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Instrumentation Concept

Basic Measurement UNIT


The following English engineering unit normally should be used Pressure above 5lb Pressure below 5lb Vacuum Absolute pressure Temperature Gas Flow Liquid Flow Steam Flow Level Differential Press. : : : : : : : : : : Psig (pound per-square inch gauge) in WC (Water Column); Inch-H2O Inch- Hg Psia (psi absolute) oC; oF Scfh Gpm lb/hr; Pph % (from low level to high level) Inch-H2O; psi

Basic Measurement TERMINOLOGY


500 SPAN

100

RANGE

- 100

Basic Measurement TERMINOLOGY


The following terminology generally used in Instrumentation and measurement technology. Range: Span: Suppression: Overrange: Rangeability: Accuracy: Repeatability: define low and high operating point of a measuring devices a measurement capability of an field measuring element a range in a (narrow) span to obtain a greater accuracy a measurement that above or below the range has been defined the ratio of maximum flow to minimum flow capability of field instrument on particularly of measurement capability of field instrument on inciating of a measurement

General Requirement
Basic instrumentation in General Industries ;Power Plant; Oil and Gas and refineries consist of the following: Pressure Instrument Temperature Instrument Flow Instrument Level Instrument Control Valves. Safety & Relief Valves Instrument Control Panel Analyser Alarm & Shutdown System Instrument Air & Electrical Power Supply System Wiring Installation

Pressure Instrument (1)


The organization of pressure instrument consist of the following: Pressure Element: bourdon tube; diaphragm; bellows Pressure Transmitter: balance force-type; 0.5% accuracy; 30% over-range; NPT process connection Pressure Gauge: 4 dial; NPT process connection; 0.5% accuracy; safety glass and blow-out protection. Local Pressure Controller: pneumatic; weatherproof housing; auto-manual transfer switch; PID mode.

Pressure Instrument (2)


The organization of pressure instrument consist of the following: Pressure Regulator (self contain): if 10% variation of set point is still acceptable. Pressure Switches: snap acting; SPDT; electrical rating; process connection; conduit connection; body rating Installation: refer to API RP 550 including mounting; siphons; chemical seals; pulsation damper; process connection/ tap. Identification: Tag number; serial number; pressure rating Drawing requirement (vendor drawing): installation; maintenance; operating and calibrating instruction

Temperature Instrument (1)


The organization of temperature instrument consist of the following: Measurement Techniques: thermometer; filled thermal system; thermocouple; RTD (resistance temperature detector) Thermowell: U-dimension (inch), speed limit (ft/sec). Thermowell for piping and vessel mounting Thermo-couple: extension wires JX, KX, WX and TX RTD: required for greatest accuracy

Temperature Instrument (2)


The organization of temperature instrument consist of the following: Temperature transmitter: forced balanced type, gas filled bulb Dial thermometer: bi-metallic with 5 circular dial, hermetically sealed case, external zero adjustment with stem. Self-operated temperature regulator; operating below 350 oF, operating pressure below 100 psig; line-size less than 2 Temperature switches: switching contact minimum shall be SPDT; suitable for area classification; connection NPT

Flow And Flow Rates (1)


The organization of flow instrument consist of the following: MEASUREMENT METHOD: orifice plate and transmitter; variable area meter; positive displacement meter; turbine meter; magnetic flow meter; flow nozzle; venturi tube; flow tube; pitot tube; elbow tap; annubar APPLICATION: The most common is differential Head-type flow meter. Flow is in feered from the differential pressure caused by flow past a primary element, commonly an orifice plate RANGEABILITY: differential pressure flow transmitter shall be force balance type with diff. pressure 20-100inch H2O

Flow And Flow Rates (2)


The organization of flow instrument consist of the following: PD Meter: for precise measurement, integrated flow, viscosity may change or high, batching service Turbine Meter: for high range ability( 10:1 ~ 25:1) with 0.5% accuracy; high repeatability (0.1%); good linearity; rapid response Flow switches: switching mode (DPDT, SPDT etc) Flow Transmitter

Flow And Flow Rates Differential Meter (1)


ORIFICE PLATE: PLATE: beta-ratio; orifice meter run (refer to AGA report No. 3 and API RP 550); orifice flange. Beta Ratio of exact pipe ID shall be between 0.2 ~ 0.7; Rangeability 3:1; Orifice thickness should be 1/8 for pipe ID less than 12 and or 5/16 for above 12; DS edge should be bevelled 45o ECCENTRIC PLATES: used for mixed phase. Eccentric bore placed so its edge is 2% less than pipe ID. SEGMENTAL PLATES: used for slurry service where accuracy of 2.4 ~ 5% is acceptable.

Flow And Flow Rates Differential Meter (2)


ORIFICE PLATE: METER RUN: should be design based on to AGA report No. 3 and/or API RP 550 with Beta Ratio equal to 7.0 Nominal meter run shall be 15D upstream and 5D down stream FLANGES: shall 300# RF or in accordance with piping specification. Distance of pressure tap shall be 1 DS and 1 US with size NPT. Schedule 160 nipples is recommended for the first block valve.

Flow And Flow Rates Differential Meters (1)


OTHERS TYPE FLOW NOZZLE: used if higher velocity and pressure recovery are required. Better for gas service VENTURI TUBE: used if high capacity and better pressure recovery is required. Used for fluid with small contain of solid FLOW TUBE: used if low press. loss is major consideration.

Flow And Flow Rates Differential Meters (2)


OTHERS TYPE PITOT TUBE: used if negligible pressure drop or high volume flow can be tolerated ELBOW TAP: required sufficient velocity and used if high accuracy is not required. Have a good repeatability. ANNUBAR: a variation of Pitot tube that average velocity across the flow area

Level Instrument (1)


LEVEL MEASUREMENT FIELD ELEMENT Level Measurement Device Float and Displacement Actuated Device: - External Displacement Device - Internal Float Device - Level Switches Differential Pressure Level Instrument:

Level Instrument (2)


LEVEL MEASUREMENT FIELD ELEMENT Tank Gauging Gauge Glasses - Visibility - Gauge cocks - Gauge Glasses Installation

Control Valve (1)


General - Body Assembly - Trim - Bonnet - Packing - Actuator: Spring and Diaphragm; Piston operator Valve Characteristic - Leakage Characteristic

Control Valve (2)


Accessories - Pneumatic Positioner - Hand wheel - Solenoids - Limit Switch Control Valve Sizing Control Valve Installation

Safety and Relief Valves (1)


Code and Regulation - Definitions - Types Valve Construction - Body - Trim - Spring - Bonnet - Accessories

Safety and Relief Valves (2)


Application Sizing - Accumulation Rupture Disk - Sizing - Rupture Disk Assembly

Instrument Control Panel


Main Control Panel - Conventional CP - Console-type - Graphic-type Specification - Location - Type and Construction - Instrument Name Plate - Wiring; Air Supply; Pneumatic Tubing Local Control Panel - Type and Construction - Wiring; Air Supply; Pneumatic Tubing Analyser Housing Testing Approval

Analyser (O2; CO; CO2)


Application - To maintain product quality - To maintain process optimisation - Plant evaluation Hardware - Elect Class I, Group D, Div. 2 - ISA RP 12.1 - Local readout - 4-20 mA output with alarm contact - Sample system Calibration - Provide by analyser manufacture - Kit, gases, Card and others necessary item Installation - API RP 550

Alarm and Shutdown System


Purpose - to keep critical process point, under constant surveillance - to call attention to any abnormal conditions - to stop malfunction equipment - to start up stand by equipment Alarm System - Trouble contact: input to alarm system - Field instrument: switches and transmitters - Annunciator Sequence:normal-upset-acknowledgment-reset Shutdown System - Shutdown contact: shall be independent from others contact - Shutdown alarm: alarm sequence for shutdown system - Reset: equipment restart (from field) Instrument Purge Alarm Loosing of air-purge in a local panel (such as analysers)

Instrument Air (Gas) Supply


Instrument Air (Gas) Supply - Capacity: 1 cu ft/min for control valve; 0.5 cu ft/min for transmitter; 3~10 cu ft/min for air motor and piston positioners - Instrument Air Compressor:two stage type with inter cooler between stage; all instruments users plus 10% spare - Drying and cleaning: due point at least 20 oF lower than the lowest ambient temperature - Safety Valves Air Header and Tubing: - Pressure drop does not exceed 5 psi - 2 Air header shall be galvanized steel - 3 Air header shall be stainless steel - each take-off shall have block valve

Elctrical Power Supply


Electrical Power Supply - Power Failure: secondary feeder shall take over in 20 sec - Battery back-up: 30 minute back-up for process instrument only. Solenoid instrument shall assume in shelf position Uninterruptible Power Supply - consist of: charger, inverter and battery - Sizing and capacity: full inverter supply for 30 min, equal to estimated load plus 40% - common alarm shall be provide to indicate: AC/DC failure, inverter failure, bypass in operation and low battery voltage Switching Power Supply - protected by 75A circuit breaker - separate switch or thermal overload device shall be provided - Separate circuit breaker shall be provide for controller, analyser and temperature indicator

Instrument Field Wiring


Signal and Control Wiring: - 18AWG Colour coded multi conductor Thermo-couple wiring: - 16AWG conductor that compatible with Thermocouple Communication System Wiring: - communication wiring shall be 1-inch rigid conduit Grounding System shall be used for the following - all electrical equipment enclosure operating above 300Volt - all metallic conduit with circuit above 600 Volt - metallic fences enclosing electrical equipment - all vessel containing flammable liquid and support structure Wiring and connection: - wiring shall stranded, bare copper, sized 2 AWG - below grade, ground wire connection shall be cad-weld - connection to ground rod shall be solder-less

Instrument Field Wiring (lanjutan)


Wiring connection: - instrument and electrical grounding shall be separated Wiring method - fitting and boxes: to pull cable for splicing and connection to equipment and devices - Sealing; required by NEC (class I, Group D, Div. 1 and 2) - Draining: shall be made in the conduit run - Conductor identification: bearing wire and terminal number Conduit - for outdoor conduit shall be galvanized, rigid, steel, size - for short run to enclosure conduit may be - for underground installation maybe 1 - conduit run shall be installed horizontal or vertical along wall ceiling and structure. Supported every 10 feet - material support shall galvanized

Installation
Requirement: API RP 550 Installation Guidelines Calibration - three point check (0, 50, 100%)for indicator and recorder - set point check for field mounted switches - transmitter and receiver will be calibrated independently - two point check for analyser using vendor calib. method Commissioning: - pouring seal and filling condensate pot - applying electrical power to all instrument - establishing flow for all purge material - opening block valve and closing bypass /drain valve on all instrument process connection - establishing instrument air to all field and panel instrument