which they use. Some favour tightly structured rules and procedures which they believe reduce the margin of misunderstanding and error. Others leave their staff wide limits within which to set their own targets and monitor their own performance. McGregor, in his analysis of Theory X and Theory Y management styles suggests that Theory Y, with its emphasis on autonomy and self control is more effective than Theory X, but other evidence suggests that people adjust to the kinds of controls which are in operation and it is possible that this is not an important factor in job satisfaction[19]. The critical factor may be the relevance of selected controls to the needs of a particular work group or work situation. Supervision as a form of control also appears to evoke different kinds of reactions in different kinds of groups. For example, clerks working for a large mail order company stressed their need for close but helpful supervision. Supervision groups, in contrast, are usually seen as responding best to a form of supervision in which the supervisor becomes a facilitator and a resource person rather than a mechanism for tight control.
The Ethical (or Social Value) Fit

Here we have a contractual relationship based on the organisation's need for quality and output standards and the individual's willingness to meet these providing: (1) the effort-reward bargain is seen as fair and his economic needs are met; (2) work controls are seen as reasonable neither too rigid nor too loose; and (3) supervisory controls are acceptable. The effort-reward bargain is the amount that a firm is prepared to pay to get the skill and competence it requires, set against the evaluation of individuals on how much their skills are worth, and their expectations of what they are likely to receive. This contractual area has traditionally been seen by management as the most important and the one with greatest influence on employer-employee relationships. Yet studies of many white and some blue collar groups have shown that in certain circumstances employees will place financial rewards low down on their list of needs. This is not because they are uninterested in money but because they perceive their financial rewards as adequate and therefore give higher priority to needs which they believe are less well catered for and therefore more important. A critical factor in this evaluation of fairness of pay is the earnings of those groups with which individuals compare themselves. These may be internal or external to their own work situation. For example, a university lecturer may compare his pay with that of other lecturers or he may compare it with that of senior civil servants, architects or doctors.

In work most people wish to be evaluated not only for their performance but also for their qualities as people. For example, their success in making friends, winning respect and inspiring confidence. Some organisations place a great deal of importance on what might be called "civilised" behaviour in work. Others are more interested in efficiency as an end in itself and want "efficiency" oriented people. Clearly an individual who believes very strongly in the importance of social relationships will not be very happy in afirmwhich cares only for its production figures and views its employees solely as a means to this end. If an individual works for such a company his/her job satisfaction is likely to be low. Similarly, a tough, efficiency oriented person may become irritated in a situation where he/she is expected to pay great attention to the feelings and interests of colleagues and subordinates. The contractual relationship between an employer and employee on the ethical/social value variable is an interesting one about which a considerable amount has been written but little related to the subject of job satisfaction. Yet it is likely to be an increasingly important factor in job satisfaction as employees demand better communications and consultation and more involvement in decision taking. Many of us have strong personal values which have developed throughout our lives and which exert a powerful influence over the way we behave. We believe that there is a "right" and "wrong" way of relating with others. Organisations also have values and firms are perceived



by the communities in which they operate as "welfare minded", "paternalistic", "ruthless", etc. Values are not easy to change and men and women who have a strong sense of right and wrong may find it difficult to achieve job satisfaction if they have an employer whose values do not coincide with their own on matters which they regard as important. Similarly, from the firm's point of view, drastic differences between management and employee values can lead to internal strife, disruption and what the firm sees as undesirable work "attitudes".
The Task Fit

Jobs differ greatly in the blend of these four characteristics that they provide. If a particular job mix does not meet an employee's expectations of the kind of work he should be doing then there will be a bad fit between company and individual needs on this task structure variable and job satisfaction will be reduced.

The task structure contract is the agreement by employees that they will perform the work activities required of them if, in return, the employer does not require them to undertake anything that they regard as too onerous, too demanding, too dull, or too simple. The "fit" on this variable will be a good one if the level and kind of work provided by the employer meets the employees' needs for stimulus and variety. This contractual area is strongly influenced by technology, for many of the jobs a firm requires its employees to perform will be directly related to the processes it uses to make its product. Technology has received a great deal of attention in the literature on job satisfaction and organisational structure (see for example [20-22]). It appears to exert a powerful effect on behaviour at shop floor level but its influence on the jobs of specialists and managers may be less potent. Many of these white collar groups are located at some distance from production processes and their work may be more affected by the constraints and opportunities arising from pressures in the product market and from the administrative structure of the firm. Nevertheless when a person is allocated a particular work role he is instructed by his supervisor that certain tasks and responsibilities accompany it. Some of these are prescribed that is, they must be done, but others will be discretionary and the individual has a degree of choice over whether and how he carries them out[2]. The nature of these tasks and responsibilities is clearly an important element in job satisfaction although one that until recently has only received limited attention. Some psychologists who have studied job content and design suggest that work can be analysed in terms of: (1) the number of skills that need to be used; (2) the number and nature of targets that have to be met and the feedback mechanisms that tell the individual when these targets have been achieved; (3) the identity of the task as shown by its separation from others tasks by some form of discontinuity or work boundary, and its visibility as an important and meaningful piece of work; and (4) the degree of autonomy and control that an individual has in the performance of work activities.

Practical Applications Five variables knowledge, psychological needs, efficiency (and its associated components of rewards and controls), values and task structure can be used to examine the job satisfaction of any occupational group or the "fit" between organisational and employee needs in any kind of organisation. Our new approach to job satisfaction can be of use to employers in the following ways.
Job Definition

Asking managers what their needs are on thefivevariables and thus making them specify their "role requirements" of staff assists job definition. Managers do not always think as clearly as they might about what they require of staff and why they require some things and not others. The exercise of defining jobs in terms of ourfivevariables can assist a firm in working out its present needs. The assessment of likely changes in product and labour markets and in the technological environment can assist it in establishing how needs are likely to change in the future. Better job definition assists training and selection processes.
Staff Selection

Our approach can be used as a selection tool to identify the kinds of staff the organisation is requiring and to establish if these role requirements fit the personal needs of particular candidates. The selection interviewer will cover first the "fit" between what the employer is requiring and what the candidate can provide in terms of skills and knowledge, the required kind of motivation, etc. He/she will then ascertain the candidate's needs on the five variables and discuss with the candidate those areas where these needs can be met and those where there may be difficulties. Thus during the selection process both employer and prospective employee are able to establish the likelihood or otherwise of mutually beneficial relationships arising from the employment contract.
Morale Assessment

The examination of employee needs on thefivevariables can provide useful information on those areas where job satisfaction is not as good as it might be and help identify factors which can be changed to secure improvement. Regular attitude surveys using this approach can show how the morale of a group is changing over time and can provide useful feedback information which will help management to





Factors Influencing Attainment of Mutually Beneficial Relationships

ensure that a serious deterioration in morale does not take place. It must of course be recognised that the possession of such information does not always make a remedy possible. What is good for the organisation is not necessarily good for the employees and management may have to make difficult decisions on which set of interests are to be given priority.
The Monitoring of Change

improving areas where the fit between organisational and individuals needs is known to be poor. Once the change is implemented then a further survey can be made to check that the fit between organisational and employee needs has improved and that job satisfaction has increased. It must be stressed that with all these practical applications information obtained at one moment in time will not be valid indefinitely. Job satisfaction is not something that remains constant; it alters during an individual's lifetime as needs, expectations and aspirations alter. Similarly, the needs of an organisation change as the environment in which it operates exerts new presures. No organisation can afford to have high job satisfaction if employees' attitudes and performance have fallen off line with

The approach can also be used as a monitoring tool when introducing change and the author has some experience in using it in this way. Job satisfaction on the five variables is ascertained before the change takes place, and the fact that change is taking place can be made a vehicle for Figure 2. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction



organisational needs. Hence the importance of the "fit" concept and of looking at mutually beneficial relationships as well as employee satisfaction.


Summary and Conclusions This article presents a new approach to the study of job satisfaction in that it attempts to integrate existing theory and to provide a method of analysis that considers employee needs in conjunction with the needs of the employing organisation. We have identified two kinds of "fit" and these are set out below: Fit 1 Between organisational needs (translated into role requirements of staff) and employee needs on the five contractual variables = mutually beneficial relationships (see Figure 1) Fit 2 Between individual needs, expectations and aspirations in work and the individual's work experience = job satisfaction (see Figure 2) Organisational needs are shaped by the external environment in which the firm operates and by its internal processes and procedures. When identifying these needs and, in particular, when forecasting needs, it is important to note the demands and constraints imposed by the product market in which the firm operates, together with the influence exerted by the firm's technology, administrative functions and structure and company culture. These external and internal factors affect both company and individual needs and expectations and are reflected in the kind of job situation experienced by the employees and in their job behaviour. Additional pressures and constraints may come from the labour market and its ability to supply required labour. Individual needs are a product of the employee's personal environment and his work expectations and aspiration. If job experience does not meet job needs and expectations then there will be an absence of job satisfaction. The integration of ideas on job satisfaction requires the development of a theoretical framework so that factors which affect organisational and employee needs can be examined systematically. This theoretical framework has been derived from the writings of Talcott Parsons, although in the interests of clarity and simplicity Parson's analytical categories have been renamed and redefined. Parson's theoretical approach has proved valuable because it can be applied to both organisational and individual needs and because it embraces those factors traditionally seen as influencing job satisfaction. Management and employee relationships have been viewed as a series of contracts covering five broad areas of employee need. These are knowledge, psychological, efficiency, ethical and task structure needs. A good fit on all these variables should produce mutually beneficial relationships and job satisfaction.

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