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Errata for Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd edition

by Robert Plonsey and Roger C. Barr (Springer 2007) Frederick J. Vetter Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Rhode Island Last updated February 23, 2011 Note: Textbook corrections start below. Corrections to the PDF file solutions begin on page 8. 1. page 4, the equation for B : change ax to ax ¯ 2. page 5, sentence preceding Eq. 1.10: add the word “differential” before “displacement” so the phrase reads “. . . then the differential displacement . . . ” l 3. page 5, Eq. 1.10: change dl to d¯ 4. page 6, Eq. 1.13 and throughout Section 1.4.2 (in seven places): change dl to d¯ l 5. page 13, Eq. 1.43: in the denominator, r is the scalar magnitude of the radial position vector r = r ar . Hence, remove the vertical bars so the denominator is simply r 6. page 17, Eq. 1.62: change aθ to aθ ¯ ¯ 7. page 18, last sentence: change to read: “In Eq. (1.69), ar is a unit vector from dS to P , as illustrated ¯ in Figure 1.6.” 8. page 25, line 3: change R = ρA/L to R = ρL/A (see Eq. 2.48 on page 39). 9. page 26, Eq. 2.6: replace Φ with
2

Φ

10. page 33, Figure 2.3: change (x , y , z) to (x , y , z ). 11. page 35, paragraph above section 2.9.3: the bracketed term in Eq. 2.38 is equal to zero when cos θ = 0 (not one as stated); hence, change “equal to one when. . . ” to “equal to zero when. . . ” 12. page 37, in the two paragraphs above section 2.10: both paragraphs should refer to Figure 2.5 (not Figure 2.4). 13. page 37: delete the right bracket at the end of the sentence preceding section 2.10 14. page 41, in the line before Eq. 2.54: change “(2)” to “Eq. 2.47”. 15. page 50, Table 3.3: remove the extra period in the expression for RT /F so it reads “8.314 × 300/96487” 16. page 56, paragraph beginning with “Figure 3.1” : add a space so the last sentence ends “. . . perhaps ˚ 30 A thickness.”

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25: the units are wrong. next-to-last paragraph in Section 3.8: change the resistor label from ΓK to rK 31. note that Eq. first line of the paragraph above section 3. 3. page 59. page 83. Eq. page 69. page 59. .6)” 24. add an open bracket in front of Cp so the term reads: 25 ln Zp [Cp ]e [Cp ]i In addition. page 62.27: move the comma after the second ENa to follow “positive”. 3.9 mV. page 61. page 64. page 67.23 are valid only for a temperature of 17 °C.2: add the subscript m to the capacitance so the denominator becomes “(Cm d)”.1: the heading for the rightmost column should be “Channel Density” 2 .21: replace “In” with “ln” (replace the uppercase I with a lowercase L) so the equation reads: [Cp ]i −RT eq Vm = Φi − Φe = ln Zp F [Cp ]e 20. . 18. true at all temperatures (not only 27 °C) • 0 has units of (Coulomb2 sec2 )/(kg m3 ) or (Farads/m) 29. panel (a) in Figure 4. ” . 4. the relative charge depletion is ≈ 0. 30. 3.4 and 5.15: two corrections in the units: • R has units of J/(°K-mole).15: change [K+ ]e to [K+ ]e 28. page 69. Eq. 23. 3. Eq. sentence after Eq. 3. so the phrase reads “because ENa is positive.1.628 × 10−9 Coulombs 22. page 76. change ECI to ECl (the uppercase I should be a lowercase L) 27.20: in the left side term. page 58.17.00017).12: change “the GHK equations (below)” to “the GHK equations (Sections 5. page 61. first sentence of paragraph above Section 3. Also. Vm . in the sentence following. change the ending comma to a period.2: the units on Boltzmann’s constant are J/°K.24: the computation and units are wrong. 3. Eq. The correct answer is Q = 0. page 59: Eq.000017 (not 0. line after Eq. 25. section 3.22 and Eq. 21. third line from bottom of page: after 34. Table 4.22: in the right-most term. The left side term should read: [Cp ]i ln [Cp ]e 19. i should be a subscript on [Cp ]. page 85. The correct units are simply “Coulombs” (not Coulombs/cm). page 63: in the sentence above Ionic Currents. 26. 3. 3.10.

Eq. 5. second paragraph after Eq.487 Coul/mol (consistent with other usage throughout the text) 41. the correct equation is: ∆Vm = ∆t (Im − IK − INa − IL ) /Cm 49.34: in the sentence following. page 88. not 5. not 4. sentence preceding Eq. Eq. so replace IK with JK 37. in the middle line of Eq. note the authors suddenly redefine the meaning of N from the total number of channels to the total number of channels per unit area. page 94. Eq.19: the reference should be to Eq. 5. not 4.3: change “function” to “functions” 43. page 131. sentence preceding Eq.38: since gK is Siemens/cm2 . this equation is really a current density.31. 4. 4. page 125. sentence preceding Eq.37: the βK terms should not be subscripts. third paragraph from bottom: Faraday’s constant should be 96. so replace INa with JNa 39.18: the reference should be to Eq. 5. page 119.46: on the right-side term.35. the m should be a subscript so the numerator is ∆Vm 48. 4. page 93. 5. 5.24 44. page 93.52: change 0 <= t < T to 0 ≤ t < T . 40. 4. sentence preceding Eq. page 129. The correct equations are: τn = 1/ (αK + βK ) and n∞ = αK / (αK + βK ) 36. 4. 4.47: the signs on INa and IL are wrong. page 129.10: replace the semicolon with a comma 33. ¯ 46.49. page 94.41: since gNa is Siemens/cm2 . second to last paragraph: change PCI to PCl (lowercase L in the subscript.32.49: the sentence should refer to Equation 5. 42. page 108. 4. last line: change ∂/∂t = 0 to ∂Vm /∂t = 0. page 88. this equation is really a current density.11: in the first two sentences replace “boundary” with “initial” 34. page 114. 4. Eq. page 94.30 45. Eq. page 122.48 50.33: change gNa to gNa . page 122. This makes the units on the specific conductance g K work out to Siemens/cm2 35. page 109.36: delete the extra right parenthesis in the denominator of αm 47. Eq. page 133. page 124. 5. 5. Eq. 4. 5. sentence preceding section 5. 3 .40: replace “conductivity” with “specific conductance” 38. sentence after Eq. Eq. not uppercase I).

page 149. add the maximum conductivities gK and gNa and delete the potential differences (Vm − EK ) ¯i ¯i i and (Vm − ENa ). gK should be gL . . and the d (in the numerator) and the zero (in the denominator) should be subscripts on the potassium concentrations. so the statement should read “Extracellular resistance per unit length re is low because. to “[For a passive membrane. . 52.” not milliamperes and current. or R = R × area. 5. Eq. not the numeral 1). Symbols used in this statement indicate resistance per unit length. The entire equation is better written as: d RT ln Vm F Vm d Vm d F RT F RT [K]d − [K]0 − jK DK jK DK =d 55. ” Alternatively. which is the product of resistance and area. conductance per unit area. the start of the parenthetical statement “Resistance re is low because.7: change the second sentence. J is the total ionic flux. 53. they could have said “Extracellular resistance re ∆x is low because. in parentheses. . . page 133. Recall these definitions from Chapter 2: • resistance is R in Ω • resistivity is Re in Ω-cm • resistance per unit length is re in Ω/cm • capacitance is C in µF • capacitance per unit area is Cm in µF/cm2 • capacitance per unit length is cm in µF/cm Not defined in the book is “specific resistance”. ” In this chapter the authors are frustratingly sloppy with the terminology and symbols. last line. start of section 5.e. 5.51. next-to-last line in the caption of Figure 5. page 137. page 157. page 135.6. first line in last paragraph: delete the open parenthesis before “the electrical”. and E1 should be EL . .]” 56. 57.55: the two variable conductivities should be: i ¯i i gK = gK n4 i ¯i gNa = gNa m3 hi i i That is. Eq.16: delete the comma after “Huxley”.86: the natural logarithm should be ln (lowercase L. next-to-last sentence in the first paragraph under Units of calculation: gK is a conductance ¯ so reference tables could list it “in units of milliSiemens per square centimeter. 58.3: in the third branch of the circuit (nearest the capacitor). as in (5. page 157. Figure 6. page 158.93). 54. i. with units of Ω-cm2 . page 150. ” 4 . .

12.4. 69. Exercise 1: The components of vector u are (3. page 294.2. change 2ax to 2¯x a 5 . page 391. page 162. page 368. 6.7. line above Eq. 75.8: they have simplified Eq. Ie increases at location b (not a). Eq.9. Exercise 5: in vector A. line before Eq. 63. change “(see below)” to “see Section 6. 6) not (3. which is shown in the first column though the authors never define it. 64. and after “capacitance” add “per unit area”. 6. page 184. Table 6.2: Specific resistance is Ω-cm2 .35): add an open parenthesis to the formula for K1∞ so it reads K1∞ = αK1 / (αK1 + βK1 ) 73. 65. not Vm .73: I’m pretty sure they mean “room” temperature.2. page 164. 9. ¯ 76. page 177)”. page 285.15: change “Endocarcium” to “Endocardium”. page 186.70: the experimental values are θ and a (not “θ and α”). 70. Also.29: the gates X and Xi are never defined in the text.72: to be consistent with Chapter 12. in the line above αK1 (Eq. 9. page 183. 9. change “F-H model” to “FH model”. 60. second line after Eq. page 168. first line in Section 6.59. 71.26: to be consistent throughout the text. 62. The second column shows capacitance per unit area. page 185.3: add a period at the end. 61. 68. page 215. page 293.66: lower the limit value so the left side term reads −4πr2 ge ∂Φe ∂r r→0 74. Figure 9. not 6. 6. 67. 6). page 392. page 160. footnote 5: at the end of the footnote. third bullet in the list. 6. page 301. 9. 72. last sentence: in Figure 6.7: the y axis label should be vm . page 182. not “frog” temperature. Figure 7. page 159. second sentence: after dt change the closing parenthesis to a closing bracket. delete “even more” at the end of the same sentence. not “Specific capacitance” like the heading says. third line above Eq. second line in item 4: change “leakage resistance rm ” to “leakage resistivity Rm ”. first first sentence after Eq. Eq. 6.3. 66. This is a typical example of where the authors specify a certain quantity but give units for a different quantity.5. change “F-H equations” to “FH equations”.

83. page 420. page 420. 81.” The correct answer is dVm /dt = −5. gNa = 0.06 mS/cm2 .” 88. gNa = 0. Exercise 4: add units of mV/cm2 on k 79.375 mS/cm2 . page 397. Exercise 42: assume T = 300 °K. is the K + current in phase 2 greater than that in phase 1? 92. page 392. last paragraph: the information given is for Exercises 34–42 (not Exercises 34–45). page 404. Vm = −40 mV.57 mS/cm2 . Change the end of the sentence in part b to read “. Exercise 19: add to the problem statement: Compare the potassium current before the transition to that immediately after.” 78. Exercise 24: as written. the third from last sentence should read “Membrane conductances are: gK = 0. that is. use the potassium concentrations listed in Table 3.1. a a 80. page 403.375 mS/cm2 . Rewrite the question as: 2 1 Judging from the results of Exercises 14 and 15. it should read V = 2¯x + 3¯y . 90. page 401.” This instruction is unnecessary because parts e through h directly ask for these formulas.8 mS/cm2 . page 411. not the Greek µ. page 412.37 mV/msec. page 398.” 82. Exercise 6. Also. Exercise 30. page 429. Exercise 29: wrong value for Re . and use the concentrations in shown on page 412. Also. if the potential is computed by treating the two point sources as a dipole.01 mS/cm2 . What is the ratio IK /IK ? 93.77. if Vm > Vm . page 414. 91. Exercise 22: the units on Iv should be mA/cm2 . Exercise 28: remove the extra parenthesis after “depth”. 85. Exercise 5: the units on the potassium channel opening rate are msec−1 . page 411. 6 . part b of the exercise is identical to part a. Exercise 45: find dVm /dt at time t = 0. 1 a a 1 compare IK (at t = t1 ) to IK (at t = ta ). part b. 89. Exercise 9: vector V is wrong. page 417. should be Re = 600 Ωcm. 86. . 84. problem statement for Exercise 3: delete the second sentence “Also give formulas for the new values. gL = 0. . 87. Exercise 16: the wording here is terrible. part f: the mobility is u (letter u). gL = 0. second sentence: add the word “twice” so the sentence reads “The magnitude of the vector will be twice the area of that face. The conductances should be “gK = 0. page 412. information for Exercises 31–33: membrane conductance units are mS/cm2 . page 413. page 407: delete Exercise 7: it is the same as Exercise 6b.

page 437. Exercise 5: the labels after part “d” are incorrect. page 448. m.” Note that all the other input values are the same as in Exercises 18 and 19. page 438. so Vdot = vdot 99. ” 98. . Exercise 18: two corrections: • Near the top of the problem statement. the core-conductor’s intracellular resistance per unit length. change “Ex. Use the same initial values for n. page 436. 96. 20” to “Ex. Exercise 27: change “Ex. Exercise 2. change these to run from e to i. Exercise 1: Edit parts a. 19”. part c of Exercise 15: change the wording to “What is ∆Vm 100 msec after the stimulus starts . and h. Exercise 20: Change “Reduce ∆t ” to “Reduce ∆t to 2 µsec. b. 24” to “Ex. the core-conductor’s membrane resistivity. 25”. Exercise 14: instead of using their suggestion of the power-series expansion. page 430. The wrong labels run from c to g. page 434. the table shows Vm . page 449. 107. Rm . page 439. m. Exercise 9: the labels after part “d” are incorrect. and Vm as in Exercise 19. three corrections: • To the problem statement add “Use Table 13. While it is true that vm (= Vm − Vrest ) is used to compute the values of n. change these to run from e to i. In part b. c. add: Change the stimulus duration to 300 µsec and re-run the simulations. in the program’s input values: delete the next-to-last line that shows gK and gNa. page 440. h. the core-conductor’s membrane capacitance per unit length. Exercise 26: in part a. cm . all references to vm should be to Vm . The wrong labels run from c to g.94. What is the just-above-threshold membrane voltage? 102. 100. 95. Exercise 25: add “Use Is = 200 µA/cm2 for 150 µsec. not vm .” This part is not needed because here you are comparing the results from Exercises 19 and 20. page 440. What is the just-above-threshold stimulus amplitude? d. b. page 432. Exercise 23: After part b. use l’Hˆ pital’s o Rule. 97. (Why are these unnecessary?) • In the paragraph above the output table. second sentence in Exercise 56: delete the extra negative sign before 105 mV. 106. 101. Since Vrest is constant. and c to read: a.” 103. c.5 for initial conductance values. Run a simulation to t = 1000 µsec. change ICl to IL . 104. 105. page 440. page 449. the time derivative of Vm and vm are the same. .” 7 . page 438. Exercise 21: delete the text beginning with “Use these values to start the simulation. ri .

page 3. page 452. along with the resistances R and r. page 3. page 4. pages 449-450. Exercise 6: Assume you know the cell radius a. page 3. 76 Solutions in the PDF file on the CD-ROM 1. 111. page 3. in Ω-cm2 ). 2. Exercises 10 and 11: Change “crossing” to “pathway”. Exercise 3. page 453.000 Ωcm2 is the membrane’s specific resistance. index entries under “B”: Add Boltzmann’s constant. the correct solution is · Φ = −k sech2 (x) tanh(x) mV/mm2 6. then J is in mA/mm2 . several corrections: • In the problem statement. 8 . Answer 13b: If the units on σ are S/mm. along with the cell radius a and resistances per unit length ri and re .• Part a: they are asking for the membrane’s specific resistance (resistance × area. the correct solution is J = −σ Φ = −k σ sech2 (x) ax mA/mm2 ¯ 5. page 525. not the membrane’s resistivity • Part b: they are asking for membrane’s resistivity 108. page 451. Answer 13c: negate the given answer and add correct units. 113. 109. • Part b: they are asking for cm . Answer 7: the units are µV. Answer 19a: units on k are µA/cm3 . Exercise 5: Assume you know the total current I. 112. Rm . Answer 13a: add units mV/mm to 4. • Part a: they are asking for the membrane’s resistivity. • Part d: they are asking for re . page 3. the value 2. 110. • Part c: they are asking for ri . not its resistance. The unit vector is also omitted. Exercise 8: Change “crossing” to “pathway”. Answer 11: the correct solution is A(x) = 1 Io 3 (x − e)2 − 3 4πσ r5 r Φ 3. page 450.

448 × 10−6 11. Answer 1g: the correct equation is Vdot = (Is − Iion ) /Cm 22.2 × 10−12 moles of K + ions in volume 1. page 9. Answer 1: R = 740. page 8. 26.59 nA 17.95. Answer 13b: for p = 0.537 × 10−10 A 21. Answer 8: negative sign in the wrong place. page 6.7. page 6.73 µA/cm2 24. page 16. Answer 25: membrane resistance = 558.62 × 10−6 mole/(cm2 -sec). This value is extremely large because the time (100 msec) is large 25. 18. paragraph within Answer 18: correct the spelling of “parameterized”. the correct answer is: Is = Iion = 40. page 18. page 6.86 b 20.7 Ω 16. Answer 13: the particle flow is iD = 1. page 5.714 Ω or 558 MΩ 15. page 6. not 1 × 10−12 . Answer 12: the particle flux is jK = 18.4 µA/cm2 23. Answer 29b: add closing parenthesis: re = 600/ 3 × 10−6 = 2 × 108 Ohms/cm 8. page 6.98 × 10−9 K 12. remove the extraneous “+1” so that vm = [−40 − (−60)] = 20 mV 19. Answer 3: mobility = uNa = 51. not 7.29 × 10−10 A = 529 pA. Answer 18: I disagree with some of these suggestions. Answer 5: IK = 5. page 15. page 6.035. page 8. Answer 12: delete the two negative signs.45 × 10−9 m/s V/m 9. Answer 26: the ratio is 5.389. page 18. page 8. not 2. Answer 11: there are 0. Detailed answer 14a: in step 1. not 5. Answer 33c: IK = 5.862 × 10−9 moles/sec. not 2. page 6. Answer 14: 13. Answer 15: 14. we will discuss these in class. D 10. page 8. the correct answer is: Is = Iion = −209.46µm. page 12. page 16. page 13. Answer 15c: ∆Vm = 5000 mV at t0 + t = 100 msec. the minimum radius is a = 0. 9 .

After correcting the answer numbers. 20b should be 21b. not 169000 10 .692 (as shown in the output for Answer 20). Answer 3a: rm = 63662 Ω-cm. Answers 20 through 26: the numbering is wrong for all of these answers. Answer 20a should be Answer 21a. 8050. not 49. For example. page 23. not 63700 29. 750.692 • Answer 22b: change “linear” to “nonlinear” • Answers 24a-24c: I get the peak times as 3150. etcetera. page 23. and 4900 µsec 28. so the last stated answer should be Answer 27c. add 1 to each answer number. the first number should be 42. The answer for Exercise 20 begins on page 19. and 400 µsec • Answer 25: I get the stable return time as 24000 µsec. Also. Answer 3d: re = 169765 Ω/cm. pages 20-21.27. correct the given answers: • Answer 21a: change vm to Vm . • Answers 27a-27c: I get the second AP times as 16750. To correct this.