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T.C.

KLTR BAKANLIGI
ve Mzeler Genel
xx.
SONULARI
TOPLANTISI

I.CILT
25-29 MAYIS 1998
TARSUS
... __"!... ------- .. ---
T.C. KLTR BAKANLIGI
No: 2197
ve Mreler Genel
No: 66
YAYINA
Koray
Hayriinnisa AKMAK
Fahriye BAYRAM
Filiz KAYMAZ
Nuray TARLAN
Adil ZME
Kemalettin
Haydar DNMEZ .

MORKAYA
Meryem UYANIKER
ISBN:
975- 17-2201-2. (i .Cilt)
ISSN: 1017-7655
Not: Bildiriler, sahiplerinden ve gre

KLTR BAKANLIGI KTPHANE
ANKARA-1999
iiNDEKiLER
Nur Didier BINDER,
Maria Claire CAUVIN, Erol
Kmrc / Kalatepe Obsidiyen Atlyesi 1997 1
YALINKAYA, Mareel OTTE
1997 Karain 23
YALINK..t\YA, M..KARTAL, M.B.KSEM, C.M.EREK,
A.L.ATICJ, K.OZELIK (CEYLAN), M.OTTE
1997 Okzini 39
Erksin GLE
1997 Y 55
Steven L.KUHN, Erksin G.PLE, Faruk KILIN
Exploratory Excavations at Cave, Hatay Province (1997) 63
Sevil GLUR, Muhsin ENDOGRU
Gvercin 1997 77
Ufuk EsiN, HARMANKAYA
Hyk 1997 101
Refik DURU
1997
Rapor 131
Mehmet ZDOGAN, Herman PARSINGER, Necmi KARUL
1997 139
Turan EFE
Klloba 1997 165
Gill STEIN
1997 Excavations at 183
Antonio SAGONA, Mustafa ERKMEN, Claudia SAGONA
Excavations at Sos Hyk, 1997 205
Jess GiL-FUENSANTA, Mitchell S.ROTMAN, Eyp BUCAK
1997 Salvage at Hyk
1997 Hyk Kurtarma 207
Aksel TiBET, Catherine MARRO, Rifat ERGE
Horum Hyk 1997 219
Christine KEPINSKI-LECOMTE, Rifat ERGE
Research at Tilbeshar, 1997 241
;
.. .
Soundings at DemirkyHyk, 1997 ; 249
Marie Henl'ietteGATE:S.... .. .' . .. . .
1997 ArchaeologicalExcavationsat Kinet Hyk
yol, ..; , 259
Stuart CAMPBELL, Elizabeth CARTER
Excavationsat Domuztepe1997 ,., 283
.. . . .
1997 295
Halime
1997 Gkeada-Yenibademli Hyk 3II
Hayat ERKANAL
1997 Liman Tepe 325
Hayat ERKANAL, Turhan ZKAN
1997 Bakla Tepe , 337.
Manfred KORFMANN
1997 Troia 357

1997.Panaztepe 371
Horst EHRINGHAUS
Grabung am Sirkeli Hyk 1997 383
Halet AMBEL, James E.KNUDSTAD, Martina SICKERAKMAN,
Richard BAYLISS
Domuztepe ve Kadirli 1997
Dnemi 399
Jrgen SEEHER
1997 417
Aygl SEL, Mustafa SEL
1997 433
Andreas MLLER.KARPE
1993-1997 Toplu 445
Mehmet
1997 Harmanren (Gndrle) 467
nder
1997 Dnemi 485
OktayBELLi
1997,Y ve Anzaf Urartu Kaleleri 507
Altan iLiNGiROGLU, Haluk SAGLAMTiMUR
Van-Ayanis Urartu Kalesi , .. 527
M.P.C. JACKSON, J.N.POSTGATE
Kilise Tepe 1997 A Summary of the Principal Results 541
G.Kenneth SAMS, Mary M.VOIGT
Gordion Archaeological Activities, 1997 559
Tomris Grcan POLAT
Daskyleion 1997 577
, .
Volkmar von GRAEVE
1996/1997 Milet 583
Stephan KARWIESE
1997 Ephesos'ta Yerine Getirilen
Restorasyon' ve 607
KMRC / KALETEPE
1997
Nur BALKAN-ATLI*
Didier BINDER
Marie Claire CAUVIN
Erol
Kmrc/Kaletepe obsidiyena-tlyesi Kltr ve Mze-
ler Genel izni ile Mzesi
sitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

1
26.08.1997 ile 25. 09.1997 tarihleri
1.
Anadolu'nun jeolojik volkanik bir st Miyosen'den
Pliyosen ve tm Kuvaterner boyunca zellikle blgede
bir volkanizmaya sahne Bu blgeler a) Anadolu'da Kafkas-
lar ve Bitlis-Zagros b) I Anadolu'da Kapadokya Blgesi ve c)
Anadolu'nun Ege Denizi ile Anadolu aktif ol-
obsidiyen Obsidiyen durumda bulunan
ve genellikle asitik zellik ve bol su ieren ok abuk
ile volkanik bir siyah, gri, kahve, ve
renklerde ve bir olan obsidiyen, gerek ve gerekse
fiziki nitelikleri (yongalanmaya tarihncesi insan iin
nemli hammaddelerden birini
Kapadokya Anadolu'nun volkanizmaya sahne blgelerin-
den biridir. Bu rn olan ve kolay yontulma
Do.Dr, Nur Edebiyat Fakltesi, PrehistoryaAnabilim 34459
Dr. Didier Binder, CNRS-UPR 7558,250 rueAlbert Einstein, SophiaAntipolis, 06560 Valbonne, Fransa.
Dr. Marie Claire Cauvin, Institut de Prehistoire Orientale, CNRS-Jales, 07460 Berrias, Fransa.
Erol Mze 51100
(I) Kurulu Erol Do.Dr. Nur Dr.Didier Binder, Prof. Dr. Marie-Claire
Cauvin, Dr. Erhan Dr. Fsun Mahmut ile Fakltemiz i/er
Merve Anda, Hlya Duru, Nurcan Kayacan, Mustafa zkul, Semra
Y ve Seden Yksel' den
(2) Kaletepe 1997 parasal niversitesi, Fonu (Proje no:
1000/250897) ve Kltr Dairesi Gll malzemesini
Prof. dr. Wulf Shirmer'e borluyuz.
tarihncesi silah ve alet tercih obsidiyen, Anadolu iin
"banal" bir hammaddedir ve olarak gzle-
nir. Ancak, blgelerde de Levante
blgesi>, bu hammaddenin nemli bir ticaret ve
gstermektedir (Cauvin, 1996). anak mleksiz Neolitik Dnem'in fosil di-
rektrlerinden birisi bu hammaddeyi ve bu hammadde ile
prehistorik insan bir proje incelemeye karar
verdik. obsidiyeni durumundan
de veya alet durumuna kadar etap etap izle-
mekti. hammadde
olarak bir pilot blge seti k ve bunu iftlik
kuzeyindeki Gll ve Nenezi olarak (Fig. 1). 1995 ve
1996 yzey bu blgede 1960-
70 sonucunda saptanan (Renfrew et
al, 1966; 1968; Wright 1969) yeni kaynaklar ve her
ve atlyeleri tespit ettik (Cauvin & 1996; et
aL. 1997). blgenin jeolojisi ve jeomorfolojisi zerindeki y-
zey olarak ve kaynaklardan
obsidiyen rneklerin jeo-kimyasal analizleri yntemler kullanan laboratu-
varlar
Bu atlyelerden birisi, Kmrc/Kaletepe atlyesi iki vurma dzlemli
(naviform) ekirdekleri ile zellikle dikkatimizi Bu ekirdekler anak
mleksiz Neolitik Dnem'in en nemli fosil direktrleri olup dnemin toplu-
tekno-kltrleri nemli veren buluntulardan biridir.
Kaletepe'de ele geen naviform ekirdekler ise yksek derecede
gsteren ve ancak ok byk bir rn olabilecek ekirdekler-
di (Fig. 2). Bu ekirdeklerin benzerleri az ve akmak Suriye'de
D'jade (Coqueuegniot, 1994) ve Lbnan'da TelI aux Scies ve
Slenfe (Cauvin, 1968). Ancak Anadolu'da ilk ola-
rak ve obsidiyen rnekleri Kaletepe ve gzlendi>.
da retim zincirlerini anlamak iin bir ortam
Bu nedenle bir atlye Kmrc
atlyesi gerek in situ malzemenin daha atlye ge-
rekse daha uygun iin Bu hem anak
mleksiz Neolitik Dnem iin ok nemli bu ekirdekleri anlamak, hem de
Anadolu'da ilk atlye gerek-
i di. .
2. AMA
Kmrc/Kaletepe obsidiyen atlyesini
Henz bir tipini, atlye
tirmek ve bu yntemini bir atlyenin antropik
(3) G.. 14000-12,000 tarihlenen Dhour Choueir ve El Kowm'da (Cauvin, 1991).
(4) Blgede jeolojik, jeomorfolojik, jeo-kimyasal ve arkeolojik tm
Anadolu obsidienlerini kapsayan bir kitapta (Cauvin et al.,
(5) et aL. 1997; & Der Aprahamian, & Cauvin,
2
ve stratigrafisini, geometrisini ve obsidiyen
gre saptamak; obsidiyen yongalama saptamak, Ka-
letepe ekirdekleri ile ilgili in situ yongalama rnlerini ortaya re-
tim saptamak, rnleri nitelik ve nicelik gzlemek;
atlye hammaddenin ve
bilgi edinmek; atlyenin blgedeki
bulmaya atlyenin rnlerinin (Anadolu,
Suriye-Filistin blgesi...) saptamak; atlyedeki ait veriler ara-

1997 ise teknik yn zerinde
Atlyenin jeomorfolojisi; topografya kesit temizli-
sondaj ve (atlyeyi kontrol eden
bir
3.
3.1. Jeolojik ve jeomorfolojik evre
6
ilinde, Gll yresinde, Kmrc Ky iinde bulu-
nan Kaletepe obsidiyen atlyesi Kmreti Ky 'nn riyolit bir
zerindeki 1600 m. ykseklikteki dzlktedir (Fig. 3). Kyn kuzeyin-
de bulunan bu tepe ve Glck 'na bakar ve
gnler ve Erciyes kadar sahiptir (Fig. 4).
Atlye Kaletepe'nin zerinde kuzeyde Kayatepe, ve mevsimlik de-
reler ve gneyde kye hakim riyolit ile
Melendiz masiflerinin kuzeyinde bulunan Gll (Fig. 5), kuvaterne-
re tarihlenen, pskrtmelerin (riyolit, obsidiyen, ignimbrit,
pomza) bir volkan veya volkan). Gll
Hasan sistemi ve Erciyes ile birlikte gen vol-
Gll kuzey Kmrc Ky
bulunan ve literatre Kmrc obsidiyen olarak geen
obsidiyenler Gll obsidiyen en grkemlisini
lar.
Kaletepe Gll riyolit bir koninin zerinde-
dir ve bu koni sert bir gsteren, 50-60 m. ge-
bir obsidiyen iermektedir. Bu damara 100 m.
daha dar, 20-30 m. bir obsidiyen daha (Fig. 6). Bu ri-
yolitler ve obsidiyenler sonra pomza ile Byk lde erozyona
pomzalar halen yer yer gzlenebilmektedir. Obsidiyen ri-
yolitler iinden Kaletepe
atlyesi birinci zerindedir ve bu damar dere erozyona
gzlenebilmektedir.
Krnrc'de obsidiyen daha gzlenmektedir:
sz edilenlerin bir damar ve daha dar bir damar Erik-
li Deresi 'nde gzlenmektedir; nc bir damar ise verev olarak
(6) evre bilgiler Dr.
3
tepesinin kuzey vadisinde gzlenmektedir. Bu obsidiyen dama-
da prehistorik insan evrelerinde bir alana
ve ok obsidiyen erozyona bir-
ok izine
Kaletepe'nin jeolojik
bsidiyenle birlikte riyolit
Turuncu bir paleosol ve bunu rten ve pomza, riyolit ve obsidiyen ieren
renkli ignimbrit
Erozyona ancak yerlerde gzlenebilen pomza
Tm ve atlyeyi kaplayan kahverengi-turuncu renginde ve
pomza kumu ieren milli ve killi toprak
3.2. Topografya
Tm atlyenin topografik rlvesi teodolit ile Dr. Erhan
ve Duru ve alana kuzeye
metrekarelik (AA-JZ 1-225) bir grid sistemi (Fig. 7). Oreferans nok-
Kaletepe'nin riyolit tepesine konuldu. topografik
referans korunmaya
ve alanlara amalar
3.3. Stratigrafik Kesit
Atlyenin kltr ve in situ malzemeyi kontrol et-
mek iin bir kesit Bu kesit 1996 ve atlyenin kuze-
yinde bir mevsimlik dere 1996
bu kesitte 50 cm. in situ durumda obsidiyen
rnleri ieren bir tabaka Bu gzlemleri ve antropik
saptayabilmek iin kesit bizi beklenmedik
bir sonu (Fig. 8). Kesiti derenin kadar ve 1 m. ka-
dar derine inmemize antropik devam gzledik. So-
nuta atlyenin bu 6 m. lik bir prehistorik dolgu ile ve ana
kayaya henz bu dolgunun daha da
yoruz.
Kesit obsidiyen rnleri ve brt obsidiyen taban-
Iardan (Fig. 9). Bu tabanlar bir gstermek-
tedirler. Dr. gibi obsidiyen atlyenin
kuzey ynnde gemektedir. bu damar hammadde
olarak byk ynde yapay bir vadi
ve kesitte izlenen olay budur. Bugnk mevsimlik dere ise daha
bir tarihe aittir. Bu gzlemlere dayanarak atlyenin bu..ala-
ok bir morfolojik sahip varabiliriz. n-
mzdeki mevsiminde bu konuyu
10 metre ve 6 m. bu kesitin (Fig.
10) tm obsidiyen zaman ve insan gc olarak ola-
nk 1 m
3
%75'ini obsidiyen buluntular meydana getiriyor-
du. Ancak, bu kesitten atlyenin teknolojik evrimi bilgi edinmemiz
4
gerekiyordu. Malzemeyi rnekleme yaparak kesitin ilk 2,5 m. sinde,
0.25 ms'Iik kolonda her 10 cm. lik eleyerek tm obsidiyenleri siste-
matik olarak (toplam 300 kg). Kesitin alt ise, bu sis-
temi uygulayacak zaman sadece teknolojik gzlemlere daya-
narak obsidiyen rnlerini rnek olarak Onmzdeki kesitin alt
da sistematik toplama
Stratigrafi
50 cm. milli ve killi yzey antro-
pik buluntular formlarda
Sadece obsidiyen yongalama bulunduran mercimek biiminde dol-
gular. Bu dolgulardaki buluntularda patina veya yzeyerozyonu gzlenmiyor.
Bunlar byk birincil durumdalar. Bu tip dolgular az fakat de-
rinliklerde gzleniyor.
Heterojen ve brt durumda obsidiyenler, riyolit ve
iri kum ieren depolanmalar;
Eski bir erozyon topografisi sergileyen bir tabaka obsidiyen drtgen
biimde alvyal kum ve in situ durumda olmayan, eski bir
erozyona obsidiyen buluntular iermektedir. Bu tabaka dere-
nin da devam etmektedir, dere tm antropik dolguyu henz

Teknolojik Veriler
Kesitte teknolojik gzlenmektedir. Kesitin sa-
dece tek vurma dzlemli ekirdekler ve rnleri dilgiler
Bu tip teknolojiyi tarihlernek zordur; Neolitik Dnem veya Kalkolitik Dnem'e
ait olabilir. Fakat gerek anak mlekli Neolitik gerekse Kalkolitik yontma
endstrileri zerinde yeterli bir yapma-
da
Kesitin anak mleksiz Neolitik'in en belirgin zellik-
lerinden olan iki kutuplu yongalama tipine ait ele Bunlar a-
nak mleksiz Neolitik Dnem'de olarak gzlenen iki vurma dzlemli e-
kirdeklerdir fakat, Kaletepe tipinde
Kesitin alt sistematik bir toplama teknoloji
ile ilgili henz bir saptamada Ancak, kesin olarak Paleolitik D-
nem'e ait hibir ize
3.4.
(S2) olarak kesitin 80 m. ve kesitten 9 m. da-
ha yksek bir alan seildi. Bu seimin nedeni yzeyde kstebeklerin yer
dan Kaletepe ekirdekleriyle ilgili homojen olarak bura-
da 9 mz'lik bir alanda ve 25 cm. derinlikte in si-
tu bir obsidiyen yongalama bulundu (Fig. 11,12). Bu antropik dol-
gu lmek iin hemen 1 bir test (S3)
ve malzeme tabakalara gre toplanarak anakayaya inildi.
5
(S2) henz anakayaya stratigrafi test son-
(S3) Bu saptamaya gre tabakalan-
ma
cm. yzey
2. 10 cm. sert, kahverengi renkli bu-
luntu ieren bir tabaka;
3. kumlu bir toprak obsidiyen yongalama rnle-
ri ve ufak riyolit ieriyor; bu tabaka 20 cm.
4. 25 cm. obsidiyen kumu iinde obsidiyen yonga-
lama rnleri ieren bir tabaka;
5. Dzensiz riyolit anakaya zerinde kumlu bir tabaka.
4. BULGULAR
elde obsidiyen buluntular zellikle Kalete-
pe ekirdekleri ile ilgililer et al, 1998).
obsidiyen bu ekirdeklerin retim zincirinin
yongalar brt obsidiyen taslak haline getirilmesini, ince
obsidiyen yongalar n tabletler vurma dzlemle-
rinin dilgiler yongalama yznn ve e-
ufak dilgiler yongalama yznn gsteriyorlar (Fig. 13,
14). Tm bu buluntular 1996 ve yzey buluntulann-
dan ve deneylerden yola teorik retim zincirini
(Fig. 15). Bu retim zincirinin ve Kaletepe ekirdeklerinin olan dilgiler
ise ok az bulunabildi (Fig. 16). sonu-
cunda gibi, bunlar ihra etmek iin
izi gsteren olarak
yongalar, deliciler) atlyede dilgi retiminin
faaliyetlerinde Dzelti ile
obsidiyen en nemli yeri bir ok ucu Bu okucu,
Kaletepe ekirdeklerinin ana rn olan dilgi zerine yayvan dzelti-
lerle bir sapa sahiptir ve u ise (Fig. 16,9).
Buluntular Kaletepe ekirdek retiminin tek vurma dz-
lemli, unipolar, bir retim zincirinin da Bu iki retim zin-
ciri ilerledike
S.SONU
Kaletepe obsidiyen atlyesinin ilk
bilgiler destekliyor. Atlye
uzun, dz profilli, dilgilerin seri retimini uzman-
bir atlyedir. Bu dilgiler, anak mleksiz Neolitik Dnem'in en nem-
li kltrel biri olan ok iin Daha
nce de gibi, Anadolu iin bir hammadde olan obsidiyen
Levante blgesi iin bir nem Bu blgedeki
lerde az da olsa obsidiyenlerin ve bu obsidiyenlerin kimyasal ana-
6
lizierinin kaynak olarak gstermeleri, bu hammaddenin
alanlara Bu dnemde yk henz ev-
gz nne bu byk brt ham-
madde olarak daha. kolay bir zellikle
dilgi oluyordu. . .
birisi de bu atlyede retim yapan
veya atlye yksek bir atlyeyi kont-
rol eden idi. Bu henz Ancak
Kaletepe atlyesinin eteklerinde ve Kmrc Ky'nn iinde, da-
yapay bir tepe dikkatimizi ekti. Kyn evleri ve bahelerinin
kalan bu "hyk" ileriki
Kaletepe atlye henz tek bir sahne
tm henz cevap Kalete-
pe ekirdeklerinin retim zinciri ve retimin rnlerin zerine
Bu Neolitik Dnem obsidiyen
teknolojik ve jeo-kirnyasal analizleriyle belirlenecektir. Anadolu Neolitik yer-
bu retimle ilgili bir henz ise
daha fazla; GO 96'a kadar Suriye-Filistin blgesinde
obsidiyenlerin Kapadokya gryoruz (Cauvin, 1991): Orne-
Mureybet, Aswad (Suriye), Byblos (Lbnan). bir gelecekte, yeni ya-
jeo-kimya analizleri sayesinde tek tek kaynaklara
Bylece, Kaletepe atlyesinin rnlerinin sis-
temini ortaya
Kaletepe atlyesinin en nemli seri retim ger-
bir atlye Bylesi bir retim ancak olabi-
lir. bir bu retimi bu konuda
gerekir. Genelolarak Neolitik Dnem ve zellikle anak
mleksiz Neolitik Dnem iin bir Sosyalorganizasyon
dan herkesin kendi veya faaliyetlerin imece usul bir d-
nemdir ve bunun aksini gsterecek pek bir yoktur. Ancak, Kaletepe atl-
yesinde gzlenen gerek bir rndr. bu
byk bir bu retimi ve bir faaliyette bulunmala-
olmayan bir grubu Bu
gerekir. Tm bunlar toplumda bir grup
bu belirli dnemlerde de olsa, gsterir. Bu Neolitik
Dnem'in sosyal yeniden gerektirecektir.
KAYNAKLAR
BALKAN-ATLI N., M.C. CAUVIN, G. DERAPRAHAMIAN & C. KUZUCUOGLU (1997) - "Rapport
sur I'obsidiyenne cappadocienne et sa diffusion: campagne 1996" Anatolia Antiqua V, 263-274.
BALKAN-ATLI N, D. BINDER & M.-C. CAUVIN (1998) - "Exploitation de l'obsidiyenne de Cappado-
ce: prerniere campagne de fouille aKaletepe (Kmrc)", Anatolia Antiqua, VI, 301-315.
BALKAN-ATLI N. & M.-C. CAUVIN - "Obsidian in the Neolithic in Central Anatolia. From
Raw Material to Workshops and Settlements: A Case Study". Otte M. (ed)
Liege.
BALKAN-ATLI N. & G. DERAPRAHAMIAN -. "Les nucleus de Kaletepe et deux ateliers de
taille en Cappadoce". M.-C. CAUVIN,A. GOURGAUD, B. GRATUZE, G. POURPEAU & J.-L.
POIDEVIN (Eds.) L'Obsidiyenne au et Moyen Orient: du Yolcan il l'Outil, Tempus Repa-
ratum,Oxford-BAR.
7
CAUVIN J. (1968) - "Les outilIages neolithiques de BybIos et du littoraI libanais", Fouilles de Byblos, t.
IV, Paris Librairie d' Amerique et d'Orient, Jean
CAUVIN M.-C (1991) - "L'obsidiyenne au Levant prehistorique: provenance et fonetion", de
5-6,163-190.
CAUVIN M.-C (1996) - dans le Proche-Orient prehistorique: Etat des recheches en 1996",
Anatolica XXII, 1-3
CAUVIN M.C.& N. (1996)- "Rapport sur les recherches sur l'obsidiyenne en Cappado-
ce, 1993- i 995", Anatolla Antiqua IV, 249-271.
CAUVIN M.-C.,A. GOURGAUD, B. GRATUZE, G. POURPEAU & J.-L. POIDEVIN (Eds.)
- L'Obsidiyenne au et Moyen Orient: du Volcan ci l'Outil,Tempus Reparatum, Oxford-
BAR.
COQUEUGNIOT E. (1994) - "L'industrie lithique de Dja' de el Mughara et le debut PPNB sur I'Euph-
rate Syrien (Sondages i 99 i et 1992)", H. G. Gebel - S. Kozlowski (Eds.) Chipped Sto-
Ile Industries of the Fertile Crescent. i: 299-3 12. Berlin ex oriente.
RENFREW C, J. E. DlXON & JR CANN (1966) - "Obsidian and Early Cultural Contact the Near
East", of the Prehistoric Society 32: 30-72.
RENFREW C, J. E. DlXON & J.R. CANN (1968) - "Further Analysis of Near Eastern Obsidians", Pro-
ceedings of the Prehistoric Society 34: 319-331.
WRIGHT G. A. (1969) - Analyses and Prehistoric Near Eastern Trade; 7500 to 3 500 BC.
ropological Papers, 37, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
8
9
Fig. 2: Kaletepe e k i r d e i (izim: G.Der Aprahamian)
10
Fig. 3: Kaletepe atlyesinin kuzeye genel grnm D.Binder)
Fig. 4:Kaletepe atlyesi: Riyolit ve genel grnm D.Binder)
11

Vers
k,'11 rTIIJ2 f..13 _4
010 gll 112 +13 X 14
ITITJ 6
* 15


Fig. S:
Gll jeomorfolojik evresi (C.
Volkanik Melendiz Masifi (mio-pIiosen); 2. volkanik
Tepesi (mio-pIiosen ignimbritleri; 3. Volkanik Gll (pleis-
tosen); 4. Bozky formasyonu (pIiosen ?): 6 Gll
7. Derinkuyu 8. erozyona pomzalar;
9. sel konileri; 10 iftlik ( eski pleistosen gl); 11 Gll
glasileri; 12. Krater glleri; 13. Kmre/Kaletepe
atlyesi; 14. Tepeeik/iftlik neolitik 15. Sondaj nok-

12
1
2

_7
Fig.6: Kmre1Kaletepe atlyesininjeomorfolojik evresi (C.
1. Volkanik Melendiz masifi; 2. Volkanik Gll masifi; 3. Gll 4.
Gll glasileri; 5. Krater gl; 6. Volkan konileri; 7. Kmre obsidiyen
8. 1997 blgesi; 9. Kmre1Kaletepe atlyesi.
13
D
"
t
! .
i
'Om i

C
i
II
ro
i
i
LO
:
i ,/
,;

B
i
! . Is 3
s 2 -i-
i i i i i
KALETEPE
226
176
101
51
151
126
26
Fig. 7: Kaletepe'nin topografik
14
Fig. 8: Kesitin genel D. Binder)
Fig. 9: Kesitten detay D. Binder)
15
Fig. 10: Kesitin genel F.
Fig. 11: in situ buluntular D.Binder)
16
Fig. 12: in situ buluntular detay D.Binder)
17
2
\
\;
3
\
\)
Fig. 13: Obsidien buluntular: 1: n form p a r a s ; 2-3: k r k Kaletepe ekirdekleri
(izim: G. Der Aprahamian)
18
26
'i
\
6 6
i
'6
5
4
Fig. 14: Obsidien buluntular: 1-2 vurma dzlemi ama 3. tablet; 4. dilgi;
S. alete dilgi; 6. yanal dilgi (izim: G. Der Aprahamian)
19
"
Brilt obsidicn

ekirdek nfonnu
L- --'i ,-I_---'
vurma duvlemlcrinin
(A ve
Yongaluma
(C)
l
:1"1. drt yan dilgi
ilc
ekirdek njkcncnc
kadar dilgi

(:kin!(:p,i
Fig. 15: Kaletepe teorik (izim: G. Der Aprahamian)
20
r
i J'
1-
. !
\
ltf
3
i
-- -,'.2

! "
8
:1: ...
l,

r r..,
. -
__ . i
i
i !
5
Fig. 16: Obsidiyen buluntular: 1-8: dilgiler; 9 ok ucu G. Der Aprahamian)
21
*
1997 YILI KAZISI
YALINKAYA*

1997 Karain 21.07.1997 tarihinde 10.09.1997 ta-
rihinde sona 1997 Karain byk lde Kltr
ve Mzeler Genel ve de A.U.D.T.C.F.
ve Trk Tarih Kurumu'nun parasal destekle
Szkonusu bu Liege niversite-
si 'nden Asistan Rebecca Miller, Teknisyen Vincent Ancion; FransaCNRS' den
Asistan Norbert Mercier; Arizona niversitesi'nden Aaron Stutz, Hacettepe
Universitesi 'nden Paleoantropolog Grevlisi Glfem Uysal' dan olu-
bir uzmanlar ekibiyle Uzman grubunun
Dil ve Fakltesi Prehistorya Anabilim yksek lisans ve li-
sans ile uyruklu de Kltr Bakan-
ise Ankara Etnografya Mzesi Arkeolog Cemal Bay-
kal temsil
1997 sezonu etkinlik-
ler
i. "E" Gz
II. "B" Gz
III. Laboratuvar
Iv. Arkeometriye ynelik
Prof.Dr, YALINKAYA, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi, Prehistorya
Anabilim 06100
Prof.Dr.Mareel OTTE, niversite de Liege, Service de Prehistoire, B-4000, Liege-BELiKA
(I) geen yetkili ve ilgililerine tr sunuyoruz.
(2) bilimsel geenlere borcumuzu yineliyoruz.
(3) Her gibi bu da her stn bir zveriyle yksek lisans
rencilerimizden Gkhan Hlya lisans Orkun
Urhan, Demet Ayaz, Fatma Metin, Oral, Burcu Ozaslan, Bora Cem Sevencan,
Tolga Grsoy, nver Gen, Nurcan Havare, Hseyin zdemir, Demet Bel-
Kaya, Tuncay Bulut, MinnetAksoy, Blent Atasoy'a; uyruklu Christine Mes-
sene, Helene Bourg'a ve takdirlerimizi iletiyoruz.
(4) ekibiyle byk bir uyum iinde grev yapan Temsilcisi'ne de en iten.
lerimizi
23
l. "E" Gz
E gz (Kkten Salonu) 1997 da ana dolguda devam
Sz konusu dolgunun kuzeyinde bulunan karelerde, 1996 sezo-
nu sonunda Neanderthal ait ele ve
1998: 26-27). Bu insana ait devam edip
bilmesi dolgunun kuzeyinde yer alan karelerdeki bu da de-
vam edilmesi Bu amatan yola nce, ana dolgunun
yer alan E15, F15, G15, H15 ve daha sonra kuzeyinde yer alan G16,
G17, G18 karelerinde ve belirli bir seviyeden sonra G19 olmak
zere toplam 8 karede (izim: 1).
l.l. Ana Dolgunun Kazdar
Ana dolgunun yer alan karelerde (EI5, F15, G15 ve HI5),
1996 39. arkeolojik seviyenin ara
kaya ve 1998: 25). Bu ilk olarak, F15 karesinin 40. arkeolojik
seviyesinin Daha sonra olarak E15,
G15 ve H15 karelerinde devam ve E15 karesi hari ka-
rede de 40. arkeolojik seviyeden itibaren 45. arkeolojik seviyenin ula-
Bylelikle ana dolgunun yer alan her karede arke-
olojik seviye Arkeolojik seviyeler, III. ve Iv. jeolojik nitelerin
iinde yer (Tablo: 1).
Ana dolgunun karelerden "Charentien" nitelikli yont-
aletler ele (izim: 4). Olduka ve kaba yongalar ze-
rine (izim: 4/4) olan bu aletlerin iinde, yine her gibi, ke-
nar (izim: 4/1,2,3,5,6) "Charentien" en-
dstri daha ok III.4 jeolojik seviyede kendini gstermektedir. Ilerinde
sporadik olarak "Charentien" karakterli 111.5, 111.6 ve
IV.L jeolojik seviyeler ise, genelde steril grnml olup, pluviyal kkenli je-
olojik seviyeleri temsil etmektedirler (izim: 2). Sz konusu seviyeler, yrenin
dnemlerine sahne gstermeleri nem
Aktif bir gsteren Karain'in sz edilen
jeolojik seviyelerde steril grnm bu il-
gili
Bu alandan elde edilen buluntulardan biri de, H15 karesinin 42. arkeolo-
jik seviyesinin rastlanan ve byk bir file ait san-
byk bir kaburga Zira, 1995 ana dolgunun
gney yer alan karelerin (1l8 ve 119) 40 ve 41. arkeolojik seviyele-
rinde ortaya fil ve 1998: 22) ile sz konu-
su kaburga H15 karesinin 42. arkeolojik seviyesi
zerinde yer Bununla birlikte, kemikler bu
ningerekten var olup fauna zerinde olan paleontolojik
sonra
24
1997 KARAIN E GOZU ANADOLGU)
K ADli'
AH HAS. KOn] KOTl
F15 III AlIlI .5 4041 -9.10 -9.30
F15 III.5 42 -9.30 -9040
F15 III.5IILI.6 43 -9.40 -9.50
mn/TV1 44 -9.';0 -9.nO
F15 IV.1/IY.2 45* -9.60 -9.70
G15 III AllII .5 40 -9.10 -9.20
G15 III.5 41 -9.20 -9.30
G15 III .5IILI.6IIY.L 4243 -9.30 -9.50
m n/TV 1 44 -9 nO
Gl 'i IV1/IV2 4'i* -9.nO -9.70
H15 III.5 404142 -9.10 -9040
H15 III.6 43 -9040 -9.50
H15 III.6/IY.L 4445* -9.50 -9.70
E15 III .4/I11.5 40* -9.10 -9.20
G16 1.6 20 -7.10 -7.20
G16 I.61II.2 21 -7.20 -7.30
G16 II.2 22232425 -7.30 -7.70
G16 II .2/I11.1 26 -7.70 -7.80
G16 III .1 27 -7.80 -7.90
G16 III .l/I11.2 28 -7.90 -8.00
(J 1n m2 29 O
G16 III .21III .2.1 3031* -8.10 -8.30
G17 1.6 1920 -7.00 -7.20
G17 Tnm ? ?1 -7?O
G17 IL2 22232425 -7.30 -7.70
G17 II.2/I11.1 26 -7.70 -7.80
G17 IIU 27 -7.80 -7.90
G17 III.2 282930 -7.90 -8.20
G17 TTT .2/TTI .2.1 1132 -8.40
G17 III.2.1 33* -8040 -8.50
G18 II.2 212223242526 -7.20 -7.80
G18 II.2IIII.1 27 -7.80 -7.90
G18 III .11II1.2 28 -7.90 -8.00
G18 1II.2 2930 -8.00 -8.20
G18 III .2/I11.2.1 31 -8.20 -8.30
G18 III .2.1 3233* -8.30 -8.50
G19 III.2 3031 -8.10 -8.30
G19 III .2/I11.2.1 32 -8.30 -8040
G19 III .2.1 33* -8040 -8.50
F16 III.3 36* -8.70 -8.80
*
Tablo: 1
25
1.2. Ana Dolgunun Kuzeyindeki
1996 ana dolgunun kuzey ynnde E16, E17 ve F16, F17, F18 ka-
relerinde ve bu antropik et-
kinlik izleri dikkati ve 1998: 26). Bu alandaki
izlerinin takip edilebilmesi bu ana dolgunun bu
geen karelerin hemen gneyinde yer alan G16, G17, G18 karelerinde ve
belirli bir seviyeden itibaren (30. arkeolojik seviye) ortaya
G19 (izim: 1). Bu alanda kareler, arkeolojik
ve jeolojik seviyeler ile ve Tablo: l' de
Ana dolgunun kuzeyinde yer alan karelerden G16'da 31. ; G17 ve G18
karelerinde ise 33. arkeolojik seviyenin 30. arkeolojik se-
viyeden itibaren G19 ise yine 33. arkeolojik seviyenin ta-
ara Bylece, bu alanda G16 karesinden 12; G17 ka-
resinden 15; Gl 8 karesinden 13 ve G19 ise 4 olmak zere toplam
44 arkeolojik seviye bu arkeolojik seviyeler, II. ve III. je-
olojik niteler ierisinde yer
Ana dolgunun kuzeyinde sonucunda 11.2 ve III.2
jeolojik..nitelerin oturma temsil ettikleri bir kez daha gzlemlen-
Ozellikle, Gl 6 ve Gl 7 karelerinin 25. arkeolojik seviyesinde ortaya
kan ve tm kaplayan kalker ve konkresyonlardan dizili bloklar
ovalimsi bir form gstermektedirler (izim: 3). Byk bir bir ocak
bu alandaki dizilerinin her iki karenin
gneyine devam de 1998 bu
dizilerinin H16 ve H17 karelerinde izlenecek ve bylece ocak
daha belirgin bir biimde ortaya Daha nceki da
ret gibi, sz konusu bu alanda bir yont-
aletler, yontma zengin favna kk kmr
11.2 jeolojik seviyenin kesinlikle bir oturma
Bu zellikle III.2 jeolojik seviyenin zen
Zira, da gibi, 1996 sezonunda bu seviyelerde Nean-
derthal Ne var ki, bir ka kemik para
da bu Neanderthal'e ait herhangi bir Bu durum,
. alanda olan Merhum I.K.Kkten'in
ve Antalya Mzesi'nde sergilenmekte olan Neanderthal bu son
bireye ait olup sorununu gndeme getirmektedir. An-
cak, durum ne olursa olsun,. Ana dolguda henz olan ve 1998
sezonunda planlanan H16, H17 ve H18 karelerinde, Neanderthal ka-
devam edip kontrol edilmesi gerekmektedir.
Ana dolgunun kuzeyinde gzlemlenen nemli bir ise, G16 kare-
sinin 21. arkeolojik seviyesinde st grnmeye ve 28. arkeolojik se-
viyeye kadar devam eden bir dikittir. 80 cm. bulunan bu di-
kit, G16 karesinin ve dikitin kk III.l. je-
olojik seviyeye Benzer bir olay, yine Gl7 karesinin 20. arkeolo-
jik seviyesinde, karenin HI 7 karesi ile An-
26
cak, bu alanda grlen dikit, daha 22. arkeolojik seviye-
de son Yani fazla Bu seviyelerde ortaya di-
kitler, ve nemli bir iklimin uzun bir sre hkm
Bu durum, sz konusu edilecek olan favna da des-
teklenmektedir.
Ana dolgunun kuzeyinde olarak iskan ettikle-
rini gsteren arkeolojik seviyeler daha ok II,2 ve III.2 jeolojik seviyeler iinde
yer zellikle III.2 jeolojik seviye bol buluntu Kesinlikle
bir oturma eden bu jeolojik seviyede de, II.2 jeolojik seviyede ol-
gibi, yontma ve iz-
lerinin
Bu seviyelerden (27. ve 28. arkeolojik seviyeler) bir defans, hipo-
potama ait bir ene ve izole ele Bu buluntular, bir yandan yu-
sz edilen ve nemli iklimin desteklerken, te yandan da-
ha nceki Karain'in nndeki ovada yer sz edilen gln
da ve bu gln, en bu arkeolojik seviyelerle ya-
gstermektedir.
Hipopotam evresindeki kalkerlerde gzlemlenen alteras-
yon, derili kan, deri gibi kalker-
leri Nitekim durum, daha nce-
ki saptanan fil da Bu gzlem-
den yola kimyasal analizler iin konkresyon rnekleri Ana-
lizler sonucunda bu olunursa, iin-
de yer yer saptanan bu tr nedeni de gn konulabilecektir.
Ana dolgunun kuzeyinden elde edilen endstrisi
genel bir olursa, II.2 ve III.2 jeolojik nitelerinin buluntular
olduka zengin bir tablo grlr. Daha alttaki seviyeleri tem-
sil eden yndeki silsilenin Charentien nitelikli paralar vermesine
kuzeydeki kareler, Karain ya da Zagros tip zengin bir bu-
luntu Ele alet ve ekirdekler zerindeki
tekno-tipolojik gzlemler, II.2 ve III.2 jeolojik seviyelerde olan Pale-
olitik teknolojisinde olduka yksek bir dzeye
ortaya Levallois byk bir ile uygulan-
(izim: 7/9). Alet iinde ok zarif ular bulunmakta-
(izim: 5/4-7; 6/8-14; 7/5). Her gibi, bu da kenar
ve stn dikkat ekicidir (izim:
5/1-3, 8-11; 6/6; 7/1-4, 6-8; 8/2, 5-7). ontuklu ve gaga aletler de
(izim: 6/1-5; 8/1). Kombewa yonga ze-
rinde i yzden dzeltili bir kener Kombewa ender de olsa,
Yine (izim: 6/8) ve kenar
(izim: 8/2) dip i yzden grlmektedir. Bu
lem, belki de, aletin bir sapa tutturulabilmesi En-
dstri iinde zellikle disk biimli ekirdeklerin (izim: 8/4)
ve Levallois yongalama Kara-
in'e zg bir Mousterien'den sz etmeye olanak vermektedir.
27
II. "B" Gz
1996 yeniden "B" Gz ve
1998: 27), 1997'de de devam Bu "B" Gz'nn ku-
zey yaslanan ve bu alanda
turulan BG 13 karesinde
Sz konusu karede 5 arkeolojik seviye (Tablo: 2). Tamamen
Holosen Dnem'e ait olan bu seviyelerden ele geen buluntular genel-
de seramik Seramikler, Bizans, Roma, Ilk Tun ve Kal-
kolitik ait olup, olarak ele durum ise, "B" G-
z'ndeki st gstermektedir. Bu
seviyelerden seramik Roma ait bir kandil,
ok minik terrakota bir insan figrini, cam aletler
(mikrolitler ve n delikli bir ve ok
boncuk elde Ss objeleri ve delikli benzerleri Okzi-
ni 'nin st seviyelerinden ele Bu da,
her iki da
1997 N B GZ KAZISI
KARE GH AH KOTU KOTU
GB H.l 1,2,3,4,5* -2.32 m. -2.70 m.
*
Tablo: 2
"B" Gz 1998 sezonunda ve sz konusu
alanda yer alan BG13 karesi ile birlikte, bu karenin ve uzanan
karelerde devam edilecek ve daha bir Bylece, bu
profil zerinde B Gz'nn Pleistosen ve Holosen Dnem ilgi-
li, en st seviyelerden anakayaya kadar tam bir stratigrafi elde edilebilecektir.
III. Laboratuvar
Her gibi, bu sezonda da paralelolarak labo-
ratuvar devam Olduka g kovalarla
tm Karain Mzesi nnde
olan hava eleme, ve
tabi . .
endstrisiniri ve gerek-
,aletlerin
Karain iin de temelde ol-
makla birlikte, C14 tarihlendirmelerinde olan kmr rnek-
leri "flotasyon" .
Laboratuvar en byk sorun, tm-
nn kovalarla Bu durum yorucu kadar, te-
28
peden kazaya riskini de berabe-
rinde getirmektedir. Bu riski ortadan telesiyej gibi bir
ma sisteminin yolundaki bu gne sonu verme-

Iv. Arkeometriye
Daha nce szn gibi, ana dolgunun kuzeyinde yer alan kare-
lerin III.2 jeolojik seviyelerinde antropik etkinliklerin bu seviyele-
rin gerek oturma temsil Bu nedenle, zel-
likle bu seviyelerde TL ve ESR ynelik
Sz konusu zere, akmak-
ve hayvan rnekleri Fransa ve Kanada'daki laboraruvarlara
radyoaktivite dozunu lmek bu seviyelere
19 adet dozimetre Ana dolgunun kuzey ve gney ynle-
rine bu dozimetrelerden 15 tanesi TL 5 tanesi ise
ESR Bu sonun-
da, Neanderthal seviyelerin kesin tayini elde edilmeye bunun
bu dnemde, fil ve hippopotam gibi evresinde
gln da
1998 "E" Gz'nde bir biimde ise "B"
Gz'nde devam edilmesi ngrlmektedir.
OGRAFYA
YALINKAYA,I., H., KARTAL, M., KSEM, M.B., CEYLAN, K., EREK, C.M.,ATICI,
A.L., ve OTTE, M., 1998. "1995 ve 1996 Karain
I, 17-45.
29

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33
G17/21
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34
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t
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-
,
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~
G1a/29
1
Gia/25
8
11
izim 6: Karain 97
35
G16/23
G16/25
G16/24
r
G16/22
7
3
.
G16/2t.
,
i
Q

G16/22 G16/22
5
G15/23
G16/25
o 5cm.
z m 7: Karain 97
36
GI6/L 2
G16/22
3
t
t
G16/ 2 5
izim 8: Karain 97
G 1 6 / 2 ~
t
G'i6/26
37
o
G16/26
....
5cm
*
1997 YILI
YALINKAYA*
M.KARTAL
M.B.KSEM
C.MEREK
ALATJCI
(CEYLAN)

M.oTTE
1997 kzini Antalya Mzesi
bilimsel 21.07.1997-05.09.1997 tarihleri

1997 sezonunda (l no.lu alan), B profili ve zemin
olmak zere 3 alanda (izim: 1); toplam 36 eyrek kare-
de 82 arkeolojik seviye (204 kova ya da 2.05 m
3
sediman)
ALANI KAZISI (1 NOLU ALAN)
Daha nceki da gibi bu alan, Holosen Dnem'e ait
olup gre soldaki duvara (izim: 1). Burada ya-
tay planda toplam 31 eyrek karede, 59 arkeolojik seviye (Tablo: 1).
Prof. Dr. YALINKAYA, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya
Anabilim
M.KARTAL, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

M.8.KSEM, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

C.M.EREK, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

A.L.ATICI, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

(CEYLAN), Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya
Anabilim
niversitesi, Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim

Prof.Dr.Mareel OTTE, Liege University Service de Prehistoire 8-4000, Liege-8ELiKA
(I) Ozverili tr Antalya Mzesi Mdr Metin Pehlivaner olmak zere
tm Karain ekibine; iskeletlerin temizlenerek geen
Uysal'a ve ettlerini Prof.Dr.Metin Ozbek'e sonsuz sunuyoruz.
39
1997 MEZARLIK ALANI KAZISI
Karelere Veriler
eyrek Kare AH GH (cm) Kotu (cm)
G6d 3 O -202 -212
G7b 4 O -212 -222
G7d 4 O -212 -222
G 8 b 345 OL -202 -232
G11b 5 i -222 -232
G11d 5 i -222 -232
G 12 b 2,3,4,5 0,1 -192 -232
G 12 d 0-1234 O -180 -222
H5d 4 i -212 -222
H6b 4 i -212 -222
H7 d 4 i -212 -222
H8b 4 i -212 -222
H8d 4 i -212 -222
H 11 a 5 i -222 -232
H 11 c 5 i -222 -232
H 12 a 3,4,5 0,1 -202 -232
H 12 b 3,4,5 0,1 -202 -232
H 12 c 1-2,3,4 O -182 -222
H 12 d 1-2,3,4 O -182 -222
H 13 a 1,2,3,4 O -182 -222
H 13 b 1,2,3,4 O -182 -222
i 5 c 4 i -212 -222
16a 4 i -212 -222
i 7 c 4 i -212 -222
18a 4 i -212 -222
i 8 c 4 i -212 -222
19a 4 i -212 -222
19c 4 i -212 -222
i 12 a 3,4 5
OJ -202 -232
i 12 c 2,3,4 O -192 -222
i 13 a 2,3,4 O -192 -222
AH: Arkeolojik seviye
GH: Jeolojik seviye
TABLO-1
40
Bu ana 4. ve 5. arkeolojik seviyeleri
bir alanda yzeyi seviyeye getirmek ve bylece nceden
olan planimetrik yntemleriyle aarak tm gn
na Okzini Holosen Dnem b-
tnyle ortaya
ncelikle V no.lu burada 11
eyrek karede (H11a-c; H12a-b-c-d; H13a-b; Il2a-c; Il3a) 31 arkeolojik sevi-
ye tabaka sonra Erken Roma ait
kiremit ve anak mlek bunun ise Protohistorik (Ge
Neolitik ya da Erken Kalkolitik ?) ait seramik ve kemik

eyrek karelerin izleyerek, 1996
ortaya III ve V no.lu mezarlar tamamen ilerindeki is-
keletler (izim: 2).
III no.lu mezardaki iskelet toprak zemin zerinde yat-
ve "nim-hocker" (?) evresi kalkerlerden olu-
bir dizisiyle II no.lu evre bu ev-
resinin bir iin de II ve III no.lu
mezarlar, bir zellik gstermektedirler. Esasen i no.lu mezarla II no.lu
mezar da sz konusudur (izim: 2).
V no.lu mezar ve iindeki iskelet, daha nceki mezar ve iskeletler zerin-
deki gzlemlerimize oranla daha bir grnm sergilemektedirler.
Titiz bir planimetrik ama sonucunda bedenin
mezara dorsal pozisyonda ancak kala de dahilolmak zere
bacak ve ayak kemiklerinin ortaya olduka
Kollar dirsekten eller kprck kemikleri zerine
parmak kemikleri olarak
ele Vcuda ait kemikler grece "in situ" Beden,
st yzleri kalkerlerden bir zerine Bu
bir kvet mezarlardan olarak meza-
evre (izim: 3). Iskeletin alt gibi, bu d-
de bir yoktur. ve mezar dzenlemesinin bir
kesin bir grn-
memektedir. Ancak daha sonraki dnemlerde tahrip olma da
olduka yksektir. Sz konusu evresinin btnyle sonucun-
da daha kesin bilgiler elde edilebilecektir.
Daha nceki ve olan IV no.lu me-
gerekten olup test etmek tabandan bir tabaka
daha ancak hibir buluntuya da
Buna IV no.lu 18a ve 18c eyrek karelerinde 4.
arkeolojik seviyelerin bir bireye ait artikle durumda fe-
mur, tibia, fibula ve patella ortaya (izim: 2). Bu buluntular, koru-
ma bir sonraki sezonda temizlenerek toplanmak zere
yerlerinde Yine, 1995 IV no.lu kuzey
insana ait artikle durumda ayak kemikleri ile, V no.lu
41
da ve kesinlikle bu mezara ait olmayan humerus, vertebra ve sternum kemikle-
ri ve 1998: 49). LV ve V no.lu evre-
sinde ortaya kemikleri n bir ta-
gstermektedir. bu IY.no.1u
ile ilgiliyse, o taktirde beden, tam rmeden nce me-
zardan Ancak bu konuda kesin bir bulunmak
dilik Zira, kesin bir varabilmek iin antropolojik
dirmelerin ve bu alandaki beklemek
gerekmektedir.
1997 sezonunda, 1996 iskeleti olan i no.lu mezar-
dan bir arkeolojik seviye daha sonra
son
Bu alana genel durumu iinde toprak taban ve
taban olmak zere iki tip mezar grlmektedir. i ve III no.1u
ve bireyler toprak stne
Buna II ve V no.1u da belir-
gibi (izim: 3,4). Bu zaman ve mekan boyu-
tundaki nedenleri, mezarlardan olan rneklerinin
elimize sonra
Mezarlar l gmme gelenekleri da ilgin bir tablo sergilemek-
tedir: Iskeletlerin ve ayak birer kap
tmlemeye olanak veren paralara ise Bu durumda
yerde ok Esasen bu kap Yunanis-
tan' daki Franchiti Erken Neolitik' e ait olan ocuk
kap etnologlara gre mezarlara byle
sembolik bir ve bireyin
ifade etmektedir (Jacobsen, 1976: 85). Okzini olan
l gmme Franchiti ortaya konu-
labilmesi ve bu bir yorum iin, Okzini'ndeki mezar-
belirlenmesini, da bu anlamdaki rneklerin
beklemek; ancak yine de, bu yndeki bir gz etmemek gerekmek-
tedir.
iskeletler zerinde M.zbek incelemelerin
ilk gre, 1994 ortaya i no.lu mezardaki
ya, 1996: 26-27) iskelet 35-40 bir erkek 1995
da saptanan II no.lu iskelet ve 1998: 51),30-35 l-
bir aittir. Yine 1996 ortaya ve 1997 topla-
nan III no.1u iskelet 19-20; V no.lu iskelet ise 17-18 gen
lara aittir. Bireylerin ve bu mezarlar
iseler- bir aile akla getirmektedir.
buluntular ve 2. arkeolojik
seviyeler Roma Dnemi 'ne ait kiremit ve seramik
Roma yer alan 3.,4. ve 5. arkeolojik seviye-
lerinden ise, Protohistorik Dnem'e ait buluntular ele Bu
buluntular bol miktarda seramik dibek
42
. hl()' 'J\
1997 B KAZISI ALANI
T<n-;;'/n:
Veriler
Cevrek Kare AH GH Basla.Kotu (cm) Bitis Kotu (cm)
i 6 d 16 VI -332 -342
i 6 d 17 18 VII -342 -362
i 7 b 15 16.17 VI -322 -352
i 7 b 18,19,20,21 VII -352 -402
17a 15161718 VI -322 -362
dan sivriitme ya da perdahlama aleti (izim: 5/1) ile bir tanesi
izleri oyuntulu yer
lar (izim: 5/2-4), bir (izim: 5/6), minik bir testere
(izim: 5/7) kemik alet Ss objeleri iinde ise,
radyolarit ve denizel boncuk taneleri ile bir
dentalium boncuk (izim: 5/5) yer V no.lu me-
zardan yine II no.lu mezarda gibi karbonize palamutu

endstrisi her zaman gibi, en olarak
bulunan grubu Bunlar tiplerde ekirdekler (izim:
6/1,2,5,7); ve ontuklu aletler (izim: 6/3,4,6); Okzini
hemen her seviyesinde gzlemlenebilen n (izim:7/21-32)
ile dzeltili paralar (izim: 7/33, 34) makrolitik grubun endstri
gelerindendir. Mikrolitik elemanlar iinde gen, ve trapezlerden olu-
geometrik mikrolitler temsil edilmektedir (izim: 7/1-19). Az
miktarda da geometrik olmayan formlar (izim: 7/20).
geometrik mikrolitlerin bir biimde ele
Epi-paleolitik tabakalara olabilece-
Zira, Epi-paleolitik'in st seviyeleri genellikle geomet-
rik mikrolider vermektedir.
B KAZISI
Bu daha nceki ortaya olan ve B pro-
filine yaslanan iri kaya ile B profili yer alan kk bir
16d, I7b ve J7a eyrek karelerinde olmak zere toplam 3 eyrek karede, VI. ve
VII. jeolojik seviyeler iinde yer alan 15 arkeolojik seviye (izim:
1
Tablo: 2
Buradaki B profilini biraz daha aarak A profili ile olan
saptayabilmekti. Nitekim, sonucunda ortaya kesitte B pro-
fili zerinde gzlemlenen kl ve kmr A profiline olan
ve 16d eyrek karesinin 18. arkeolojik seviyesinde iri
kaya ile (izim: 8). Bu katmanlar beyaz, siyah
ve renklerde, ince ve bazen de sergilemektedirler. Bu
yer yer nedenlerden tr iie
43
Kl ve karbon iri kaya olma-
bu Epi-paleolitik boyunca bir
alan bir kez daha
Bu VI. jeolojik seviye, A profilinin jeolojik seviyesine
oranla ok daha incedir. Ote yandan B profilindeki 20 cm.lik bu
renkli killi seviye ile birlikte bu seviyenin kll katmanlar da
VI. jeolojik seviyeye ait olabilir. Ancak, bu konuda daha saptamalar yapa-
bilmek iin B profilinde daha derin kotlara inilmesi gerekmektedir.
Bu Epi-paleolitik seviyelerden elde edilen arkeolojik buluntular iinde,
geometrik mikrolitler st seviyelerde geometrik olmayanlar ise
daha ok alt seviyelerde (izim: 9/11-14). prizmatik e-
kirdekler; yonga ve dilgiler; n bir adet gaga alet (izim: 9/24) de
endstrisi iinde gzlemlenen
KAZISI
B profilinin nnde yer alan zeminde, eski ile in situ
seviyeleri birbirinden Kl Ob ve L10a olmak zere iki eyrek
karede Burada VI, VII ve VIIIolmak zere 3 jeolojik seviye
iinde toplam 8 arkeolojik seviye (izim: 1; Tablo: 3).
1997 KAZISI ALANI
Karelere Veriler
eyrek Kare AH GH (cm) Kotu (cm)
K 19,20 VI -362 -382
K e 21 VII -382 -392
K 10 b 22 vnvm -392 -402
19,20 Vi -362 -382
L 10 a 21 VII -382 -392
L 10 a 22 -392 -402
Tablo:3
Olduka nemli olan bu seviyeler renkli ve killi bir sediman
iermektedir. Sz konusu seviyelerde yer alan kemik buluntular nemden tr
bir hale VI. ve VII. jeolojik seviyelerin
renk iken, VIII. jeolojik seviye kahverengidir.
Zemin zellikle VII. ve VIII. jeolojik seviyeler ok miktarda ar-
keolojik buluntu endstri geleri prizmatik ekir-
dekler (izim: 9/19,23); yonga ve dilgiler; n (izim: 9/18,
20-22) ve geometrik olmayan mikrolitler (izim:9/1-17)
tur.
FAUNAL BULUNTULAR
1997 sezonumuzda ele olan hayvan trleri iinde hemen
her gibi ift Bunlar Ovis orientalis (yabani
44
koyun), Capra aegagrus (yabani kei), Dama dama (alageyik), Capreolus cap-
reolus (karaca), Sus scrofa (yabani domuz) ile temsil
Vulpes vulpes tilki), Lepus capensis (yabani ile bol mik-
tarda srngen ve kemirgenlere ait da Denizel ve
karasal da bol miktarda ele

paralelolarak ynelik
li rnekler Bunlar gibi zetlenebilir:
1- Karbon 14 tarihlendirmesinde zere "yzdrme yntemi"
ile karbon rnekleri Bu rnekler zellikle mezarlardan ve ocak
yerlerinden (II no.lu mezar: H6d, H7a ve H7b eyrek karelerinde, 4.
ve 5. arkeolojik seviyeler; i no.lu mezar: 16a ve 15c eyrek karelerinde, 3. ve 4.
arkeolojik seviyeler; III no.lu mezar: G7b ve G7d eyrek karelerinde, 4. ar-
keolojik seviyeler; V no.lu mezar: G11b ve Gltd eyrek karelerinde, 5. ar-
keolojik seviye; seviye: 18b eyrek karesinde, 9. arkeolojik seviye ve 17b
eyrek karesinde, 8. ve 9. arkeolojik seviyeler).
2- Yine Karbon 14 tarihlendirmesi iin mezarlardan etdlk nitelikte insan
kemik (III no.lu mezar: G7b-d; V no.lu mezar: G11b-d).
Bu fauna zerinde ilk klasifikasyon
sezonalite ve beslenme analiz

KAYNAKA
JACOBSEN, T.W., (1976): "17.000 Years of Greek Prehistory", Scientific American, Vo1.234, No. 6,
ss.76-87.
YALINKAYA, 1., (1996): "kzini 1993 ve 1994 XVII. I, 29
2 Haziran i 995 Ankara, T.C.Kltr Milli Ktphane ss. 21-47, Ankara.
YALINKAYA, 1., M.KARTAL, C.M.EREK,A.L.ATICI, M.B.KSEM, K.CEYLAN, J.-M.LEOTARD,
M.OTTE, (i 998): "I 995 ve 1996 kzini XIX. I, 26-
30 1997 Ankara, T.C.Kltr Milli Ktphane ss. 47-71 ,Ankara.
45

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52
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54
1997 YILI ANDIR KAZISI
Erksin GLE*
Kalecik ilesine olan Ky'nn 6,5 km.
bulunan Mevkii'ndeki Orta Miyosen'e ait meme-
li fosiIIerinin gn ve yrenin paleoekolojik ay-
20,12.1990 gn ve 90/1273 T.C. Bakan-
lar Kurulu Prof.Dr. Erksin Gle'in
izne Ankara Kalecik Paleontolojik 1997
.
Tarihi ve Ekibi
1997 05 - 30 Temmuz 1997 tarihleri
da Ankara niversitesi Dil ve
rafya Fakltesi Fizik ve Paleoantropoloji Blm Prof.Dr. Erksin G-
le ve Temsilcisi olarak Malatya Mzesi 'nden Enver
ekibi isimleri
tur':
Do.Dr, Ayla Sevim, (Paleoantropolog), Do.Dr. Duyar, (Fizik Ant-
ropolog), Mustafa (Sedimantolog), Mehmet
(Fizik Antropolog), Cesur Pehlevan, (Paleoantropolog),
Ozer, (Paleoantropolog),

199Tsezonundanceki olarak srd-
3 ve 4 lokalitelerinevresindeki
1 lokalitede ise E 2d 111. boyutunda yeni bir ama
(F Bu alanda ok olmamakla beraber fosiIIere (6
adet)
* Prof'.Dr.Erksin GLE, Ankaraniversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi, Fizik ve Paleoantro-
poloji Blm, 06100 - / ANKARA.
(I) 997 'nda grevalan Gzlk, Ayhan Hilal Timur
Gltekin. Alpay Eker, Ozener, Hakan , Fatma Sezen,
Ozgr Sumru Trel, Murat Maga, Zehra Satar.
55
1997 nemli bir kesimini her gibi, 3 numa-
lokalitenin kuzey bulunan sulu sistemle elenmesi
Burada bulunan toprak nceki MTA - Alman ekibi
olup, eleme 1993 sezonunda
Topraklar uvallara ve 35 km. g-
neyinde Bu 10
ton toprak sulu elek sistemiyle (Resim: 1).
Yzey
Bir grup devam ederken, bir grup da yzey
Oneelikle 'nden tm
ve sedimentolojik olarak yeniden gzden geirildikten
sonra daha nceki
gney da
de zetleyebiliriz:
1) evresi: Bir nceki yzey
nyla temizlenen yzeyler, ve kar yzeylerde orta-
ya fosillerin 1997 sezonunda yeniden
Bu sonucunda 1,2,4,5,6,7 ve 25
no. lu lokaliteler ile olan 3 no. lu lokalitenin evresi ip gerilerek
Bu sonucunda bol miktarda ene, etraf kemi-
ve
2) Yzey birlikte proje MTA grevlisi Je-
omorfolog Mustafa Miyosen kellerinin li-
tostratigrafik
Laboratuvar
1997 sezonu olarak laboratuvarda
ve ele geen fosiller, nc bir grup ta-
kurulan laboratuvarda gnlk olarak temizlenerek kuvvetlen-
dirme ve rekonstrksiyon (Resim: 2).
Yzeyden gelen fosiller temizlendikten sonra, kraniyal, ve
postkraniyal olmak zere tr
fosiller ise temizlendikten sonra
rekonstrksiyonlan tr Bulunan fosillerin b-
yk bir blmnn laboratuvar ve
hale (Resim: 3).
Bu karayolu zerindeyer alan ve sr-
1996 byk bir tahribata olan
nedeniyle) fosil lokalitesinde
Mzesi ile kurtarma (Resim: 4,5,6).
ekibinin bir acilolarak bu ve Do.Dr. Ayla bilimsel
olmak zere, Do.Dr.Izzet Duyar, Ozer,
56
Cesur Pehlevan, yksek lisans Ayhan ve Gzlk ile
lisans ekibinde Anadolu'nun 10 milyon
ncesindeki tutacak bu nemli lokalite, yol nede-
niyle ortadan kalkma tehlikesiyle ve ok zamanda
(Resim: 7, 8).
KAYNAKLAR
AKYREK, B., E, ATAL, E., DAGER, Z., SOYSAL, Y., SUNU, O., 1980
nz (Kalecik-Ankara) Jeolojisi." M.T.A. no:
6741 ,Ankara.
ANDREWS, P, 1990 "Palaeoecology of the Miocene fauna from Turkey." Journal of Human
Evolution. 19:569-582, London.
ATALAY, Z., 1981 (Ankara) Orta Miyosen'inde Bulunan Anchitherium aurillense Cuvier." TJK
Blteni. 24 (2):75-78.
R., NALAN,G., 1975 Jeolojisi." MTA Rap. 7966.
CARROLL, R.L., 1988 Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
ENGESSER, B., 1980 "Insectivare und Chiroptera (Mammalia) aus dem Neogen derTrkei." Schweize-
Palaontol. Abhand. 102,76 text, 8 tab. 1-149, BaseL.
GAZ1RY, A.W, 1976 "Jungtertiare Masfodonten aus Anatolien (Trkei)." Geol. Jb. B 22:3-143, 2Abb.,
2 tab., 16Taf.
GERAADS, D., GLE, E., SARA, G., 1995 "Middle Miocene Ruminants from Central Tur-
key." N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Mh. H. 8:462-474, Stuttgart.
GLE, E, 1990 Miyosen Dnemi Anadolu Paleoantropolojisi nemi."
Anadolu Medeniyetleri Mzesi 1989 ss. 105-108, Ankara.
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58
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62
EXPLORATORY EXCAVATIONS AT AGIZ
CAVE, HATAYPROVlNCE (1997)
Steven L. KUHN*
Erksin GLE
Faruk KILIN
INTRODUCTION
Over the past decade, the main foci of research on the early Upper
Paleolithic (EUP), or the interval between approximately 40,000 and 20,000
years ago, have changed considerably. Today, an important set of questions for
scholars interested in this period centers the timing of the appearance of behav-
ioral characteristics such as symboIic representation, personal omamentation,
and elaborate composite tool technology, which differentiate the Upper
PaleoIithic from earlier cultural manifestations. it is now clear that these traits
first appeared long after modern anatomy. The questions that remain concem
where, when and under what circumstances did this suite characteristics of first
evolve. A related issue is the spread of the Aurignacian, one of the earliest
Upper Paleolithic "cuIture complexes". The remarkably wide distribution of the
Aurignacian, which is found from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Levant and
possibly as far east as Iraq, seems to demonstrate a remarkably rapid diffusion
of populations and or ideas. Yet the source of the Aurignacian as well as the
paths of its dispersal remain obscure.
Studies of the shifting geographic distributions of both industries and spe-
cific behavioral traits during the early Upper Paleolithic are hampered by large
gaps in the archaeological record. Hypotheses about the movement of human
populations or cultural traditions between the Europe and the Near East--such
as the spread of the Aurignacian--might be evaluated by examining at zones of
transition. A great deal is already known about the Levantine area, westem
Europe, as well as eastem Europe and the Balkans. On the other hand,Anatolia,
the most likely land bridge between Africa, southwest Asia , and Europe,
remains a conspicuous blank spot on the map of Paleolithic cuItural geography
between 40,000 and 20,000 years ago. The number of Lower, Middle and Epi-
Paleolithic sites in Turkey is quite large (e.g. Minzoni-Deroche 1993, Otte et al.
*
Steven L.KUHN, Department of Antropology Bldg.30, Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, A2. 85721, ABD.
Prof.Dr.Erksin GLE, Ankara niversitesi Dil ve Tarih Fakltesi Fizik ve
Paleoantropoloji Blm, 06100
Faruk KILIN,Arkeolog, Mze HATAY
63
1995a, 1995b; 1981, 1995; et al. 1995), but the Upper
Paleolithic is remarkably scarce (Hours et al. 1973).
Currently, the best-documented early Upper PaleoIithic deposits in
Turkeyare located on the Mediterranean coast of the Hatay region.
cave, subject of this report, containsespecially rich EUP layers, although other
sites in the area have yielded materials of equivalent age. FoIlowing now-di s-
carded terminology, previous investigators had classifiedall of the Upper
Paleolithic assemblages fromtheHatay as Aurignacian. Test excavations con-
ducted at in 1997 reveal thepresence of at least.twodistinct types of
early Upper Paleolithic assemblageatthat site. The more rcccnt.cultural com-
ponent is similar to as Ahmarian in the Near East. The
older of the two assemblages resembles some of the earliest Upper PaleoIithic .
industries of the Levant, the so-caIled "transitional" or "initial" Upper
Paleolithic.
Early Upper Paleolithic Sites in the Hatay Region
The Paleolithic cave sites of the Hatay region are found mainly along the
Mediterranean coast. An important cluster of caves is located near the modem-
day villages of Ky and evIik, on the site of the ancient city of
Seluccia, north of the mouth of the Asi (Orontes) river and the city of
(Figure: 2). These sites, investigated by M. and E. in the
1950's and early 1960s 1968; and 1958a, 1958b;
include and Merdivenli caves as well as the site of
KanaL. All three sites yieldedLevalloiso-Mousterian assemblages, manufac-
tured flint obtainedfrom smaIlmarine pebbles. Kanal and
Merdivenli cave were also reportedto contain early Upper Paleolithic layers.
The Upper Paleolithic from layers2 and 3 at Merdivenli (or"First Cave") is
extremely sparse, and has not beenillustrated. The Upper Paleolithic layers at
Kanal were much richer. and classified the Upper Paleolithic
of both Kanal and Merdivenli as "Aurignacian", suggesting that Kanal was the
earlier of the two. Neither assemblage is reportedly rich in classic Aurignacian
fossiles directeurs such as carenated scrapers, busked burins, thick blades with
Aurignacian retouch, or bone points. Rather, the classification dates to a period
in which all Upper PaleoIithic assemblages lacking backed bladelets and
microliths were classified as Aurignacian.
cave, the focus of 1997 test excavations, is located approximate-
ly 25 km. south of evIik, 10 km. south of the Asi river (Figure: 1). The cave
was discovered and first excavated by A. Minzoni-Deroche in Iate 1980s (Gle
1994; Minzoni-Deroche 1992a, 1992b). cave is alarge, partially-col-
lapsed karstic cavity. Intact Pleistocene sediments are preserved in the eastern
and southern portions of the site. A steep talus, sloping from east to west, sepa-
rates the two zones of in situ deposits (Figures: 2, 3). The uppermost archaeo-
logical deposits are approximately 18 meters above current sea level. A line of
holes in the cave wall produced by mollusks which liye in the intertidal zone is
64
situated approximately 19 m. above sea level. This feature appears to mark the
maximum Pleistocene high sea stand, probably associated with the Oxygen
Isotope Stage 5 interglacial. it is important to note that Upper Paleolithic
deposits begin directly below surface at cave. There is no evidence for
an Epi-Paleolithic presence, and post-Pleistocene materials are virtually nonex-
istent (almost no pottery was found on the surface or in the upper levels). it is
likely that the collapse of cave occurred during the Iate Pleistocene, so that it
was not particularly attractive as a shelter to later peoples.
Results of 1997 Test Excavations
Pleistocene archaeological deposits are preserved in three areas
within
cave (Figure: 3). Locality 1, a tubular chamber located in the
southem part of the site, was the primary focus of Minzoni-Deroche's excava-
tions. Deposits exposed in stratigraphic sections consist mainly of day rich
terra rosa sediments with lenses of ash and other anthropogenic material. The
deposits within locality 1 are heavily cemented, especially at the southern end
of the chamber, and Minzoni-Deroche's excavations (1988-1990) reached
either bedrock or an extremely thick and hard stalagmite at a depth of about one
meter below the surface over most of the trench. In 1997, a small geological
trench was placed just outside the northern end of locality 1 in order to gauge
the horizontal extent of the archaeological deposits (Figure: 3). The seetion
exposed indicated that deposits had been truncated by colluvial flow in this
area, and that archaeological deposits did not extend far beyond the area of the
earlier trench.
Localities 2 and 3, the main focus of the 1997 test excavations, had been less
extensively explored during earlier investigations at cave (Figure: 3).
Locality 2 is a small, narrow chamber, with intact sediments in front, just inside
the current dripline of the cave. Locality 3 is asimilar kind of side chamber
with a more extensive area of intact sediments. it appears that the deposits in
these two areas are contiguous, connected by a narrow, 2-3 meter wide strip of
intact sediments. Small test pits were excavated in both localities 2 and 3.
Because the remaining area of intact sediments is limited, the sizes of the test
unitswere kept to a minimum. The trench in locality 2 was excavated to a total
depth of about 1.5 meters below the surface, taking advantage a shallow cut or
sondage created by previous excavators. Exeavation was halted at a heavily-
cemented layer. This stratum does not necessarily represent the bottom of the
archaeological deposits; rather, it was impossible to excavate more deeply with-
in such a small area. The test pit in locality 3 was excavated only to a depth of
45 cm. below the surface. Exeavation was halted because of the extreme rich-
ness of the upper layers and the presence of an apparently intact hearth feature,
which merited much more careful and precise recovery and recording proce-
dures than are normally used in exploratory excavations.
As deposits in localities 2 and 3 appear to be contiguous, the stratigraph-
65
ic sequence from locality 2 (Figure: 4) should adequately summarize the situa-
tion in both areas. Sediments consist of a series of terra rosa layers, alternat-
ing with lighter-colored gray or yellowish sediments, some of which are quite
rich in ash, charcoal and other anthropogenic material. Geological and archae-
ological indicators suggest that the stalagmite and thick red day layer at the top
of the sequence in locality 2 (layers A and B) correspond roughly with the
sequence of deposits preserved in locality 1. Layers B through i all contain
archaeological materials, although the upper levels are the richest.
cave contains at least two distinct early Upper Paleolithic ass em-
blages, onlyone of which was documented by the previous excavator. A few
Middle Paleolithic artifacts were recovered during earlier excavations but their
provenience remains uncertain. The 1997 test excavations followed geological
stratigraphy, but because the area excavated is small it is necessary to combine
materials from several adjacent layers into two broadly-defined components.
Further stratigraphic exeavation over alarger area will undoubtedly yield a
more detailed and finely-divided geological and archaeological sequence. The
two Upper Paleolithic components are summarized below. Due to the limited
area of exeavation the samples are small, In addition, all information is derived
from in-field identification. As a consequence, the following descriptions
should be considered preliminary.
The more recent of the two Upper Paleolithic assemblages at
cave is found in the topmost layers (A-D) in localities 2 and 3. From published
results and a brief inspection of collections housed in the Antakya museum, it
appears that materials from earlier excavations within locality 1 correspond
with this more recent component as well. Summary technological and typolog-
ical data are presented in Table 1 and ilIustrations of some lithic artifacts are
presented in Figure 5. The assemblage is very laminar. Approximately 76% of
retouched tools are manufactured on blades, and about 50% of the unmodified
debitage consists of blades and blade fragments. The great majority of blades
(73%) have punctiform or linear butts, suggesting that they were produced by
indirect percussion (Table: 1). The most common retouched tools are endscrap-
ers, the great majority of which are relatively flat. Thick, carenated and nosed
scrapers are quite scarce: onlyone possible nosed scraper was present in the
collection from the test exeavation. Pointed and retouched blades are also very
common, together accounting for about41 % of the sample of retouched tools.
The pointed blades resemble so-called EI Wad and Ksar Akil points from
Levantine early Upper Paleolithicsites. In contrast there are very few burins in
this more recent assemblage (Table: 2). Several specimens of worked bone,
mostly awls, small points and/or.needles, wereassociated with the more recent
UpperPaleolithic assemblage at cave. In addition, a substantial assem-
blage of beads (approximately 60) madefrom the shells of small marine gas-
tropods was recovered, primarily from locality 3. Interestingly, while evidence
for the use of pigments has been reported (Minzoni-Deroche et al. 1995), beads
or bone tools are not mentioned in previous publications on the site.
Faunal preservationis at cave, and a substantial sam-
ple of animal bones was obtained from the test excavations in localities 2 and
66
3. The fauna associated with the more recent assemblage is rather unusual for
the eastem Mediterranean region. The dominant large mammal taxon is roe deer
(Capreolus capreolus) , a species generally thought to be indicative dense
forests and moist conditions. Fallow deer (Dama dama) and a caprid (probably
Capra ibex) are alsa present in smaIler numbers. At least two species of marine
shellfish, Patella (limpets) and Monodonta (a whelk) were apparently exploit-
ed for food as well. Locality 3 also yielded an extensive sample of microfau-
nal remains, the analysis of which is not yet complete.
Two 14C dates are associated with the more recent component at a z l
cave. Minzoni-Deroche reports a date of approximately 32,000 BP from the
bottom of excavations in locality 1, but the exact location and nature of the sam-
ple is unclear. An AMS radiocarbon date of (23,800 210) BP was also
obtained on a very smaIl sample of charcoal from ash-rich stratum D within
locality 2. The latter sample came from very close to the actual ground surface,
however, and it could represent more recent contamination. The actual age
range of this more recent assemblage from a z l cave probably lies some-
where between these two dates.
The more recent Upper Paleolithic component from a z l cave was
termed Aurignacian by Minzoni-Deroche, who compared the assemblage from
locality 1 to layer 4 at Antelias shelter (Minzoni-Deroche 1992b). Although
comparison is valid, the terminology is somewhat outdated. The assemblage in
question from Antelias shelter is now termed Ahmarian, referring to a suite of
blade-dominated early Upper Paleolithic assemblages thought to represent a
distinct entity with little relationship to the classic Levantine Aurignacian (see
Gilead 1981,1991). In fact, Aurignacianfossiles directeurs such as carenated
and nosed scrapers and burins are rare in the sample obtained during the 1997
test excavations: contrary to published descriptions (Minzoni-Deroche 1992a,
1992b) these artifact forms also seem to be quite scarce in the collections from
earIier excavations as well. Technologically and typologically, the more recent
assemblage from a z l cave most closely resembles some later Ahmarian
assemblages, such those from Yabrud shelters II and III (Rust 1950; Ziffer
1981). The so-called Middle Aurignacian at Yabrud, more recently reclassified
as Ahmarian (Schyle 1992; Ziffer 1981), is a particularly apt comparison for the
more recent component at U a z l cave because it also contains both bone
tools and shell beads, two classes of artifact which are generally quite rare in
Upper Paleolithic assemblages from the eastem Mediterranean area. The
U a z l cave assemblage does differ from the Ahmarian of the southem Levant
in that it contains a relatively high proportion of endscrapers, and it could well
represent a distinctive facies local to the Hatay region. Further exeavation and
alarger sample of artifacts are needed to c1arify the taxonomic status of this
assemblage. ..
The older of the two Upper Paleolithic assemblages from U a z l cave
was exposed mainly in layers E-I of the test pit in locality 2. it is probably pre-
sent in locality 3 as well as in the intervening areas, but was apparently not rep-
resented in Minzoni-Deroche's excavations within locality . Although the sam-
ple of artifacts is smaIl, it is quite distinct from the more recent assemblage from
67
the site (Figure: 6). Almost 2/3 of the retouched tools are manufactured on
blades, but these blades have a unique morphology. They tend to be broad and
fiat, with wide butts. The broad, relatively deep platforms and marked bulbs of
percussion indicate the use of hard hammer percussion. Moreover, the majority
of blade platforms are dihedral or faceted (Table: 1), somewhat reminiscent of
Middle Paleolithic Levallois technology (Figure: 6, nos. 1,3,6). Cores are high-
ly variable in form, but some (i.e., Figure: 6, nos. 8,9) are fIat, with prepared
platforms and converging flake scars, consistent with the attributes of many of
the blades. The smail area excavated thus far has yielded relatively few tools.
The most common forms are endscrapers and burins, especially on oblique
Retouched and pointed blades are less common than in overlying
layers. One possible bone tool and several shell beads may be associated with
the lower component at cave, but these could also have come from
mixed layer or be from a higher stratum. More precise exeavation
over alarger area is needed to c1arify this association. ..
Faunal preservation is quite good in the lower layers at cave, but
the heavy, wet, clay-rich sediments make recovery of bones somewhat difficult.
The fauna from the lower levels in locality 3 is dominated by Capra (ibex?) and
Dama dama. While it is present, Capreolus is notably less abundant than in the
upper levels. The general makeup of the fauna indicates drier, less heavily
wooded conditions than prevailed in the more recent layers, although the abun-
dance of cervids suggests that at least patches of forest were present. There
seems to have been little or no use of marine shell for food in the lower layers:
the few specimens of food species collected could..be
Technologically, the older assemblage from cave bears a striking
resemblance the transitional or "initial" Upper Paleolithic from the
Mediterranean Levant, it appears to be most closely related to assemblages such
as BokerTachtit, Level 4 (Marks and Kaufman 1983; Volkman 1983) and Ksar
Akil layer 21 (Azoury 1986; Ohnuma 1988; Ohnuma and Bergman 1990).
Another assemblage which may be similar is the so-called "intermediate
Paleolithic" from Umm El Tlel in Syria (Boeda and Muhesen 1993). The
assemblage collected thus far at cave lacks both Emireh points and
chamfered blades or chanfreins, two diagnostic artifact forms associated with
the earliest Levantine Upper Paleolithic industries (Gilead 1991, Marks 1993).
However, the sample is quite smaIL. Moreover, both of these tool forms have
extremely limited distributions, and it may be that technological features are a
better general indicator of this period than are specific retouched tool forms.
Two charcoal samples obtained from layer H (the second from the bottom)
yielded dates of approximately 39,000 +1- 1000 years before present, Because
of the possibility of contamination with more recent carbon, any 14C date of
this age should probably be considered aminimum estimate. Nonetheless,
these dates are quite consistent with the nature of the artifacts, which suggests
that the assemblage dates to the very beginning of the Upper Paleolithic.
Conclusion: Research Potential of Cave
Although the remaining in situ deposits are limited in extension,
cave has the potential to yield significant and perhaps unique data pertaining to
68
many important issues in Paleolithic studies. For researchers hoping to map the
spread of the Aurignacian, the site may be somewhat disappointing, as there is
no classic Aurignacian present. On the other hand, this is one of a very few sites
in eastern Mediterranean containing both "initial" and later Upper Paleolithic
(Ahmarian?) assemblages in stratigraphic relationship. Perhaps three other
localities-- Umm El Tlel (El Kowm) in Syria (Boeda and S. Muhesen.1993),
and Ksar Akil (Ohnuma and Bergman 1990) and Antelias shelters (Copeland
1,970, Copeland and Hours 1971) in Lebanon-- contain similar sequences.
U a z l cave is thus an ideal location for examining behavioral transitions
within the earliest Upper Paleolithic. An especially important question concerns
the relationship between the "initial" Upper Paleolithic and the early Ahmarian.
Because of their ages and because the blade manufacture technology possesses
some features reminiscent of Levallois method". "initial" Upper Paleolithic
assemblages, such as the older assemblage from U a z l cave, are thought by
some researchers to be transitional between Middle and Upper Paleolithic
(Gilead 1991; Marks 1983, 1993). In contrast,Ahmarian assemblages, like the
more recent component from the site, are quite typical of the Upper Paleolithic
both typologically and technologically. Many researchers believe that there is
a direct evolutionary continuity between earliest "initial" Upper Paleolithic and
the Ahmarian (Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen 1988; Gilead 1991; Marks 1993),
but a possible transition can be documented at very few sites, two of which
(Ksar Akil and Antelias shelters) were excavated may years ago using methods
much less precise than those employed by Paleolithic archaeologists today.
U a z l cave--especially deposits in Localities 2 and 3-- provides an excellent
opportunity to examine the degree of continuity between the earliest Upper
Paleolithic and the Ahmarian, as well as to investigate the evolution of sup-
posedly "modem" behavioral traits such as bone tools, personal ornamentation,
and the production of blades by indirect percussion during the early Upper
Paleolithic.
The early Upper Paleolithic at a z l cave also poses some intriguing
ecological questions. First, the fauna suggest major environmental changes,
from relatively cold, dry conditions in the earliest layers to very wet, heavily
forested environments in the later layers. In the coming years it will be inter-
esting to see how ecological changes may have influenced the evolution of new
behavioral traits such as bone tool technologyand a proliferation of personal
ornamentation. Second, the large animal species represented at a z l cave
Capra, Dama, and Capreolus-- are quite typical of the northern Mediterranean
regions during the Iate Pleistocene. In contrast, the stone tool industries seem
to show much closer relations with the eastern Mediterranean, the Levant in
particular. This disjunction between bio-geographical and cultural indicators
provides much food for thought and stimulus for future research at the site.
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to the Office of the Vice President for Research at the
University of Arizona for providing funding for this project. The personnel of
69
the Antakya Museum should be commended for their assistance in many
aspects of the project. Finally, we sincerely appreciate the support of the
Ministry of Culture and the Directorate of Monuments and Museums. Dr. Mary
Stiner (University of Arizona) identified the macrovertebrate and mollusk

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OTTE, !'y1., i. YALINKAYA, J. KOZLOWSKI, O. BAR-YOSEF, H. P. NOIRET. 1995a.
Evolution technique au Paleolithique ancien de Karain (Turquie). L'Anthropologie 99:529-561.
70
OTTE, M., 1. H. J. KOZLOWSKI, O. BAR-YOSEF, P. NOlRET. 1995b.
The Anatolian Middle Paleolithic: New research at Karain cave. Journal of Anthropological
51:287-299.
RUST,A. 1950. Die Hlenfunde von Jabrud (Syrien). Neumnster: Karl Waccholtz Verlag.
SCHYLE, D. (1992). Near Eastern Upper Paleolithic Cultural Stratigraphy. Biehefte zum Thbinger Atlas
des Vorderen Orients, Reihe B (Geisteswissenschaften) Nr. 59. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert.
M. 1959. A note on the Paleolithic industry of the Plugged Cave. Belleten 23: 163-175.
M. E. BOSTANCr. i 958a. Prehistoric researches in Hatay province. Belleten 22: 155-166.
M., E. The Paleolithic cultures of the Hatay province. Belleten 22: 191-210.
VOLKMAN, P. 1983. Boker Tachtit: Core reconstructions. In Prehistory and Paleoenvironments in the
Central Negev.Lsrael, Vol 3. The Avdasqev Area. edited by A. Marks, pp. 35-52. Dallas: Southem
Methodist University.
YALINKAYA, 1. 1981. Le Paleolithique inferieur de Turquie. In Prehistoire du Levant, edited by J.
Sanlaville and J. Cauvin, pp. Paris: C.N.R.S.
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of Levallois Technology, edited by H. Dibble and O. Bar-Yosef, pp. 399-413. Madison: Prehistory
Press.
YALINKAYA, 1. et. al. 1995. Les occupations tardiglaciares du site d'kzini (sud-ouest de al Turquie):
resultats prelirninaires. L'Anthropologie 99:562-583.
ZIFFER, D. 1981. Yabrud shelter 2- A reconsideration of its cultural composition and its relevance to the
Upper Paleolithic cultural sequence in the Levant. Quartar 31/32:69-91.
71
More recent component
(Ahmarian ?)
locality 3
Tool blanks
blades 76.2%
flakes 23.8%
n 84
Blade platforms
plain 25.4%
dihedral/faceted 1.5%
punctiform/linear 73.1%
n 264
Retouched tool forms
endscrapers 38.1%
burins 7.1%
retouched,
pointed blades 26.2%
retouched blades 14.3%
other 14.3%
n 84
Earlier component
("initial" UP)
locality 2, layers E-I
63.6%
36.4%
33
40.6%
43.8%
15.6%
64
51.5%
18.2%
6.1%
6.1%
18.2%
33
Table 1: Technological and typological summary of early Upper Paleolithic assemblageb
from cave.
More recent component
(Ahmarian ?)
locality 3
Earlier component
("initia!" UP)
locality 2, layers E-I
Ungulates
roe deer
(Capreolus capreolus)
fallow deer
(Dama dama)
ibex and/or wild sheep
(Capra sp ; Ovis sp.)
Total NISP (these three taxa)
Food species
Patella + Monodonta
Omamental species
Nassarius gibbosulus
rustica
66%
14%
20%
526
159
60
16
12%
31%
57%
84
Mollusks
5
5
4
Table 2: Summary of remains from cave
72
Adana

EDITERRANEAN SEA
t
\,
i
LEBANN )
/)
-r>>
i
TURKEY

Aleppo
SYRlA
" 1- Kanal and Merdivenli
" 2- a z l cave
Figure 1: Map of Antakya area showing locations of sites mentioned in the text
Figure 2: Locality 1 of a z l cave, from the north
73
Figure 4:Map of cave
-O.Sm
-1.0 O G
Figure 4: stratigraphic section,
cave, locality 2. A-
capping stalagmite; B- red day
(terra rosa); C- ash/charcoallens;
D- light, ashy sediment; E- red
day; F- light, ashy sediment; G-
red day; H- yellowday;I- red
day; J- concreted layer (not
excavated)
74
11
-----
Q 5
ta
-----
o om
l . i ~
fl
~ ~ i ': ... ~ s..
ija
10 11
Figure 5:Stone artifacts from more recent Upper
Paleolithic (Ahmarian ?) at U a z l cave.
1, burin; 2-5,7,8,10, retouched, pointed
blades; 6, retouched blade; 11-13,
endscrapers
Figure 6:Stone artifacts from earliestUpper
Paleolithic ("initial" UP) at U a z l
cave. 1,3, retouchedblades; 2, 4, 7,
endscrapers; 5, tip of obliquely
truncated blade; 6, burin on oblique
trnncation; 8,9, cores; 10-11,
retouched pointed blades
75
*
1997
Sevil GLUR*
Muhsin ENDOGRU
Kalkolitik orta evresi ya da ge dnemi ta-
ve yama Aksaray ili ku-
Mamasun gl iinde, ykselti ze-
rindedir (Resim: 1). Ihlara Vadisi'ni Melendiz'le Nenezi ynnden gelen
Karasu'nun ynlerinde
uzanan bu eteklerini yalar. Eski g zerinde, evreye hakim
nemli bir konumdaki yksek korunmayan
ve kuzey su seviyesinin yksek aylarda dalga ha-
reketiyle
1997 hedefleri: 1) kuzey
ve teras hyk ynnde 2) 3 I
evre ya da destek blmnn temizlenmesi; 3) Yksek
kayalar korunan hyk merkezinde ise alan
zetlenebilir (izim: 1).
(,. Jeofizik Blm, Gro-
ningen Universitesi (Hollanda), Ruhr Universitesi ve Bochum Madencilik M-
zesi (Almanya) irtibat kurularak 1998 itibaren tarihlerne,
ham madde arkeozooloji, arkeobotanik v.d. konularda a-
Do. Dr. Sevil QLUR, Edebiyat Fakltesi Prehistorya Anabilim
Muhsin ENDOGRU,Aksaray Mzesi Mdr ...
Uyeler: Do. Dr. Nur (LU. PrehistoryaAnabilim 'prof. Dr. Ertan Eruz (LU. evre
Enstits Yrd. Do Dr. A. Fulya Eruz (LU. Sanat Tarihi Blm), Demet
Kara (Aksaray Mzesi Esra Tijen Burultay, ay ,
Abdullah Hidurmaz, Asuman Kara, Ozlem Korkmaz, Fadime (LU. Prehistorya Anabilim
Gl Murat (YTU (Kayseri Fa-
kltesi).
ekibi, T.C. Kltr ve Mzeler Genel M-
LU. Fonu, Aksaray Ili Valilik Kltr 44.
ilesi Demirci Belediyesi ve atalsu Ky Muh-
ve ky Aksaray Aras Kargo, Balmumcu Kimya, Endstri
Merkezi ve btn geenlere bor bilir.
(l) i 996 iin bkz.: S.Glur, ve evre Ar-
keoloji ve Sanat 78, i 997a, 2- i 3; Eline orgeschichtliche Felsrckensiedlung in
Zentralanatolien" , Anatatica XXIII, i 997b, 85- i i O; 1996 Sonu-
Ankara 26-30 1997, Ankara, 1998,85- i i
77
yapmak iin Bu Prof. Dr. Ertan Eruz, toprak
analizleri iin taban rnekleri Do. Dr. Unsal 7-8 H curuf r-
neklerini Bochum Madencilik Mzesi'nde Dr. H. Buitenhuis 1996-
hayvan kemikleri- zerinde Alman Arkeoloji Enstits
Istanbul Desinatr Ahmet Atila ise mimari izimlerin temize ekilme-
sinde
st Teras
(S-6 K, 4 J-K, 3 izim: 1,2)
ve kuzey zerinde geen
alanlar hyk ynnde (6 K 6 m., 4-SK ve 4 J ise 10
m. izgisine) 3 i da st alttan di-
zisi Bu sonucu, arazi da kullana-
rak ok gzl ilk
hyuk ynnde kesintisiz devam kesinlik
gneyden sarp i
ynlerinde, 0.50 m. bir kaya 6-7
K iine kadar Toprak rtsnn ok (0.10-0.1S
m.) bu blmde, kesin belirlenemeyen byk bir mekan M3-4
4.5 m. gney ama iinde kalan
kaya Taban en az yenileme evreli
saptanan profili nnde ise 1.20 m. bir ocak bulunmakta-
Duvar yzleri renk nnde bir
gney nnde uzanan alt taban zerinde de bir
ait paralarla birlikte ufak bir kap ele
1996 Ml M2 1.60x1.60 m.
Byk dzlem gidermek zere ii sonradan
duvar yzlerinde izleri
Alt mekan dolgusu iinde ise ok moloz ve anak mlek
ele 6 K Ml ve M2 kuzeyden
0.30 m. duvarla S K
S K bu geen ancak hyk ke-
rastlayan blmleri saptanan Ml ve M2 tm, M2
yeni MIO ise ufak bir blm Bu
kuzeyden teras koridorunun (Mll), kuzey r-
gibi st evrelerde konut Korido-
run kuzeyinde ise 4 K Ml st evre dolgusunun bir blm te-
(izim: 1,2).
S 2.4Oxl.4O m. Bu
da ii gibi byk sonradan doldurul-
(Resim: 2). Ust mekan dolgusu sonra anak mlek
da bulunan, kerpi ve dkntl, alt mekan dolgusuna Meka-
anakaya zerine ok ufak ift rgl, amur
O.20 m. henz belirlenemeyen bir duvar
(2) Hayvan kemikleri ilk inceleme iin bkz. H. Buitenhuis: S. Glur 1997",
Anatatica XXV, 1999 iinde
78
16 m
2
lik bir kaplayan, kare biimi M2 ve
maz in situ ilgi ekicidir (izim: 2,3; Resim: 3). kuzey ve
gney O.50m. birer ok ufak r-
l, amur gney iki evreli Ml
la, kuzey ise koridor geitle (izim: 3).
gvdesi ve kubbesi rl bir Tn.6
(Resim: 4). ve kubbe kat kat Buna gre,
geen dnemi ne srlen kubbelerinin fitil/kangal yntemiyle iten
yitirrnektedirs.
Bu hemen 1.20 m. bir ocak
(OcA) Ocak zerinde iki bir boynuz kk
in situ (izim: 3). ok iyi durumda taban
zerinde, evresinde ve ok
ve kap ele gzeneksiz sert
disk biimi, delik, iki el ve bu dner aletlerin
olabilecek trden, kasnak biimi bir halka ilgintir. El
biri ve kasnak benzeri halka, st ste ele
(izim: 3).
M 10 M2 (izim: 2, 3; Resim: 5). Bu
dzlemi, M2 gre 0.60 m. daha yksektedir. M2 oda-
0.60 x 0.40 m. du-
varlar gibi bir paye grlmektedir. Payenin nn-
de, taban iine irice bir ocak bir
ya da soku gze at bi-
imi, 1.40 m. bir (Tn.7) Payenin 0.80 m.
ise yuvarlak bir (Oc. 5) ve
konumu, M2 ve MIO ortak zelliklerindendir.
M 10 gney blmnde ise en az drt kaba ait para-
lar in situ siyah mlek, kt koni k
dipli ve yan yana ift halka kulpludur. Bu kab hemen kuzeyinde, 0.40 m. a-
ii kil bir petek, yada depo oturtmaya yarayan bir yuva seil-
mektedir (izim: 3; Resim: 6). ise kap ve
evresine uzun sre iinde
yzey hemen ele geen ne ki
ve
SK/MIl 1996 koridor/geitin (M7), st evre dol-
da kapsayan (izim: 2; Resim: 7). Burada da koridorun
ii sonradan doldurularak konut ilave M2 ve MIO
st duvar seviyelerine rastlayan kesimde alan at biimi iki
(Tn 4 ve 5) bu desteklemektedir. Ust dolgu iinde ne oldu-
tam eperleri evrili, irili yuvarlak alanlar
Bu iinden hayvan kemikleri Ust dol-
gu dar geidi ynnde boydan boya her iki yz
irili bir Koridorun kuzey
ise ok iri bir dizi ocak Bu dizinin kuzey ya-
maca bakan yz nnde 1996 4 K/Ml st evre
(3) Glur, 997b, 89.
79
dolgusuyla ilintili, 1.20 x 1.00 m. ok evreli bir
yeri (Oc. 3) M2 kuzey bulunan
ise byk koridor geitin alt evresiyle ilintilidir (izim: 3).
Kuzey 4 J ve 3 i 4 J kare-
sinde, geen saptanan Ml, M6 ve M5 gneyama ka-
dar olan blmleri Ml bu 3.50 x 1.00 m.
1996 belirlenen (Oc. 1)
0.60 m. ise kk zeri kerpi amuru
rak at biimi (0.80 x 0.40 x 0.30 m.) bir
tir (izim: 2; Resim: 8). zerine bir ift boynuz, dik-
kat ekicidir. Bu buluntu, ok rastlanan
sadece hammadde olarak belki de inan
ilgili bir de
Gene oda da, benzeri ii kil
ca iki soku yeri Soku yerlerinin (0.20 m.), ka-
ya yzeyine oyulu deliklerinin
Bu ancak dar bir blm temizlenen, 1996 M5-
6 st evre bir ve kerpi
(izim: 2). Mekan temizlenirken bir nce ve
M5 kat kat ve hyk ynnde devam et-
meyip, bir blme (Resim: 9). Blme duvar-
alt her iki yzde uzun dar zerine
ocak sonra arada kalan moloz
Ara alt toprak dolgu zerine te-
mel hediyesi olarak irili obsidiyen be-

Blme kalan M6 yeni kesiminde
bir seki, ya da bir podyumun ve top-
rak bir tabaka Bu blme
paralel uzanan, st ste muntazam yznde izleri gr-
len bir dizisi belirlenmektedir (Resim: 9). dizisi kalan oda
(M5) dolgusu da dkntldr. Bu dknt iinde bulunan, zeri a-
mur bir ift, evcil kei boynuzu ilgin gelerdendir. Oda-
taban dzlemine dolgu ve taban zerinde ise ok anak m-
lek evcil ve yabani hayvan trlerine ait boynuzlar (Resim: 10)
ve kemik aletler
3 i (6 x5 m.), st teras alttan
dizisi ve bunun kuzeyinde kalan yama (izim: 2,3 ).4 K ama-
konut olarak hemen kuzeyinde ve koridor/gei-
tin yer alan bu blm, ve kaya
Burada saptanan, yzeyleri daha dzgnce
yan yana iki iri dizisinden 0.70 m.
ynnde giden bir teras ya da destek
(Resim: Il). bu nnde kesilmektedir. Yzeyde gzlemlenen
birbirine ise su dalga va y-
nnde kum iine dknt
80
Hyk
(7-S H izim: 1,2,4)
1996 tepenin en yksek belirleyen
nirengi nnde (7 H) bir defineci ukuru ukur kesitlerin-
de ve toprak iinde ise yksek eriyerek kerpi
benzeri paralar grlmekteydi. Bu kuvvetli nedenini ve ne tr bir ya-
ilintili bulmak iin gneyden yksek ve sarp ka-
hemen nndeki bu alanda (7-S H OS.50xS.00 m.) bir
Belirlenen, du-
bir ka kat byk bir oda (M1a-c) (izim: 4; Resim: 12, 13),
bu odaya kuzeyden karakterli iki mekan (M2-3) ve byk oday-
la ilintili bir silo (M4) (izim: 4; Resim: 13).
Bu ancak kesimi byk oda, bir ka evreli
nlen 1.10 m. ve 5.50 m. yan yana ok
iri ift rl bir duvarla kuzeyden Arka yznde yksekli-
1m.ye st 3 byk daha ge bir evrede
yksek karararak grlen alt
M1'e dnk muntazam yznde yuvarlak,
bir (izim: 4). 0.50 m.
ancak 4.50 m. lik bir kesimi takip
ise kuzey ama kesiti boyunca, duvarlarla ol-
gibi bir izlenebilmektedir. Byk kesit ba-
dikine 2.00 m. ve OJO m. bir
blme ikiye (Resim: 12). Her iki yz blme
ucu, bir kemer gibi kavislidir. u
sonradan peteklerle yanlara
Gene blme gney cephesi nnde benzeri (?), ift
gzl, gzlerden birinin iinde in situ bir bulunan, ok kez
bir sekisi (Resim: 12). a-
ma kesidi boyunca uzanan bir ise
na yaslanan, kat kat ve kerpilerin byk bir
yer (Resim: 13). Merkezi beyaz ku-
zey alan dolgusu iinde belirlenen ocak ise
peteklerin temellerini
Gneyden ve yksek kayalarla korunan, bal bir-
birine hcrelerden silo byk odaya
dir (Resim: 13). 1.00 m. den 2.25 m. ye kadar eper-
leri , ufak kerpi amuru
muntazam Hangi tr rnleri henz kazanma-
yan st dolgusu iinde dal rg izli, kerpi ele
tir. nedenlerinden biri de bu trden, bol gele-
ri
silo bakan gney yznde, bir kesilme grlmek-
tedir (izim: 4). Duvar bu blmde iki
0.60 m. kadar altta ise duvar 4 olarak devam etmektedir. Duvarlara
i petek birimlerinden biri ise altta devam eden zerine
Buna gre silo birimleri, sonradan ilave
81
M2 ve M3 kuzeyine (izim: 4 ).
Bunlardan olan M2'nin ancak byk bir ieren blm
men Bu mekan, st blmne bir sonradan
ilave bir ara M3 En-
lemesine dar uzun M3
kerpili bir dolgu Bu oda, kuzeyden ve Ka-
birer duvarla olduka bir izlerini
yan alt evre dolgusu iinde k-
k, diktrtgen bir ocak yeri (?) (Resim: 14). Ml ortak-
gney nne bu alt
yksek duvarda, sonradan delik/kanal gze arp-

anak mlek
1996 olduo-u gibi 1997 da siyah
rnekler mal grubunu

Bu birinci mal grubu (MG I) ara-
en rastlanan kap gene zenli depo
Tek para zerinde belgelenen ok memecikler,
geen saptanan aplike betimlemeleri, dizileri,
sokma yntemiyle noktalama ve oluk bezeklerin yeni bir
bezerne trn daha (izim: 5: 2). Yzeyleri kase-
ler, ikinci tr (MG III) olarak devam Kahverengi yzey-
li, 7 cm. kadar olan, dibi ufak dikdrtgen delikli bir huni ise tm kap-
(izim: 5: 3; Resim: 15). Silo in situ bulunan
dz dipli, yuvarlak zerinde memecikli, uzun koni k boynu sert ve
kulbu parmak ilgin rneklerdendir
(izim: 5: 1; Resim: 16) kalarak tmyle okside olan bu para-
benzerleri henz Kirli bej yzeyli, hamuru bitkisel
minyatr kap ise tm kaplar 5: 4). Bu dnem
anak mlek rnekleri yok denecek kadar az ele top-
raktan zen parmak para
ise ya bir nesne, ya da bir ilinti-
li (izim: 5: 5).
Obsidiyen aletler
Henz inceleme olan obsidiyen alet endstrisinde geen
oranla fazla bir 7-8/H Ml byk
zerinde saptanan 4 uzun dilgi ve 4 J bir temel
hediyesi olarak bir avu yonga dikkat ekicidir.
Boynuz ve kemik aletler
Kk nemli bir blmn boynuz ve kemik aletler
bulunan hayvan
(4) anak mlek rnekleri iin bkz. S. Glur: 1997b, 95-97, 22-30; 1998,
94-96, iz. 3, Res. 14-19; "Aksaray, Illeri i 994 Yzey Anadolu
XIV, 5-6
82
bir hi alet ham madde olarak
1997 zerlerinde kesme izleri ve kertikler bulunan ok
geyik boynuzu kk ve u ele (izim: 5, 1-2). Bunlar-
dan zere ham (izim: 5, 3) ya da sap yuvala-
(izim: 5,4) saptanan eki sap delikli alet (izim: 6,2),
retim zincirinin belirlemektedir. Kemik aletler iinde ise
uzun kemiklerden ve mablaklar (izim: 7,4-7).
Bu grubun zenle bir kemer
(izim: 6, 1 ) ve bir aletin yayvan gvdesi dikey yuvarlak delikli
sap (izim: 6, 3) ilgin rneklerdendir.
SRTME
kk srtme alet ve gereler en
buluntu 1996 gibi bu
da en yksek oranda temsil edilenler alt/st ve havan el-
leridir.
Tf ceviz sapan yumruk ezgi
pomza benzeri gzenekli (?) (izim: 8,4) ift koni k
delikli el st (izim: 8,3), ince tanecikli sert gri bir
kasnak trde dibekler (?) (izim: 8, 1-2) cinsin-
den alet ve gereler ise 1997 saptanan yeni trlerdir.
sert bir ise trnn tek (izim: 8,
5). anakayaya oyulu deliklerinin iri zeri-
ne rnekleri de mekan iine halde bulun-

SONU
1997 Kalkolitik son evrelerine
buluntu nemli Byk ola-
ve kuzey st teras alttan evre ya
da destek , da belirlemektedir. Teras boyunca iz-
lenen ok gzl yamalara bakan cephe
tek veri, 4 K gzl konut
olarak alt Olduka iri
bu sonradan konut geit de sonra kuzey
evre/destek zerine binmektedir. Destek ve kaya
kalan 2 m. alanda ise hi bir izine
Bu saptamadan yola peri-
ferisinde kalan teras evre birlikte gelecek
tehditlere bir savunma sistemi grevi nerilebilir. Bu
mimari dzeni ve hyk merkezin-
de en blgede silo trde alan
ok, rnn de ufak bir merkez olarak al-

83
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izim 5: anak mlek, memecikli 1; kahverengi huni 2; siyah memecik
bezekli rnek 3; bitkisel hamurlu minyatr kap 4; kil 5
88
-o
2
4
izim 6: Boynuzlar. Kesme izli ve kertikli boynuz 1-2; sap zere
para 3; sap 4
89
4
.:, ..
'.:: "::';'
-1'::;\,\ (9:):: ,,'.
-.'l" o::.
" ,.\
\h

.

,I
\
z

3
5
6
izim 7: Boynuzlar ve kemik aletler, kemer 1; sap delikli eki boynuz alet
2; delikli sap 3; kemik bozlar 47
90
2
s
3
izim 8: Srtme aletler. dibekler (?) 1-2); el dner 3; (?) 4;
balta S
91
Resim 1: Mamasun gl iinde kuzeyden, genel
Resim 2: SK Ml st mekan dolgusu
92
Resim 3: 5K M2 genel. Geri planda MIO
Resim 4: 5K/M2, tm ele geen kubbeli (Tn. 6), gneyden, detay
93
Resim s: SK MIO gneyden,genel. n planda in situkaplar
Resim 6: SKlMIO, ift siyah depo
yuvarlak petek(?),detay ...
94
Resim 7: SK koridor/geit MIl, genel. Sol kenarda 4KlMl st
evre
Resim 8: 4J Ml gney kuzeyden, genel
95
Resim 9:4J M5 kuzeyden, genel. Sol planda blme duvan ve paralelinde
yz seki duvan
Resim 10: 4JIM5, zere geyik boynuzu
buluntu
96
Resim 11: evre ya da destek genel
Resim 12: 7-8 H M1a-c alan, genel. n planda blme
petek ve sekisi. Sol st kenarda kil
97
Resim 13: 7-8H1M1 kesimi ve silo M4, alt byk
arka planda bal birbirine silo niteleri
Resim 14: 7H M3 kuzeyden, genel. Arka planda taban zerinde
dikdrtgen ocak yeri ve yksek duvarda sonradan
(?)
98
Resim 15: anak mlek, kahverengi huni
Resim 16:anak mlek, silo ele geen memecikli
99
Resim 17: elik b a l , sap delikli boynuz alet
100
HYK KAZISI 1997
Ufuk
HARMANKAYA
1.
Hyk Kurtarma (Aksaray ili, Ky), 1997
da 1 Temmuz - 13 tarihleri Kltr
ve Mzeler Genel Trkiye Bilimler Akademisi
(TUBA), LU. Fonu (AF Proje No: 994/090597), LU.
Edebiyat Fakltesi
Kltr ve Mzeler Genel
'nda Denizli Mzesi Arkeolog Hande Ozkan temsil
tir. ekibi bu birlikte olarak Yrd. Do. Dr. Sa-
Harmankaya, obsidiyen alet endstrisi Do. Dr. Nur
Uzman Arkeolog Sema Baykan, Alan Duru, Burak
elikoba, ama Arkeolog Nilgn Dede, Glay Sert, Banu Oksz, atlye
yneticisi Arkeolog Semra lisans ama ve atlye
Merve Anda, Sema Duran, Esra Yasemin Mu-
nise Kaya, Marie Desmouliere, Marie Lariot'dan

Arkeobotani Dr. Henk Woldring, Arkeolog Ceren Soylu, yk-
sek lisans iler Gner lisans
lerimizden Muhammed Oztrk, Birecik yelerinden Dr. Kenneth Boden,
TUBA ve TUBITAK yesi Prof. Dr. Ali Alpar ve ailesi, Porsuk, Gver-
cinkaya, Musular ekipleri, Dr. Udo Hirsch ve ailesi, Prof. Dr. Ruth Mayer
Opifficius bir sre iin ziyaret Dr. Wendy Math-
hews'un gene sreli ziyaretinden taban ve ocaklardan Camb-
ridge Universitesi'nde mikro-morfolojik analizleri zere toprak ve ta-
ban rnekleri
temsilcimiz olmak zere son derece zverili tr
tm ekibimize, Kltr ve Mzeler Genel
*
Prof. Dr. Ufuk niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim
34459 ISTANBUL.
Yrd. Do. Dr. HARMANKAYA, niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, PrehistoryaAnabi-
Jim 34459
101
ki TBA Fonu'na
ve Yrtc Sekreteri Prof. Dr. Engin Bermek'e Edebiyat Fakltesi De-
ve ynetim kuruluna, Aksaray ili yneticilerinin tmne, zellikle Vali
Cahit Vali Ali Halis Peker, Hseyin
Demirciler'e, Belediye Ahmet Er'e,
Glistan Belediye Cavit Hoca'ya, Kltr Mdr
Ruhi Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr Muhsin mze
Demet Kara ve Fariz Demir'e, gster-
dikleri ilgi, her trl ve en iten su-

Tatil gnlerinde ekibimiz Hyk, Acem Hyk, Musular, G-
vercinkaya Ihlara Vadisi, Grerne ve Mzesi'ne inceleme
gezileri
2. VE UYGULAMA
1997 sorunlara
Hyk'n kuzeyindeki 4 G-H 3. kltr
Bu tabakaya ait kltr verileri ile 2. en st ya-
pi evrelerindeki kltr verilerinin Bunun iin gney
yeni bir amaya (Resim: 1, 3, 8, 9; 4 G-H
ve 13 S-T
2. Belirli mekanlarda toplumsal ait faaliyetlerin belirlenmesi iin
lxI metrekarelik alanlarda varsa, buluntu belgelenmesi
(Resim: 1,2; 7-8 N-O
3. evre ile onun ve ka-
lan esas ile olan daha belirgin hale getirilmesi. Bunun iin
evre daha gneye ve olan amalarda takip edilmesinin
(Resim: 1,2,4; 11-12 K-L
4. gelecekte bir hava mzesinin
ilk n (Resim: 2; Esin 1998,
100-101, figs. 1-3).
belirtilen ilkeler 4 G-H, 11-12 L, 7-8 N-
O ve 9 N-O (Resim: 1).
3.
Daha nceki Akeramik Neolitik ya-
ve erevesinde (Bkz. ekteki Listesi; Esin 1996;
1998), 1997 hykte 627 metrekarelik bir alanda yo-
eski amalarda da bir mevsiminden mevsimine
kadar olan sre iinde iklim ve erozyon nedeniyle
kaplayan dolgu temizlenmesi (Resim: 1,2).
Stratigrafinin takip 4 G-H 4 G 2-1O/a-e, 4 H 2-1O/d-
k plankarelerinde 84.87 metrekarelik bir alanda 11-12 L
dan II L'de 2-9/b-i karelerinin 12 L'de 2-9/b-e karelerinde
daha kk bir alanda (Resim: 1, 2). Bylece
102
evre takip bu kesimde toplam
(64+32) 96 metrekarelik bir alan daha gn (Resim: 1,2).
yer alan 9 N 2-9/b-k, 9 O ama-
2-9/a-i kareleri olmak zere (72+72) 144 metrekarelik bir blmde yzey
7 N-O 7 N' de 2-9/f-k, ve 7 O'da 2-9/a-e plan-
karelerinde (40+40) 80 metrekarelik bir bl mde (Resim: 1,
2). Buna olarak 8 N 2-9/b-k ve 8 O da 2-9/a-i kare-
lerinde toplam 144 metrekarelik bir alan (Resim: 1,2). g-
ney yer alan 13 S ise 2-9/b-k ve 13 T'de de 2-6/a ka-
relerini ieren (72+6) 78 metrekarelik bir blm (Resim: 1,2).
3.J.4 G-H (Resim: 1, 3)
1996 bu amalarda 3. tabakaya ancak 3.
henz (Resim: 2,3; Esin 1996; 1998).
Kuzeydeki bu amalarda hyk yzeyinden -7.33 m.
derinlikten itibaren 3. tabakada plk/atlye dolgusu iinde 3a evresine
ait TR sonra daha eski olan 3b ve 3c evrelerine ait
mekanlar gn (Resim: 2,3). Bir atlye/plk
ki ve hemen hemen kaplayan SS en son olarak 3a evresin-
de SS'nin iine 3b evresinde birok oturtul-
grlmektedir. Bunlar ama olarak kuzeyden gneye
yer Bir oda bir da avlu veya geit
lindedir. Kuzeyden gneye
UM, onun dar avlusu UL, ikisinin gneyinde dar bir geit
UT ve iki gzl bir olan TU ve TT ile gene gneyindeki dar bir ara-
sonra yer alan UJ 3b evresine aittir
(Resim: 2,3).
ise 3c evresine ait drtgen byk UN
izleri (Resim: 2,3). Bu evresi
Melendiz Nehri'nin kuzeyden gneye ve buradaki mekan-
da tahrip izlenimi nk a-
ma ilerine renkli bir kil ve mil dolgusu damarlar
Buna ve daha eski evrelerine
ait kerpi ama kerpi
Melendiz'in sele bu kesimlerde
kesintisizce sre ise ileriki zlmesi ge-
reken bir sorun olarak
3.2.11-12 (Resim: 1,2 -4,5)
2. son 3 evresine ait evre bu-
alanda (11-12 L (Esin 1996; 1998).
ve gneye evre temellerinin -4.50 m kadar derine
ve daha alttaki ve daha eski bir kerpi mahalleyi tahrip an-
(Resim: 2, 5). evre daha ve gneyde ne
, 2. tabaka ise ile-
riki kampanyalarda beklemektedir.
103
3.3.7-9 N-O (Resim: 1,2,6,7)
GA yolu ve avlusunun evre-
sindeki kerpi mahallelerin 7-8 N-O 2a,
2b ve de 2c evrelerine ait taban dzlemlerine (Resim:
1,2; Esin 1994 a; 1996; 1998).9 N-O ise yzey
(Resim: 1, 2). mekanlar iinde en ilgin
biri 7 N-O -4.28 m.den
-5.13 m.ye kadar byk bir e alalan SN (Resim: 2,6).
bu taban bir (kurban iin il-
gin bir mekan ise 8 O TM (Resim: 7). Bu
iinde byk bir ocaktan taban bir insan gmt, k-
biri daire biiminde, kuzey ona biti-
ve taban iine gml silindir iki silo (Resim: 7).
Bu alanda kadar bir ocak, iindeki kemik
ve srtme aletler ve silolarla bir en iyi temsil eden TM meka-

evre bu ne ise ancak
gelecek
3.4.13 S-T (Resim: 1,2,8,9)
dik, gney (13 S-T ile evre ve 2. ta-
baka iin gney yamata
yzey tabaka olarak (Resim: 1,2).2. taba-
kada 2a-2c evreleri 2a evresinde bir ocak
belirgin bir yoktur. 2b ve 2c evrelerinde ise ama-
geitte bir p dolgusu ve onun byk bir avlu-
nun iinde yer 6 kk mekan gn (Resim: 2,
8, 9). Bir kerpi dolaplarla birlikte
bir avlu/mutfak kompleksi (Resim: 8, 9). Bu alan, ileriki
evre bir saptan-
mazsa, dzeninin
tam olarak bu sorunun gelecek kampanya-
nem
3.5. Obsidiyen Alet Endstrisi
Obsidiyen alet endstrisi iin analizlerde 19387 para
tir. Bu analizlerde gneydeki (13 S-T 2. tabaka alet
ile kuzeydeki (4 G-H 3. tabaka alet bir
(Resim: 1,2,3, 8,9). Incelenen obsidiyenler
iinde aletler 7071 adetle % 37 temsil Gneyde 462 aletten
% 42.6'sl % 41.5'i dzeltili dilgiler, % 5.4' mikrolitler, % 3' de ok
Kuzeyde ise aletin % 45.3'n dzeltili dilgiler ve % 2.9'unu mik-
rolitler Iki alan mikrolit eski-
den yeniye ve ok st evrelerinde da-
ha aletlerde ise fazla bir fark Ancak
nemli olan eskiden yeniye Bu
104
da daha fazla ile deri gsterebilir. Bu ar-
nedeni ise byk eskiye nfusun

3.6. Arkeo-zoolojik Analizler
Hayvan analizleri daha eski evrelerinde daha byk memeli
(dev -auerochs) avlanarak etmektedir.
3.7. Bitki Analizleri
Gene daha eski evrelerde daha ok yabani bitki bulunurken, da-
ha sonraki evrelerinde 7-8 N-O ve 13 S-T izlendi gibi yene-
bilecek yabani ya da bitkilerin gitgide daha ok depolanarak sak-
lanmaya sylenebilir.
3.8. Ufak Buluntular (Resim: ID)
Ufak buluntular iinde balta, biley ezgi
son evrelerinde gene eski ile yeni bu
ya etse gerektir (Resim: 10).
Gri -beyaz kire bir insan figrini, kemik tokalar ve
boncuklar, korteksli, tablasal obsidiyen Akera-
mik Neolitik endstri ve kltrnn daha iyi belirlenmesine olmakta-
(Resim: 10).
4. SONULAR VE
Aksaray ilinin 25 km. Melendiz anak
mleksiz Neolitik' in benzersiz bir eden (Bkz.
ekteki Listesi; Esin 1995; 1996; 1998; Esin, Harmankaya 1997),
kuzeyindeki 4 G-H 3. 3a evresinde
gitgide tmyle kaplayan byk bir plk/atlye (SS ile
(Resim: 2,3). 3b evresinde bu olarak
mekan, dar avlu ve geitIerin dzende kuzeyden gneye iz-
(Resim: 2, 3). 3c evresinde ise bugn
akan Melendiz Nehri'nin seller bu amalardaki mekanla-
su tahribine yol (Resim: 3). Ancak amala-
ve daha eski evrelerine ait a-
ma kerpi Sellere
lan ve ama kerpi izlerine gre be-
lirlenen kerpi mahalleIerin daha eski evrelerindeki ol-
ise zlmesi gerekli bir sorun olarak
2. 2a-2c evrelerine ait evre temelleri-
nin ok daha derine indikleri ve hatta daha eski bir kerpi
mahalleyi tahrip (11-12 L Resim: 1,2,4,5). ev-
re ise henz tam ay-

2. 2a-2c evrelerine ait dzen-
deki kerpi mahalleleri (konut, mutfak, avlu, geit, v.s.)
105
taban dzlemlerine (7-8 N-O Resim: 2, 6,7).
Bunlar 7 N-O yer alan, byk bir
alalan, SN ile iinde iki silo, bir byk ocak ve
iine bir ukura bir insan gmt ile TM zellikle
dikkati ekmektedir (Resim: 6, 7).
Bu daha 9 N-O ise yzey
bu evre ve hy-
dik, gney mahallelerle ise henz bi-
Linmemektedir.
dik gney yzey
birinci 2. 2a-2c evreleri
(13 S-T Resim: 2, 8, 9). 2a evresine ait bir ocak bir mi-
ele 2b'ye ait kerpi ve bir belir-
lenen bir mutfak kompleksi byk bir avlunun iine Onun ku-
bir kk plk/atlye olarak (Resim: 8). 2c ev-
resine ait mutfak kompleksinin
TY ve TZ (Resim: 9).
1997 elde edilen bu sonulara ve zlmesi gereken be-
lirtilen sorunlara gre
I. kuzeyinde 4 G-H
2. -12 L 9- oM
ve LO L
3. 9 O ve 10-13 O ynnde,
4. dik, gney 13 S-T kuzeye 13
R-O srdrlmesi
Ufak bu da obsidiyen ve kemik aletler
(Resim: 10). Biley baltalar, ve ezgi kor-
teksli obsidiyen tablalar, da az (Resim:
10). kire bir figrin ise bunlar en il-
gin buluntulardan biridir (Resim: 10).

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108
11 i 2 i 3 i 4 5. 6 7 8 9. 10 11 12.113 14 15 116117 .18 1920 121 22 23 24
A
B
c
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
N
o
P
R
S
T
u
v
w
v
z
AA
AB
AC
!z2a tees-se ACMALARI
HVK 1997
.1597 TRENCHE5
'"
f

"
" " "'
sc

! ! .1 i

i
.--------
Resim 1: Ama durum
109
iM
1'3 -""
--,
..
-.
<,
'--.

ii
"r
Resim 2: 1997 plan
110
Resim 3: 4 G-H 3. tabaka kerpi
Resim 4: 11-12 K-L 2. tabaka evre ve
lU
Resim 5: n planda 11 L evre gn kerpi
Arka planda 10-12 J-K evre ve evre
iindeki
Resim 6: 7 N-O 2. tabaka. SM
112
Resim 7: 8 O 2. tabaka. Silindir tabana gml silo ile TM
Resim 8: 13 S 2. tabaka. n planda, iinde ocak ve kerpi mutfak/avlu
kompleksi ve mekanlar
113
Resim 9: 13 S-T 2. tabaka. Gneyde hyk mekanlar. n planda
mutfak/avlu kompleksi ve onun gneyi ve kerpi

Resim 10: Ufak buluntular. havan eli, ezgi balta, figrin, boncuklar,
kemik aletler ve bir korteksli obsidiyenden tablasal bir hammadde
114
-BADEMAGACI 1997
Refik DURU*
, 1993 S. dnem
1 Eyll 1997 tarihleri devam edildi'. Bu
kuzeyindeki A D-lIV-S karesi tamamen, D-I ,21 III-
4,S ve D-3/IV-2 plankareleri de ve sezon sonunda top-
lam ama yzeyi 1.100 m
2
ye sadece
alanlarda geen olan Erken NeoIitik (EN)
ve Ilk Tun (lT) kesimlerde de,
yer yer .
* Prof.Dr.Refik DURU- niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Arkeoloji Blm,
(i) kurulu, Do.Dr.Glsn Umurtak Sinan (Ar-
keolog-Ylvlimar) ile Turhan Bilgili Protohistorya ve
Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim Sabahattin Eser, Candan Pakdamar, elik,
, Bayar, Serap Demir, Hititoloji Anabilim Serkan ile Restorasyon B-
lm Mehmet arazi Kltr ve
Mzeler Genel Denizli Mzesi Salim temsilci olarak
son iki gn, Antalya Mzesi Unal inar
her gibi bu da, ve Mzeler Istanbul Universitesi
Fonu (Proje no.702/260495), LU.Edebiyat Fakltesi ve
Trk Tarih Kurumu desteklediler. benzin tketiminin bir The Shell Com-
pany of Turkey Ltd., renkli film Kadir kamp kuru besin ve temiz-
lik malzemesinin nemli bir DE-PA ve
Sanayii -Afyon
Antalya Mzesi Mdr Metin Pehlivaner ve mzesinde grevli tm ekibimize her
trl bilimsel ve brokratik Ekibimiz Beldesi'nde durumdaki
iki ilkokul Beldemizin Belediye Enver bu da bele-
diyesinin tm
geenlerle, parasal yapanlara, ok ve
geen ve yneticilerine en iten sunuyorum.
tarihlerde, Prof.Dr.Cevdet ve Inci
AntalyaArkeoloji Mzesi Mdr Metin Pehlivaner,Antalya Koruma Kurulu Mdr Musa Seyir-
ci. ProfDr.Wolfram Martini, Prof.Drk.Machteld
Mellink, Do.Dr.Henrietta Gates, Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Enstits Mdr Kayhan Drtlk,
Do.Dr.Turan Efe ve Arkeoloji Mzeleri Mdr Alpay Pasinli ziyaret ettiler.
(2)
Refik Duru; 1993 Raporu",
Bel/eten LX (1997); 783-800,
1994 Y Raporu", Bel/eten LXI (1997); 149-159,
1995 ve 1996 Raporu", Bel/eten LXI (1998); 709-730
115

Hykte geen olan durumunda fazla bir
sadece EN C-5/111-5 plankaresin-
de, bu dnemin bir erken daha tespit (EN 4, Ka-
son gnlerinde, EN'nin daha erken iinde

kesimlerdeki daha nce 5
halinde saptanan srecinde, herhangi bir
Son gre tabaka-
dzeni
Kltr donemi
Tun II
Tun II
Tun II
Tun i
Tun i
Erken Kalkolitik O)
Ge Neolitik
Erken Neolitik
Erken Neolitik
Erken Neolitik
Erken Neolitik
Erken Neolitik
ve
1.
. 2. 2)
3. 3)
4. 4)
5. 5)
(EK/GN 1)
2. (EK/GN 2)
1. (EN 1)
2. (EN 2)
3. (EN 3)
4. (EN 4)
5. (EN 5)

Neolitik Dnem EN C-5/III-4,5
plankarelerinde, daha nceki olan EN 3
ne ait evresinde, bu sadece 1. evin gneyindeki
alanda (C-5IIII-5), EN 3. taban dzleminin geen
lanan devam edildi (izim: 1). -5.30 m.deki ev
70 cm. (Derinlikler en yksek -0.00 m. olarak ka-
bul edilerek EN 4. ait kk bir binanm
(Resim: 1). EN 4'n bu 2.90x2 m. boyutunda,
tek bir tran kalan 20-21 cm.
blgede ilk kez grlen bir teknikle, 7-8 cm.
iki kil yanyana getirilmesiyle iki levha kalan 5-6
cm.lik toprakla Duvar yapmm yan-
nedeniyle ve kuzey bir kesiminin
zerinde
116
ok kk herhangi bir
tek kesin olan iinde, az anak-
mlek ve birka keski ele
EN 4 evinin gneyinde, Sx4 m.lik bir alan-
da, EN 5. gereken birikim iinde de 60 cm. kadar
fakat herhangi bir veya oda

EN.'ye ait da, eteklerindeki D-3/IV-1 ka-
resinde, IT temellerinin IT 2. ait 1
megaronun gney alanda megaron 80
cm. kadar bir ortaya ve srdrlen sonunda,
bu 3 m. kadar kuzey-gney yine .tek
la dizisine daha (izim: 1; Resim: 2). Iki yan-
daki kalan temellerin 1 m. ile 1.5 m.
da ve 50 cm.lik
Bu belli bir plan vermemesi nedeniyle, ne amala
sylemek pek kolay hyk mer-
kezine hafif bir ykselme bir temeli mi, yoksa terasla-
ma konusunda karar vermek
Paralel temel EN'nin hangi ara evresine ait ol-
kesin syleyebilmek de mmkn Ancak ilk
tespitlere gre, en temelin ele geen keramik ara-
paralar, kesimlerindeki Neolitik
malzemesinden yer alan temellerle ilgili
anak-mlek ise, orta kesimlerinde ele geen EN ile
zelliklere sahiptir. birbirine ok benzeyen mimari bu-
luntularla birlikte ele gemesini, bu kesimdeki temellerin iki dnemde ya-
yorumlamak yerine, keramik malzemenin
larla buraya
Tun mimarisi bu sonunda kap-
gsterdi. 1997 nceki
kalan D/I ,2-IIIIS karelerinin Bu ama-
la yzey hemen IT temelle-
rinin, yamaca
rek devam lde toprak
bu kesimdeki daha alanlarda
mevsiminin sonunda, bu alanda IT 1 ve IT 2. ait nemli
ortaya
1. yzeye ok olan 1993 mevsiminde
dnem bir oranda daha iyi du-
rumda olmakla birlikte, hyk zerinde devam eden nedeniyle
ve duvarlar duruma (izim: 2;
Resim: 3).
2. daha iyi nceki
da bu katta drt megaron 1997'de bir yenisi eklendi. Me-
117
en olan bu byk bir (izim: 3-Mega-
ron 7). boyu 16 m.dir. ok durumdaki antelerin 3 m.lik
iki orta boy 40-45 cm. ve yatayolarak
lerdi. Antelerin 4.5 m.lik u ise, 10
derecelik bir ykselecek (Resim: 4). Antelerde gr-
len bu yntemi, zaman iinde
lanabilir.
Megaran 7'nin kuzey yer yer 70 cm. kadar
temeli (Resim: 5) dikey bilinli btnyle kuzeye
olarak
temellerinin en alt bazen yama zemini zerine
en alt genellikle iri
temelden 70-80 cm. kadar, 6-7 rlmesi ile, du-
bazen dikey bir yne olacak iT 2'nin
hemen her grlen ortak zelliklerdir.
Megaran 7'nin anteleri kalan kk
-no. 8-, bu sene bir IT 2 (Resim: 3,4). I lleri 2.40
x1.40 m. olan bu tek hcrenin byk megarona Bu
konumu ile 8 bir neri zor olmakla
birlikte, megaronla birlikte ve ilk dneminde in-
yoktur.
iT 2 4 ve 5 daha nceki
blmleri de bu ve eksik olan planlar
iT 3 evresinin konusundaki bilgilerimiz oranda
Megaran 1'in gneyindeki nite-
ve genel ok da iyi bir mekan ortaya -9 nu-
mekan- 4 m. olan, ancak gney durumu tam olarak
iin, konusunda bilgi edinilemeyen bu ovaya
bakan dar 95 cm. bir (izim: 3). Bu
kesimde srdrlmesi son derecede zor sz edilen me-
durumunu yorumlamak bugn iin Ancak bu ile hyk-
ten ovaya, yani mmkn hale

Geen dnemlerinde yama yzeyi-
nin olgusu, bu daha iyi izlendi.
tarlalara kesimde, alanlar temizlendi. Burada ya-
ma, bazen 40-50 cm. ye varan ile Bu
nin ne zama!! konusunda bugn iin sylenebilecekler Do-
yamata IT 3. kat 1 ve 2 bakan ar-
ka sonraki hafif yzey, orta boyda toplama
Megaran 1 ve 2'nin sonra, biraz daha yksekte ve hyk
merkezine kesimlerinde 3,4 ve 7 arka du-
da, bir yzeyin anla-
Bu ikinci Megaran 1 ve 2'nin olan or-
kadar kesimlerinde, yamalarda grlen
118
da bu ikinci dneme, yani 2. ait syle-
nebilir.
4. temelli zerinde
lan sonunda, geen saptanandan bi-
raz daha az (izim: 4; Resim: 6). Bu ile, buna kuzeyden
olan paralel, temellerin konusunda herhangi bir
syleme yoktur.
Bu dneminde, en eski olan 5.
na ait, 1996 ve
(izim: 4). 8.70 m. ve 4.80 m.dir.
kuzey duvar 65-70 cm.
iken, bir 60 cm., bir 25 cm.dir. duvar 40 cm.,
gney uzun duvar byk lde bozuk olmak zere, 50 cm.
5. 1 m.
hala (Resim: 6). Bir savunma grn-
mnde olmakla birlikte, bu mmkn
Mezar
Neolitik ve Tun genelde llerini iine
gmmediklerini sylemek mmkndr. devam eden yer-
iinde sadece bu 2 veya 3 ait
bir gmye Bir kp iine gm, yama
daki 9 zerindedir. Mezar olarak, 75-80 cm. bo-
yunda, dz dipli bir kp ve da, bir kap ile
Mezar tmyle, gvdesi de byk oranda ol-
makla birlikte, armudi iki kulp ile iki
kulplarla olarak Kp iindeki is-
kelet 8-10 bir aittir.
Kk Buluntular
1997 dnemi ok fazla kk buluntu ele
EN dneminin en derin dzeylerinden gelen anak-mlek genelde
basit dz veya hafif S profilli kas e ve anaklara aittir (Resim: 7). EN'nin de-
rin -6.65 m. ini-
len orta kesimde, son 20-30 cm.'de sadece bir iki anak-mlek bulun-
Daha alt katlarda daha da -belki tmyle ortadan

yama paralel tek temellerin kesimde ele
geen tm kase, bir-iki kemik ile on kadar kes-
Bu kk EN'nin hangi
konusunda kesin syleyemiyoruz.
Paralel temellerin en ilgili
ise, byk GN veya
EK'ye aittir. Bu trdeki anak-mlek astar zeri-
119
ne beyaz boya bezeklilerle, profilli olanlar,
tipik EN
iT bulunan anak-mlek, daha nceki dnemle-
rinde bulunanlardan Kk gaga testicikler en ok rastlanan
biimlerdir (Resim: 8). hamurlu, iyi dz veya
profilli, dudak zerinde memecik olan, an biimli iri anak-
lardan yine pek ok para bulundu. Kp kapatmak iin
lan da, an biimli anilkiara ait iki yatay tu-
tamak-kulpu olan bu kaplar, IT iinde zellikle IT 1-3. sresin-
ce ok olarak
iT 3 tane mhr Mhrlerin yzle-
rine oluk doldurma geleri (Resim: 9).
ve
EN ve tarihlenmeleri
da, bir nceki raporumuzdaki saptamalara ekler ok fazla
dir (R.Duru: Belleten LXI: 723 vdd).
EN 4 grlen kil levhadan duvar ile,
paralel, ince temel Burdur blgesinin Neolitik
melerinden
EN 4 ve 5 benzerleri, daha ok Hycek Er-
ken Dnemi (EYD) malzemesi ile
Beyaz ve devrik profilli benzerleri Kuru-
ay ll. katta ve Hycek malzeme olarak ele
iT zellikleri; ile
benzerlikler gstermektedir. Megaron tipinin blgemiz kadar blgesinde
de bilinmektedir. durum Beycesultan iin de geerlidir. Ek-
lerle orijinal kaybetmeleri, geen merkez-
Ierde de ortak zelliktir.
bulunan kp mezar, Semahyk'teki gmlerle tam bir
paralellik iindedir.
Ek
1997 mevsiminde, Beldesi evresinde geziler
Burdur-Antalya karayolundaki belde 500 m. kadar kuzey-
ve asfalt ky yolunun kuzeyinde, bir (Resim:
10). Kasaba yolunun zerindeki TV aktarma istasyonunun 50 m. kadar arkasin-
da bulunan drtgen kesitli stelin 2.40 m. ve 0.60 m.dir. Iki
kaba olan,
dikitin bir kk
Stelin daha nce grulp grlmedi konusunda herhangi bir bilgimiz
olmamakla birlikte, yola bu kadar olan ve yoldan geerken grlebilen
bir dikili bizden nce duymamak gerekir.
120
Stelin konusunda, yapmadan kesin sylemek zor-
dur. Etrafta bu eserle ilgili ve duvar
(Resim: ll), eserin bir veya bir
mimari iinde dikili Roma ait tahmin
stelin, Ariassos ve gibi Roma ok
nedeniyle, bu ilgili bir mezar steli veya bir
iinde yer muhtemel gryoruz. Onmzdeki
mevsimlerinde, ve Mzeler Genel nn gerekli izni ver-
mesi halinde, stelin evresinde kk konusunda

121

02
8ADEMAGACI
EN i
O
EN 2

EN 3
00
EN ,

03
LV'
\"
.. " \
""'(.,.\< \
.'", '\ \
\ .
izim 1: EN genel
-3.'11
01
BADEMAGACI
iT 1
III S
, IV1
Sm
izim 2: 1
genel
122
1113
1114
s
IV1
_ ".11
Sm
izilli 3: iT 2 ve 3
123
D3
BADEMAGACr
2
ir 3
D1
izim 4: 4
124
02

iT4
iTC 5
LV1
IV 2
Resim 1: EN 4. evi
Resim 2: EN'ye ait temeller (yksek temellerin
125
Resim 3: T 1. ve 2. y a p k a t temelleri
Resim 4: T 2. y a p k a t n n byk megaronu
126
a
Resim 5: 2 megaronunun yan bir blm
Resim 6: 4. ve 5. genel grnm
127
Resim 7: EN tm kaplar
Resim 8, 9: 2?den gaga testicik. mhrlerinden biri
128
Resim 10: Beldesi stel
Resim 11: stelin uzaktan grnm. nde
olan temelle
129
*
1997 YASSIHYK'TE
YAPILAN HAKKINDA RAPOR
Refik DURU*
ilesinin (Denizli) 8 km. kadar kuzeyinde bulunan
Beldesi iinde, beldenin hemen kuzey yer alan
yk'te, Denizli Mzesi idari, bizim bilimsel al-
Do.Dr.Glsn ve 3 30
Haziran- 10 Temmuz 1997 tarihleri Denizli
Mzesi Mze Arkeolog Salim
AMA
gney ve yama-
nceleri kyllerin toprak ile daha sonra
her ve sebeplerle, hyk dilim dilim kme-
si sonucu byyen ve dev boyutlara kesitlerin kesimlerde
(izim: 1; Resim: 1-5 - kesitlerden en 15 m.,
80 m.dir), bu bozulmadan da yararlanarak,
dzenini (stratigrafisini) belgelerne yapmak ve
tmyle yok olmaya giden srecini nlemlerini saptamaya


ncelikle ve evresinin topografik durumunun saptan-
ve durumunun tam olarak karar verildi. Antalya M-
zesi Sabri Aydal, hyk ve evresinin to-
Prof.Dr.Refik DURU, niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Arkeoloji Blm,
(I) Fonu (Proje No: 702/260495) ve
lar ve Mzeler Genel
belirtilen yneticilerine ve kurulumuza ya-
ilgi ve Beldesi Belediye Halil Oznuk'a iten
krlerimi
131
pografik Bu plan sonucunda, ger-
ekte iki hykten byk olan ykseltisinin mevcut boyunun
350 m., eninin 200 m. ve grnen de 14 m. ikin-
ci tepenin 190x150 m. taban lsnde ve 5 m. an-
(izim: 1; Resim: 1). Byk gneyinde, 80x50 m. bir
ile, 60x40 m.lik bir yer yer taban dzlemine kadar
tahrip (Resim: 2,3). Hykteki bugnk tarla dz-
leminin da devam iin, gerek birikim konisinin 18 m.
da sylenebilir. kuzey olduka
ikinci hyk ykseltisinin zeri de tmyle
la doludur.
1997' de byk tepenin iki yerinde Birinci hy-
seildi (izim: 1; Resim: 5). A olarak isim-
bu lleri 10x5 m.dir. Ikinci ama (B gney
yamataki en byk kesitin 6x 10 m.lik bir
(izim: 1; Resim: 2-6). sadece durumunun
ynelik bir yntemle, dar bir
alanda dikine bir kesit yrtld. Bu yn-
temin ok olumlu hemen 90 ye
diklikteki yamatan ve
gibi bir gerek ve bunun sonucu olarak
i idi.
i O gn devam eden A hyuk yzeyinden 1.1O
m. bu alandaki yzey kodu 876.30 m.dir). B
ise, hyk yzeyinin 7.25 m. 2.75 m. (H-
yk bu kesiminde yzey kodu 877.50 m. ve sonunda inilen en derin
nokta 867.50 m.dir).
Durumu ve Buluntular
A Tepenin en yksek dzeyinden A ama-
yzey hemen itibaren ilk mimari gelmeye
ve ok bozuk durumdaki bu temellerin 0.65 m. ile 0.80 m.
lerde iki temel Iki halindeki
durumundan, ait nitelikleri ve hak-
herhangi bir fikir edinmek mmkn
Bu iki anak mlek () yzeyden gelen ve mi-
mari ile tahmin edilen birka Roma kiremit dikkate
her iki M..I. ilk ait
gstermektedir. Ilerinde ok Frig malzemesi ile Arkaik Dnem' e
ait anak-mlek
B en ok gney kesiminde, 900'ye
diklikte ve bir kesit grnmnde olan yamata (Resim: 2), uzun s-
ren bir temizleme sonra, -7.25 m. derinlikten itibaren tabaka sap-
tama geildi. Toplam 2.75 m. bu amada drt
me
132
Bu amadaki ilk ok iri bir duvar ile tem-
sil edilmektedir. Bu temelin taban kodu -8. LO m.dir. Savunma gibi
grnen temelin, bu kesitin kesimlerinde grlen iri duvarlarla ilgili
tahmin edilmektedir.
Bu 65 cm. kadar ikinci bir temelleri gelmek-
tedir. Bu duvar temelleri 40-45 cm.
B nc -9.25 m.dedir. Bu kata ait temelin de ne
tr bir konusunda bilgi
nc bu temelleriyle bu dneminde inilen en derin
nokta 0.90 m. birikim iinde drdnc bir ait
olan temel ele
en yksek dzleminden LO m. kadar (867.50 m.)
bir Bu n-
ce de ve gney byk kesitte rahata izlenen bu tm hy-
Bylesi bir elbette byk nem
byk hykteki bir dneminin biti-
bir yenisinin B
da, bu ile yeni dnemin ilk drt olduk.
B ele geen bulgular, 2.75 m.lik birikimin tmyle ilk
Tun (lT) ait anak mlek buluntular
nc durumda gaga bir ile ok
para ok olan bir mal grubu, siyaha gri renkte ha-
murlu, zerinde soluk beyaz izgi bezerne olan anak-mlekdir. ok yksek
kalitede bu mal grubunda en biim, tabaklar-
Ele geen anak-rnlekvB saptanan tm-
nn 11'ye, byk ihtimalle IT II'nin ilk ait gstermek-
tedir. zellikle XVll-Xlfl. ile IT
ok byk
Kk buluntular iki yas mermer idol, iinde
ele IT III' e ait gereken bu eserlerin, daha ge kat-
muhtemeldir. Yuvarlak dirsek belirtil-
meyen mermer idoller, blgelerden, Semahyk'ten ve
Hyk'ten bilinmektedir.
Sonular
durumunun iin 1997
ve bir yandan -ncelikle- ileriki
yerleri te yandan da, iki yerde a-
malarla hykteki nitelikleri ve ait kltr dnemleri ko-
nusunda bilgiler Amalardaki
lan odur ki, M.O.3. M.J. ortala-
kadar
gney ve daha ge dnemlere ait herhangi bir
ait izler yoktur. Ancak boyu 300 m.ye ke-
simlerinde daha ge muhtemeldir. IT III ve onu izle-
133
yen Orta Tun, Ge Tun ve M..2. ok byk
. ve 2. amalar kalan ve bu 6 m.
daki birikim iinde
II zellikleri konusunda ok
bilgiler olmakla birlikte, anak-mlek kalitesi, bu
dnemde blgede olduka yksek dzeyde bir gstermekte-
dir. Bu durum tm IT'si iin de IT II d-
neminin Burdur blgesindeki durumu ile blgesindeki durumun kar-
yapacak olursak, dzeyinin bu dnemde
ok daha yksek kesindir. Kuruay ile hyklerinin anak-
olmakla birlikte, ok
daha ilkel ve blgesinin ile
Anadolu, Ege ve I Ege Blgesi ile birarada daha
zellikle Beycesultan ile daha
gibi grnen 14 m. ol-
makla birlikte, buna tarla dzleminin kalan muhtemel biriki-
minin de durumunda, gerek ykseklik 17-18 m.ye B
inilen en derin nokta. -10 m. gre, henz en
7-8 m.lik alt IT I ve daha erken dnemlerin, Ge
Kalkolitik, Erken Kalkolitik ve hatta Neolitik ait izlerini
vermesi akla gelebilir. Ancak kesitte ve kesit nndeki en derin
yzeyde, erken dnemlere, zellikle Ge Kalkolitik, Erken Kalkolitik ve
Neeolitik'e ait hibir anak-mlek hareketle,
ncesi dnemlerin ya hi yahut ok sylemek
mmkndr.
Gerekli izinlerin verilmesi durumunda iki
iinde bylece ok ve olduka az emekle tm
kltrel byk oranda
syleyebiliriz. Bunun tm Anadolu iin byk nem
Bir yandan Beycesultan bir kez daha ir-
delenebilecek, te yandan Anadolu'nun bu nemli yresi ile Burdur bl-
gesinde hyklerin ve yzey malzemesinin ve bl-
geler ok daha verilerle
134
YASSIHYK
1997
c-c' Kesiti
0.0' xesm


izim 1: topografik ve kesitler
135
Resim 1: gneyden
Resim 2: kesitin grnm
136
.
.
.
.
.
.
w

R
e
s
i
m
3
:
G

n
e
y
k
e
s
i
t
i
R
e
s
i
m
4
:
K
e
s
i
t
t
e
k
i

Resim 5: A
Resim 6: B son gnleri
138
HY(; 1997 YILI KAZISI
Mehmet ZDOGAN*
Hermann PARSINGER
Neemi KARUL
ZET
1997 nceki gibi, il merke-
zinin gneyindeki tarihncesi yerlerinden ve
mevkilerinde bu da
Mevkii'ne nceki birlikte ka-
alan 2 bin metrekareyi 1997 orta ke-
siminde, Kalkolitik tarihlenen 4. ve 5. ile ilgili sorunla-
zlmesine ve zellikle dzeninin daha iyi
iin 4. Kltr ile ilgili daha ok plan
tamamlama ve sistemlerinin ynelik olarak bu
arada iyi durumda bulunan bir duvar,
iin nemli 5. hemen hemen birbiri ile ay-
plan tipinde olan evlerin dzenli evlerin da k-
k 5. tabaka yer-
derin bir hendek ve bir savunma ile
bu daha ok kesiminde
bu kesimde bir alanda 2. ve 3. Her iki ka-
da, ok iyi mimari ve ilgin buluntu veren Ay-
2. ait bir evre da ortaya
Bu kesimde bir alanda 5. iki ile bunla-
geen bir yol bir nceki olan
6. tabaka tm ile Bu ve bunun hemen gelen
blgenin Ilk Neolitik ait kesinlik
Mevkii'ndeki iki amaca ynelik olarak, sur ile evrili
akropol iinde Daha ok ne tr ya-
tabakalanma sorunu zerinde de durul-
*
Prof. Dr. Mehmet ZDOGAN, niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi, Prehistorya Anabilim
34459/ ISTANBUL
Prof'.Dr.Hermann PARSINGER, Euratische Abteilung im Dol. 2-6, 14195 Berlin-ALMANYA
139
Megaron dneminde en az drt yenileme evresi daha nceden
hi son me-
garonlardan daha yeni Bu duvarda bir geitli
bunun da byk bir megarona ait duvar
Akropol evreleyen sur ile bir bulunma-
bir avlu kesinlik
Ilk Tun II kadar olan sreci 4
kltr
malzeme zerindeki
gelen ilk radyoaktif karbon lmleri de 2 ile 5 kltr
gibi, M.O. 4800 ile 5200 gir-

i 997 da hava
sergilemesinin projelendirmesi iin gerekli olan n
deneyselolarak bir kulbe de
VE N
1993 Trakya-Marmara Blgesi Projesi
tarihncesi yerlerinde
1997 26 Temmuz-24 Eyll. tarihleri devam Onceki
da gibi Istanbul Universitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi, Prehis-
torya Kltr ve Mzeler Genel Mdr-
Istanbul Universitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi, Istanbul Universitesi
Fonu ile Alman Arkeoloji Enstits'nn ile
ekibi Prof. Dr. Mehmet ile ikinci Prof. Dr. Hermann
Parsinger'in (Berlin) ynetiminde, alan sorumlusu Arkeolog Necmi Karul, ak-
Dr. Ivan Gatsov (Sofya), Arkeozoolog Dr. Norbert Benecke
(Berlin) ile Andreas Northe (Berlin), Arkeobotanist Dr.Reinder Neef (Berlin),
Mimar Zeynep Eres Ahmet Boratav, izimciler z-
kan (Kltr ile Rust Waltraud, Restoratr Ahmet (Istan-
bul), alan yneticisi ve Restoratr Arkeolog Gltrk. alan yneticisi
Arkeolog Ahmet Ayhan, atlye Parlak, Ozlem De-
met ile onlara olan Betl ama yneticileri Arkeolog
Burin (Edirne), Mine Kiraz, Eylem Bekir Senem
Oztrk, Aysun Zafer Orenlili, Yasemin Alamaz, Monika Ambron (Ber-
lin), Agathe Reingrober (Heidelberg), Lucia Benedikova (Bratislava), Heiner
Schartzenberg (Halle) ve Reiko Krauss'dan Kltr
bu Cengiz Topal dosta ile bize destek
nceki gibi ekibimiz, Ahmete
Ky'nde ve ve ilgi ve
her zaman iin zellikle Kltr ele-
ve Kltr Mdr Blent
her konuda bize Valisi Kemal Onal da ya-
ilgisini Mze Mdr Zlkf a ve Ah-
mete Ky da gerek gerek kamp
iin ok borluyuz.
140
1997 YILI PROGRAMI VE
Mevkii
Mevkii'nde 4 sren daha ok Kalkolitik
kesimde bu kesimde 5 kltr
bunlardan stten 4. tabakaya kadar bir alanda 5.
tabaka ise bir alanda Bu esas olarak gerek mimarisi ve ge-
rekse buluntu daha olan 5. olarak
bu alandaki bitirilmesine, 1996 iin-
de bir kalan 4. tabaka evinin blmnn de
iin bir alanda da olsa, ka-
rar eklenecek olan bu 3. tabaka d-
zeni ile ilgili bilgilerimizi de verecek da n-

nceki ve kuzey kesiminde
sondaj ile Neolitik Dnem yeri hemen hemen belir-
Neolitik - Kalkolitik dnemine ait bir da
1997 iinde, bir alvyon dolgu olan Neolitik D-
nem ileriki daha olarak izlenmesi iin, ke-
simde gibi bir belirli bir kesimde de ta-
bakaya kadar inilmesi

. nin ilk Tun olan sur ile evrili
ve I Kale bir alanda, bir birine byk megaron tr
ortaya gerek tr, gerek mimari zellik-
leri ve gerekse buluntu olarak tm ile Anadolu zellikleri gster-
mektedir. Trakya-Balkan arkeolojisine tm ile olan bir
Anadolu koloni
ile birlikte ok bir ge-
ve gerekli olan da gz nne
uzun sreli bir 1997 iin
ne tr ve tabakalan-
ma sorunu zerinde karar
Bu esaslardan hareket ederek 1996 d-

1 - kesiminde olan alanda ana
inilmesi, 5. ve 6. mimarisi ile ilgili olarak tam
yan zlmesi ve bylelikle bu alandaki bitirilmesi.
Bu amala zellikle 13-14,15 H ile 13 G
2 - kesiminde, 1996 13 H bir
bir sonucu greli olarak iyi 4. taba-
ka grmek iin 13 i kuzey
m. olarak bu ama ile, 2. ve 3. tabakalar iin ngrlen
dzeninin bu kesimde de srp srmedi
3 - kesiminde, gelecek olarak
bir Bu amala 8-10/R-T plankarelerinde 20x30 m. lik bir
141
alanda Bu kesimde Neolitik
inilmesi ile bu yeni alanda, bu ancak 3. ya-
kadar nmzdeki da

4 - gene kesiminde, 1996 olan
ve Neolitik Dnem'e ait byk bir klliyesinin bir ortaya
8 P evreleyen 7-9/N-P da bylelikle bu
geri kalan blmlerinin de ortaya
6 - megaronlar ile sur kalan alanda ne tr
grlmesi iin 29 R, 30 R-S plankarelerinin
7 - megaron ile ortaya ve blge iin tm ile
olan kltrn ile daha
eski Bu yaparken de, megaron ait
tehlikeye 30 P
byk megaronun antelerinin hemen alanda inilmesi
i mi
8 - byk megaronun 1996 an-
cak tabakaya inilemeden olan 21 N sr-
drlmesi ve bu kesimde drdnc bir megaronun daha olup orta-
ya
9 - 1996 ve hava mzesi olarak
dzenlenmesi ynnde bir karar ve bu amala da, projeyi
ynlendirecek ilkeler zerinde 1997 iinde ilke ka-
projelendirme geilmesi ve deneyselolarak
da bir uygulama karar
Bu amala ve evresinde, ileride gezi g-
belirlemek iin daha bir belgelerne ve,
lacak prehistorik ky modeli iin de, deneyselolarak bir uygulama

10 - olarak malzeme zerindeki
srdrlmesi, daha nce ele malzeme zerindeki a-
da
11 - Ahmete Ky'ndeki evi ve deposunun ona-

1- 1997 YILI
da gibi,I 997 ve
kuzeyi olmak zere tarihncesi iki
kesiminde alanlar ile elde edilen
zetleyebiliriz:
A -
1 - Hoyiik kesim
Bu kesimdeki 14-15 H ve 13 G 1996 5. tabaka iine
kadar ve bir dizi ortaya 13 H ve 14 i a-
ise 4. 13 H iin iyi ko-
142
bir da da gibi,
gerek bu geri kalan ve gerekse dzeni ile il-
gili nceki bilgilerimizin iin 13 i kuzey
iine alacak 1997 ilk olarak bu m. lik
alanda 4. tabakaya kadar daha sonra 5. tabaka iinde srdrl-

13 i gibi ilk olarak ok
Demir ukuruna bunun 3. tabakaya ait, olduka bozuk
durumdaki bir Mimari byk bir
zellik bu 3. tipik
13 3. ile 4. tabaka olduka bir
dolgu ve daha sonra 4. tabaka
ortaya olarak 50 cm. olduka iyi
durumdaki bu dnemin ile ilgili bir ok
yeni bilgi yer yer 20 cm.yi bulan byk direkler kul-
daha kk direkler ve it rg duva-
yzne de bir i bakan
yznde, drtgen kesitli bir ile evrili bir itin iyi
izi de 13 H gney geri ka-
lan da ortaya iki byk ancak oda taban-
belirgin bir kot Ikinci odada kil levhalar-
dan byk bir ambar ile bir
5. tabaka iinde geen bulunan ilerinde
olan, arka da Birbirinin hemen hemen
olan dzgn bir dizi olarak
Evlerin kk yollar Btn
plan ve gibi, teknikleri de birbirinin
direk ya da 4. tabaka gre daha ince ve seyrek olarak
Duvarlar ince bazen direkler yz bo-
yunca Bu da sistemin bir
gsterir. Duvar yzleri ise ok beyaz kil ile
5. tabakaya ait evlerin gneyinde kl ile ok bir alan bulun-
Kll ise, 2 m. kadar olan bir hendek
Bu olarak 12 m. kadar mesafe boyunca izlenen bu
bir savunma sisteminin olup gelecek ka-
mevsiminde kesinlik
2 - Kesim
Neolitik Dnem bu kesimde nce-
ki mevsimlerinde 1996 da 8 P ge-
Neolitik tabakaya Bu bir yandan 8 P evresinde
Neolitik Dnem'e inilmesi, 8-10/R-T plankarelerinde de gelecek
olmak zere yeni bir alana
a) 8-1O/R-T yzey sonra,
yerlerinde gibi, derine inen, ok Demir uku-
ru ile sonra tabaka
143
Bu alanda kltr ait hi bir iz bu da Erken Meri kl-
trne tarihlenen tabaka kesimi ile oldu-
nceki destekler niteliktedir.
2. kltr ait 8- l O'R ile 9 S kesiminde
Daha nceki olan alanlarda gibi, bu alan-
da da 2. bir ile tahrip Ortaya
kan 9 R iki byke bir merkezi
bunun evresinde de, bu eklentileri daha kk
Ana mekan olarak 8x6 m. bo-
2. tabaka gibi duvar ya da taban
Evin ancak kerpi alan
ile belirlenmekte, bu nedenle de gibi gelerin yeri kesin olarak bilinme-
mektedir. Kerpi zerlerindeki dal izleri ile birlikte kadar
gl bir ne duvar boyunca, ne de
yerlerinde byk direk izlerinin bu tabakadaki ta-
sistemlerinin tabakalardakilerden ok ve sepet tr bir
rg destekler niteliktedir. daha byk olan
boyunca kerpi bir dizi yuvar-
lak ambar boyunca da, dzenli bir
drtgen biimli ambar ve oldukca dz-
gn olarak gney bir yerin ge-
ne drtgen biimli, iki platformlu byk bir ocak var-
Bu daha kk ikinci bir ocak ya da daha
tur. yerlerinde, bir raf ya da daha yksek-
e bir yerden ok kap ortaya Ancak
yzeye ve Demir nedeni ile an-
cak bir Platform zerinde byk he-
men bir iskemle zerinde durumda bir
betimleyen buyke bir kap Biraz ykseke bir yerden devrilerek
kerpi ile birlikte kab
eksiktir. Uzun bir etek ile olan, elleri du-
rumdaki figr, bir betimlemektedir. Iskemlesinin arka
dahilolmak zere giysinin izi olarak Bu tr insan
biimli figrler Orta Tuna Blgesi'nin Erken Tisza kltrlerinden bi-
linmektedir.
daha bozuk durumda ele ancak bu kesim-
de de ok ambar ile kk bir
hemen da biimli, ift byke bir kap Ka-
gen biimli yz ile ve kabartma ola-
rak gene kabartma olarak zerine insan figrleri
Bunlardan st gvdede tek, altta ise biri erkek olmak zere el ele
iki figr Bu tr ift gvdeli kaplar i tabaka-
bilinmekte, buna insan kabartma bezek ise Romanya' dan
Anadolu'ya kadar bir gstermektedir.
Ana evreleyen ek tam olarak
ancak 9 S kk bir ek hemen avlu an-
144
bir alanda yeri Avlu bu
alan 9 kadar devam etmekte, burada bir duvar ile ke-
silmektedir. ynnde ama boyunca on
metre uzanan bu LOS bu durumda 1995
II R dizisinin de bu duvara ait olma-
gerekir. gibi da hi bir Du-
varda payanda gibi bunun bir avlu ok savunma
izlenimi vermektedir. Ancak tam olarak 1998

2. tabaka sonra bir ara dolgu geilerek 3. ta-
bakaya 3. tabakaya ait 8 S ile7-8 P
Bunlardan zellikle 8 S iine
olan ve ile olduka iyi durumda
4. bu kesime kadar

b) 7-8/N-P nceki 8 P 6. kltr ka-
kadar ve bir ile tahrip byk bir rast-
evresindeki 7-8/N ve 7 P ise 3. tabakada Bu
ilk olarak 8 P ile 7 P'nin
olduka bozuk durumdaki 2. ve 3. iyi
durumda 5. tabakaya ait bir ortaya olarak 4x4 m. bo-
ve renkli kil bu mekan, kesi-
minden 5. tabaka ile tam olarak Da-
ha sonra kesiminde de 5. tabakaya ye 7 N da yi-
ne 5. tabakaya ait bir iki Ilgin olan,
kesiminde gibi burada da, iki kemik ve anak
ile bir yolun 7 N 5. tabaka
kuzeye olarak ki,
bu esas Neolitik daha destek-
ler niteliktedir.
5. temizlenmesinden sonra 8/N-P 6.
ok bir ile tahrip olan bu
ki mimarinin beklentilerimizden ok daha Her
nce 16 x 15 m.lik alandaki kat-
gibi tek bir dzende
oda ya da dizisine ait ve do-
da devam etmektedir. direk-
lerden duvar yzeylerinin
iinde ok drtgen ve yuvarlak ambar, ve sepet bulun-
tabanh kubbeli byk bir da
tr. ok kap, ve buluntular ile durumda ve
durumdaki kerpi molozunun bu
alan koruma gelecek iin
7 N ok bir alanda 7. kltr ve bu taba-
kada, Neolitik Dnem'in belirleyici anak olan astar zerine
beyaz boya bezemeli
145
B -
da gibi 1997 esas ola-
rak sur ile evrili iinde, megaran dizisinin ne tr bu-
ynelikti. Bu amala byk megaronun
30/R-S ile 31 P 1996 olan 29 P a-
da devam edilmesine karar byk megaranun gne-
yinde drdnc megaranun bulunup iin 31 N ve
tabakalanma iin de 30 P da devam edilmesi
a) sur ile arada kalan amalarda
ma bu tm ile olarak 20 m.
likteki bu alanda megaron avlu izlenimi veren
bir yzey ile bir it izi orta grlen en
belirgin 1 m. uzunluk ve 30 cm.
eninde, sbe biimli kil ile yerlerdir. Bu zeminin ne zerinde, ne de ev-
resinde, geyik boynuzundan byk eki-kazmalar herhangi bir
buluntuya
b) Byk megaronun gneyinde, ilk olarak kerpi ile
durumda evreleyen ve "temenos"
evre gney ortaya evrele-
yen bu 1995 ancak hi bir saptanma-
Bu ile Anadolu' daki
de gibi megaron ortaya Duvarda en az
yenileme evresi eski olan iki evresinde geitli bir
bunun daha sonra rlerek Temenos du-
hemen drdnc megarana ait, ok bir duvar bu-
ancak bu iin duvar tam olarak
Amada megaronlu iindeki evre-
lerin ok altta daha byk bulun-
ortaya
c) 30 P byk megaronun antelerinin
muz megaran en az kltr daha
nu Burada birbirinden dzlernlerde kubbeli bulun-
ile, ancak nmzdeki

d) Akropol iindeki bu 30 T plan karesinde su-
run grmek iin kk bir sondaj burada surun ok tahrip
ve bir Ben-
zer kk bir sondaj da 32 R burada surun izine
ancak 30 P kerpileri
ortaya de iki sondaj bu kesimde h-
yk dolgusunun dere dzleminden de kadar devam
LI - Evi DZENLEME
Ahmete Ky'ndeki evinde dzenleme ve bu da devam
ekibirnize tahsis olan ilkokulda gerekli olan boya ve raf d-
zenlemeleri ile evinin bahe tanzimi
146
III - MALZEME VE
nceki gibi bu da malzeme zerindeki e-
uzmanlar devam Bu kadar hayvan kemik-
leri, bitki Kalkolitik anak ile zerindeki
Kalkolitik mimarisi zerindeki ileri bir
bu kemik aletler, Ilk Tun anak , kaba-
aletler ile aletler zerinde de
ile 30 kadar rnekten 14 C yntemi ile an-
tabakalara gre
3 evre M.Q. 5080-4900 ; 4. evre M.. 525q-
5080; 5. evre M.O. 5350-5250; megaron M.O.
2200-2100.
IV - KORUMA - ve AIK HAVA
nceki ait da gibi yer-
ile ortaya ve
lanmakta olan proje hava mzesi dzenlenmesi
iin Bu amala 1996 zerin-
de 1997 da proje ile ilgili ilke
Buna gre 1997 iinde
de zetlenebilir: .
a) blgenin kltr tarihi nem
proje ve koruyucu iin uygulama kadar rtlerek
koruma 4. ve 5 tabaka top-
rak ile rtlerek koruma 8/N-P 6. tabaka
ise alak bir ile bunun zerine toprak ve koruyucu
plastik rt ise tm megaronlar ile sur ve temenos
tahta ile desteklenerek toprakla
b) Projelendirilmesine hava mzesinin bir deneme
olarak, geleneksel yntemler ile yerel bir ustaya dal-rg ile
bir kulbe ve tm
c) ileride bir gezi iin il merkezi ile
evresindeki her trl yeniden belgelenerek
d) Bu amala il merkezi ile evresini ele alan poplarize bir

e) Kk buluntular ile anak mlek kadar, ilerideki sergilerneye esas
ile, toplanan mimari da konservas-
yon ve
SONU
tarihncesi 1993 bu yana srdrmekte
ilk kez blgenin Neolitik Dnem'den Orta Tun a-
kadar olan kltr dzenini veriler ortaya Bu sre
iinde Trakya Blgesi'nin,Anadolu ve Balkan kltr blgeleri
yeri, de olsa belirlenmeye
147
Halen Neolitik Dnem'le ilgili bilgilerimiz olmakla birlikte,
lareli Blgesi'nin Bulgaristan Karanovo i kltr ile tam bir benzerlik gster-
bu durumda bu kltrn bilinen en yeri
Balkan Ilk Neolitik kltrlerinin ile
Anadolu Son Neolitik kltrleri ile olan yeniden ele gerek-
mektedir. Bulgaristan kronolojisinde Karanovo Il-V
Anadolu kronolojisine gre de Ilk ve Orta Kalkolitik Dnem' e tarihlenen kesin-
tisiz bir tabakalanma daha 5.
daha bu dnemi, tm ile Balkanlar' da en iyi
yeri da dahilolmak zere Trakya'daki
btn yerlerinin, Balkanlar' da en kltrel Son
Kalkolitik kesintiye halen nedenlerini tam olarak
ancak blgeler kltr nem bir
sonu olarak ortaya
megaronlar, temenos ve sur ile ortaya Anadolu
tr Tun III her Balkan arkeolojisi iin byk
bir nem ortaya ve Anadolu ilk kent
leri ile tam bir benzerlik gsteren bu dnemde daha bir sos-
yo-ekonomik dzende Balkanlar iin bir tr
makta ve olarak M.0.22 I
Anadolu etkisinde ya da kolonize gstermektedir.
Ilgin bir sonu da sur ile evrili akropol iindeki ne ne de
konut olarak gsteren hi bir bulun-
alt tabakalarda sondajlar ise, buradaki ilk
Ilk Tun kk ve basit bir kyolarak kurul-
Ilk Tun II ile birlikte Anadolu etkilerinin giderek

Sonu olarak kltr tarihi ile Balkan-Ege ve Anadolu kltr-
leri yerinin tam olarak belirlenmesi iin daha
bu ancak aranacak somut
olarak syleyebiliriz.
148
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Resim 2: genel grnm ve 5. tabaka
Resim 3: kesim, genel grnm
150
Resim 4: kesim, 2. tabaka genel grnm
4ta;i.O
Resim 5: kesim 2. tabaka ambarlar
151
Resim 6: kesim, 2. tabaka ambarlar
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152
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Resim 12: kesim, 4. tabaka
155
Resim 13: A a P n a r b a t kesim, Kalkolitik a depo ukuru
"'i- _.'
Resim 14: A a P n a r b a t kesim, depo uku-
runda bulunan kaplardan bir rnek
156
Resim 15: A a P n a r , 3. tabakadan "Toptepe" kltrne ait kaplardan bir rnek
157
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159
Resim 19: kesim, Neolitik zerine geici koruyucu rt

Resim 20: kesim, Neolitik zerindeki geici koruyucu rt
160
Resim 21: deneyselolarak dal-rg kulbe iskeleti
Resim 22: kulbenin durumu
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KLLOBA 1997 YILI KAZISI


Turan EFE*
A.
Arkeoloji Mzesi nn ve Edebi-
yat Fakltesi, Protohistorya ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim
srdrlmekte olan Klloba bu sene 1 Temmuz-9 Ey-
ll 1997 tarihleri iin ana finansal kaynak,
Istanbul niversitesi Fonu (Proje no:
805/J90496) , LU. Edebiyat Fakltesi ve Sigorta Genel Mdr Fa-
ruk Omruzak ile Dr. Jrgen Seeher de -geen
sene gibi- bir miktar maddi
zere, temininde zorlukla
Ancak Seyitgazi Belediyesi Arif Unal, sadece belediyenin
mevsimlik bir geen
sene gibi, bu yerine da belediye olarak stlen-
olan Yenikent Ky nu ekibine tahsis eden Seyit-
gazi Milli Mdr Kavak,
geen ve yneticilerine ve bizden ilgi
ve esirgemeyen Avukat Kurt ve Muhtar Ergin Oden
olmak zere- tm Yenikent Ky sakinlerine en iten
zevkli bir grev
Her zaman gibi, Mdr Vekili Fuat zatal olmak ze-
re, tm Arkeoloji Mzesi ynetici ve personelinin gs-
terdikleri ilgi ve destek her trl takdirin zerindedir. Son olarak, mimari izim-
Ieri mrekkebe eken Murat a ve ama ya-
birok stlenen ve makalenin anak mlek i-
zimlerini de yapan Arkeolog Deniz Ay' a sonsuz
* Do.Dr.Turan EFE, niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve nasya Arkeolojisi
Anabilim
(I) ekibi yelerden Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr V. Fuatzatal,
Do.Dr. Turan Efe, Arkeolog Deniz Meral Ay, Adnan Serkander Demir-
koI, Arkeolog Cilve ve Arkeolog Meltem Karanfil; Mesut Gk, Ozge Bekar,
Murat Mesut Tekin, Murat Nabi Durmaz, Murat Umut Ali Pala, Ozan Karabu-
lut, Aylin Ozyamak, Canan Gk, Demet Trkmen, Ahmet Mge Sav-
rum. Byk bir gayret ve zveri ile tm ekip yelerine en iten
165
B.
Bu seneki esas olarak ve konilerinde, geen se-
ne amalarda kesimde,
alan, Resim 6'da hyk ve
tarafta grlmektedir. kuzeyindeki U6 planka-
resinde ise, sezon sonuna kk apta bir (izim: 1).
1. Konisinde
U 6 Plankaresi: Sz konusu plankarenin kesiminde iki
ama Bunlardan taraftakinde, pulluk hemen
tahrip bir mezara ait olabilecek bir kp ele
ise yine yzey hemen daire
dizili grnmeye Daha sonraki devam edilmek
zere, bu kesimdeki son verildi.
U9 Bu amada nce, geen sene sonuna or-
taya olan kerpi duvarlar ve anatoprak
ham kompakt dolgunun yzeyi temizlendi. Daha sonra, k-
bir alanda ve bu
rada geen sene ortaya direk delikleri de dikeyolarak kesildi. Bu
kilde, 2 m. ye derinlikte, zerinde ok az anak mlek ele ge-
siyah renkli bir tabana Bylece, hemen kuzeyindeki
mera tamamen olan bu ham
getirilerek iine Dolgu iinde ele geiri-
len ince film siyah tabakalar ise tekabl etmelidir.
Bu durum, iine nce ham toprak ve bunun da zerine
yorumlanabilir. Burada ham toprak dolgu ile
olarak, U 10 plankaresinde de devam ve evreli bir
sz konusudur (Resim: 3). toprak dolgu se-
bebiyle ok iyi olan ve tek kerpiten bu ya-
oda paye duvar
tur. Bu odalardan iki tanesi U 9
tir ve desteklemek iin, byk bir yer al-
bir salona direk delikleri
ise byk bir erevelerine aittir. Ilerinde
ele bu deliklerin dip direkleri desteklemek ama-
Bu -iinde ele geirilen anak gre-
"Ilk Tun na Evresi" ne tarihlenmektedirs.
Daha sonra, de tamamen iine alacak
de, gney tarafta ve takriben 1.5 m. koyu gri renk-
li, kll bir dolgu geilerek 31.70 kotunda Tamamen
Ge Kalkolitik malzeme veren bu dolgu iinde, kuzey-gney ynnde iki evre-
li bir temel ele En altta, gayet sert ve renkli olan anatoprak
iine dikdrtgen silo ortaya (Resim: 2).
(2) Bu dnemle olarak Bkz.: T.Efe, Yresindeki Hyklerde olan
Tun na Evresi anak ,' Anadolu 13, 1994, s. 17-41; T. Efe, A.
Ahmet "Salvage Excavations of the Afyon Archaeological Museum, Part I:
Mevkii, Asite to the Early Bronze Age," Studia Troica 5,1995, s. 357-399.
166
U LA nce gney kesiminde geen sene ortaya
lan tamamen ortadan Bu yer yer
2 m. ye bir temel ortaya Burada daha da derin-
37.00-37.12 gelindi. Iinde
ve bol miktarda anak mlek malzemesinin ele bu
tabakadan sonra, 36.40 kotuna inilerek buradaki son verildi. Bu ke-
simdeki katlar, ele geirilen anak mlek malzemesine gre, Ge Ilk Tun a-
l' e tarihlenmektedir.
geen sene yksek da, bir
miktar Burada 2x1.5 m. dikdrtgen bir sil o ile onun
kuzeyinde yuvarlak bir silo ortaya Dikine ker-
pi olan dikdrtgen silo, temel iermektedir. Bu si-
lo ortadan sonra, altta kerpilerden bir ta-
bakaya gelindi ve buradaki son verildi.
U 10 geen sene derinlik da,
yerden devam edildi ve bu U 9 daha nce
bir ortaya evreli kerpi evin dolgusunda bir miktar
gneyde, ynnde ift kerpi duvar ve zerindeki da-
ha da belirgin hale geldi. Bu ucunda direk deli-
U 9 oranla ok daha evin ana olabilir.
kuzey profili boyunca hafif ile uzanan bir blme (?)
sz konusudur. Bu dikine duran ele geirildi. Oda
dolgusu tamamen bu kesimdeki son verildi.
2. Konisinde
Bu kesimde AC 19, AC 20, AD 20, AE 19 ve AF 18 plankarelerinde a-
alanlar, geen senekiler de dahilolmak zere i-
zim I' de
AC 19 Plankaresi: nce, geen sene bu karenin
yzeyi temizlendi. Bir mezara ait dizisi
Daha sonra, geen sene olan alttaki beyaz taban
ru takip edildi. profiline
bu byk bir ukura ait Daha sonra bu
gneyinde, yzeyden Pulluk hemen al-
ilerinde Ilk Tun 3 malzemesinin ele ok p ve
adak belirmeye (Resim: 6). tarafta, bu ukurlar
dan byk oranda tahrip olan bir ait temel ortaya
Bu temelin hemen ise, ynnde, ama-
boydan boya kateden ve birbirlerine olarak iki kerpi du-
var belirmeye Bu duvarlara dik ile iki blme sz ko-
nusudur. Duvarlar her iki yzeyde bir iermekte olup bunun: zerine
ekilen beyaz badana da yer yer kadar bozulmadan
Daha sonra, AC 20 ve AD 19 plankarelerinde sonucu, bu du-
yan yana olarak iki megaron veya megaronumsu
ait (izim: 2; Resim: 4,5, 7).
Kuzey taraftaki blme tamamen ortaya
nce stteki silo olarak yuvarlak ukurun (Resim: 10).
167
Burada temizlik sonucu, kuzey megaranuna ait yan ama
iindeki kuzey profili boyunca ortaya Her iki duvar da u-
kur tahrip Blme mekan
iinde, profiline giren bir ocak ve bunun da kuzeyinde,
zerinde ele bir ortaya do-
ocak dikmelerin yer Gney ta-
raftaki blme sonra AD 19 orta-
ya dikine duvara olarak
bir platform (?) sz konusudur (izim: 2).
Daha sonra, iki megaron takip edibilmek
AC 19 plankaresinin gneyinde ama, kk bir alanda (2.5x2 m.)
Burada da yine, kuzeyindeki gibi, kenar-
yuvarlak bir ukur Bu ukur, hemen
daha nce olan bir ukuru ift duvar burada
zemininde de kerpi duvar devam etmektedir (izim: 2; Re-
sim: 4).
AC 20 Plankaresi: Burada karenin Kuzey ta-
rafta, hemen yzeyin iki yuvarlak ukur Bunlardan
kinin kerpi olup st seviyesinde,
ile birlikte hayvan (?) iskeleti ve tm veya tme anak
mlek ve iki ele (Resim: 11). Erken 2. ait bu bulun-
taban sonra, altta koyu gri renkli bir
dolgu ile Alttaki ikinci tabana kadar inilerek tamamen
bu gri dolgu iinden gelen malzeme de yine dneme tarihlenmektedir.
AC 19 megaranun gney ku-
ynnde katetmektedir (Resim: 7). Olduka byk
dan kuvvetli bir temel ieren bu duvara, ve profilleri ze-
rinde iki blme AC 19 ortaya blme
ile hat zerinde olan blme
sz konusu edilen- p ukuru byk oranda
tahrip bundan ve de araba yolu sebe-
biyle, blme zerinde gereken ait bir ele
Gney ile blme
de in situ kap ve iki ele Bu kaplardan bir tanesi-
nin, ilmik kulplu, (S) profilli ve siyah bir kase (black top)
bu Demircihyk Ilk Tun 2 sonuna tarihlendirmektedir.
megarandan itibaren gneye olduka meyilli ola-
rak inmektedir; bu durum sz konusu iki megaron veya megara-
numsu hakim konumdaki bir alana edildikleri izlenimi-
ni vermektedir.
AD 19 Plankaresi: Bu karede kuzey ve gneyolmak zere
amada Bunlardan gneydeki bir miktar AD 20 plankaresi iine
girmektedir (izim: 1,2).
Her yzeyinde de yine p ve adak ortaya
Daha seviyede de, daha nce sz konusu edilen megaronlara
ait gn Yzey dolgusunda ve adak
168
bol miktarda depas (izim: 4, 3; Resim: 9), Troya A2
(izim: 3,3-9; Resim: 10) ele Ge Ilk Tun 2 -bir
arkta bu tr nc da szko-
nusudur (izim: 3, 1-2). profil ii-
ne giren bir adak ukurunda, yine Troya (izim: 3,4,8-9; Resim: 10,
stteki) ve depas iki Suriye bir
silindirik kapak bir ezgi ikisi mermer olmak zere idol,
anak mlek ile birlikte 4,5; Resim: 9).
Ge Troya II. veya III. ile gereken bu buluntu grubu,
Ilk Tun 3 Suriye/Kilikya ve Troya
ri byk nem Iine sz konusu edilen ukur-
alttaki megaronlar evresi zerindeki erken ilk Tun 3 dolgu-
su, bu ukurlar hemen hemen tamamen tahrip AC 19 ve AD
20 bu dneme ait yer yer duvar ortaya Do-
bu dnem henz stratigrafik olarak ele
AD 19 19 kerpi platformun or-
taya (izim: 2). AD 19 ise ortadaki megaron du-
son bu gerisinde arka dehlizler
(Opistodomos) yer alabilir.
AE 19 Plankaresi: Burada sadece geen sene amada
Gney tarafta, birbirlerine dik ve iki mekan
kerpi duvarlar ortaya (izim: 2; Resim: 8). Bu
mekanlardan ve yksek bir temel
Kuzey taraftaki duvar zerinde, dikine
bir bulunan ve tahta olan bir orta-
ya nnde daha yksek seviyede ele olan
dan bu mekana basamaklarla
profilinde ise bir Bu
kuzeyde profiline bir iermektedir. Bura-
da, ana avluyla ve megaronlarla bir sz konusu
olabilir. Bu tahmin sur zerin-
deki ana birini orta avluya uzun bir avlusu ile merke-
zi avlu yer (izim: 2). Burada avlusunun
izlenimi, AF 18 ve AG 18 sonucu
AF 18 Plankaresi: nce, bu karede geen sene ama
ve olan hemen kuzeyindeki ky mera-
Bu zemin ve temizlenerek
. Daha sonra ama Bu kesimde de, yzeyde
yine Ilk Tun 3 Dnemi'ne ait p Geen sene qo-
tarafta ortaya beyaz birinin takip Ust
ste ok olan bu sz konusu edilen av-
lusu ile
C. Sonu
zet olarak Klloba 1997 sonu-
cunda, son derece nemli olan bilimsel sonular elde Blgede
169
daha nce stratigrafik olarak saptanamayan Ge Kalkolitik' den Tun
na Dnemi, ilk defa Klloba' da bir bulunmak-
Ilk Tun 1 ele geirilen anak mlek, dneme ait
Demireihyk ve Beycesultan stratigrafilerinin byk
nem
Ge Tun 2 Dnemi 'ne ait kesimde ortaya iki
garon veya megaronumsu yer tahmin etti-
meydanda olarak sebebiyle, idari veya di-
ni amalarla olabilirler. Kamuya ait bu tr bugne kadar bi-
linen Anadolu Tun henz yeterince

Bu rnegaronlar -gerek plan ve gerekse Bey-
cesultan Ilk Tun 2 ortaya ve 'shrine' olarak
ve zamanda Ge Troya i ve Troya II. megaren-
ile
Byk oranda p ve adak gelen Tun 3 buluntu-
da, Suriye ve Kilikla blgeleri ile Troya Tun 2
dan itibaren Anadolu zerinden ve Troya II.
zellikle anak mlekte kendini hissettiren yeniliklerin, bu
kiler sonucu ortaya kesinlik Yine, yzeyden
ukurlarda ele Ge Ilk Tun .. 3 anak de
(M.o. 2000-1800), Orta Anadolu Dnemi'ninki (Ubergangsperiode) ile
byk benzerlik gstermektedir. Sonu olarak, ileride Klloba
kltrel dzeninin, Anadolu Ilk Tun kronolojisinin daha
nemli tereddtsz syleyebiliriz.
(3) Bu dnem anak , T.Efe'nin denetimi Arkeolog Deniz ay ykseklisans te-
zi olarak Deniz Ay, Kiilloba Ilk Tun f anak . LU. Sosyal
Bilimler Enstits, Protohistorya ve Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim Yksek Lisans Tezi (Istan-
bul 1988). Bu bir makaleye bir gelecekte
(4) S. Lloyd, J. Mellaart, Beycesultan f: The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Levels. London 1962,
s. 36vdd., fig. i O, 13.
(5) Troya' da son senelerde kale iinde yrtlen Megaron IlA ve IlB' nin mega-
ron veya megaronumsu ait st ste en az evreli mimari ortaya M.
Korfmann, "Troia 1995 XVJJJ. Ankara 1997, s. 213vdd., Plan:
2-3, Resim: Bu en eskileri, Klloba ile
170
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(Troya BS formu). ark Yzey ite ve gri
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2- AC-AD 19. 186.
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tir. Hamur ince ve gri renklidir. Gvdenin iki izi bezerne olarak ha
motifi
175
Resim 1: Klloba, gneyden
Resim 2: U9 a m a s , anatoprak iine a l m silolar
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Resim 3: U9 evresi
Resim 4: AC 19-20 megaronlar,
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Resim 9: AD 19 adak ukuru
Resim 10: Troya A2
180
181
1997 EXCAVATIONS AT
Gil STEIN*
Introduction
The sixth field season of the Northwestern University salvage excavations
at Tepe, Birecik district, province took from July 15-August
26, 1997, directed by Gil Stein. The project staff consisted of: Marta Ameri,
Adnan Baysal, Bnhan Bengi, Lauren Bigelow, Kenneth Boden, Dr.Christopher
Edens (Assistant Director), Julie Pearce Edens, Zafer Grr, Nicola Laneri,
Katherine May, Dr.Augusta Mc Mahon (Assistant Director), Dr.Naomi Miller,
Rana Ozbal, J.Paul Pressley, Paola Purgsley, Clemens Reichel, Mark Schwartz,
Dr.Sharon Steadman, Katherine Untch, Jason Ur, and Yeliz A team
of 43 workers from the village of assisted the project staff in the exca-
vation and artifact processing activities.
The excavations were funded with support from the National Endowment
for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, The National Geographic
Society, the Kress Foundation, the American Research Institute in Turkey
(ARIT), and the generosity of private donors. We wish to express our appreci-
ation to the Ministry of Culture's Directorate of Monuments and Museums for
permission to conduct this research, and most specifical1y, to Mr.Mehmet Onal
(Gaziantep Museum), who served as the Directorate's representative on site. We
also acknowledge Mr.Kemal the Muhtar of village, for his hospi-
tality and support. We owe a special debt to Mr.Sahir of the Birecik
Dam Construction project for his wil1ingness to provide earthmoving equip- .
ment fr the backfilling of the site at the conclusion of excavations. Final1y, we
thank Mr.Eyp Bucak, director of the Museum, without whose admin-
istrative assistance the excavations and study season would not have been pos-
sible.
Site Description, Chronology, and 1997 Research Goals
is a 3.3 ha. moundon the bluffs overlooking the east bank
of the Euphrates river, 5 km. north of the modern town of Birecik in
province (Figure: 1). The site lies on the main riverine trade route linking
Anatolia with Syria and Mesopotamia. Six seasons of exeavation (1992-1997)
*
Dr.Gil STEIN, Anthropology Department Northwestern University l810 Hinman Ave. IL
60208 USA
183
at have investigated the indigenous Late Chalcolithic societies
southeast Anatolia and the organization of their interaction with Uruk
Mesopotamia during the fourth millennium BC (Stein and 1994a, 1994b,
1995, 1996; Stein, Bembeck et aL. 1996; Stein, Edens, et aL. 1996; Stein, Boden,
et aL. 1997). The Late Chalcolithic occupation of the site dates to approximate-
ly 4100-3300 BC based on calibrated radiocarbon dates and ceramic parallels
with other sites (figures 2,3; table 1). Stratigraphy and associated ceramics
allow us to subdivide the Late Chalcolithic occupation into an earlier Phase A,
which has early forms of Local Anatolian Late Chalcolithic ceramics, and a
later phase B.Late Chalcolithic phase A marks the earliest occupation of
and directly overlies sterile gravels or bedrock. Phase B1 has Iate
forms of Local Anatolian Late Chalcolithic ceramics, while phase B2 has both
Iate Local ceramics and Mesopotamian ceramics dating to the later part of the
Middle Uruk period. Phases A and B1 at are often called respectively
the "early pre-contact" and "Iate pre-contact" phases, while B2 is termed the
"contact phase" to emphasize the appearance of evidence for interac-
tion with southem Mesopotamia.
The previous five seasons of excavations had exposed approximately
1400 m
2
of the site in 18 tranches, spread out over three main parts of the site
(Figure: 1). This work had removed the overlying Achaemenid/Hellenistic
deposits, Early Bronze i burial areas, and broad areas of the contact phase B2
settlement, thereby exposing the top of the Iate pre-contact phase Bl
occupation. The early fourth millennium pre-contact phases B1 and A-and the
indigenous culture they represent-remain poorly understood, not only at
but in southeast Anatolia and north Syria in general (Frangipane
1993). For this reason, the 1997 field season at focused on these phas-
es, with four main goals:
1) clarification of the relationship between the Iate pre-contact phase BI
and the early pre-contact phase A;
2) broad horizontal exposures of the early pre-contact phase A occupation
in three spatially distinct parts of the site in order to recover a representative
sample of economic, architectural, and ceramic data from this time period:
3) collection of radiocarbon samples from the pre-contact phases in order
to complete the absolute chronology for the Late Chalcolithic at and
4) exeavation of stratigraphic soundings down to sterile deposits at the
base of the site in order to complete the stratigraphic sequence and confirm that
phase A did in fact comprise the earliest occupational phase at the site.
The 1997 fieldwork continued in six tranches where previous excavations
had reached the top of pre-contact occupations in the north, south, and west
parts of the site: areaA (operations 4 and 14), area B (operations 11 and 12) and
area C (operations 5 and 16). Late pre-contact phase Bl deposits were removed
in all tranches, exposing approximately 500 m2 of the early pre-contact phase
A settlement. The results showed significant architectural/functional variation
among the three areas, while also documenting significant diachronic change in
these aspects of pre-contact settlement organization at
184
AreaA
Area A at the northeast corner of the site has the broadest horizontal expo-
sures, with ca. 600 m2 of Late Chalcolithic deposits exposed from 1992 to
1996. These earlier seasons of exeavation had reached Iate pre-eontact phase B1
deposits, most notably the large stone platform 137 in op. 4 and its two associ-
ated terraces (Stein, Bernbeck, et aL. 1996; Stein, Boden, et aL. 1997).
Excavations in 1997 focused on contiguous operations 4 and 14 since these
were the trenches with the earliest exposures in the northern part of the mound.
Stone platform 137 in operation 4 was left in place, due to its massiye size and
historical importance. In the large open area to the north and east of the plat-
form, a series of thick ash and trash deposits also dating to phase B1 covered
the western edges of the terraces and overlay the eompaet sloping outdoor sur-
face on which the platform was built. Excavations defined the surface and
retaining walls at the north, west, and south edges of terrace 119 in op. 14. The
terrace followed the eroded northeast slope of the mound, partially overlying
and slightly cutting into the underlying wash layers and phase A arehitecture.
Three phase A building levels were identified in operations 4/14. The
upperrnost level was a series of three edjaeent mud brick buildings aligned in a
row oriented NNW-SSE (Figure: 4). The eroded wall tops of these buildings
were sealed by wash deposits, suggesting that this particular area remained
unused for a significant period of time (possibly 50- 100 years?) between the
abondonment of the phase A struetures and the construction of the platform-and
terraee complex in the Iate pre-eontact phase B1.
The three mudbrick struetures can be securely dated by their associated
eeramics to early precontaet phase A. This row of buildings a stood at what was
apparently the eastern edge of the mound even in the early 4th millennium. To
the west they were bounded by an open area with a compact mud surface; the
presence of a hearth suggests that this might have been a large courtyard or
plaza rather than a street. Although the three structures were not built as a sin-
gle planned unit, they were all oceupied contemporaneously for an extended
period and underwent several major remodelings.
Based on the architecture and comparison with the central structure (see
below) the structure appears to have been a smaIl house. Heat red-
dened/hardened bricks and numerous collapsed burned roof beams indicate that
the north structure was destroyed by fire, in which the upper floor eollapsed
down onto the ground floor. The house yielded almost no artifacts, suggesting
that the occupants had time to collect their belongings and flee.
The ground plan of the well preserved central structure was completely
exposed, providing the best example of phase A domestic architecture at
This mudbrick structure with stone foundations remained unburned,
with some walls preserved as high as 1.71 m, despite the fire damage to. the
northern and southern structures to either side of it. The layout,
and contents suggest that this was a small house, measuring 8.6. (N.S) by 8 m.
(E-W). In its original form, the structure consisted of three parallel rooms with
interior dimensions of 2x6.5 m. The doors were placed at the west end of each
185
room, giying access to the open area or plaza to the west. The central room in
this house may have been a courtyard flanked by roofed rooms to the north and
south; ground stone artifacts and large storage jars suggest that it may have been
an open air food preparation area.
The three-roomed central structure underwent several remodelings. In the
first of these, the southemmost room was subdivided into two long, narrow
rooms by the construction of waIl 188. The structure was then finished with a
thick layer of plaster that extended across to include the adjacent southem struc-
ture as welL. The funetion of the two narrow rooms remains unclear due to the
absence of in situ deposits. However, ash deposits in the rooms yielded a ceram-
ie open faeed copper mold, a crucibli with slag, and a smaIl flat piece of cop-
per, suggesting that metal working activities took place either in or near the
house. In the final remodeling of this structure, the two doorways on the west
side were bloeked up with stones and bricks. At this point, access to the house
must have shifted to the east side, presumably through a doorway in the poorly
preserved waIl 206. After this, the house was abandoned.
Although only part of the southem strueture was exposed in op. 4. it clear-
ly differs from the northem two houses in construetion technique and room ori-
entation. The preserved portion of the strueture eontains two rooms-a square
room to the west and a reetangular room to the east-with two doorways in the
shared waIl between them. The doors frame a mud brick eolumn with a square
cross-section, The interior and exterior waIls of the strueture were plastered
white, and aniche was eonstrueted in its northem waIl 236. The floors of both
rooms were plastered. Set into the plaster floor of the westem room was a eir-
eular hearth with ash deposits. Seven spindle whorls were found in these two
smaIl rooms. The funetion of this strueture remains unclear, but the contrast
between it and the adjaeent houses suggest that the south building might have
served some non-domestie purpose. The building was destroyed by fire, and
was fiIled with large amounts of ash and bumt beams.
Beneath the south strueture in operation 4 was an earIier phase A building
level. This eonsisted of massiye unworked limestone foundation waIls 1.8 m.
wide, forming two smaIl square rooms. A trash pit (locus 276) eut into the floor
of this building yielded a rectangular carved stamp seal of reddish brown stone,
depieting a eervid, a bird, and an anthropomorphic figure holding a maee
(HNI5690; Figures: 5, lOB).
The earliest sampled oecupational levels in area A underIine this large
stone building. These deposits were sampled in a smaIl 2.7 x 1.3 m. sounding
along the west baulk of operation 14. The limited amounts of eeramics reeov-
ered from the sounding are consistend with a Late Chalcolithie phase A date for
the earliest stratigraphieaIly decomented oeeupation of the site. This earliest
building level was eonstrueted on sterile silts and gravel 6.5 m. below the
mound surface.
AreaB
Area B at the southeast eomer of the mound eomprised operations
2,7,11,12, and 13, for a total exposure of ca. 450 m . Excavations in 1994-96
186
had located a massiye niched and buttressed stone enclosure wall 3 m. thick and
preserved to a height of over 3.3 m. in operations 11,12, and 13 (see Stein
1997:100-101; Stein, Boden, et aL. 1996:89-92). This wall was initially con-
structed in phase A and continued in use throughout the Late Chalcolithic occu-
pation of the site. Excavations in 1997 focused on contiguous operations II and
12, in order to recover as large a sample as possible from pre-contact phases Bl
and A in the areas both inside and outside the enclosure wall.
The uppermost building level investigated in op. II in 1997 consisted of
the large mud brick and stone platform 121, constructed inside the stone enclo-
sure wall 68/101 at the beginning of Iate pre-contact phase BL. The platform
extended into the north and east baulks; however the exposed portions in oper-
ation II measured at least 5.6 m. (NNW-SSE) by 5 m. (ENE- WSW). The mud-
brick and stone platform was preserved to a height of three m. A large founda-
tion of unworked limestone provided a level base for the 1.5 m. tall mud brick
superstructure. This superstructure appears to have been repaired or remodeled,
as evidenced by the difference between the rectangular (60 x 32 x 10 cm) bricks
of the bottom four courses and the square (32x32xlO cm) bricks of the upper
five courses. Although the function of platform 121 remains unknown, it resem-
bles the comtemporaneous stone platform 137 at the north end of the site. In
both areas, the construction of large scale platforms and/or terraces form the
earliestphase Bl architectural levels.
The phase A enclosure wall itself was built entirely above ground, with no
evidence for a foundation trench. The line of the wall was traced for at least 20 m.,
running NNW clear across operations II and 13. The east face of the wall has
a series of niches and buttresses 2 m. wide and 1 m deep that begin 2 m. above
the base of the wall. The west or outer face of the enclosure wall (in adjacent
operation 12) lacked these features. This suggests that Local Anatolian archi-
tectural practices in the early fourth millennium differed from the southem
Mesopotamian convention in which niches and buttresses were generally
placed on the exterior face of a wall. The construction of this monumental
enclosure wall marked a significant break with the underlying, earliest phase A
building level in op.l I.
The enclosure wall overlay a series of compact wash and ash lenses that
sealed off the earliest phase A building level in operation 11-a group of 4-5
mudbrick walled rooms (Figure: 6). The rooms run beneath the enclosure wall
and as a result were only partially exposed; however their simplicity and
domestic character are clear. The rooms were irregularly shaped rather than rec-
tilinear. Trash deposits associated with this building level yielded a copper pin
(HN17153-Figure 14:E), one of the earliest metal artifacts from the site. These
apparently demostic structures were constructed sterile gravels.
The 1997 excavations in adjacent operation 12 exposed the area outside
and to the west of the enclosure wall in operation lL. Earlier work in operation
12 had recovered the remains of an area of Early Bronze Age I (EB-I; ca, 3100-
2900 BC) pits and burielas dug into the sloping erosion layer that sealed off the
Late Chalcolithic settlement (Stein 1998); Stein, Boden, et al 1997). Three addi-
tional EB-I pits were excavated in 1997. The EB-I pits cut down through the
187
erosion layer that marked the post-Chalcolithic abandonment of the site, and cut
into the underlying contact phase B2 building level. These deposits overlie what
is apparently the uppermost Iate pre-contact phase Bl building level-a series of
poorly preserved eroded mubrick walls forming a smail room in the southwest
part of the trench. The floor of this room was elean, indicating that the structure,
presumably a smail house, was peacefully abandoned.
Beneath this was evidence for four main building levels dating to the
early p r e - c o r t a c t phase A. The most significant of these was outdoor surface
260 and its associated pyrotechnic features. At this point, operation 12 seems to
have been used as an outdoor industrial area with no evidence for mud brick
buildings. Instead, eleven post holes and four larger pits (ioci 258, 259, 265,
273) were cut into surface 260. The pits were roughly 65 cm. in diameter and
35-45 cm. deep. They were filled with large amounts of ash and charcoal and
showed signs of heat reddening on their walls. Two had ash disposal areas
immediately adjacent. Pit 258 contained crucible fragments, vitrified slag, and
a smail piece of copper, suggesting that these were smail, open smelting fur-
naces. The pits and their contents provide the first in situ evidence for early pre-
contact phase A copper production at Hacmebi.
Underlying this industrial area was the first phase A building level asso-
ciated with the construction and use of the massiye stone enelosure wall 68/101.
A large pise or packed mud platform measuring at least 9 m. (E-W) by 5 m (N-
S) was bui lt against the west face of the enelosure wall. To strengthen the plat-
form, flat-Iying logs were set between layers of pise , while large amounts of
chaff and fine limestone chips were mixed in with the mud. The function of this
platform remains unelear.
Beneath the platform and the stone enelosure wall was the earliest level
of phase A architecture inoperation 12. This consisted of a set of 3 simple stone
wall foundations constructed directly on top of sterile gravels. Two of the walls
(292 and 194) were aligned roughly in parallel, and may from a street that con-
tinues east into the adjacent operation 11. To the south of this street, fragmen-
tary cross-wall 290 abutted wall 292, forming a possible room to the west and
an open courtyard area to the east. In this latter area, ash deposits and abasalt
milling stone fragmentwere found. These appear to be hause remains.
Taken together, the excavations in operations 11 and 12 completed the
stratigraphic sequence for area B down to sterile gravels. The evidence for mon-
umental architecture, internal functional differantiation, and probable special-
ization in the productionofhigh value craft goodsmade ofsmelted copper in
the 'earlypre-contact phaseA areall consistent with the evidence from other
partsof the site for the loealdevelopment of social complexity at the endof the
5th millennium BC... '. .
Area C "
In area C atthe west.end of the site, the 199Texcavations continuedin
adjacent operations.Sarid.16,comprising anexposure.()f2,OOm2.f\1l deposits ...
excavated in 1997 dated to the 4th millennium Be. Thesequence shows great
continuity from the early pre-coritact phase A into the Iate pre-contact phase Bl.
The latest Chalcolithic deposits were intrusive contact phase B2 pits 165 and
188
173 at the north end of operation 16. The pits yielded a mix of both local and
Uruk pottery, and most notably,a beautifully carved bone stamp seal in the
shape of o lion with a complex geometric seaIing motif on the reverse
(HNI4420-Pigures: 7, 8, lA).
The Uruk pits cut into trash and wash deposits inside and around small-
scale stone architecture apparently dating to phase Bl. This architecture con-
sists of several superimposed building levels of narrow-walled structures that
appear to have been houses, based on their associated cooking installations and
intra-mural infant jar burials cut into the plastered floors of the rooms and coutr-
yard. The courtyard had a small raised stone platform in it, built up against the
standing walls of earIier phase A architecture. Trash deposits in the courtyard
yielded large amounts of ceramics and bone, and a two-sided sub-rectangular
fIat limestone stamp seal, with crudely carved curviIinear designs of each sur-
face, and a partial drill hole on its side (Figure: lD).
The Iate pre-contact phase Bl domestic architecture was built up against
earIier architecture dating to the early pre-contact phase A.Three distinct phase
A building levels were identifield in operations 5/16. The uppermost of these
consists of three buildings-two double roomed structures with narrow, stone
built storerooms and a third, associated mud brick house with a small courtyard
(Figure: 9). This building level underwent a series of building and remodeling
episodes, reflecting long-term use of these structures. The two stone buildings
are closely similar; each had walls ca. 8-1.1 m. thick of unworked limestone,
preserved to heights of about 1 m. with no signs of doors or windows. Normally
this would suggest that these are subterranean foundations; however, the pres-
ence of clear floor surfaces along the base of the wall exteriors confirms that the
stone waIls were, in fact, above ground. The west building (Figure 9: rooms A, B)
was built first, and the slightly smaIler east building (Figure 9: rooms C,D) was
constructed shortly afterwards. Each building comprised two adjacent long nar-
row rooms 7 m. (NNW-SSE) by 1.7 m. (WSW-ENE) with compact mud plas-
tered floors. These rooms were in most cases later divided in half by the con-
struction of mudbrick internal waIls. The function of the two stone buildings
remains unc1ear. The long narrow rooms, lack of doors, and absence of artifacts
on the floors of rooms A-D makes it difficult to determine the function of the
east and west stone buildings; however, their dimensions are consistent with
what one would expect for store rooms. A cerramic tuyere or blowpipe used in
copper smelting was found in the c1eaning of waIl 45 on the west stone struc-
ture; this suggests that metaIlurgical activities. were carried out here at some
point during this building level. The third building in this level was a smaIl
courtyard house built up against the south waIl (45) of the west stone building.
The house had at least one room opening into a narrow cobbled coutyard con-
taining a large basalt grinding stone. An open area lay to the west of the house,
and may have been used fore cooking.
The stone buildings were built over and incorporated the reddish mud
brick waIls of an earIier building level, alsa dating tophase A. The orientation
and .layout of these mudbrick rooms differ markedly from the groundplans of
the stone buildings above them. These structures, mostly preserved in the east-
ern half of operations 5 and 16, were c1early domestic; they have narrow mud
189
brick walls, and three or four rooms and a courtyard with domestic floor fea-
tures such as hearths and ash pits. Inside one of these rooms to the east of wall
48, excavations in 1994 had recovered evidence for metallurgy in the form of a
copper chisel and a ceramic open faced easting mold. In the earliest stages of
this mudbrick house, a drainage system composed of 13 fitted ceramic cylinders
was set into the gravel floor to remove water from inside the courtyard. This is
the only example of such a drainage system known from
The mudbrick houses overlie the earliest phase A building level in area C-
a series of stone lined rectangular bins, basins, and plastered ovens set into
gravel outdoor surfaces in the west half of operation 5. These appear to be small
scale storage and cooking facilities associated with (unexposed) domestic struc-
tures. One or twopoorlyunderstood stone walls also apparently date to this
building level. Thesematbe related to the earliest phase A building level in
area. C. This building level.overlies sterilegraveIs.
OveralL, the 1997 areaCrecovered a long occupational
sequence with at least three distinct building Ievels to phase A. These
show great in the reuse arid modifaciton of walls from one
building level to the next, notonly within phase A, but also between precontact
phases A and B Although domestic .structures were present throughout the
sequence, in the uppermost phase levelwe do see evidence for addi-
tional functions in this part of the site, if the interpretation of rooms A-D store-
rooms is correct.
Conservation and Laboratory Work
In addition to excavations, several projects of artifact conservation,
chipped stone analysis, ceramic analysis, and archaeobotanical sample process-
ing were also conducted in the 1997 season. Conservation and stabilization
activities at were conducted by Ms. Katharine Untch, assisted by
Ms.Katherine May. Conservation activities focused on seals and sealings, metal
artifacts, and ceramics, Dr.Augusta Mc.Mahon completed her in-field analysis
of the Achaemenid/Hellenistic pottery, recording material from all secure strati-
graphic contexts, and compiling a study collection of diagnostic types from this
period. Dr.Naomi Miller continued with her archaeobotanical analyses, pro-
cessing over 100 flotation samples to recover carbonized plant remains from
Late Chalcolithic phase A and Bl contexts.
Dr.Christopher Edens continued with his analysis of the excavated
chipped stone artifacts (C.Edens 1996,1997), with the 10.500 lithics recorded
from July through October 1997, the total analyzed sample now consists of
24.000 pieces of chipped stone, of which about 3000 are blades and retouched
tools. This forms the largest analyzed corpus to date of Late Chalcolithic
chipped stone from 4th millennium BC greater Mesopotamia. .Julie Pearce
Edens and Kenneth Boden continued their typological and technological analy-
ses ofthe Late Chalcolithic ceramics (Boden 1997, J.Edens 1996, Pearce Edens
1997), assisted by Bnhan Bengi, Necola Laneri, and Yeliz
Analyses of phase A ceramics have identified a number of forms that are diag-
nostic of the early phase (Figure: 11). The 1997 effort coded over
4.000 diagnostic sherds, approximately 1.00 of these belonging to phase A. This
190
number brings the total sample analyzed to date to ..about 27.000 diagnostic
sherds, all from excavated contexts. Finally, Dr.Hadi Ozbal continued his labo-
ratory analyses of the Late Chalcolithic copper artifacts and copper production
debris from the site (zbal 1996, 1997), in collaboration with Bryan Earl and
Meike Adriaens.
Conclusions
The 1997 season of exeavation at provedid significant informa-
tion about the chronology and economic organization of the local Anatolian cul-
tures of the Taurus piedmont zone in the early fourth millennium BC. We have
now exposed ca. 600 m2 of early pre-contact phase A deposits from three dis-
tinct areas of the site. This consitutes the largest available sample of material
from this time period and culturaltradition .in.southeastAnatolia. As such, the
phase A and Bl exposures providea valuable baseline for comparison with the
later contact period of interaction with Uruk Mesopotamia in the rnid-
Iate fourth millennium. .
Excavations reached sterile deposits in all three exeavation areas, con-
firrningthat phase A'is the earliest stratigraphically documented occupation of
the site. We have evidence for a surprisingly long phase A sequence with mul-
tiple building levels: The earliest levels-those constructed directly on sterile
gravels or bedrock-seem to be simple, smaIl scale residences. The succeeding
building levels show evidence for inercasing monumentality, changes in the
activities practiced in each area, and increasing functional differentiation with-
in the site over the course of phase A. Large scale building activities continue
and even increase in the Iate pre-contact phase BI with the constuction of ter-
races and large stone and mudbrick platforms in both the north and south parts
of the settlement.
The 1997 excavations and artifact analyses have also contributed to our
understanding of craft productionat copper metallurgy,
stone tool manufacture, and ceramic production. Most notably, the four smelt-
ing pits outside the massiye enclosure wall at the south end of the site provide
our first in situ evidence for copper production in a specialized industrial area
at the site. lt is dear that sophisticated indigenous tradition of copper metal ur-
gy flourished at in the pre-contact period, and was probably oneof the
main factors attracting Mesopotamian traders and colonists to the site in the
subsequent contact phase B2.
In addition to the evidence on craft production for metals, lithics, and
ceramics, the 1997 season recovered important data on seals and sealings from
all phases of the Late Chalcolithic sequence (for Uruk and local glyptic mater-
ial recovered in earlier seasons, see Pittman 1996a, 1996b). We now have evi-
dence for a great deal of variability in the styles of pre-contact phase A stamp
seals, ranging from extremely elaborate und finely carved examples with ani-
mal and anthropomorphic motifs on fine siltstone down to crudely carved geo-
metric designs on limestone seals. The more elaborate seals show clear stylistic
connections to the broader sealing tradition of the Local Late Chalcolithic cul-
tures of Southeast Anatolia, north Syria, and the North Mesopotamian Jazirah.
191
the local sealing technology even during the period of intensive contact with
Middle Uruk Mesopotamia in phase -B2.
With the recovery of chronological, economic, architectural and glptic
data from three broad horizontal exposures of early pre-contact deposits at
we have documented the full Late Chalcolithic stratigraphic sequence
(phases B2, B ,A) down to sterile deposits in a spatially representative sample
from 4.2 percent of the site's surface area. The 997 season marks the comple-
tion of the exeavation phase of the project. After consultation with the
General Directorate of Monuments and Museums, the three main exeavation
areas were partially backfilled, leaving only the monumental stone architecture
visible for future study. All excavated materials have been transported to
where they will be fully documented in the next 2-3 field seasons for
the preparation of a final publication on the excavations.
Acknowledgments
Small finds and ceramics were drawn by Ms.Paola Pugsley and Ms.Julie
Pearce Edens. Objects were photographed by Mr.Zafer Grr, Ms.Rana Ozbal,
and Mr.Mark Schwartz. Plans, sections, and object drawings were inked by
Ms.Paola Pugsley and Dr.Christopher Edens.
BlBLIOGRAPHY
BODEN, Kenneth, 1997 Technological Strategies in Fourth Millennium BC Ceramic Production at
In G.Stein, K.Boden, C.Edens, J.Edens, K.Keith, A.McMahon, and H.zbal,
"Excavations at Turkey-I 996:Preliminary Report. Anatolica 23: 132-136.
EDENS, Christopher, 996 Chipped 1995. In Gil J.Stein, Christopher Edens, Hadi zbal,
Julie Pearce, and HoJly Pittman, Turkey: Preliminary Report on the 1995 Excavations.
Anatolica 22: i 00-104.
1.997 Chipped Stone. In G. Stein, K. Boden, C. Edens, J.F. Edens, K. Keith, A. Mc Mahon, and H.
Ozbal, "Excavations at Turkey-1996: Preliminary Report. Anatolica 23:124-127.
FRANGIPANE, Marcella, 1993 Local Components in the Devalopment of Centralized Societies in Syro-
Anatolian Regions. In Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains. M.Frangipane, H.Hauptmann,
M.Livenari, P.Matthiae, and M.Mellink, eds.Pp. 133-161. Rome: Universita di Roma "La
Sapienza".
ZBAL Hadi, 1996 Chemical Analysis of a Copper Chisel from Tepe. Anatolica 22: 109-11O.
1997 Early metal Technology' at Tepe. In In G.Stein, K.Boden, C.Edens, J.Edens,
K.Keith, A.McMahon, and H.Ozbal, "Excavations at Turkey-1996: Preliminary Report.
Anatolica 23:139-143.
PEARCE, Julie, 1996 Phase B Ceramics in GiI lStein et al.: Turkey: Preliminary
Report on the 1995 Excavations. Anatolica 22: 104-106.
PEARCE-EDENS, Julie: 1997 Ceramic Analysis, 1996. In In G.Stein, K.Boden,
C.Edens..J.Edens, K.Keith, A.McMahon, and H.Ozbal, "Excavations at Turkey-1996:
Preliminary Report. Anatolica 23: 127-132.
PITTMAN ,HoJlY: 1996a Preliminary Report on the .Administrative Artifacts: Tepe 1995.
Season. In Gil.J.Stein, Christopher Edens, Hadi Ozbal, Julie Pearce, and Holly
Turkey: Preliminary Report on the 1995 Excavations. Anatolica 22:98- 100.
1996b Preliminary Report on the Glyptic Art: 1993. In GiI Stein et aL. Uruk Colonies
and Mesopotamian Communities: An Interim Report on the 1992-3 Excavations at
Turkey. American Journal of Arehacology 100 (2): 230-233.
STErN Gil, R.BERNBECK, C.COURSEY, A.MCMAHON, N.MILLER, A.MISIR, J.NICOLA,
H.PITTMAN, S.POLLOCK, H.WRIGHT.
1996 Uruk colonial expansion and Anatelian communities: an interim report on the 1992-3 exca-
vations at Turkey. American Journal ofArchaeology 100:205-160.
192
STEIN, G., K.BODEN, C.EDENS,J.Pearce EDENS, K.KEITH,A.MCMAHON, H.ZBAL
1997 Excavations at Turkey-I 996: preliminary report. Anatolica, 23.
STEIN, G., C.EDENS, N.MILLER, H.ZBAL, J.PEARCE, H.PITTMAN
1996 Turkey: preliminary report on the 1995 excavations. Anatolica 22:85-128.
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Toplantlsl.Pp.1 09- 128. Ankara: Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture, General Directorate of
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193
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HACINEBI TEPE
Birecik, Turkey 1
N
2 m. Contom lntervat

1997
exeavationarea
19921996
exeavationarea
Figure 1: Topographic map of Tepe, showing main exeavation areas
195
1992-1997 Calibrated C14 Dates (2 Sigma probability)
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Figure 2: calibrated radiocarbon dates (2 sigma processed samples
from 1992-1997
HACINEBI TEPE - LATE CHALCOLITHIC RELATlVE CHRONOLOGY
3000 ILC
3500 BC
14000BC
Hacincbi Kurhan Atatrk Dam Arslantepe Amuq Lcilun Tubqa Dam
Rescrvcir Rcscrvuir
EB i burials
(nbundonmcnt
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1
Uruk
Jchcl Aruda
VIA Hassck Karatut VIA G LV
Shcikh
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B2
VII F V
1
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Figure 3: 4th and 3rd millennium relative chronology
196

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Figure 4: Area A (North): Operations 4 and 14-Plan ofnorth, central, and southern
mud brick structures in uppermost early pre-contact phase A building
level
197
Figure 5: Rectangular stone stamp seal with cervid, bird, and anthropomorphic motifs.
Phase A. HN 15670: (Operation 4 locus 276: lot 522)
o

Q
Figure 6: Area B: Operation ll-earliest phase A
domestic architecture constructed on sterile
gravels
198
Figure 7:Bone stamp seal carved in the shape of a recumbant
lion-obverse, HN 14420: (op. 16locus 133 lot 193)
Figure 8: Bone stamp seal carved in the shape of a recumbant
lion-geometric sealing motif on reverse. HN 14420:
(op, 1610cus 133 lot 193)
199
1\
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Figure 9: Area c: phase A stone architecture-two stone buildings with long,
narrow rooms possibly used elir large scale storage .
200
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202
Figure o : Late Chalcolithic seals and seal impressions
A. HN 14420 p. 1610cus 133 lot 193. Carved bone stamp seal in the shape of alion, with
geometric motif on sealing surface. Drilled on side. Late Chalcolithic Phase B2.
B. HN 15690 p. 410cus 276 lot 522. Stamp seaI. Reddish-brown siltstone (?) with cervid,
avain, and anthropomorphic motifs. DriIled on side. Late Chalcolithic Phase A.
C. HN 15224 p. 16 locus 179 lot 269. Incised Iimestone stamp seal with Iinear motif.
Partially drilled on side. Late Chalcolithic Phase Bl (?).
D. HN 14431 p. 16 locus 133 lot 196. Incised Iimestone stamp seal with curvilinear
designs on obverse and reverse. Partially drilled on side, Late Chalcolithic Phase Bl (?)
E. HN 14977 p. 4 locus 248 lot 489. Unbaked cIay stamp seal impression. Late
Chalcolithic Phase A(?).
F. HN 14650 p. 5 locus 198 lot 361. Unbaked cIay stamp seal impression. Late
Chalcolithic Phase A.
G. HN 15265 p. 16 locus 178 lot 280. Unbaked cIay stamp seal impression. String
impressions on reverse. Late Chalcolithic Phase Bl (?).
H. HN 14419 p. 16 locus 135 lot 194. Unbaked cIay stamp seal impression. Late
Chalcolithic Phase BL.
Figure ll: Phase A ceramics
A. DR 97:156 Form J32; p.4 Loc.180 Lot424, HN 5986:2; Rim diam.=14 cm; sandy
with occasionallime gravel; pale yellow.
B. DR 97:557 Form J34.1; p.4 Loc.l71 Lot392, HN 5615:10; Rim diam.=14 cm; sandy
Iime present; burnished buff slip exterior.
C. DR 97:547 Form B38; Op.Il Loc.202 Lot371, HN 16763:21; Rim diam.=35 cm; vege-
tal and gravel incIusions, Iime present; burnished gray surfaces.
1). DR 97:551 Form B39; p.14 Loc.162 Lot376, HN 16308:27; Rim diam.=21 cm; vege-
tal and sand incIusions, burnished exterior surface; red brown surfaces.
E. DR 97:71 Form J50; p.14 Loc.178 Lot331, HN 14573:1; Rim diam.=15 cm; vegetal
and gravel incIusions; burnished red ware,
F. DR 97:109 Form J19; p.5 Loc.173 Lot362, HN 14861; Rim diam.=29 cm; vegetal and
gravel incIusions: orange buff surfaces.
G. DR 97:554 Form B39; Op.ll Loc.202 Lot371 , HN 16763:26; Rim diam.=24 cm; vege-
tal incIusions, gravel present; burnished gray surfaces.
H. DR 97:540 Form B93; Op.Ll Loc.202 Lot371 , HN 16766:222; Rim diam.=22 cm; veg-
etal and sand incIusions, Iime present; orange surfaces, incised potter's mark exterior.
i. DR 97:534 Form B31; Op.ll Loc.175Lot393, HN 15544:3; Rim diam.=24 cm; sand,
Iime present; gray surfaces.
J. DR 97:544 Form B38; Op.ll Loc.202 Lot371, HN 16763:25; Rim diam.=32 cm; vege-
tal and gravel inclusions, Iime present; brownish buff surfaces.
K. DR 97:553 Form B39; p.14 Loc.162 Lot323, HN 14554:11 Rim diam.=27 cm; vege-
tal and gravel inclusions, Iime present; burnished with roughly smoothed band below
rim exterior, yellow exterior, orange interior surfaces, incised potter's mark.
L. DR 97:526 Form B75; Op.Ll Loc.202 Lot371, HN 16763:19; Rim diam.=28 cm; vege-
tal incIusions, sand and gravel present; burnished exterior below carination, gray sur-
faces.
M. DR 97:555Form B65; o p . Loc.202 Lot371, HN 1463:22; Rim diam.=28 cm; vegetal
incIusions, gravel present; gray surfaces
N. Form J94; p. 14 Loc.191 Lot 362, HN 15465; Rim diam.e 14 cm; vegetal and grav-
el incIusions; buff surfaces, sooted base
. DR 97:560 Form J78.1; Op.Ll Loc.202 Lot 371, HN 16766:255; Rim diam.e 13 cm,
vegetal incIusions, gravel present; yellow surfaces.
P. DR 97:541 Form B93; p.ll Loc.202 Lot 371, HN 16763:16; Rim diam,e 16 cm, veg-
etal and sand inclusions, Iime present; orange buff surfaces.
203
EXCAVATIONS AT SOS HYK, 1997
Antonio SAGONA*
Mustafa ERKMEN
Claudia SAGONA
During the fourth season at Sos Hyk excavations continued in three
broad areas.
The Summit
Investigations into the Medieval period were restricted to a relatively
small area im M14. A hard earthen surface contained a number of in situ ves-
sels within a charcoal-rich matrix that produced a reading of 1190+/-70 BP.
Pottery spread across this surface includes typical crisp ware jars that are often
smoke blackened and decorated with an incised design of horizontals and fes-
toons. Bold furrows and impressions are also typical of this period.
The most important feature to emerge from excavations in trenches K12,
K13 and K14, located at the western edge of the summit, was another entrance
to the Post-Achaemenid structure. A stretch of paving stones defined the edge
of a wall built of neatly set mud bricks (40x40xlO cm.) preserved to a height of
three courses. A deposit consisting of a feeding bottle, egg shells, a sheep pha-
lange and a few smal1 animal bones were found in a small pit cit into the floor
of the room. For the time being, the exact significance of this escapes us.
The Northern Slope
The transition between the Iron Age and Late Bronze Age was the focus
of operations on the slope in trenches L16 c and L16 d. At the end of
the last season, a burnt Early Iron Age 'room was exposed in L16 d. The west-
em end of this room was uncovered this year in the contiguous trench, L16c.
Below the earliest plaster of this room lay a burnt, ashy and bone-rich
deposit that was deepest in the northern half of the trench. Beneath the layer of
bone material an uneven crudely plastered surface with clear reed impressions
*
Prof.Dr.Antonio SAGONA, School of FineArts, Classical Studies and Archaeology old Pathology,
Floor South The University of Melbourne, Parkuille, Victoria 3052, AVUSTRALYA
Mustafa ERKMEN, Mze Mdr, ERZURUM
205
extended across the trench. Two samples of charcoal collected above this reed-
impressed s u f a c e produced a calibrated date range of 1520-1215 BC and 1675-
1395 BC. Beneath this crude floor lay a slightly dished earth surface baked and
beaten extremely hard from use, and bearing a series of postholes. This floor
produced a date of 1975-1525 BC (Beta 107923).
The Lower Northeastern Operation
Thirteen circular, plaster-lined pits were defined in the eastem end of the
lower operations. In profile most of the pits had steeply converging sides and
fIat bases, and several had evidence of multiple replastering around the base. Pit
9 provided large fragment of a comb-stamped Trialeti vessel and also produced
two dates: a charcoal sample collected from the top (Beta 107916) yielded a cal-
ibrated date range of 1645-1380 and 1335-1330 BC, whereas the lowest
deposits were dated to 1760-1440 BC (Beta 107914).
A burial of the Trialeti tradition was uncovered in Trench M15d. Only part
of the shaft was dug and measures 2.50 x 1.45 m across the top-the rest is
embedded in the south section. Two stones 30x30 cm marked the approximate
centre of the skeleton dated to 2575-2300 BC. The lower arms were crossed and
n their correct anatomical position, and deliberately placed to the east of the
rest of the body, which are large disarticulated. A black jar with a crude incised
design of hanging triangles filled with white paste and a white shell ring were
found near the skeleton.
Below this deposit of pits was an Early Trans-Caucasian or Kura-Araxes
burial (Burial 3). A simple pit, sub-ovoid in plan, the grave measured 180x180 cm.
at its widest points. Significantly, it was positioned immediately beneath anoth-
er burial exposed a year ear1ier, which with grave goods of the Trialeti tradition.
Indeed, the Kura-Araxes burial appears to have been disturbed when Trialeti
one was dug. The skeleton of the Kura-Araxes burial was in a flexed position.
Three grave goods accompanied the deceased: a black bumished bowl placed
under the hip and two rings manufactured from shell. Analysis of the human
bone produced a calibrated date range of 2560-2525 BC and 2500-2195 BC.
Excavations continued along the northern sector of the circular structure
whose surface was uncovered last year. Our investigations showed that this see-
tor of the wall was cut in the course of building activity during the Early Bronze
Age. Three building levels with hard-packed plaster s u f a c e s were discemed,
slumping towards the east. We did not reach the floor of the circular structure,
but eight courses of the wall were exposed. At present its function is still
unclear. .
206
1997 SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS AT HYK
1997 HYK KURTARMA KAZISI
iess GILFUENSANTA*
Mitchell S. ROTHMAN
Eyp BUCAK
Trke zet
Jspanyol-ek ve Trklerden ortak bir ekip
rilen Birecik blgesindeki 1997 sezonu Hyk yerle-
odaklanan arkeolojik bir kurtarma projesidir. Tm proje Tilmusa/Apa-
akropol, Tilbr ve Tilvez
Proje, bu blgede daha nceden ok az bilinen dnemler
iin yeni bilgiler ortaya En Erken Bronz veya
"Post Uruk-Ks" veya "Kurban V Dnemi", en ilgin
kanlardan birisidir. kk bir iskan da Tilvez
Hyk'te 1997 amalar, zengin
ve bir ge nc bin/erken ikinci bin ispat Ba-
blgelerinde meydana gelen kkl iklimsel
olarak bir nfus ve byk bir politik meydana gel-
nermektedir. ve Tirmusa, blgesel Ge Demir
tabakalanma{ar da nemlidir.
introduction, Background, and Site Deseription
The salvage excavations at Hyk, Birecik district, con-
tinued for a second season August-September 1997 under the administrative
directian of Eyp Bucak, Director of the Urfa Museum, and Jesus Gil
Fuensanta, on behalf the Spanish Mission to Turkey. Dur
[998/99 field co-director, Mitchell (Widener University,
Jess GIL FUENSANTA, Misi6nArqueolgica Espafiola cn c!urra, 13,5-
Cl. E-28004 Madrid,
Mitchell S,ROTHMAN, College of Arts and Seiences. Social $cience Widener
Chesler PA 19013-5792 (USA),ABD
Eyp BUCAK, Mze
207
Pennsylvania, USA) was not present in the field during 1997, but contributed to
this report. The project staff consisted of: Romualdo Seva Roman (University
of Alicante-technical advicer), Ben Cookson (draughtsman), Petr Charvat
(Oriental Istitute, Prague-archaeologist and draughtsman), Eloy Algorri
(Spanish Archaeological Mission to Turkey-architect), Alicia Diaz (University
of Alicante) Vidal Ferrero (University of Alicante), Ted Lagro (Dutch
Historical-Archaeological Institute, Istanbul), Constanza Barbara Segovia
(restorator), Gian Luca Groccella (University of Catania), Sergio Llorens
(University of Alicante) and Mehmet Ali (Dutch Historical-
Archaeological Institute, Istanbul-restorator asistant).
The Spanish Archaeological Mission in Turkey is under the patronage of
University of Alicante, receiving sponsorship from the General Direction of
Cultural and Scientific Relations of the Spanish Foreign Ministry. Our research
received funds from financial institutions such as CAM, Caja Murcia, and a few
private donors. Our most sineere thanks to the General Department of
Antiquities and Excavations of the Turkish Republic and its director for their
help in making our work possible. Thanks also for the co-operation and invalu-
able aid given by the Spanish Embassy at Ankara and the Turkish Embassy in
Spain, and all other persons involved in our activities. We also gratefully
acknowledge Sayit Ahmet and Mustafa Akba and their family for their hospi-
tality and help in conducting excavations at Thanks for the assistance
given by Mehmet and Hsn Unalan from the Urfa Museum.
Hakan Kale took care of the Turkish translation of the summary.
on the Urfa bank of the River, is going to be flood-
ed by the waters of the Birecik Dam early in the year 2000, according to pro-
ject engineers. This site has remains that will add data for answering a number
of interesting culture-historical questions, mostly to do with the Early Bronze
Age.
Our project has as its main focus the third millenium, the period after
early states and the first true cities originated in southern Mesopotamia (Uruk
period in South, Late Chalcolithic in the northern regions). In the Iate fourth
millenium B.C.some scholars propose that these developing Southern cultures
expanded into the North seeking raw materials. This time of increasing cultur-
al contact is usually seen as a period of increasing social compexity in the
North. Some (e.g., AIgaze 1993, versus) argue that it is period of cultural dom-
ination by the South. Others (Fuenstanta 1995) point to the complexity of so-
called Pre-Contact Late Chalcolithic levels at sites like (stein et al
1996, 1998) nearby Arslantepe (Frangipane 1993) upstream, Tell Brak
(Oates and Oates 1997) across the border in Syria, and Tepe Gawra (Rothman
1994, in press) in Northern Iraq. Many of those researchers who postulate an
Uruk expansion also postulate an abandonment after a proposed collapse of the
Uruk trading/control system in the North.
Hyk is especially important, because it offers a window onto that
post-Uruk period and potentially apoint of comparison with Iate fourth mille-
nium appears to have considerable post-Uruk deposits,
especially it may be among the best samples in this area of the earliest Early
208
Bronze Age or Kurban V cultural phase, which is little known elsewhere. AIso
apparently present at Hyk are some Late Chalcolithic materials,
whether of the Contact or Pre-Contact Period should be clear in 1998 or 1999.
In addition to the Early Bronze I and Late Chalcolithic material, levels of
EBIII and IV are certainly represented at the site. These are periods of true
urban growth in Eastem Turkey. AIso, at the end of third miIlenium an appar-
ent series of destructions and "missing cultures" along the Eastern
Mediterranean and Near East has been explained by Weiss (1993) as the result
of a dramatic elimatic change. The elimatic change altered the flow rates of
major rivers and lead to drought over large areas. This, in turn, may have
changed local economic strategies and the relations between mobile herders and
settled farmers. Excavations at should shed some light on whether there
was a change in this part of the Euphrates Basin.
Later first miIlennium B.C.remains are also of cultural importance
because good in-context archaeological remains of the sequence of middle first
millennium B.C.occupations are scarce in the Birecik area. As it is historicaIly
known, the area around had a strategic importance for the HelIenistic
conquest at the end of fourth century B.C.
In short, has a rich cultural sequence and its place on the Euphrates
communication and trade route makes it a potentiaIly very important site.
Results of 1997 Excavations
The work of the season at was focused on the investigation of the
presumed pre-HeIlenistic cultures and the Early Bronze Age levels. SmaIl to
medium treches were opened in four areas of the mound: the investigation of
the area of the gradual southem slope of the mound (around the 1996 tranches
E4A and E4b), exeavation of squares along the sharp westem slope facing the
Euphrates (around 1996 area A-2abc) and several smaIl test trenches on the
northem (area B) and eastem (area D) slopes of the mound. A couple of smaIl
test squares were dug in the fIat around the main mound to see if there was a
lower town and what periods and functions remains might represent.
The following sections deseribe the cultural occupations and data recoveredin
1997.
Seleucid/Roman and Medieval Occupations
Remains of the Islamir Period were discovered in three areas of
Hyk: in the northem slope (area B)1, on the southem edge of the mound (area E)
and off the mound (area F). The 1997 exeavation an occupation during
the XIII century AD, and a possible earlier, XII century settlement. The most recent
occupation phase, Marnluk, was found in a very eroded state of preservation in
northem area without elear architecture. The contexts of Islamic material from areas
E and Fare associated with smaIl buildings of a presumably domestic character.
The architectural features belonging to the Roman and HelIenistic periods
are very badly disturbed. Areas A and E yielded several stone waIls that may be
dated to between the and 3rd centuries A.D.Several Parthian glazed ware frag-
ments appeared in the pit 632 (trench E4A/E8) in a difficult to define context.
209
Helienistic deposits were found generally in the upper part of the mound. The
remains appear to have both industrial and domestic components, but are badly dis-
turbed. Several clay paques depicting Anahita, the Persian goddess of waters and
fertility, were found in different contexts. One very large pit cuts the deposits in
squares E4A, E3, and E8, which mostly appear to be Early Bronze Age in date.
The Mid First Millennium B.C.Occupation
Remains of the middle part of the lst millennium B.C.were recovered on
the western side (area A) and the top of the slope (area E). The mate-
rial appears to be mostly of end of IVth century BC in date. Remains were
found in association with floors with fallen mudbrick fragments and ash,
and in some storage pits or silos. Whole buildings were not recovered.
Finds include a horseman figurine (cf.figure 9B), associated with
Achaemenid Period graves and a large jar in situ, locus 142A (cf.figures 8,9A)
that yielded a buried adolescent with two bronze bracelets on the ankles, ori-
ented E-NE. The buried pot can be dated to the end of Vth century BC. In the
same sector A, remains of metallurgical activity were found.
Middle Bron:e Age Material
The primary clear evidence of Middle Bronze presence on in 1997 is a
tomb cut down into square E8. The burial consisted of a big stone cist and contains
skeletons of multiple individuals. A series of adult skulls were placed on a shelf on
the southern side. The tomb was not compeletly excavated, as it was found three days
before the end of the season. This MB tomb may be related to a grave placed at the
same level half a meter to the west, recoverd in 1996.To date, there are not buildings
of clearly middle Bronze date from especial1y not of MBII, which the grave
goods appear to be. There also appeared out of primary context in the northern slope
(area B) two bird-head idols (TB977 and TB9706)1 of Middle Bronze.
The EBIV/III Occupation
The mejority of the 10 plus meters of occupation on Hyk is of
Early Bronze date. Because of the quality of preservation, it may be possible to
define subtle changes in the settlement of these periods. Clearly, a significant
EBI occupation is found at The presence of EBU awaits further exeava-
tion and analysis.During 1997 season work continued along the sharp western
slope (in the formerly explored areas A2a, A2b and A2c) The presumed "big ter-
racing wall" found during 1996 was followed to the South. The opening of
trenches in the AE sector on the western slope had as goal the exposure of this
(terracing?) wall exposed during 1996
2
The most recent occupation at AE1
Tosimilar findings at the nearby Horum cf. C.Marro, A.Tibet, R.Erge, "Horum Hyk i 996
XIX (i) (1998), pp.257, 266. Fig. 8. Arecent monographical
study on those figurines type was performed by Llvl.Gonzalez Salazar, "Dos figuril1as zoomorfas hal-
ladas en Hyk-Birecik Turgufa). Continuidad de tradiciones en el ambito del
Eufrates turco durante el il mi!enio a.C.", in Orient Express (1998/3), Paris.
(2) Cf. Gil Fuensanta, Adnan "Excavations at Hyk: The i 996 Season", XIX.!
998), figs., 7-8.
210
yielded EB IVb materials, ineluding grinding stone fragments and slag. Late
EBIV elay figurines depicting female fertility godesses appeared in this sector.
Toward the east along the southern slope, area E4A, remains of the foun-
dations of buildings of EBIV date were found. The building had a long stone
wall running in the trenches E8 and E4a and parallel to it was anather stone wall
not bonded into the first walL. Perhaps, it is anather terracing wall. Large quan-
tities of animal bones (especially caprids) and sherds were found, but none in
primary contexts associated with floors of the buildings. In this tertiary fill
layer, 3 complete pots and same painted sherds of the karababa painted wares
were recovered.
In the fill of the western part of the trench E4A appeared a fragmented
animal elay figurine, a female goddess figurine, and two tokens. In the SW por-
tion of E4A, we found a series of raund elay lined cavities, which appear to be
the bottom of pits used to place large jars.
In the small eleanings of the southernrnost part of the southern slope,
trenches E4B, EFI, E7, E2, El. the 1997 excavations eleared a series of erod-
ed floors, and mudbrick collapse.
The Early Bronze Age i Occupation
EBA I levels were reached at the bottom of southern slope of the mound,
trench E4b. There appeared several eroded mudbrick walls which seem to
sketch a room or building. We did not dig into this context, and the erosional fill
or slope wash made starting out the large numbers of sherds difficult. In that
area one of the most interesting finds was a cylinder seal impression on a EB
sherd depicting a human body surrounded by lugged pots. it was out of context,
and wash probably part of a wash layer.
Analyses and Conservation Program
During 1997 we continued our laboratory analyses centered on pottery,
lithic tools, botanial remains, metals, and conservation of artifacts. University
of Alicante is doing detailed analysis of pottery-making technology, under the
auspices of Romualdo Seva. Constanza Barbara Segovia continued the archeo-
logical conservation, asisted by Mehmet Ali Y l m a z . In the field, the conserva-
tor's program was mainly focused on the removal of the first millennium
B.C.burial, which was safely transported to the Urfa Museum to be exibited in
the future.
Conclusions
The excavations performed during 1997 confirmed the presence in the
mound of Islamic, Roman, Seleucid-Hellenistic, and Early Bronze occupations.
Based on the work in 1997, we are now able in the 1998 and 1999 sea-
sons to make detailed studies of the periods of greatest importance on the
mound.
211
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ALGAZE, Guillermo, 1993 The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of of Early Mesopotamian
Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
FRANGIPANE, M., 1993 Local Components in the Development of Centralized Societies in Syro-
Anatolian Regions. In Frangipane, M.et al, eds. Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains, pp.
133-62. Rome: Universira di Roma.
FUENSANTA, Gil. 1995 Uruk en el Norte: Una expansion cultural "colonial" del Sur de
Mesopotamia, o una cultura regional en el Oriente Proximo durante el IV milenio a.C.. in Boletin
de la Asociacion Espanola de Orientalistas ana XXXI, pp. 147-169. Madrid.
OATES, David and Joan OATES: 1997 An Open Gate: Cities of the Fourth Millennium BC (Teli Brak
1997) Cambridge Archaeological Journal 7 , pp.287-307.
ROTHMAN, Mitchell S.: in press. Fourth Millennium B.C.Tepe Gawra. University of Pennsylvania
Museum.
1993 Another Look at the "Uruk Expansion" from the Zagros Piedmont in: M.Frangipane et aL.
(eds.), Between the Rivers and Over the Mountains, Rome: Universita di Roma "La Sapienza, "
pp. 163-76.
STEIN, Gil et aL. 996 Uruk Colonies and Anatolian Communities: An Interim Report on the 1992- i 993
Excavations at Turkey. American Journal of Archaeology 100, pp. 205-60.
STEIN, G. 1998 World System Theory and Alternative Modes of Interaction in the Archaeology of Culture
Contact. in Studies in Culture Contact: lnteraction, Culture Change, and Archaeology.
ed. pp. 220-255. I1linois: Center for Archaeological Investigations.
WEISS, Harvey, MA COURTY, W.WETTERSTROM, EGUICHARD, L.SENIOR, R.MEADOW, and
A.CURNOW. 1993 The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian
Civilization. Science 26i, pp.995- i 004.
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Figure 3: Late EB Structures for storage-sized jars. Trench E4A
Figure 4: Early MB sherd with red-fingerprints Locus 630, Trench E8
215
Figure 5: Early MB bird idols from Area B
Figure 6: Seat impression from Locus 632
216
Figure 7: Early Achaemenid silo/locus 130 at
Trench A4/A2a
Figure 8: Achaemenid tomb 132 at A6 and
adjacentfeatures
217
Figure 9: Cylindrical jar (9A) associated to tomb 132 at A6
Figure 10: Horsemen-clay figurine associated to tomb 132 at A6
21S
*
HORUM HVK 1997
Aksel
Catherine MARRO
Rifat ERGE
Horum Hyk'te, Gaziantep Mzesi srdrlen
kurtarma 1997 2 Ey1I-17 Ekim tarihleri
Catherine Marro ve Aksel Tibet' in bilimsel heyet do-
..Kemal Sertok (Gaziantep Mzesi), Fsun (ar-
. keolog-izimci, Istanbul Universitesi), Sandrine Bennardin (arkeolog, Paris i
Universitesi), Jean-Franois Bernard (topograf-mimar,
Enstits), Julien Bousac Fakir Cavlun (mimar,
Istanbul Teknik Universitesi), Alain Gaulon (arkeolog, Paris i Universitesi),
Eric Jean (arkeolog, Anadolu Enstits) ve Yasemin Y
maz (arkeolog, Istanbul
Horum Hyk (Resim: 1; izim: 1) drt (1996-1999) bir
kurtarma erevesinde Ky ya-
srdrlmekte olan Birecik 1999 ikinci ya-
Vadi si 'nin Birecik'in kuzeyinde kalan kesimi-
nin byk bir blm sular Hykteki kurtarma
1996' da jlk sonucunda dneme ait
Ozellikle A iyi olan bir Orta-
B ortaya ikinci ikinci tarihlen-
dirilen (T/ST)2 bir nekropol; daha ok D izlenebilen
bin/drdnc (Erken ve Orta Kalkolitik) ait Horum
Hyk'teki Kuzey Suriye ve Anadolu'da toplumsal rgt-
Aksel Anadolu Enstits Sorumlusu, Nuru Ziya Sok. No 22,
80072, E-posta: archeo@altern.org
Dr. Catherine MARRO, Anadolu Enstits Mdr Nuru Ziya Sk.
No: 22,80072, ISTANBUL .
Dr. Rifat ERGE, Mze Mdr, GAZIANTEP
(I) ve iin R. Erge ve K. Sertok'a bir bor biliriz.
ziyaret ederek bilgilerini bizden esirgemeyen Bertille Lyonnnet (CNRS, UPR 193) ve Catherine
(CNRS, URA 141) ederiz. Seramik izimini
da sonsuzdur. ..
(2) Anadolu iin Son Tun Hitit Eski (M.O. ca. 1650) belir-
Horum Hyk Nekropol iin geici tarihlerne, onu Orta Tun sonu ile Son
Tun'un bir yere Ele geen seramik malzeme zerinde daha kap-
bir bir metreyi bir dolguya sahip olan sz konusu nekropoln sresinin
muhtemelen daha kesin bir biimde belirlenmesine olanak verecektir.
219
...
lerin ve devletin olarak,M.. birinci nceki
arkeolojik kltrlerin incelenmesi zerine odaklanan bir sorunsal erevesinde
yrtlmektedir.
J. J997
1996'daki sonulardan 1997'de belli hedef belir-
lendi: .
- Mmkn A ve B ve OT/ST
birbirleriyle belirlenmesi A
ya devam edilmesi.
.. '.' .. ' . .' .
- Hykteki tmyle saptama stratigrafik
sondajda (B devam edilmesi.
- saptanan OT/ST nekropolnn devam
edip B hemen yeni bir a-
(F '..
- Erken ve Orta Kalkolitik puku-
ruyla (D 0012) mimari . .
- 1996 saptanan rlvelerinin
2. ELDE SONULAR
1997 amada (izim: 2). Bunlardan dr-
d 1996 (A, B, D ve E), ikisi bu (F ve G). C ama-
1997' de
2.I. ve Ge Roma Dnemi
A 1997'de hykteki yer-
zerine yeni bilgiler (izim: 3). 1996'da
kuzey (A 0088), daha bir mimariye sahip ol-
1996' da iki (A 0029 ve A 0030) temizlenen bu do-
bir avlu ortaya Geen ka-
(A 0031) olarak av-
ludan A 0031 iki bir merdivenin st
Avlu da, gney bir ynnde uzanan ve
hyuk erozyon nedeniyle bugn byk lde tahrip bir so-
(A 0090) gneyinde, kuzeydeki avlunun tam
da, ona bir biimde benzer bir avlunun (A 0061)
yer dikkat ekicidir. Bu durum, kadar mimari ka-
kysel nitelikli bir aksine bi-
linli bir belli bir plana gre ve bir tr or-
taya koyan bir ait gstermektedir. A 0061 avlusu,
gneyinde yer alan bir (A 0089) ait duvar izlerinin a-
gneyinde bir grlmesine
herhalde bu kesimde yzeye ok nedeniyle, duvarlar
ierisinde
A 0088 ve A 0089 kesin henz daha bilinmemektedir.
Ancak, gney avlu zerinde, hemen
220
bir pres olarak yorumlanabilecek dikdrtgen prizma biiminde bir
blok ele geti (Resim: 2). zerine olan
arka yznde grld (izim: 4).
Bu da, in situ olarak ele akla getirmektedir. gOx30x2 cm. bo-
bu st yznn bir kabaca ember biiminde bir
oluk ve bu oluk, bir kanalla, derin bir hazneye
Bylelikle, yzeyde ezilen ya da kesilen bir
den akan haznede bu dzenek, Akdeniz'de ve
Anadolu'da (Diler, 1994, 1995) birok bilinen antik zm ya da zey-
tin preslerine ok benzemektedir. Ancak, gnmze antik pres-
lerin genelde anakayaya byk boyutlu rnekler
pres da bilinmektedir (Diler, 1994: 507; 11).
Bu nedenle, Horum Hyk'teki bu tr bir pres olarak
dirmek mmkn grnmektedir.
Horum Hyk'teki gnmze genelde kt du-
rumda olduka nemli gzlemlenmektedir.
Gerekten de 1997'de F ve G da dahilolmak zere tm ama-
larda bu dneme ait B hemen
yer alan F tarihlenebilecek belli bir plan vermeyen ok
kt durumda duvar
sinde, st ste iki siIo ortaya Erozyon nedeniyle silolar
byk lde tahrip alak bir duvarla evrili ve toprak
olan alttaki silo (F 0012/16) harap olup, ii toprakla dolduktan sonra, bu-
nun zerine yeni bir silo (F 0013) Yeni silonun ilgin bir zelli-
de, bir alta byke bir kpe
G ise, ait ynnde uzanan tek bir
duvar (G 0009) ortaya Olduka iri olan bu duvarla
olabilecek bir henz B 1997' de
yrtlen sonucunda.jki yandan duvarlarla evrili, bir
teras ortaya (Bkz.2.2). IT dolgusundan daha yer
a tarihlenen bu hyk toprak ne-
deniyle byk lde tahrip
Horum Hyk'teki amalarda.bu tabaka iin-
de bol miktarda elegeen Sgraffiato Ware olarak bilinen seramik
sayesinde 12.-13. tarihlenmektedir (izim: ll). Buseramik tr iyi
hamurludur. Beyaz astar zerine sandan kahverengi ve kadar
renklerde bir Derin tabaklar ve kaseler en rastla-
nan biimlerdir. srldkten sonra ince bir ula vurgu-
lanan motifler bitkiseldir ve genelde bir dzene gre Bu
seramik tr tm Akdeniz'de (Tmry, 1977: 30);
(Boas, 1944), Antakya'da (Pringle, 1986), Kilikya ve Kuzey Suriye'de yerel
atlyelerde Horum Hyk'teki rneklerin de yerel retim olabile-
akla getiren en nemlisi, hyk zerindeki
toprak iinde ele geen, zerine bir ayak
(izirn: 11/7). gibi bu ayaklar, birbirine
nlemek iin destek olarak ynde bir bul-
gu da, gerek hyk zerinde, gerek evresinde bu tr sgraffiato parala-
son derece bol miktarda Ancak, ya da
221
dan paralar olmadan bu konuda kesin bir sylemek mmkn

12.- 13. tarihlenen Horum Hyk'teki Birecik
blgesinin ve Urfa
bir dneme Gerekten de, Horum' da o dnemde ara-
ortaya koyan veriler ele Bun-
lar 996' da A ele geen kk bir bronz ha (Marro et alii,
1997: 7/1; 1998: izim: 7) ve 1997'de bulunan drt birer ha motifi ka-
bir mimari blok (izim: 5; Resim: 3) su-
iinde ele geen sz konusu blok, in situ Ikinci bir yontma
mi sonucu ha motiflerinin st da blokun
olarak gstermektedir. Yine de, byle bir blokun mevcu-
diyeti, Horum Hyk'te nitelikte bir dinsel mimarinin
ret etmektedir.
Horum Hyk'te bugne kadar kesin olarak
Ge Roma/Erken Bizans Dnemi 'ne tarihlenebilecek mimari tabakalara rastlan-
Bu durum sz konusu tabakalara henz daha olmayla ya
da tmyle
bilir. A birbirleriyle pek iyi anla-
son derece kt durumda ortaya A 0088'in
kuzey-gney ynnde birbirine uzanan ve
(son derece sert bir trharla birbirine moloz Ge. Roma D-
nemi'ne ait iki duvar bulunuyordu. Ote yandan,
A A 0088 ve A 0089'un kuzey-gney
rultusunda uzanan uzunca bir
Sz konusu duvarlarla ve olarak ele geen seramik (izim: 12/2,
4-6), ilk incelemelere grebutarihlerneyi destekleyecek nitelikte grnmektedir.
Ne var ki, bu daha ge bir dnemde birok ukur
dan tahrip gerektirmektedir. A0088'in or-
taya bir konut iin fazlaca ,20 m. - 1,70 m.),
savunma ait akla getirmektedir, As-
bu durum, 1996'dane tepesinde, Roma
limesi zerinde yer alan kk bir kalenin varsa-
Bu takdirde, Catherine Abadie-
Reynal 8 km. daha gneydeki Zeugma kentiy-
le olarak, yrenin Roma Dnemi'ndeki durumunun yar-
olacak ilgin veriler Ustelik Horum Hyk'teki Roma var-
bu kale ile evresinde yer alan bahelerde bu
dneme ait mimariblok yzeyde grlmekte, kyller
ri vakit sylemektedir'. Ote yandan,
1997' de
la bu dnemde kiminlemler gsterdi. Nitekim,D.
da biristinat
8).Alt. fIOl-.
sen'e(l0400/6000? B.P.Yait yaslanan buduvar,
. Erken Kalkolitik'ten zerinde alvyal
mak nlemek iin Duvarla dol-
222
guda ele geen seramik, bu dzenlemenin Ge Roma Dnemi'nde, M.S. 5.-6.
gstermektedir.
Irmakla olarak, gnlerde, hemen
de, suyun iinde grlen dizilerinden sz etmek gerekmektedir.
i 996' da bir Roma yoluna ait Ancak,
1997' de bir rlvesi daha birbirleri-
ne yer yer biimli demir kenetlerle bir tuttu-
byke kesme bloklardan bir platform grnmndeki bu
boyunca uzanan bir olarak daha
ortaya (izim: 2, 6). tarihi kesin olarak
Demir kenet bu en erken Ge Roma Dne-
mi'ne ait etmektedir. Ancak, hykteki nemli yer-
de olabilir. Bu Horum Hyk'n bir lima-
bulunan, bir merkez gstermektedir.
2.2. III.- II.
Horum Hyk'te 1997'de Klasik Dnem n-
cesi iin, Tun ve Kalkolitik zerine ilgin veriler elde edilmesine olanak
verdi.
Tun kesin olarak B saptana-
bildi. Tm stteki
nlenden daha fazla zaman F Orta/Son Tun seviyesine
- ve B 1996'da saptanan nekropoln henz daha ula-
Bununla birlikte sonuna
ikinci bin habercisi olabilecek kerpi duvar izleri ama taba-
grlmeye (izim: 7).
1996' da B son gn ortaya birka
-l iermedikleri kontrol edildikten sonra- zerleri rt-
lp ertesi Ne var ki bu geen kaak
lada tahrip grdk. Geen tespit edilen B 0039 ne ki
rlvesi hemen hemen tmyle yok oldu. Ancak bu mezar, b-
yk lde iinde yer
Ote yandan, kaak sonucu ama byk bir oyuk
gk tehlikesini bertaraf etmek iin F 2 m. kadar g-
neye zorunda B 0039 geriye kalanlar incelendi-
bunun bir mezar 1996'da inceleme
sonucu bu bir ait Bu da, geen ne sr-
mezarlara, ise bazalt bir ezgi
mleklere gmldkleri niteliktedir. B ama-
kuzey kesiminde B 0026 ve B srdrlerek me-
iinde yer mimari tespit edilebildi. Bu ka-
konutlara ait (B 0026 ve B 0029 iinde B 0038 ha-
yer B ve terk edildikten
sonranekropol olarak B0039 kesin olarak B
0043 iine zerindeki B 0033 ve B 0040
mlek (B 0040, B 0038. ise ancak
konut olarak sona erdiktensonra buraya
223
B 0043 sonra, hibir mimari bulun-
mayan, ok kt durumda bir dizi tabana gney kesiminde
de benzer bir durum sz konusuydu. Burada taban ya da yzeyleriyle
olmayan duvar ortaya B Tun
zellikle kesiminde, dzenlemeler
sonucu lde tahrip eski dolgu
bir teras (B 0063) kuzeyine (B 0051) ve
na (B 0056) birer duvar edilerek hyk alakta kalan bu ke-
sime (izim: 8). Terasa gneyden, st blm 1996'da
bir rampayla inilmekteydi. Bu duvarlar,
olan ve 1996'da B 0019 ve B 0030 yer al-
(Marro et alii, 1997: 7; 1998: izim: 4). Bylelikle, B 0019 ve
B 0030 B 0051 ve B yeni bir evresi
da a tarihlenmesi ortaya De-
mek ki, B 0019 ve B 0030 1996'da (Marro et alii,
1997: 374; 1998: 256) aksine, bu kesimin Orta/Son Tun nekropol
olarak sonra
Tun dolgusu 1,50 m.
bu dzenlemenin yol tahribata gney-
bir ait olduka iyi durumda ortaya
(izim: 9). Ele geen anak dayanarak Ilk Tun son
evresine, Suriye-Levant terminolojisinde IT LV olarak dneme
ait iinde, biiminde, son derece iyi
bir ifte ocak (B 0114) bulundu (Resim: 4,5). Biri kk, biri byk yanyana
iki sahip bu ocak topraktan ve zeri birka kez
toprak zemini zellikle evresinde,
muhtemelen etkisiyle iyi Ne var ki, gerek daha nce szn
tahribat, gerekse yznden, mutfak
duvarlar bir Bununla birlikte, hemen
yer alan B 0104 ve B 0105 mutfakla bir biimde ol-
olmaz.
Bu iki kuzeyinde B 0101 ve B 0078 du-
olup sorgulanabilir. Her ne kadar
olsalar da, bu iki duvar grubunun 1,50 m. ye varan bir seviye bu-
lunmakta.Ancak, B 0104 ve B 0105'in edilen (B 0055)
gz nnde tutulursa, st rampa
da
B 1997'de ele geen nemli bir blm, ben-
zerlerine Hammam-et-Turkman'da rastlanan (Curvers, 1988: lev. 126-127/37-51)
birka OT tarihlenmektedir. Burada sunulan se-
ramik (izim: 12, 13) paral elleri , Kuzey Suriye'de Tabqa
blgesindeki Tell Hadidi, Til Barsip, ya da blgesindeki Tell Qara
Quzaq III, Tell Banat II, Tell Siyuh Fauqani gibi yerlerde (Bar-
(3) Horum Hyk'n kltr Anadolu'dan ok Mezopotamya ile
gz nnde bulundurularak, Suriye ve Levant kronolojisinde terminolojiye yer verildi.
Mutlak kronolojide ilk Tun IV (ca. 2250-2000, bkz; Stager, 1992: 40-4I),Anadolu
Ilk Tun Ille (ca. 2200-2100) ve Orta Tun I'me (ca. 2100-?) tekabl etmektedir (Marro,
1997: 45-87; lev. 20/tab. 11; Conti ve Persiani, 993: 388/tab. 2).
224
selona ve Bertille Lyonnet, szl bilgi). Anadolu' da ise bu malzeme-
ye en rnekleri Kurban Hyk III'te gryoruz. Dnemin en belirleyici
biimleri Horum' da.iki ele geen "Hama sayabili-
riz. Bu tr benzerlerine Tell Hadidi.Tell Tawi, Til
Barsip (Dornemann, 1979: 17/8, 19, 20; Kampschulte ve Orthmann,
1984: lev. 21/88, 39d; Thureau Dangin ve Dunand, 1936: lev. XX/S, 6, 7 -
"hypogee"), Tilmen Hyk (Refik Duru, szl bilgi), Kurban Hyk III'te (Al-
gaze, 1990: lev. 97/L, Rjve Gedikli "dinsel tren 1967:
85/8,9) Ote yandan Horum'da yatay ya-
yatay izli metalik seramik (izim: 13/4) rneklerine de bol miktar-
da Bunlar Kurban III (Algaze, 1990: lev. 133/1, L) ya da Tel.l Ta-
wi'deki (Kampschulte ve Orthmann, 1984: lev. 26/209; 27/228) rneklere ya-
benzemektedir.
Horum Hyk'te lT IV 1996' da gn nekropo-
ln hemen tespit B 0043 yer alan mimari ka-
gnmze ok kt durumda nedeniyle kesin bir
sylemek olmasa da, ikinci tarihlenen bu nekro-
pol ile M.O. 2290-2000 yer al-o
en B bir kopukluk belirt-
mek pek
2.3. V-IV
D, E ve G ve drdnc tarihle-
nen bol miktarda seramik (izim: 15/2-4; 16; 17/1-9) ve (bol ve
daha az obsidiyen) malzeme ele geti. Ne var ki, D 0012 ukurundakiler
mazsa, bu malzemenin ok nemli bir blm in situ ve
alt st dolgular iinde yer 1996' da saptanan
renkli D 0004 (Marro et alii, 1997: 375; 1998: 258), ze-
rinde allvyal teras Tabakada, yzey
hibir arkeolojik buluntuya
D, E ve G sz edilen dnemlerle olarak
bugne kadar tespit edilen yegane arkeolojik 1996' da
D 0012 ukurudur (izim: 10; Resim: 6). 1997'deki hedeflerinden
biri de bu ukurun dibine Ne ki 3 m. ye bu
devasa p ukurunda 3 m. inilmesine bu hedefe
ukurun dolgusunda ele geen byk bir blmn, bitkisel
kaba, monokrom Amik D-F tipi mallar Ancak, bunlar
da, Obeid'den Uruk'a dnemine zg D-E evrelerinin bas-
(4) International Symposium on the Archaeology of the Upper Syrian Euphrates (Tishrin Dam Area):
28-30 Ocak 1998, Barselona niversitesi, Eski Enstits.
(5) Bkz. dipnot 2. Horum Hyk birok Kurban III
mmkndr. Bununla birlikte, bu III. tmn m yoksa
sylemek iin henz daha erkendir. Horum Hyk'te ele geen paralar zerine
ilk incelemeler, paralellerin, daha ok "Area A, phase 21"de rastlanan KurbanIII'n eski evresiyle
(Algaze, 1990: 118; 68) Ancak, Kurban III'n eski evresinin
nc sonuna tarihlenebilmesine yeni evresinin tarihlernesi hala daha sorun
(Algaze, 1990: 386). Ote yandan, arkeolojik belgelerin nedeniyle, gerek
Mezopotamya' da gerek Anadolu' da ikinci ilk iin genel bir kronoloji sorunu da
(Curvers, 1988: 413-415; Kepinski-Lecomte, 1995; Gasche et alii, 1998: 92).
225
Kap biimleri daha ok kpler ve kaseler Ka-
selerin bir blm, benzerlerine Kuzey Suriye'de Leilan VIb ya da Hammam-
et-Turkman VA'da (Schwartz, 1988: 55/3; Akkermans, 1988: lev. 97/7)
ve Anadolu'da XXXVI'da (Glur, 1988: lev. 1/7; Haupt-
mann, 1979: lev. 37/10) rastlanan (izim: 16/3) tiptedir. Bir bl-
mnn ise, Hammam IVc (Akkermans, 1988: lev. 86/209) rnekle-
rinde gibi, bir bulunur (izim: 16/4-5). Kpler ise iki ti-
pe Hammam IVB-D'de gibi (Ak-
kermans, 1988: lev. 79/150-151) hafif dnk ve (izim: 15/2-
4). Bu tip mlekler Amik E evresinde (Braidwood ve Braidwood,
i 960: 45/37) ve blgesinde XXXV ve
XXXVI'da (Glur, 1988: lev. 4/3; 15/1) ya da de (Esin et
alii, 1987: lev. 36/. 157) grlr. tipte ise dudak bazen dik, bazen
dnktr (izim: 17/1). da benzerlerine XXXV (Gl-
ur, 1988: lev. 21110; 15/1; Hauptmann, 1976: lev. 50/13) ya da Tepe Gawra
XVI-XV'te (Tobler, 1950: CXXVII150, 163) D 0012 ukurun-
da ele geen malzeme daha az miktarda olsa da, Halaf rast-
Bunlar (izim: 17/2-6) ya da (izim: 16/2), tek-
renkli ya da ok renkli bu seramikle Ge Halaf
Dnemi 'ne tarihlernek mmkn grnmektedir. Halaf ve Ge Obeid/Erken
Uruk bir arada grlmesi burada belki de bir iki ukur bulun-
akla getirmektedir. ki, Halaf dneminde ilk ukur dolduk-
tan sonra Obeid'lilerin yere yeni bir ukur Ama
kesitte ukurun kuzey tarafta ift bu des-
tekleyecek niteliktedir (Resim: 7). Bu devasa ukurun bir blm
ama iinde 1998 burada
bir tabaka ukurun srecinin kesinlikle tespit edilmesi ama-

D 0012 ukurunda anak bol miktarda hayvan
ele nemli bir blm evcil hayvanlara aittir. Ya-
bandomuzu ve geyik gibi hayvan kemiklerine de Ote
yandan, malzeme, zellikle de alet ve yongalar, bolluk ve
lilik ilgin sonular verebilecek bir btn ukur-
da ele geen buluntulardan dikkat ekici bir tanesi de, bir insan ya da
pabucu kk bir nesnedir (izim: 17/10).
Nesnenin st blmne bir Kuzey Suriye' de,
blgesindeki Teli Halula ve Djarf-al-Ahmar'da buna benzer nesneler ele ge-
Teli Halula' da bulunan ayak 35 cm. ve stne
tek bir izgi (Molist, 1996: lev. 2/1). Tell Halula ve Djarf-al-Ah-
mar'daki ayaklar ve biri PPNB PPNA'ya tarihlenen tabakalarda
ele (Molist ve Stordeur, szl bilgi). Bu da bir tarihlerne sorunu do-
Nitekim Horum'daki rnek, ok daha yeni bir dneme, Halaf ya
da Ge Obeid/Erken Uruk'a tarihlenen bir dolgudan gelmektedir. Bu D
0012 ukuru malzemesinin ukur arkeolojik dolgulardan ka-
yarak nk ukur, hibir malzeme iermeyen bir alv-
yal dolgu iine
D kuzey kesiminde 6 m. ve
3xlO m. sondaj, D 0012 ukurunu ieren renkte
226
killi dolgunun olduka gsterdi. Hyk, zaman iinde ya-
bu alvyal teras zerinde Sondajda elde edilen kesitlerde, Buzul
bu yana, iklim olarak izle-
mek mmkn oldu. 1998
lar yoluyla, dzey ve olarak, hykteki
-zellikle Roma Dnemi'nde ve iskan srecinin
ve tarihlenmesi kesiminde duvar
alvyon dolgusunun gimesine engelolmak iin da be-
gibi ( 2.1)- muhtemelen ge Roma Dnemi'nde bir is-
tinat moloz i dolgusuna ve aittir.
Burada byk bir
D 0012 ukuruyla Erken ve Orta Kalkolitik
tan daha uzaktaki yerlerde, yani daha iyi korunup ko-
D hemen yeni bir a-
mada (G) Burada, kt bir
Halaf'la bol miktarda Amik D-E malzemesi ele geirildi. Ancak
henz daha D 0012 ukurunun seviyesine inilmedi.
SONU
Her ne kadar gerek anlamda Erken ve Orta Kalkolitik tabaka-
henz daha da, D 0012 ukurunun devasa ve
ok bol malzeme vermesi, bu dnem belli bir neme sahip oldu-
etmektedir. Daha iyi ortaya
la 1998'de gney ve kuzey kesimlerinde yeni d-
Alvyal teras ile IT IV kalan arkeolojik dol-
gunun ok 15 m.), Kalkolitik'te ve Ilk Tun
da iskan
1998 drt ana eksen yrtlecektir: 1) Su
daki daha kesin bir tarihlenmesi; 2) B
hykteki bir an nce tmyle sap-
3) Orta/Son Tun nekropolnn F devam edip
ediyorsa 4) Erken ve Orta Kal-
kolitik mimari
KAYNAKA
AKKERMANS, P., 1988: "The period IV pottery" et "The period V pottery" in van Loon, Hammam-et-
I. Report on the University ojAmterdam 's 1981-84 Excavations in Syria I, Hollanda Tarih
ve Arkeoloji Enstits, i 81-349.
ALGAZE, G., 1990: Town and Country in Southem Anatolia, vol. I-Il, Oll? CX, The University of Chicago
Press, Chicago.
ALKIM, B., 1967: "Islahiye Blgesi ve Gedikli (Karahyk) (1965)", TAD, XIV/l-2
: 79-86.
BAS, A.J., 1994: "The Import of Western Ceramics to the Latin Kingdam of Jerusalem", Israel Exp-
loration 102-122.
BRAIDWO, R., L., 1960: Excavations in the Plain ojAntloch. I, The Earlier Assemblages, Phases A-
J. The University of Chicago Press, OIP LXI, Chicago.
227
CONTI, A.-M., PERSIANI, c., 1993: "When Worlds ColIide. Cultural Developments in Eastern AnatoIia
in the Early Bronze Age", in M. Frangipane et alii (eds.), Between the Rivers end Over the Moun-
tains. Archaeologica Anatolica et Mesopotamica Alba Palmieri Dedicata, Universira di Roma,
"La Sapienza", Roma: 361-413.
CURVERS, H.; 1988: "The period VI pottery" ve "The period VII pottery" in van Loon, Hammam-et-
Turkman I. Report on the University of Amterdam's 1981 -84 Excavations in Syria II, Hollanda
Tarih ve Arkeoloji Enstits, 351-455.
A., 1994: "Akdeniz Blgesi Antik ve Top-
XL, Ankara: 505-520.
1995: "Akdeniz Blgesi Antik Zeytin ve zm Presleri-1993" Top-
XII,Ankara: 441-457.
DORNEMANN, 1979: "TelI Hadidi: A Millennium of Bronze Age City Occupation", in Freedman (ed.) Ex-
cavations Reports from the Tabqa Dam Project - Euphrates Valley, Syria, AASOR 44: 113-151.
U., ARSEBK, G., ZDOGAN, M., 1987: Excavations, 1978", in Lower Euphrates
Project, 1978-1979 Activities, MEfU Lower Euphrates Project PubIications, series I, no 3, Ankara.
GASCHE, H., ARMSTRONG, J. A, COLE, S. W. ve GURZADYAN, V. G., 1998: Dating the Fall of
Babylon. A Reappraisal of Second-millenium Chronology, Mesopotamian Historyand Environ-
ment, series II, memoirs IV, Universities of Ghent and Chicago.
GLUR, S., 1988: Die chalkolitische Keramik von Eberhard-Karls
Tbingen: doktora tezi.
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METU Keban Project series I, no 5,Ankara: 71-90.
HAUPTMANN, H., 1979: "Die Grabungen auf dem 1973", Keban Project 1973 Activities,
METU Keban Project Publications, series I, no 6,Ankara: 61-78.
KAMPSCHULTE, 1., ORTHMANN, W., 1984: Graber des 3. Jahrtausends im Syrischen Euphrattal. I.
Ausgrabungen bei Tawi 1975 und 1978. Saarbrcker Beitrage zur Altertumskunde, Band 38. Dr.
Rudolph Habelt GMBH - Bonn.
KEPINSKI-LECOMTE, Chr., 1995: "La polarite occidentale d'Haradum, Moyen-Euphrate irakien
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Maisonneuve, Paris: 33-53.
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ceramique peinte de Keban (Turquie), Varia Anatolica VIII, IFEA,
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tep) : premier rapport preliminaire", Anatolia Antiqua V. IFEA, Librairie d'Arnerique et d'Orient,
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I, Ankara: 251-275.
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TMRY, T., 1977 : "Medieval Sgraffiato Ware From Anemurium in Cilicia", Belleten XLI : 29-40.
228
.
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240
RESEARCH AT 1997
Christine KEPINSKI LECOMTE*
Rifat ERGE
The second season of in Tilbeshar toak place in May and
June of 1997, although research had begun at this site with a fiest survey as early
as 994.
i would like to take this opportunity to thank the General of
and Museurns for having granted me the authorization to excavate.
i also like to thank Dr. Rifat Erge. director of the Gaziantep Museum,
who graciously accepted our eollaboration.
Besides myself and Dr. Rifat Erge, our team included Alhan, who
represenred the Gaziantep Museum, Serpil from Istanbul, Jean-
Franois Bernard, arehitect, Laurent Claeys, Eric Jean, Carinoe Jubeau, Alastair
Northedge and Marie-Odile Rousset, of them archaeologists.
As was the case last year, our archaeological activities in 1997 had a dou-
ble focus; one dealt with the andent periods, mostly the BronzeAges, and the
other with the Medieval ones.
The Medieval City
Within the scope of a study of medieval urbanism, a study thus-far based
on surveys and smaIl soundings, we were able this year to add several building
plans in the southem lower city and to structures to the northeast, outside
the limits of the site properIy speaking.
A brief sounding allawed us to establish that the bridge crossing the
Sajoul" c10seby possessed three arches. The ri ver now flows under a single arch,
and it is probable that it lawed much more abundantly in the past (Figure:
We also opened a new area in the southem Iower city, area H.
It's a ten meters wide square, placed partlyon the traces of a street visi-
ble at the surface. The goal was to clarify the results of the survey, to define the
different Medieval stages and to determine the depth of the Bronze levels.
Christinc KEPINSKI LECOMTE, CNRS Ginouves 21, dc 92023
Ccdc:>;, Tel; (33) i 466924 88, Fax: (33) J 46 69 24 86
ERGE, Arkt:olog, Mzc GAZiANTEP
241
Two levels of Medieval construction are found immediately undemeath
the surface. Their plans are radically different, and the street that was visible
before the excavation, does not line up with an earlier one, even though the
ceramics from the two levels are more or less contemporaneous, belonging to
the XII th-XIII th centuries. Some of the walls are in cut stone, the architecture
is completely different from that of the contemporaneous northem lower city.
In a large unconstructed space within the upper level, one can see sever-
al non-excavated tombs, of which one possessed a re-used funeral stela bearing
an inscription in Arabic.
The Bronze Age is represented here by a uniform horizontal floor cover-
ing the entire of the square at about 60 centimeters below the surface.
In summary, the upper levels of area H belong to the twelfth and thir-
teenth centuries A.D.. Theyare preserved to a depth of only about 50 centime-
ters, which is quite surprising, and the Bronze Layers appear just below.
Furthermore, the surface plan and particularly the street, does not follow the
previous alignments. The architecture is completely different from that of the
northern lower city, 1eaving us to speculate on different functions for the two
and southem lower cities, and maybe even their occupation by differ-
ent populations.
To complete the Medieval program, we rapidly uncovered the enclosure
wall at the summit of the citadel, and correlated the new elements with those of
the pre-existent stratigraphic trench.
Thus the main gate was completely uncovered this year, as well as sever-
al towers and portions of the fortification wall to the northwest and the south-
west of the citadel. Then a first map was accomplished.
In the foundations of a western tower one can see a re-used cut stone,
probably a fragment of a lintel, bearing an inscription in Syriac, dating from
after the VIII th. century.
A postern appeared in the northwestern seetion of the fortification wall.
Its vaulted summit formed by three limestone blocks sits above a basalt lintel
decorated with a bas relief of a double-edged axe. On the slope beyond, leading
to the postem, we were able to partially uncover a vaulted stairway.
These various elements were correlated with those of the stratigraphic
trench from the previous years:
it would seem that around the X th. century a first fortification wall was
constructed of mud-brick on a foundation of uncut stones linked to a thick stone
glacis. These elements are found in the trench but can't be seen on this map. Next
would have come the construction of a chateau in cut stone, built as in Harran by
a local dynasty or by Byzantines or by Seldjoukides. The later constructions, such
as the main gate could be attributed to the Crusaders, then to the Ayyoubides.
Bronte Age City
As for the ancient city now, two sites, area G and area E, were consecrat-
ed to its study.
242
Area G is a ten-meter wide square opened in the northem lower eity, to
the northeast, near trench C dug in 1995.
Sinee it is partially situated in adepressian whieh we interpreted as a
Medieval gate, we expeeted to have more direct access to the Bronze Ievels, and
that was the case.
In the southeastem part of the square we uncovered a street joined to two
very fragmentary states of construction : they belong to the MedievaJ occupa-
tion of the centuries.
Underneath, levels of domestic setdement from the Middle Bronze and
the Iate early Bronze Ages are perfeetly interwoven. To the northwest these lev-
els of the Bronze Age are not covered by any constructions from the Medieval
era. These levels furnished abundant eerarnic material and three terra-
cotta objects : the head of a smaIl and two fragrnentary female figurines
of excellent fabrication, one of which is wearing a pendant in the form of a cres-
cent
The importance of this area is first that it fumishes us with Middle
layers at about 50 eenmeters be!ow the sUlface, and imrnediately underneath,
with linked to from the end of the Early Age.
It should permit to study the transition from the Early to the Middle
Ages.
To finish our program we extended the five-meter wide stratigraphic
trench dug in 1996 on the flanks of the citadel beyand the levels of the Early
attained last year (Figure: 2).
We were able to uncover arather complex strueture (Figure: 3) which
could have been used for the fabrication or at least, the storage of gypsum. in
fact the gravel deposited at the bottom of the basin consists of ealeite and one
can see strong signs of This stmeture is linked to thick layers of
artisanal activity, and includes fragments of chareoa! that we were abI e to have
dated.
It was constructed at the same time as a massif of mud bricks on which it
rests - a massif of a surface had been diseovered at the bottom of
asounding at the end of the 1996 season. This mud briek massif, of which we
uncovered a width of over 7 meters occupies the entire surface of the trench. !ts
orientation, which is diagonal to the trench and to the medieva! walIs, corre-
sponds to that of the Early Bronze Age struetures uneovered above it in ] 996.
Aportion 6,5 meters wide and i meter high, is of bricks that were subjected to
fire, but without being reaIJy baked. It could carrespand to a refection
of this massif.It is bordered to the north by anather massif of mud brieks, which
covered the entire surface of the trench and which we can foilow for a meter
underneath, reaching its lower !imit.
Underneath these two meters of brick, we reach, below, anather mud
brick massif of which we were abI e to uncover a of 4 meters and a height
of 2,5 metel'S. It included within it a silo. It is covered by alayer of large
243
stone blocks bound by mortar that permitted rainwater to drain off, then by two
layers of mud brick. A small sounding permitted us to note that this mud brick
massif rested on a stone foundation.
Still lower, we were able to partially excavate another mud-brick massif,
containing an enormous silo carved in a bell shape 3 meters high and with a
maximum diameter of 2.8 meters.
At the base of each terrace, large rubble stones served to avoid erosion
due to rainwater. Furthermore layers of plastered matting were regularly placed
between certain layers of mud bricks. Finally, dismounting the bricks for the
purpose of the soundings provided a large number of Chalcolithi.c sherds -
mostly halafian, but neolithic, as well - mixed with the clay used for the fabri-
cation of the bricks.
it became clear that all these mud-brick massifs, of identical format (58 x
37 x 9), belonged to a single construction which covered part of the oldest site,
and which we now consider to be a high terrace or platform of which we have
uncovered three steps or degrees.
This is quite an structure. We are unsure of its size in relation
to the whole of the upper city, but many arguments lead us to speculate that this
terraced construction is limited to the western extremity of the citadel. As for its
heigh, the upper level uncovered this year was discovered about 20 meters
above the base of the citadel but we don't know yet if it was covering part of it,
or not.
Its methods of construction are related in turn either to those of the Iranian
high terraces, such as the one in Tureng tepe (in northeastern Iran), or in Suse :
to those in Central Asia, such as the one in Altyn Tepe (Turkmenistan) ; or to
those in Afghanistan, such the ones in Mundigak and Nad-i Ali, or finally to
those of the ziggurats of Lower Mesopotamia. Its discovery revives a debate
that has never been resolved, over the function of such structures and their pos-
sible connections. Inany case this is the first time, according to my knowledge,
that such a structure has been discovered in Anatolia.
The ceramic material (metallic ware, caliciform, red burnished ware and
so on) is normally dated to the Anatolian early Bronze II and IllA. The
dating of our samples, furnished by Beta Analytic, respectively 4300100 BP
and 4160170 BP gives with great probability a calibrated dating between 3300
and 2300 in one case, and between 3300 and 2600 in the other.
Each of the terraces constructed on the flanks of the ancient site is reoc-
cupied in the Medieval Era. On the second terrace we find pits and a dwelling
structure. On the next one we were able to excavate a stone wall and a very
well- preserved oven. These occupations, anterior to the construction of the
stone glacis that covers them, could well date from the 10 th. century AD.
Next we followed, as we had last year, the layer of stones that forms the
glacis against the fortification wall, dating most probably from the XI th. cen-
tury A.D.
244
Soundings
Finally, we undertook two smail soundings outside the walls at the north-
eastem eorner. The surfaee was eovered with an abundant and very homoge-
neous layer of sherds, all from the Sranze Age.
In the second sounding, two large parallel were uncovered. They
were next to alayer of sand and gravel, but no trace of occupation was braugh
to light here. Bither it was the foundation of a Ievel that has been compIetely
razed or of an exterior wall whose funetion remains to be established.
The structures could represent an Early Sronze Age extension of the site,
which would have had more or Iess a eireular form. This part of the site could
have been abandoned, after having endured the repeated f100ding of the Sajour.
This explanation is of course pure conjecture, but the hypothesis merits
study.
Synthesis
In the second quarter of the third millenium BC., Tilbeshar's citadel saw
the of a layered wall or terraee that covered over previous levels.
This was a considerable construction project.
Settlement in the northem Iower city, at least, lasts from the end of the
early Bronze to the beginning of the Middle Sronze Ages - a fact which should
allow to greatly refine our knowledge of eeramie colleetions. : in this region
it is stilI djffieult to distinguish between shapes and wares of the Middle
Bronze and those of the Iate Early Sronze Ages. If the Early Bronze settlement
seems to be that of a large city, it is too early to identify the eharacteristics
of the Middle Bronze settlement.
The Medieval ressettlement of the site is limited at first to the citadel. In
the XII th. and XIII th. centuries A.D. the eity expanded into the northem and
southem suburbs and even though the ceramic material is similar in the two
lower cilies, their acehiteeture is eompletely different.
245

.' "\

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..... ....
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Figure: 2
246
Figure: 3
247
*
SOUNDINGS AT HYK, 1997,
Michael ROSENBERG*
Necdet
INTRODUCTION
Demirky Bylik, an aceramic Neolithic site, was [irst discovered in
989, during the course of the Tigris-Euphrates Archaeological Reconnaissance
project (see Algaze et aL. 1991:181-182 Figs. 3-4)2. It is located on the west
bank of the Batman abaut 20 km upstream from its confluence with the
Tigris and ca. 40 km. downstream from Hallan emi. Demirky Hyk sits on
the edge of aten meter high terrace and a law mound that has been suhstan-
tially cut away by the Batman
Demirky's immediate setting differs appreciably from that of Hallan
emi. Whereas the latter site is situated at an elevation of ca. 640 meters, with-
in the [aothil(s of the Sason Demirky is situated at an elevation of ca.
560 meters in the mare gently rolling terrain immediately to the south of these
foothills. The unfarmed areas in the vicinity of Hallan emi are currently forest-
ed; the vicinity of Demirky is not. On the other hand, Demirky overlooks the
f100d plain of the Batman which is significantly wider than that of the
Sason Also, the Batman carrying the combined flows of the Sason,
and Ramdenka is a wider and deeper river than the Sason
THE SOUNDINGS AT
There were two primary goals to condueting these initial soundings at
Demirky. The first was to ascertain the extent of the site and, in so doing loeate
the most promising areas within the site for future exeavation. The second was
to obtain an excavated sample of artifactual, faunal, and carbonized botanical
material, which could be used to verify the impressions gJeaned from the sur-
vey coJleetions as to this placement, euJtural affinities, and
econamic basis.
A total of four all along the northeastern fJank of the monnd,
were begun during the eourse of the 997 season. Three were five meter trench-
Michael ROSENHERG, University of Delaware Paralle! 333 Shipley Street Wilmington,
DE, 19801 ,ABD
(I) Funding for the 1997 cxcavations at Demirky Hyk was provided by the National Scicncc
Foundation and the International Nut CounciL.
(2) lt is rcrerred to as Demirci Tepe in that report.
249
es running perpendicular to the eroded section. The fourth and most centrally
situated was a five by five meter square, set slightly in from the eroded section.
None got deeper than two meters during the course of the 997 season and none
encountered sterile soil.
The two trenches situated furthest from the center of the mound yielded
significant amounts of chipped stone, but little in the way of bone, carbonized
plant remains, or other artifactual materiaI. Their deposits also exhibited very
little in the way of readily discernable stratigraphic divisions produced by cul-
tural activity (e.g., floors/surfaces), though they did contain occasional puzzling
stone features at lower levels.
In contrast, the two more centrally situated soundings yielded a wider
range of archaeological remains, including substantial quantities of animal
bone. Their deposits were also clearly stratified, primarily in the form of numer-
ous plaster surfaces, separated by thin layers of extremely ashy soiI. These sur-
faces all sloped down to the northwest, suggesting that all that remains of the
original mound is aportion of its western half. Aside from some discontinuous
traces of what may ultimately prove to be the remains of a smaIl curvilinear clay
structure, no obvious architectural features were encountered in these two
soundings.
THE MATERIAL CULTURE
The artifactual materials generated by the Demirky soundings, though
largely fragmentary, strongly indicate that Demirky represents the relocation
of the Hallan emi community at the time that site was abandoned. Thus,
Demirky fills the chronological gap between Hallan emi and ayn.
In the domain of ground/polished stone artifact types, there are several
significant points of similarity between the Demirkyand Hallan emi assarn-
blages. For example, the material from Demirky includes a number of stone
bowl fragments. These are all of the same type that is commonly found at
Hallan emi, made of the same grey-black chloritic stone, and (in the case of
the sole decorated example thus far found) decorated with the same incised
motifs as the bowls from that site. However, preliminary indications are that
stone bowls are somewhat less common at Demirky than at Hallan emi and
such a trend is consistent with their still greater rarity at ayn. At Demirky,
as at Hallan emi, fragments of these stone bowls that were previously broken
were reworked into pendants and other smaIl objects.
Fancy pestles similar to those found at HaIlan emi also occur at
Demirky. At Demirky too, theyare made of the same chloritic stone as the
bowls and to the same general scale. Thus far only shaft fragments from these
pestles have been recovered at Demirky, so it is not possible to say whether
theyare of the plain handled or sculpted variety (both of which occur at Hallan
emi).
There are also points of difference in the ground stone assamblage. For
example, the stone shaft straighteners found at Demirky differ markedly from
those found at Hallan emi. Whereas those from the latter site are invariable
ovate in form, those from Demirkyare sub-rectangular. AIso, the examples
250
from Hallan emi are generally undecorated, while both the examples thus far
found at Demirkyare decorated with either deeply incised lines or chevrons
(e.g., see AIgaze et a1.1991:Pig.4). Thus, the Demirky shaft straighteners actu-
ally resemble those found at ayn much more then they do those found at
Hallan emi (see Davis 1982:Pigs. 3.12-3.13).
The Demirky assamblage also contains a ground stone type that does not
appear to occur at HaIlan emi and has thus far not been reported as occuring
at ayn. These objects are relatively smaIl flat stones of variable
tion into which a relatively narrow 'waist' has been cut by the chipping away of
laterally opposed notches. Some are symmetrical and may very well have been
purposefully shaped prior to notching. However, most are not and may simply
be water worn river pebbles selected for notching because they were the right
size, sufficient1y fIat and somewhat elongated. Similar objects occur at some
later period sites in other parts of the Near East, in archaeological context (i .e.,
shell middens) wich suggest that they were net weights. As noted above, the
Batman is substantially larger than the Sason which HaIlan emi
overlooks. it is also substantially larger than the which flows by
ayn. Thus, the presence of these type artifacts at Demirky (and their
absence at Hallan emi and ayn) may relate to a particular from of riverine
resource exploitation practiced by the inhabitants of Demirky, but not those
the latter two sites.
The chipped stone assamblage also reflects the pattern of continuity and
change apparent in the ground stone assamblage. As at Hallan emi, geomet-
rics from a significant part of the chipped stone assemblage at Demirky, with
scalenes dominating. However, lunates are more common at Demirky than
theyare at HaIlan emi. Points, including Nemrik points, are also more com-
mon at Demirky than at HaIlan emi; in fact, considerably so. The same is the
case for sickle blades.
Perhaps the most noteworthy point of distinction between the Demirky
and Hallan emi lithic assemblages is the dramatic dropoff in onsidian usage at
Demirky as compared to Hallan emi. Whereas obsidian accounts for ca. 58%
of the chipped stone at HaIlan emi (see Rosenberg 1994), it only accounts for
ca. 8% of the chipped stone at Demirky. This drop-off is interesting for two
reasons. First, Demirky is only ca. 40 km. downstream from Hallan emi and
situated within the same drainage. Thus, the drop-off cannot be explained away
on the grounds that route from Demirky to the nearest obsidian sources was
significantly more difficult than from Hallan emi to those same sources.
Second, obsidian usage at later aceramic sites in the Tigris drainage, such as
ayn, returns to the approximate levels of its usage at Hallan emi (see
Caneva et aL. 1994). Thus, the drop-off in obsidian trade within the upper Tigris
appears to be a feature of just this particilar period.
The material culture of Demirky also contains several artifact classes
that do not occur at all at Hallan emi. All represent the innovative use of plas-
tic materials to manufacture artifacts and two different substances appear to
have been used-elay and bitumen. Clay was apparent1y used to make both fig-
urines and vessels by the inhabitants of Demirky. The 1997 soundings yielded
several fragments of baked clay figurines. All appear to be limbs and for the
moment it is unclear whether they were once part of human or animal figures.
251
Also found, in what appears to have been good contexts, were three small,
extremely crude ceramic sherds. One is a small rim shard with a manufactured
hole similar to the kind commonly found in the stone bowls and apparently used
to suspend these bowls (see Rosenberg and Davis 1992:Fig.7). Since a hole
produced for similar purposes in a clay vessel would only work if the clay was
fired, the prensence of this hole in the shard would imply that it came from a
purposely fired vessel, not an accidentally fired one.
In addition to day, the inhabitants of Demirky also used bitumen to
make objectss. Thus far two types of bitumen objects have been noted. The first
type, represented by fragments from three different examples, is a small ring-
like object, with a ring diameter of a few centimeters and a band diameter of a
few milimeters. The second type, represented by just a single example, is a
cigar-shaped bead-like object a few centimeters long. Batman province (at the
boundary of which Demirky is located) is the center of oil production within
modern Turkey. Thus, it is quite possible that this bitumen was obtained locally.
Also present at Demirky is evidence for behaviors not practiced by
Hallan emi's inhabitants. Chief among these is the practice of intra-site burial.
A total of two human burials were encountered in 1997, one adult and one child.
Both were tightly flexed. The adult burial was encountered in the sounding fur-
thest from the center of the mound, very near the eroded edge of the mound. lt
was extremely fragmentary and appears to have been lying on its left side with
the head pointing approximately to the east (i.e., the edge of the mound). lt was
missing the skull, but it is impossible to say whether that was due to erosion or
purposeful action on thepart of the people who buried this individual. No arti-
facts were interred with the burial. The second human burial was of a very
young child. lt lay on its right side with its head to the northeast. The skull was
present and no grave goodswere noted. In addition to the human burials, one
canid burial was also encountered.
DJSCUSSJON
The excavated artifactual material confirms the impression generated by
the survey collections to the effect that the occupation at Demirky chronolog-
ically follows immediately after the one at Hallan emi. lt also contains clear
evidence previously lacking- of strong typological ties to that site in a number
of artifact classes. Both sites are situated only ca. 40 km apart within the same
drainage and appear to be the only two early aceramic village sites within that
drainage. This suggests that the occupation of Demirky represents the reloca-
tion of the Hallan emicommunity downstream at the. time the latter site was
. " . . .
Moreover, the presence of a sickle haft in the survey collection(see
Algaze et aL. 1991) and appreciable quantities of sickle blades in the excavated
assemblage, coupled with the (currently) less forested nature of the terrain near
Demirky, suggest that a shift to cereal exploitation may have accompanied this
(3) We are to Mark S. Schwarts (Northwestern University), who is currently analyzing smail
samples of this material , for identifying the raw material.
252
relocation as either cause or effect. This, however, remains to be confirmed by
analysis of the carbonized plant material collected from the soundings. it alsa
remains to be determined from analysis of the faunal remains whether this relo-
cation associated any significant changes animal patterns.
The soundings at Demirky also indicate a sharp drop obsidian usage
within the Batman drainage during the later part of the early aceramic Neolithic.
The is that the obsidian trade network present that existed in east-
em Anatolia during the Iate aceramic Neolithic is not sirnply a continuation of
the trade network that existed at the beginning of the aceramic Neolithic.
Instead, it appears to devalop independently of the earlier network, presumbly
in the context of socio-economic dynamics unique to the Iate aceramic
Neolithic (cf. Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen 1989).
Lastly, the soundings produced evidence of several important non-eco-
nomic innovations. These include the initiation of intrasite burial practices
(involving both humans and canids) within the Batman drainage. They also
the use of both baked clay and bitumen for the manufacture of various
classes of objects, including perhaps porposely fired ceramic vessels.
REFERENCES CITED
ALGAZE, G., R. BREUNINGER, C. LIGHTFOOT, M. ROSENBERG, 1991 The Tigris-Euphrates
Arehaeologiea! Reeonnaissanee Project: A Preliminary Report of the 1989-1990 Seasons.
Anatolica 17: 175-240.
BAR-YOSEF, O.,A. BELFER-COHEN, 1989 The Levantine "PPNB" Interaction Sphere. In People and
Culture in Change: Proeeedings of the Second Symposium on Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic and
Neolithic Populations of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, edited by i. Hershkovitz, pp. 59-
72. BAR International Series 508 (I).
CANEVA, I.,A,M, CONTl, C. LEMORINI, D. ZAMPETTI, 1994 The Lithic Produetion at ayn. A
Overview of the Aeeramie Sequenee. In Neolithic Chipped Stone Industrues of the
Fertile Crescent: Proceedings of the First Workshop on PPN Chipped Stone Industries, Berlin
1993, edited by H.G. Gebel and S.K. Kozlowski, pp. 253-266. Studies in Early Near Eastern
Produetion, Subsistenee, and Environment I. Freie Universtat Berlin, Berlin.
DAVIS, MK., 1982 The ayn Ground Stone. In Prehistoric Village Archaeology in Southeastern
Turkey, edited by L.S. Braiwood &R.J. Braidwood, pp. 73-174. BAR International Series 138.
ROSENBERG, M., 1994A Preliminary Deseription of the Lithie Industry from emi. In Neolithic
Chipped Stone lndustries of the Fertile Crescent: Proceedings of the First Workshop on PPN
Chipped Stone lndustries, Berlin 1993, Studies in Early Near Eastern Produetion, Subsistenee, and
Environment I. edited by H.G. Gebel and SK. Kozlowski, pp. 223-238 Freie Universitat Berlin,
Berlin.
ROSENBERG, M., MDAVIS, 1992 Hallan emi Tepesi, an Early Aeeramie Neolithic Site in Eastern
Anato!ia: Some Preliminary Observations Concerning Material Culture. Anatolica 18:1-18.
253
i
/
./
/ IRAQ
/
SYRIA
TURKEY
BiNGL.
km
v_
Fig. 1: Map of eastern Turkey indicating the location of Demirky Hyk and other sites mentioned
in the text .
Fig. 2: View of Demirky Hyk
254
-
-
Fig. 3: Ground stone: pendant (1); decorated stone
bowl fragment (2); possible net weight (3)
Fig. 4: Stone bowl fragment reworked Into
an object resembling a stylized mi-
niature bucranium
F g . 5: Crude ceramic shards
255
..
,
J
Fig. 6: Bitumen objects
Fig. 7: Child burial
256
257
*
1997 ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT
HVK HATAV)
Marie Henriette GATES*
The sixth season of archaeological research at the coastal site of Kinet
Hyk, in the northem Hatay, took place from 6 July to 20 August, with six full
weeks of exeavation and a total of seven weeks in the field. The 24 team mem-
bers, including undergraduate and graduate students, variously supervised and
recorded the progress in the trenches; sorted and analyzed ceramics; studied
faunal and botanical coIIections; photographed, drafted and planned; and con-
served and restored the
Geographical and Historical Setting
Kinet Hyk is eastem Cilicia's largest mound, an artificial hill of 3.3 ha
and 26 m. in height on the eastem shore of Bay. In its later phases,
the ancient settlement also extended beyond the foot of the mound over a con-
siderable area, now much altered by recent industrial developments. The site's
Do. Dr. GATES. Bilkent University, IBEF (Archaeology and History of Art).
06533 Bilkent-ANKARA
Acknowledgements: The 1997 season owed its success to an exceptionally harmo-
nious and cheerful team; to the Tarbeli Family Foundation, the Institute for Aegean Prehistory,
Georgetown and Bilkent Universities, and several private donors; to the assistance of the Hatay
Museum, Antakya, to the Turkish Ministry of Culture's General Directorate of Monuments and
Museurns , and to their official representative, Bay nlsoy. We were graciously assisted
throughout the season by provincial and local officials, and. by the site's immediate neighbor, the
Delta Petroleum Products Trading Company (Delta Petrol Urnleri Ticaret Thanks should
also be extended to the of Mustafa Kemal University (Antakya), particularly Vice-rec-
tor Prof. Dr. Miktat
(i) The 1997 Kinet staff, all affiliated with Bilkent University unless otherwise specified: M.-H. Gates,
director; Jan-Paul Crielaard (University of Amsterdam): supervisor, OP. A II, with Sevil onka;
Toni M. Cross (ARIT/Ankara): supervisor, OP. L with Elif Gl; Charles Gates: supervisor, OP.
E/H with Karabulut and Emre Scott Redford (Georgetown), project associate in
charge of the medieval period: supervisor, OP. K2 with Oya (Harvard) and Cedric Bodet:
Sinan supervisor, OP. K3 with Cennet Kse (ARIT/Ankara); Filiz Songu: supervisor, OP. A.
EB pottery analysis: Norbert Karg; HelIenistic amphora analysis: Nicholas Rauh (Purdue);
archaeobotany: Delwen Samuel (McDonald Institute/Cambridge University); archaeozoology:
Salima Ikram (American University/Cairo); conservation: Franca Cole; drafting: Fikret zbay
(Mersin), Elif Koparal, Neslihan photography: akar, M.-H. Gates; fieldIab super-
visor: Roseann Schneider. Turkish Ministry of Culture representative: nlsoy (Antalya
Museurn) .
259
relationship to the ancient coastline, which today requires artificial jetties, was
clarified by geomorphological research carried out in the Kinet project's first
seasons: the settlement originally sat on a promontory overlooking two harbors,
a smail natural inlet on the north side, and ariver estuary on the souths. This
seaside location, and the site's excavated archaeological remains, demonstrate
that connections with the Eastern Mediterranean's maritime commercial net-
works were a significant factor in Kinet's long history of occupation. Links
with inland commercial routes, rich agriculture in its immediate hinterland, and
the resources and protection of the Amanus mountains close by (less than LO km
to the east) also provided economic stability within changing cultural and polit-
ical contexts.
Kinet has long been identified by scholars with the classical port of Issos,
in the plain where Alexander the Great, in 333 B.C., began his conquest of the
Achaemenid empire (Seton-Williams 1954: 127; Hellenkemper 1984). Earlier
stages could correspond to the Phoenician harbor Sissu (lron Age) and Hittite
Zise (Late Bronze Age) (Bing 1993 [1985]; but cf. Casabonne 1996: 38-39).
The excavations carried out by this project since 1992 can now present these
parahistorical references with an archaeological context, and have to a large
extent established its chronological framework: a continuous Bronze Age - Iron
Age - Hellenistic occupational sequence (3000 B.C.-50 B.C.), and -- as a result
of the 1997 season -- increasingly strong evidence for much older, Neolithic and
early Chalcolithic phases. The mound was first abandoned ca. 50 B.C. A brief
reoccupation in the Middle Ages (9th?-13th centuries A.D.), when it may have
been called Hisn at-Tinat (Hellenkemper 1984: 46-48)3, marked the end of
Kinet's career until the establishment in the mid-1980s of Delta Petrol's oil and
natural gas storage facilities and off-shore anchorage. The site has thus revived
along much the same pattern as in antiquity.
Aims and Results o/the 1997 Exeavation season
Excavations in 1997 were directed towards uncovering larger areas of
three architectural periods encountered in previous seasons: the Neo-Assyrian
(Middle Iron Age) and Late Bronze II building levels first exposed in 1994 on
the mound's upper west slope (Ops. C II and J, respectively), and the Middle
Bronze II level discovered in 1995 on the mound's east terrace (Op. K). At the
same time, the project's first significant Early lron Age probe on the west slope,
a fuller exposure of the Iate Middle Iron-early Late Iron settlements, and a sub-
stantial medieval residential area on the east terrace would be investigated.
Finally, the Iron Age trenches on the upper east slope would continue to test
whether there were functional differences between the inland and marine sides
of the settlement. Six trenches were therefore reactivated or newly opened in
1997 -- four on the upper mound's east and west slopes, and two on the east ter-
race (Fig. 1), for a total exeavation area of 415 m
2

(2) Erosion and alluvium have now modified both, silting in the bayand shifting the river, the modern
Deli ay, 2.5 km to the south (on the geomorphology of the region, see Ozaner 1994). it seems like-
ly, based on the archaeological findings, that Kinet's harbors were no longer viable when the site was
abandoned at the end of the Helienistic period, ca. 50 B.C. Reoccupation during the Middle Ages
must have included the construction of artificial jetties,
(3) On this see below, under "Medieval and Middle Bronze Age, east terrace."
260
Chronological Phasing
The major chronological phases assigned here were defined in the west
slope stratigraphic sounding P. C, which presents the fullest continuous
sequence excavated. Its six phases have been confirmed or expanded in larger
exposures in adjacent west slope operations, elsewhere on the mound, and on
the east terrace. Periods within each phase represent separate architectural or
occupational levels, numbered sequentially according to the P. C master strati-
graphic sequence. Although the sequence of phases is secure through the Early
Bronze Age, the period sequence is certain to undergo revisions as a result of
future fieldwork. This chronology should therefore be considered provisional,
to be superseded by all reports later than this one.
Phase
i
ii
III: 1
111:2
III: 3
IV: i
V
VI
Period/s
1
4
3 A - 2
7 - 3 B
1l - 8
12
14-13
Date
Medieval (?10th-13th c. A.D.)
HelIenistic (ca. 330 - ca. 50 B.C.)
Late Iron Age (7th-4th c. B.C.)
Middle Iron Age (9th-8th c. B.C.)
Early Iron Age (?12th-lOth c. B.C.)
Late Bronze II (l3th c. B.C.)
Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 B.C.)
Early Bronze Age (third millennium B.C.)
-? [earlier occupations not assigned phases as of the close of 1997 season]
Later Iran Age Operations, West Side
C.W GATES
. KARABULUT
E. E R F O G L U
p. E/H, a 115 m
2
L-shaped trench to the east and north of the partially
exposed Neo-Assyrian building in '94 P. C II, produced the well-coordinated
architectural levels of Phase III: 1, Periods 6 and 7 in Kinet's master strati-
graphic sequence. They were dated by finds from secure contexts to the seventh
century B.C., with Period 6 extending to ca. 575 B.C. at the very latest.
Together with P. C II, these two levels have now been recovered over an area
of ISOms, The Assyrian level (Period 8) immediately below was reached by the
end of the season only in soundings, because of the complexity of its succes-
sors.
Period 6 (later seventh century-early sixth century B.C.) consisted of a
residential district with large rectangular rooms to the south, and an open area
with bins, ovens and posthole installations to the north (Figs. 2, 3). Three sub-
(4) There are at least three distinct medieval periods known from other operations on the mound ('93 P.G)
and on the east terrace, but onlyone fully represented on the west slope, the basis for this sequence.
261
phases involved in part the addition of rooms to the west, and separate struc-
tures in the trench's northeast corner and along its western edge. Walls were pre-
served only as stone foundations, and the deposits were closely compressed.
All three sub-phases had suffered to some extent from burning, and contained
quantities of restorable pottery. On the burnt Period 6.2/1 floors associated with
the three southern rooms (including the westernmost one, excavated in '94 C II)
were found clustered a basket-handled amphora and several vessels such as
pitchers and bowls, as if representing a standard table set. Ceramics of eastern
Aegean type (Fig. 4) date the deposits from the second half of the seventh cen-
tury B.C., to the first quarter of the sixth century. Imported transport vessels
included Attic SOS amphoras of seventh-century type (Johnston and Jones
1978). Notable finds were a bronze handIe attachment from a large container
(Fig. 5) ; and a near-complete glazed ceramic alabastron (Fig. 6) of typical sev-
erith-century North Syrian manufacture (Peltenburg 1969: 77-81), one of four
found in 1997 from this level, its predecessor, and the eastern mound trenches.
AIso diagnostic of this period were quantities of polished bone spatulas and
unbaked clay "Ioom-weights."
Period 7, (early-mi d seventh century) immediately below and with two
sub-phases (i.e. one reflooring, with new hearths: Figs. 7, 8), differed in its
architectural features and thus perhaps in function, as already anticipated from
a smail OP. C II exposure in 1994. Stone wall foundations followed roughly the
same layout as in Period 6, with a row of connecting rectangular rooms in the
south. The north side also consisted of open courts and an alley between buiId-
ing units with different orientations. Wall construction was flimsier, however.
As new features, the rooms were paved with thick layers of crushed murex
shell; and each room contained a large central h e a t h at one end, and occasion-
allyapise bin (Fig. 9). A number of iron tools found beside Period 7 hearths in
the '94 C II excavations had suggested an industrial function for this district.
This should not be discounted, but the 1997 finds did not produce similar con-
centrations of tools. The absence of Wave-Line Ware, so typical of Periods 6
and 5 at Kinet, would place Period 7 no later than the first half of the seventh
century B.C., corresponding to the later Middle lron Age-early Late Iron Age
at Tarsus (Hanfmann 1963: 128-29).
Later Iran Age Operations, East Side
F.SONGU
IP. CRIELAARD
S.ONKA
OPs. A and A II were continued in 1997 as two separate 5 x 10-13 m.
trenches, proceeding through contemporary phases on either side of a 0.50 m.
E-W balk which coincided - by chance - with a narrow cobbled street separat-
ing the two areas. Although the building sequence on this east side of the mound
is not precisely the same as on the west, the ceramic and related assemblages of
'97 A-A II corresponded exactly with finds from '97 E/H, and were divided into
two broad phases equivalent to Phase III: 1, Periods 6 and 7. Period 6 had also
been reached at the base of '95 OP. D immediately to the west of A-A II, and
has therefore now been exposed over an area of some 150 me.
262
Period 6 was represented by a disorderly outdoor area of hearths, pise
bins, pits and smaIl stone installations in OP. All, extending west into '95 OP.
D without any visible interruption. Two discoveries gaye this area considerable
significance in terms of assessing the Kinet community's activities during this
period. First, it included in its later stages a large burnt brick and pise feature
of subrectangular shape built up against a stone screen wall (Fig. 10 a/b).
Similar constructions at Tarsus (Hanfmann 1963: Figs 53-54), Sarepta
(Pritchard 1978: 119 Fig. 113) and elsewhere, together with overfired pottery
and wasters (Fig. ll), would provisionally identify it as a kiln. Part of a second
one may have been located to its east, just at the edge of the mound slope.
Associated pottery included utilitarian vessels, amphoras and Wave-Line
Wares>, of which samples were taken for neutron-activation analysis. Good col-
lections of near-complete vessels were also recovered from deep pits dug along
the eastern edge of this industrial area, and sealed with layers of cobbless.
A second important clarification of the season involved murex process-
ing, another characteristic of this period's assemblage. Two shallow subrectan-
gular pits on the eastern edge of Op. AllIs kiln area had been used to store ca.
200 kg of crushed murex shells? A nearby pise bin also contained a smaIl
amount of crushed shell, and another bin beside it was filled layers of shell that
had been burnt and reduced to powder. Thus the shells were apparently recy-
cled here into lime, and perhaps also ground up for temper for the pottery indus-
try. Alternatively, AII's kiln may have been used for the manufacturing of pur-
ple dye, and the shells reprocessed as secondary productss. The analysis of sam-
ples from these layers should explain the situation more conclusively.
This small-scale industrial area was bordered on the south by an East-
West cobbled street, marking the northern limits of domestic structures in Ol?
A and '95 OP. D. In OP. A, these structures were rebuilt and modified consid-
erably over a short period of time as indicated by the homogeneous pottery
assemblage: five building phases were distinguished over a depth of only 0.70
m, all coinciding with the activities on the other side of the street. Trash deposits
and paving material in the street included recycled sherds of pottery and glazed
earthenware, and a bronze macehead with traces of silver plating of a type also
known from Cyprus (Fig. 12). Correlations between OP. AIl's activity area and
OP. A's residential one, both classic illustrations of spiral stratigraphy, were
confirmed in particular by an Orientalizing bowl (Fig. 13) -- overfired and prob-
ably of local manufacture -- whose many fragments were found scattered over
the two trenches at varying absolute depths.
As on the west side, exeavation then proceeded down in both OPs. A and
A II to the next earlier phase, again coinciding with the material assemblage and
(5) In her M.A. thesis on the Wave-Line Ware from Kinet (Bilkent University, 1997), Filiz Songu noted
that virtually the entire sample of this wide-spread class of eastern Aegean pottery shared the same
fabric and seemed regional rather than imported. The evidence for kilns from this level would con-
firm that the Kinet Wave-Line Ware was locally manufactured.
(6) This type of pit was already known from the 1992 OP. A step sounding, but in 1997 could at last be
connected to its broader settlement context. Early Hellenistic pits highcr up at the slope edge in 1994
Op, A l l a s o produced quantities of overfired and warped vessels (mainly bowls), suggesting that
this area continued to function as an industrial district for several centuries.
(7) A smailer murex pit of the same type was excavated immediately to the south in the 1992 OP. A step
sounding, and in i 994 C II for the same period.
(8) For the multipurpose use of kilns, see Allara 1992: llL. The kilns at Sarepta were also surrounded
by pits containing murex shells (Pritchard 1978: 126-27).
263
other aspects of Period 7 in '97 OP. E/H. The character of this early seventh-
century phase contrasted strongly with its successor, at least in this 125 m
2
exposure. Although the narrow street was already in place, it was now lined on
both sides with the stone foundations of larger-scale buildings. The structure
partially contained in OP. All opened to the east onto a carefully cobbled pave-
ment, either a courtyard or entryway. Period 7 would suggest, at present, a
reversal in the settlement layout at Kinet, with industrial quarters on the west,
and better residential ones on the inland side. Unfortunately, the deposits suf-
fered from pitting in OP. All, stone robbing in OP. A, and later terracing along
the slope. But better preservation can be expected from the future exeavation
of this level in OP. D.
Early Iron Age-Late Bronte Age Operation, West Slope
T.M. CROSS
E.GL
Excavations in OP. L, begun in 1995 to expand the partially-exposed Late
Bronze II building at the base of '94 OP. J, succeeded in reaching this Phase
IV: i building and its immediate LB II successor; and in testing the 1.5 m of
overlying Phase I1I:3 Early lron Age strata (12th-9th century B.C).
The 50 m
2
of Early lron Age deposits (Period 12) sampled by OP. L con-
tained no architectural remains, but instead an outdoor area with a succession
of large circular pits, work platforms and garbage tips, where vast quantities of
animal bones had been thrown out over a considerable period of time. The pits
were and contained thick lenses of fine white matter, perhaps the
residue of organic linings suggesting that storage was their original function.
Flotation samples collected from all of these pits and trash layers should give a
more precise view of their purpose. Large quantities of sherds collected from
these deposits would suggest a slow evolution from the "drab wares" and bur-
nished fabrics and shapes of the Late Bronze II Hittite ceramic horizon, to the
painted and slipped repertoire of the Early Iron Age. The earliest stage was also
marked by the appearance of coarse hand-made vessels, some decorated with
clumsy painted linear and grid patterns (Fig. 14). Thus at some transitional
stage a different pottery-making technique was introduced into the local indus-
try, which was carrying on nonetheless with the manufacture of its traditional
repertoire. A comparable ceramic development has been noted elsewhere, and
recently at Kilise Tepes, where the Early Iron Age occupation is also character-
ized by deep pits with organic residue.
Whatever the source for this hand-made pottery, Kinet on present evi-
dence was not abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age, but rather continued to
be occupied by a population with strong links to Late Bronze predecessors'v. it
is too early, given the size of the OP. L exposure, to argue that the settlement
(9) See Postgate et aL. 1995: 174 and fig. 15: 4-5. Although the hand-made pottery from Kinet is not
identical, it belongs to asimilar tradition. A wheel-made, painted type also occurs during this peri-
od at both sites.
(lO) Onlyone LH mc sherd has so far been recovered from these deposits. The pit-digging activities
here would also have brought up LB II sherds, and the deposits may therefore not be discrete.
264
shrank in size towards the center of the mound from the previously inhabited
edges. In any case its inhabitants certainly discarded great quantities of refuse.
The bones perhaps indicate industrial processing rather than food waste, since
they appeared, at first view, more often intact than butchered. They included a
complete elephant lower pre-molar, and a very large mammallong bone, crude-
ly chopped across the epiphysis, that mayaIso be elephant!'.
This Early Iron phase presented a complete contrast to the two underly-
ing Late Bronze II architectural levels previewed in'94 OP. J. The later one
(Period 13) was known in 1994 only as the narrow western end of a room in the
northern half of the trench along the mound edge. This room was completed by
the '97 OP. L excavations (Figs. 15, 16), and the building to which it belonged
also extended east and north into the P. L balk. Burnt mudbrick from the build-
ing's superstructure had collapsed into the room, otherwise preserved only as
neat stone foundations. it had been refloored once before burning, and an occa-
sional vessel (fig. 17) was spared in situ by Early Iron Age pitting. A courtyard
adjoined it to its north, but the area to the south was open, without any features
or pits. This Period 13 building matched so closely the masonry technique, lay-
out and orientation of the structure immediately underneath that it cannot have
been built long after its predecessor was destroyed.
The lower LB II (Period 14) building, which in '94 OP. J's 50 m
2
con-
sisted of a central court enclosed by portions of three rooms, was found in 1997
to extend east into P. L as expected. Because this level was reached at the very
end of the season, the outline of the walls in the southern half of P. L were
traced without excavating the anticipated burnt deposits inside the rooms. (The
northern storeroom in '94 P. J still contained in situ its jars and other goods,
including barley, wheat, lentil, olive, fruit flesh and walnut recovered from
flotation samples [Hynd 1997: 34]). Exeavation of this building will proceed in
1998. A few Mycenaean and Levanto-Helladic sherds give hope for a fuller
complement of Aegean imports from these new rooms.
Medieval and Middle Bronte Operations, East Terraee
S.REDFORD
S.ATICI
O. PANCAROGLU
C.KSE
The discovery in 1995 of a burnt Middle Bronze Phase V level in P. K
on the mound's east skirt (here "east terrace") just below a shallow medieval
one, designated this area as a major new focus for the Kinet project. This devel-
opment alsa coincided with S. Redford's taking charge of Kinet's medieval
component in 1996. it was therefore decided to open up a large area here both
to recover a broader perspective of the medieval residential district previewed
in P. K, and to assess the character and scale of the Middle Bronze building
(I i) These deposits were excavated after the departure of the palaeozoologist S. Ikram. She will process
them in 1998. Neo-Assyrian historical annals deseribe elephant herds in the Amuq as Iate as the
Middle Iron Age. Elephant tusks were found n the Alalakh V palace (MB), in many Levantine LB
s t e s , and on the Uluburun shipwreck.
265
underneath it. Two new trenches were laid out in 1997 to the south and west of
P. K: P. K2, (10 x 10 m), and P. K3 (5 x 10 m). The medieva1 stratum
proved more complicated and deeper in these trenches than in P. K, but it was
nonetheless possible, by the close of the season, to identify the continuation of
the Middle Bronze walls.
The medieval sequence on the east terrace consists, at present, of three
major phases spanning the later 12th and 13th centuries according to ceramic
evidence and associated coins. The earliest was represented by a dense field
of large and deep pits, filled with pottery and other domestic debris from hous-
ing princi pally outside the exeavation area. This was sealed by two superposed
phases of residential structures extending from '95 P. K west into F. K3, and
a contemporary set of broad N-S walling in the eastern half of F. K2 (Fig. 18).
They were built down the natural slope of the mound, or on footings cut into it.
A striking feature is the orthogonal plan for this district, at odds with common-
ly-held beliefs about medieval town layouts. The pottery assemblage included
an exceptional percentage of glazed wares (Fig. 19), including closed vessels,
of better quality than the published Al Mina or Antioch collections. Arguments
for local production are supported by an incised but unglazed sgraffiato sherd,
and several wasters. Imports from Cyprus and the Aegean were also found.
Nothing would at present date earlier than the 12th century A.D. However, a
lower level of medieval walling appeared at the very close of the season in F.
K2's southeast corner, giying hope for a 9th-lOth century occupation to be
uncovered in the coming season.
Kinet's medieval settlement was established on a site that had been aban-
doned for nearly one millennium. The east terrace had been uninhabited for a
much longer period, however, and was covered by a sterile deposit of silt, grav-
el and shell on which the medieval structures were b u i l t - . In '95 P.K, this ster-
ile layer was less than 0.50 m. deep on the western side, lensing out towards the
east. Underneath it were found five rooms of a burnt MB II building (18th cen-
tury B.C.) furnished with storage jars and kitchen equipment still in situ. Walls
extending into the balks indicated that the building plan could be expanded by
excavating to the west and south, hence the placement of the '97 Ps. K2 and
K3. In the new operations, however, the overburden proved to be considerably
thicker west towards the mound slope: the sterile deposit over 1 m. thick, and
the medieval another 2 m. more above it. it was only possible, by the end of
the season, to trace the tops of the se MB mudbrick walls in the northeastern
half of F. K2, and in P. K3 soundings. The MB stratum was then covered
with a protective layer of plastic sheeting and soil, in anticipation of exeavation
in 1998.
Halaf Period Finds (Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic], East Terraee
A few of the medieval pits in Ps. K2 and K3 produced concentrations
of plain and painted Late Halaf period sherds (ca. 4900-4500 B.C.) (Fig. 20),
(J 2) This summary s closely based on S. Redford's analysis.
(13) There need to be ninth century A.D. archaeological remains at Kinet if the site is indeed to be iden-
tified with Hisn at-Tinat.
(I 4) A Helienistic pit in the southwest corner of P. K2, and Hellenistic pottery in mixed deposits from
the southern half of the same trench may indicate that this interpretation will need revising in future
seasons. As of the 1997 season, however, it stil! applies.
266
many of them large with near-complete profiles. Since no Halaf material had
yet been found at Kinet, and the sherds number over o o , it seems reasonable
that they were brought up by the medieval pit-digging from aHalaf occupation
Iayer on the east terrace. This possibility will be tested by soundings here in the
c o m n g season.
1997 Analytical Projects
1997 palaeobotanical research: A program of palaeobotanical analysis to
study the plant remains, and eventually reconstruct Kinet's agricultural econo-
my during all of its phases, was set up by D. Samuel in 1995. During the 1997
season, 90 samples (ca. 3,500 liters of soil) from floors, pits and hearths in all
of the trenches were again processed in the excavation's water-separation
machine, and plant materials recovered in 1 mm and 300jl wire mesh screens.
The 1995 plant remains were analyzed by A. Hynd in A Model of Local
Continuity: The 1995 Archaeobotanical Assemblage from Kinet Hoyiik, Hatay
(University of Sheffield M.Sc. Thesis, 1997). She observed that, in contrast
with comparable communities, the Kinet inhabitants preferred glume to free-
threshing wheats, perhaps in response to the region's exceptionally rainy di-
mate. In general, agricultural practices at Kinet remained conservative, and
must reflect a specific adaptation to the local environmental conditions.
1997 archaeozoological research: Analysis of the animal bones and shell
has been conducted since 1995 by S.Ikram. In 1997, 8,300 skeletal remains
were sorted and recorded. They indicate changing reliance on domesticated
animals (principally cow and sheep/goat) through time; a diet supplemented by
hunting and fishing especially during the Iron Age; and differences between the
diets of the Iran Age population living on the east and west sides of the mound.
The medieval levels produced very little evidence for fish consumption, in con-
trast with earlier periods.
1997 ceramic analysis: Aday analysis project to locate sources for the
Kinet ceramics on the basis of their chemical compositions was initiated in
1995 by H. Erten (Bilkent) jointly with colleagues at BristoL. M. J. Blackman
(Smithsonian Institution) alsa began in 1997 to collect samples for neutron-acti-
vation analysis of pottery from all periods.
N. Karg and N. Rauh continued their analyses on the Early Bronze Age
pottery, and the Hellenistic amphoras, respectively.A summary study of the pre-
Hellenistic amphoras from the 1992-1995 seasons was prepared by Mark
Lawall (University of Manitoba). Filiz Songu completed her Bilkent M.A. the-
sis, Wave-Line Pottery from the Late Iron Age Levels of Kinet Hdyiik, in Spring
1997.
1997finds conservation: Franca Cole, the Kinet conservator since 1995,
restored and conserved 169 stone, metal, glass, bone and ceramic objects that
were found during the 1997 season. Of these, 29 were inventoried for the Hatay
Museum collection, and anather 14 were deposited at the museum as part of the
Kinet Hyk study collection. The remaining 126 objects were left at the site,
to be stored in the Kinet Hyk exeavation house depot.
267
References cited
ALLARA, A., 1992, "L'ilot des potiers et les fours aDoura-Europos." Syria 59: 101-20.
BING, J.D. 1993 (1985), "Sissu/Issus , and Phoenicians in Cilicia." American Journal of Ancient History
97-123.
HANFMANN, G.F.A. .1963, Excavations at Gozl Kule, Tarsus. Volume lll, ed. by H. Goldman.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
HELLENKEMPER, H. 1984, "Die wiedergefundene Issos." Pp. 45-50 in Aus dem Osten des
Ed. by J. Ozols and V. Thewalt. Vienna.
HYND, A. 1997, A Model of Local Continuity: The 1995 Assemblage from Kinet
Hoyiik, Hatay. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Sheffield.
JOHNSTON, A.W., JONES, R.E., 1978 "The 'SOS' Amphora." Annual of the British School in Athens
73: 103-41.
OZANER, S., 1994 "Drtyol-Payas (lssos) (Antakya) Tarihi Gnmze Sregelen
Jeomorfolojik Kinet Hyuk Uzerindeki Etkileri."
12: 513-27.
PELTENBURG, EJ., 1969 "Al Mina Glazed Potteryand its Relations." Levant i: 73-96.
POSTGATE, J.N. et aL., i 995 "Kilise Tepe 1994." Anatolian Studies 45: 139-91.
PRITCHARD, .I.B., 1978 Recovering Sarepta, a Phoenician City. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
SETON-WILLlAMS, v., 1954 "Cilician Survey." AnatSt4: 121-74.
SONGU, F, 1997 Wave-Line Pottery from the Late Iron Age Levels of Kinet Hoyk. Unpublished M.A.
thesis, Bilkent University.
268
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Figure 4: Orientalizing plate (KNH-631), from OP. E/H room 171.
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fired, Buff slip, Iight to dark brown glaze. Diam, at rim
20.4 cm.
271
Figure 5: Bronze rim attachment with
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Figure 6: Glazed earthenware alabastron (KNH-


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designs, outlined in black, on a white
ground. Pres. h. = 14.3 cm.
272
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P. C II, belongs to Period 8 (Neo-Assyrian)
Figure 9: '97 P. EIH+C, Period 7.2: room 201, from the south. Note murex flooring around
the day bin in the northern part of the room, and the two superposed hearths (7.1-
2) in the room to the southeast (tower right, foreground)
274
Figure 10a: '97 QP. A II, Period 6 kiln (ca. 600 B.C.), with three large bricks aligned in the center
of the chamber, to support the firing floor
Figure 10b: '97 QP. A II, Period 6 kiln (ca. 600 B.C.), the kiln with the central support removed,
and its brick walling articulated
275
Figure 11: Overfired sherds/wasters from the P. A II kiln area: basket-
handled amphora handles (upper and lower left), and Wave-
Line fragments (neek, shoulder, handIe and base)



Figure 12: Leaded (?) bronze macehead with
traces of silver plating (KNH-644),
from the Period 6 cobbled street
332 in P. A. H. 5.8 cm
276
Figure 13: Orientalizing cup fragments from '97 OPs. A - A II (KT 7140 + 6999 + 7205 et al.),
Medium fine light orange fabric with fine Iime and grit inclusions. Ext.: white sIip,
brown to black glaze; int.: red sIip, thin purple and white concentric bands

Figure 14: Hand- and wheelmade Early Iron Age pottery from '97 OP. L (KT 8278, upper right;
others KT 7777)
277
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KiNfT 1994-1997
QPS. L - J
PHASE IV: 1, Periods 13-14
Late Bronze ii

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Figure 15: '97 P. L and '94 P. J: the two Late Bronze II architectural levels. Plan. The later
building is crosshatched, the earlier one stippled. Pits date to the Early Iron Age
278
Figure 16: '97 P. L (foreground) and '94 P. J (background): the two Late
. Bronze II architectural levels, from the northeast
Figure 17: Small piIgrim flask (KNH-647), from
the later LB II buiIding in P. L room
67. Gritty dark buff fabric with thick
cream sIip, and vertical burnlshlng.
H.= ll.2cm.
279
Figure 18: '97 P. K2: later medieval level, from the southwest
Figure 19: UndergIaze painted bowl (13th century A.D.) (KNH-638) from '97 P. K3 pit
49. Designs in blue, green, red, brown (gold?) with black outline, on thin white
wash
280

281
EXCAVATIONS AT DOMUZTEPE 1997
Stuart CAMPBELL*
Elizabeth CARTER
INTRODUC710N
The Iate 6th and 5th millennia are periods that, in the past, have received
only intermittent attention in south-east Turkeyand north Mesoparamia. Yel it
is becoming increasingly dear that, between the traditional Neolithic and Urban
transformations, key changes may have been taking place in the complexity of
sciety: the development of seals as abasic administrative technologyand the
appearance of stylistic unity in pottery decoration across a wide region in the
Halaf are two of the most abviaus. Traditionally, archaeologists and anthropol-
ogists have tended to view increasing eomplexity as closely connected to an
increase in the complexity of relations among sites. In the Near East this has
generalJy been seen in the appearance of central sites characterised by a
markedly greater size. Indeed large prehistoric have been known since the
1960s -atalhyk being the most obvious example. However, up to the last 10
years, it did not appear that, in the earlyand mid-5th millennium, such larger
sites were present.It is only recently that such have been securely identi-
fied, notably in south-eastern Turkeyand Syria (e.g. Takyan,AIgaze et
al 199 195; Kazane, Wattenmaker pers comm). Clear!y our understanding of
social developments in the period befare urbanism can be greatly advanced by
the study of an obvious population centre which might be the focus of social
integration within a region.
The Halaf period in Greater Northern Mesopotamia has provided the tra-
ditional framewark for the period between about 5,200 and 4,500 bc (c. 6,100-
5,400 calibrated BC). There has been a tendency to approach individual sites
with Halaf ceramics as part of a wide regional tradition and, in many ways, to
view this wider context as mare important than a mare local one. One of the
main aims of this project is to approach the questions of social complexity at a
large site in alocal context, attempting to understand the regional reasons for
change befare trying to undel'stand the inter regional context.
The focus of this project is Domuztepe, asite Iying between Kahraman-
and Gaziantep, dose to passes in the mountains of the Anatolian plateau
to the west and on a significant north-south route through the northem exten-
Stuart CAMPBELL, Department of Art Historyand Arehaeology, Univt:r,ity of Manchester, ARD
PmLDL Elizabeth CARIER, Department of Near Eastem and eulturc, University of
Ca!ifomia, Los Angeles, ABD
283
sion of the Rift Valley (Fig. 1, Carter et aL. 1996). The main occupation is dur-
ing the 6th and 5th millennia and it is one of the largest known sites from that
period in the Near East at around 20ha. lts most obvious 5th millennium cul-
tural affiliations are to the south and east, with the so-called Halaf culture of
north Mesopotamia. The exeavation is concentrating on understanding how a
major central site functioned during a period of increasing social complexity:
the economy of the site; its exploitation of local and long-distance resources;
functionally distinct areas within the site; social differentiation; specialisation;
sealing practices.
The 1997 exeavation season ran between 20th Julyand 8th September,
although off-site work was also carried out in Iate June and July'. The aim dur-
ing the exeavation has been to investigate settlement structure and patterning
rather than simply to establish a local chronological sequence, although that
will be valuable in itself. The main focus has been on Operation I, where archi-
tectural remains can be economically exposed over a considerable area. Three
smailer operations have been opened to test for spatial patterning and, in the
case of Operation II, chronological variability. All of these operations are
intended to be integrated into a strategy aimed at understanding the whole site,
rather than simple 'keyhole' perspectives (Fig. 2).
General ceramic chronology
The Iate occupation onDomuztepe probably dates from the Roman peri-
od through to earlylslamic,perhaps from the 4th to the l Oth centuries A.D.,
although there is evenlateractivity as well on the summit of the site. The pre-
historic occupation at thesite began at least as early as the beginning of the6th
millennium be (c. 6,900calibrated BC). Excavations have, however, been con-
centrated on the latterstages.of prehistoric occupation at the site. A provisional
three phase proposed based, almost entirely, on ceramic evi-
dence. The earliest excavated phase is Late Halaf, probably dating to around
4,700-4,600 be (c.5,500calibrated BC). About 60% of the pottery is clearly of
the Halaf tradition, although alongside it a wide variety of less frequent wares
also occur. The Late Halaf.is followed by two phases currently designated Post-
Halaf A and Post.:.HalafRperhaps dating as Iate as 4,300bc (c.5,200 calibrated
BC). Because the different.ceramic assemblages come from different trenches,
we do not yet know whether the sequence is continuous during this time span,
although the relative order is clear. Some of the developments are rather subtle,
such as changes in theproportions of different types of burnish or the ratio of
vegetable to grit in coarse ware vessels, but the most striking changeis
the progressive appearanceof subtle indications of Ubaid influence. True Ubaid
(I) The excavations of 1997 were directed by the authors of this paper. We would \ike to thank Saim
otur, Governor of the Province, Ahmet former director of the
Museum.: Erge, Director of the Gaziantep Museum, and Glendam
our representative and acting director of the Museum. Staff in 1997
included Andrew Shaw, SailyIrving.Amanda Kennedy, Andrew Sneddon, Hakan Kale, Steven Bell,
Eissenstadt,KamyarAbdi, Kerry Croninarchaeologists, Bronwen Campbell, surveyor and
draftsperson, Kksaldraftsperson, Seona Anderson, paleobotanist, Sarah Whitcher.faunal
specialist, Elizabeth Healey.Iithics specialist, Tania Collas, conservator, Kate Ashley, ceramics assis-
tant, Cindy Skvorec and Freya Evanson, archaeological assistants. Without their commitment and
skill none of the work been possible. We are grateful for financial support from The
British Academy, J-he National Geographic Society, the Society of Antiquaries of London, the
University of Manchester, the University of California, Los Angeles, the American Philosophical
Society and various private donors.
284
sherds are extremely rare at Domuztepe, however, some shapes and motifs are
elearIy related, albeit occurring in smaIl quantities. Some combinations of ves-
sel shape and decoration in the Post Halaf B phase, in particular, do not have
elose parallels in north Mesopotamia. Instead they have close links to the
Levant coast at sites in the Amuq and at Ras Shamra. it remains to be estab-
lished just how this possible change in axis of interaction should be interpreted.
The Excavations
The Iate cemetery
The s u f a c e survey (see below) had suggested veryelearly that the Iate
activity on the site was rather limited and did not extend significant1y onto the
low southern mound of Domuztepe. Exeavation supported this in 1995 and
1996 when only a single Iate pit was been found in Operation i. In 1997, how-
ever, in the western expansion of Operation I 10 Iate burials were found. All
were extended on their backs, their hands in their laps and the feet to the west
and were without grave goods. Theyare so tightly elustered that theyare prob-
ably part of a once well defined cemetery. it is tempting to associate them with
the s t millennium AD settlement on the south west of the site but they may
have been buried rather later when the site was unoccupied.
Post Hala! B (Fig. 3)
This period has only been excavated in Operation I, where it has been
excavated to some depth. The uppermost portions have also been exposed over
an area of almost 400m
2
The architecture at this highest level consists of stone
wall foundations, sometimes with traces of pise superstructure and associated
s u f a c e s (Fig. 3). The north and west of the area has a series of long narrow
rooms. The foundation courses of most of these rooms are relatively narrow,
invariably only a single course high and usually made from two rows of stones
placed side by side. The first room of this nature, excavated in 1995 and 1996,
now seems particularIy distinctive with its much better made and more sub-
stantial foundations (c. 1.1Om wide), although the dimensions of the room are
not markedly larger. it is harder to be sure how these rooms relate together. The
best candidate for a coherent complex of rooms is in the north-west of
Operation I. Here two almost parallel ranges of rooms flank alarger partially
open area. it is tempting to suggest that this is a variant of tripartite architecture
known elsewhere but this needs further clarification.
The area to the south west of Operation I in this phase is rather different.
The architecture is much flimsier; the foundations are only a single stone wide.
One of the rooms has a thin plaster floor. The only two ovens also occur here;
both with circular burnt day bases surrounded by a circle of smaIl stones to sup-
port the superstructure. it seems clear that the two areas of uppermost Operation
i exposure represent very different functions, although they may still belong to
a single large social unit. it is also clear that this is not a static plan. it had a very
complex development and Fig. 3 only represents its final evolution not its orig-
inal design.
The extensive excavations in this level produced a large number of finds.
Most notably this included a number of pieces of ground and polished obsidi-
285
an, same in a partially finished state. In addition to obsidian links known from
other site (e.g. Tepe Gawra, Tobler 1950; Banahilk, Watson 1983,573, fig. 10.4;
and Yarim Tepe II, Merpert, Munchaev and Bader 1984,38, fig. 5,4), we now
have at least 5 fragments of obsidian bowls of remarkable quality. Two, in par-
ticular, are fragments from small bowls made from brown and black obsidian
(mahogany obsidian) with extremely thin walls and completely smooth sur-
faces.
More restricted portions of Operation I were excavated to deeper levels.
Two deposits, one in the central part of the operation the other in the north-east,
belong what is probably a broadly contemporary intermediate phase, still in
Post Halaf B, although direct stratigraphic links were not established in 1997.
A series of at least 3 structures was excavated in the centre of the operation, all
with plastered floors and partially cutting each other. The only completely exca-
vated one was a smail tholos, 2.5 m in diameter. The wall was again made with
a stone foundation and pise superstructure. The floor was concave and con-
structed with a remarkable solidity. Stones had been packed tightly on top of a
compacted c1ay foundation and then thickly plastered. A narrow channel ran
raund the northern edge of the floor, adjacent to the wall and filled with fine silt.
There are no precise parallels for this elsewhere but it seems likely that the
explanation is functional, possibly to do with air circulation. If the other par-
tially excavated plastered tholoi are the same, this would appear to be an area
of a specific and sustained function.
Probably contemporary with the plastered tholos is a complex series of
deposits. The interpretation here is strictly provisional but potentially exciting.
There is a thick layer of c1ay rich soil interspersed with thin layers of off-white
soil- almost certainly gleyed soil where water has lain in the past. This forms a
layer about 40 cm. thick, with very few finds in it. Apparently cut through it is
a trench, at least 1 metre long and 50 cm. wide. This trench has been repeated-
Iy recut and the faces are lined with a similar grey-white deposit. However, the
depth of the recuts is shallow and the trench may never have been more than
10-15 cm. deep at any one time and simply have been repeatedly cut to that
depth into steadily accumulating debris. The fill of the trench, and occasional
smail deposits in the surrounding area, is of virtually pure c1ay, entirely sterile
and inc1usion free. it is certainly of sufficient quality to make pottery with the
addition of temper. The provisional interpretation is of a c1ay settlement tank for
pottery manufacture that was in seasonal use and required repeated refurbish-
ment.
Beneath the plastered tholos, in the deepest exposure in Operation I, was
a burial pit (Burial 148). it consisted of a shallow scoop, the edges of which run
beyand the trench boundaries, with a deeper pit in the centre of which perhaps
60% fell within the trench (Fig. 4). The pit seems to have been filled at a single
time, rather than having a series of recuts. Between six and nine skulls had been
placed in the pit, most placed on and amongst a stone layer in its bottom, and
there was a c1uster of long bones in the northern portion, although far too few
to match the skulls. One skull, which was unusual in that the mandible was still
in position, was placed rather higher in the pit ml. Although neither the skulls
286
nor the pit sides show signs of burning (there is a smaIl area of burning on the
bottom of the pit), the fill consists almost entirely of fine ash and burnt mud
brick. This must deriye from a fire that had burnt elsewhere, presumably as part
of a highly visible funerary rituaL. There were no grave goods excavated. Until
the pathological report is complete, our interpretation must be limited. it is,
however, a ritual event that must have involved a large segment of the commu-
nity. If the buried persons were related this might have been a kin grouping. If
they were unrelated it might have been members of several kin groups.
Although there is no reason, at present, to think of this as an elite burial, it is
suggestive of the mechanisms of public and highly visible rituals through which
large numbers of people within the settlement could be integrated.
Two finds in the upper fiII of the pit, above the ashy fiII and the associat-
ed human remains, are worthy of note. A very worn human mandible was found
in the mix of silting and dumping deposits that eventually levelled the surface
over the pit. We do find human bones in general deposits at Domuztepe with
some regularity but it may be that this location had a continuing ritual signifi-
cance. Certainly unrelated to any ritual activity was the discovery, in a similar
position in the upper fill of the pit, of a fragment of plaster. The back was
attached to the remnants of a mud brick or lump of pise while the front was
smooth with a fragment of red painted decoration. Almost certainly this come
from a wall painting although the fragment is far too smaIl to known if it was
more than a simple geometrical pattern.:
Post Hala! A
Deposits of this date were excavated in Operation III and, underlying later
building debris, Operation IV close to the summit of the mound. In Operation
III the exposure was expanded to the north to reveal more of the dense bone
seatter which had been discovered in 1996 (Fig. 5). Bone deposits did extend
into this area, together with sections of overlying architecture. The 1996
deposits were characterised by being from meat bearing bones but the 1997
deposits were more mixed, probably containing much higher proportions of
butchering debris. There is also a pit in the north-eastern corner of the trench
which is similarly full of bones and bone fragments. it may post-date the other
bone seatters although the stratigraphic link is not yet certain. If so, it empha-
sises the very long period in which this area was in use for the disposal of debris
from butchering and consumption. This evidence suggests another area of sus-
tained specialised activity.
Operation IV, a new trench close to the summit of the site, was opened up
with limited aims. The prime objective was to establish how high the prehistoric
deposits occurred and secondly how the Iate pottery on the surface in this area
(c.40% of all diagnostics) related to the subsurface materiaL. Both aims were
successfully achieved, together with the exeavation of some interesting prehis-
toric materiaL. There was approximately 70 cm. of Iate deposit, loosely s t mil-
lennium AD in date, from probable building debris rather than in situ occupa-
tion. The soil was only partially developed, which gives us some idea of the rate
of soil development on the site. Below this was prehistoric material, the upper
portion of which had a fully developed buried soiI. The deposits below this date
287
to the Post Hal af A phase, broadly contemporary with Operation III. A fragment
of a thal os was among the architectural remains and there was alsa a hearth with
well preserved burnt lentils. Amongst the finds were significant quantities of
clay sling balls from one series of deposits and a large number of stone bowl
fragments, one of which was intricately carved, apparently in imitatian of a
painted vessel (Fig. 6, no. 8).
Late Halaf
Late Halaf levels were only excavated in Operation II where the exeava-
tion of a sequence of compressed building layers continued from previous
years. The building of small rectangular rooms, which was reached last year,
was only the final phase of a much more complex building. it was cut into a ter-
race that, amongst other things, had truncated a child buriaL. A hybrid building
was constructed with a circular outer wall incorporating a square central room,
the corners of which touched the interior of the circular wall. it remains unclear
whether this double wall was functional, perhaps to provide insulation, or
whether same of the walls never extended to the height of the building. Later in
its life the circular wall was built over and this peculiar structure became a more
regular building of small rectangular rooms. A group of 6 thick burnished jars
had been built into the base of the circular wall and extended into the interior
floor, possibly being used as substitutes for stones because of their strength
although aritual interpretation cannot be ruled out. Just outside the south wall
of this building is a corner of an exterior surface projecting into the trench. On
it was apparently in situ knapping debris, mainly of chert but alsa a few pieces
of obsidian.
Finds
In addition to finds mentioned above, several more seals were excavated
this year, bringing the total to almost 30 (Fig. 6). Again they come from a very
wide range of contexts suggesting that their use was relatively ubiquitous; that
rather than being a technology restricted to an elite, marking of property was a
comman practice in society. The general absence of sealings, still restricted to
one fragmentary example, is almost certainly attributable to the general lack of
burnt debris, in which accidentally fired sealings might have been persevered.
Two intricately carved large stone plaques and a broken corner of a deeply
carved oval stone mayalsa be same sart of seal (Fig. 6,5-7).
The Economy
Both the plant and animal assemblages are overwhelming domestic in
nature. Of the 7,524 bones recorded in 1997 the basic breakdown was similar
across the site with approximately 49% of the bones by number from sheep or
goats, 25% from pig and 22% from cattle, although cattle would clearly have
provided a much higher percentage by meat quantity. The sheep/goat appear to
have been slaughtered, in the majority of cases, at ages more than 3 years sug-
gesting that they were exploited for secondary products. On the current rather
small samples it seems more likely that this was for wool rather than milk,
something that would fit with abundant evidence of spindle whorls from the
site. Wild animals are only represented in very small numbers but they include
288
red deer, fox, gazelle, possible wild cattle, possible wild dog or wolf and birds.
Seed densities are relatively low at Domuztepe, although systematic floatation
has been used and they may be increasing in the deeper levels. The main culti-
vars are present, Emmer is most common, followed by einkorn and free-thresh-
ing wheat and barley. Lentils, peas, vetch and fig are also present along with
stoned fruits.
Ploughzone study
One of the obvious problems of investigating a site the size of Domuztepe
is that no matter the number of seasons of excavation, relatively smaIl areas will
be exposed and they will represent only a tiny proportion of the total site. The
only way we can maximise our understanding of the site as a whole is by sur-
face survey, to understand how the site has developed and how it is functional-
ly and chronologically divided. In the summer of 1995 a major surface survey
of the site was carried out, based on a c.6% sample. However, this was only the
first stage in an on-going investigation of the artefacts close to the surface.
Detailed studies of the behaviour of artefacts in the ploughzone have been
carried out elsewhere (e.g. Schofield 1991). However, the situation at typical
Near Eastern sites is rather different. These are extremely artefact rich so the
densities are much greater and the ploughzone may be constantly resupplied by
the deeply stratified layers below. it seems worthwhile, therefore, to advance
our understanding of the surface artefacts by spending some time examining
how they got there. Selected areas collected in 1995 were recollected in 1997
as a check on how representative the earlier collection was. Similarly new areas
were collected at points between old col1ections, to test how accurate our inter-
polation of data is. As part of this programme one 4x4 m. trench was excavat-
ed through the ploughzone in 5cm spits, sieving all soil to examine artefact den-
sities with depth and to estimate rate of destruction of artefacts on the site sur-
face. Although this is a long term study, it seems that broadly accurate estimates
can be of made of how muchof the underlyingdeposits are being brought to the
surface. Since bone is easily eroded the portions of the site with high bone den-
sity should, in the absence of other variables, be those with more active erosion
taking place.
One specific area which was advanced during the season was the under-
standing the Iate occupation, dated by the surface pottery between Iate Roman
and c.10th century. More detailed survey of fragments of masonry confirm the
remains of a bridge and possible roadway along the south of the site, and show
an area of relatively massiye architecture on the west, the area from which a col-
umn segment came. This suggests that the site had an important position in the
Roman/post-Roman settlement of the area. Together with information on the
depth of the Iate deposit in Operation IV, the Iate data suggests that the prehis-
toric site was much more markedly divided into 2 mounds than is visible today.
Whether this reflects concentrations of settlements, an original double mound
or concentrations of more massiye structures remains to be seen.
289
REFERENCES
ALGAZE, G., R. BREUNINGER, C. LIGHTFOOT & M. ROSENBERG (1991) 'The Tigris-Euphrates
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17,175-240.
CARTER, E., H. BOZKURT, S. CAMPBELL,.T. SNEAD & L. SWARTZ (1997), "Report on the archae-
ological work Domuztepe and its environs in 1995", XVIII vol. I,
173-187.
TOBLER, A. L. (1950) Excavations at Tepe Gawra. Vol. 2.
WATSON, P. .T. (1983), "The Soundings at Banahilk", in Braidwood, L. S. et aL. Prehistoric Archaeology
along the Zagros Flanks. Oriental Institute Publications 105, University of Chicago, Chicago, 545-
613.
MERPERT, N. 1., R. M. MUNCHAEV (1984) "Soviet Expedition's Research at Yarim Tepe III Settlement
in North-western Iraq", 1978- 1981. 43,54-68.
SCHOFIELD, A. .T. (ed.) (1991) Interpreting Artefact Scatters: Contributions to Ploughzone Archaeology.
Oxbow Books, Oxford.
290
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ATAGI
1997 YILI
ZDOGAN*
Mehmet Akif

niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Prehistorya Anabilim
yaz ve 5 Tekir-
1997 iinde de devam ..Bu Me-
kuzeyinde Istanbul as-
hemen bulunan Hellenistik ait Hareket Tepe
s' nde de kurtarma
Arkeoloji Mzesi ile ortak olarak Dr. gzetimin-
de yrtlen bu Edebiyat Fakltesi 'nin
Arkeoloji ve Sanat Tarihi Blm'nden 28 ve Edirne niversitesi
Arkeoloji Blm'nden 2 srekli olarak ITU Mi-
Fakltesi yksek lisans Fakir Cavlun bir sre

Arazide fiilen 6 Temmuz - 6 tarihleri
Bu hava arazi ve
miz verimi bununla birlikte
alanlarda de iyi sonular elde ettik. Bu
geen gibi Istanbul Universitesi Fonu des-
Mzesi olmak zere, Kltr ve
Ky her bize destek ile birlikte
bu destek veren tm ve
borluyuz.
zet
ilk kez 1993 ili
iinde merkezine 10 km. karayolunun he-
*
Dr. ZDOGAN, niversitesi Edebiyat Fakltesj PrehistoryaAnabilim
Mehmet Akif Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr, TEKIRDAG
295
men gneyinde deniz yer alan yayvan bir hyktr, orta-
dan K-G Deresi blmektedir. Denizin nemli bir
zellikle kesiminin gney hyk, Marmara
Denizi' nin kuzey sahil konut tehdit ke-
simde bir ka hykten biridir (Resim: 1,2). Konumu
dan Trakya'ya gelen Anadolu etkilerini en iyi Yer-
kadar anakaya zerinde kl-
tr dneminin
1- Hellenistik Dnem, bulunan bir sikkeye dayanarak Lizimakos Dne-
mi'ne, M..36-28 tarihlenmektedir. Bu konuda bize bilgi iin
Dr. Tekin'e ederiz.
2- Tun I-II, Troya I-II ve Bulgaristan Sveti Krilovo evresi ile
benzerlik gstermektedir.
3- steril bir katrnan ile Orta Kalkolitik Toptepe ve
3. tabaka ile
(Resim: 3 )
1997 1996 gibi atak' a
verilmekle birlikte, gneyde denize burun kesim-
de geen X devam edildi.
atak'ta 1995 geen prehistorik tabakalara
18U ve iine tama-
men ortaya Bu 17U 1995 GD
4 evre halinde prehistorik kuzeyindeki
4x5 m.lik alanda bu evrelerin bulduk ve anakayaya
19T-U 4.5 x 7.5 m. lik bir alanda Hellenistik (H2) al-
prehistorik tabakalara indik. Bu alandaki bir 18T ile 19T a-
1 m (baulk) 3 ve 6 no'lu du-
birbiri ile ve geen
atak'taki bir 1993-1994 ve 1996
20T KD Hellenistik (H2) evresinin al-
prehistorik bir K kesimdir.
atak
17U (Resim: 4-6)
1994-95 bu GD ince dzlemler halinde mi-
4 prehistorik evre KD mimari
anak ve kiremit ok seyrek
bu Hellenistik Dnem' de hemen hemen hi oldu-
Bu alanda 19T-U
toprak ile nitelikte, ancak daha sert ve kalkerli 35-40 cm.
ki dolgunun D gneyden killi bir duvar
ile hemen 18U 1995-96
2 x 2.5 m. lik alana anak mlekli bir dz-
leme Bir mekana ait bu dz-
lemden daha yeni bir evreye ait bir kulbenin delikleri
296
Bol anak ile dolu tabaka, anakaya yerini daha yumu-
kumlu renkli, olduka seyrek kk paralar halinde bulun-
bir kumlu toprak anak ve
belirgin grlmektedir. Bu dolgunun hemen
kuzeye anakaya gzkt. iinde iki yerde, bi-
ri bu mekan 3 x 2 m., daha kuzeyde profilin kalan
2 x 1.5 m. iki tane ukurluk (Resim: 5).
olarak ukurlar iine
oyularak ve olduka dzgndr. Bu ukurlardan
iinde olduka ok anak iri hayvan
kemikleri ve ise anak ok bir
tane insana ait uzun kemik Iki ukurun 0.50-0.60 m. lik alan-
da da domuz ve kemiklerine (Resim: 6).
18U
Geen D-B ynnde uzanan kerpiten
dzgn yz vermeyen bir yzlerinin btn be-
sonucu evresinde ve sonu olarak bu ok
kerpi bir ait Bu kumlu ker-
pi kesiminde sert bir toprak var. ok olmayan bu toprak ana-
zerinde kuzeye yerde
17U gibi anakaya iine K profilinin iine giren 1.20 m. ge-
bir ukurun ucu Gelecek bu kuze-
yindeki 18T hem hem de bu uku-
anlamaya
19 T-U
Bu amada 1995-96 K-G uzanan
Hellenistik ait temelin 4.5 x 7.5 m. lik alanda,
Hellenistik Dnem'in eski evresine (H2) ve daha indik. H2 alt
seviyeleri kahverengi, ince taneli ve olduka homojendir. Bu
iinde, alanda tabak, kase ve koku bir kap top-
yer herhangi bir mimari, taban, ukur izi bulunma-
veya toprakta da grlmemesine dayanarak bu
buraya "zellikle" grnlmekten ok, zerinde za-
manla ryp kmesi sonucu kayarak yerde ol-
sonucu
Tabak, kaideli ve bir izgi bezemesi var-
ark olmakla birlikte ikinci bir Iyi kilden
ve eperi dzgn Daha ok "ucuz, defolu mallar"
Kase ve koku ve oranla daha kaliteli
Bu kap "iine seviye"de, tek tk Hellenistik kap
rastlanmakla birlikte, IT anak ok daha fazla
1:6 Bu oran 1:7, 1:16 olarak IT lehine artarak,
30 cm. lik dolguda devam etmektedir. Bu alandaki kstebek faaliyetinin srek-
ve gz nne yer
daha iyi
297
Bu kesimde 18D gibi arada belirgin steril bir dolgunun bu-
iki nedeni 1) Bu kesim,
en yksek blmdr, bir yama 2) Hellenis-
tik mimarinin temelleri daha derine kadar iniyor ve temel
ken eski
anak mimarinin bu dolgunun al-
biri kuzeyde, gneyde olmak zere dzlemdeki iki alanda, a-
nak mlek (Resim: 7). Bu dzlem 1995
18U ve 17U anak ve aralarda kk
buluntular ieren D Sz konusu alanlardan
gneydekinin hemen kuzey bitiminde Hellenistik Dnem'in K-G
daki duvar temelinin tahrip byk, sert dzgn yzeyli, kirli beyaz renk-
li bir ortaya halen temelin
da devam etmektedir. hemen bulunan byk-
e siyah bir ait zerinde "in situ" duran bir ka-
ba ait ngrlmektedir.
Gneydeki alan K-G Hellenistik a-
ma, D (baulk) hemen nndeki 1.25x 2.5 m. lik alana du-
(Resim: 8). anak ok alet
ve orta boy yer yer "kavisli" yz vermesi da-
ha alt dzlemde bir ortaya glendirmektedir.
bir bu kuzey bir kerpi
bir ortaya beklenmektedir. Gelecek mevsiminde bu duvar

KD' da, kesimin giren kuzeydeki alan
iindeki anak ok daha gibi gzkyorsa da, 2x2.5 m.
sbe biimli bir alan iinde burada da bir var-
etmektedir.
18 T-19T (Resim: 9, 10, ll)
Geen 18T Hellenistik
iinde damdan kirernitlerin kalarak yerde
veya daha yksekten etrafa..
bir mekan (Resim: 9) ve 1998). Bu bu
D 18- i 9T 1 m.
"araba yolunu" Bu alanda, ait, bir kp, kaplara ait
paralar, ve in situ duran kk kaideli bir kase ve hemen yan yatan,
bu kasenin iinde tahmin tek kulplu minik bir bu-
lundu (Resim: 10). Bu grupta bulunan en ilgin buluntu ise ok ama
durumdaki demir Mutfak dzleminin 6
no'lu duvara geen ucunu u-
kurunun ortaya "8" biimli 2 x 1 m. 5-10
cm. ukurda sadece cins ve hemen hemen byklkte
Tcrnizlenmek ve konserve edilmek zere Prehistorya getirilen balyoz halen arke-
olog-restoratr Yksel Dede
298
kabuklar Geen da bu ukurun dikkati ve
benzerinin 1994 lSD Bu
ne ile ilgili elimizde henz yeter-
li yok ancak bu tip yemek ama-
belli sreler iin
20
Bu KD geen Hellenistik
(H2) evrenin prehistorik bir K (Resim: 12). Bu
K rastlayan bir blm Hellenistik Dnem'de 1995-
96 ukur D yak-
KKB-GGD ynnde uzanmakta, K ama iinde,
de nnde bir yay izerek GGD'ya dnmekte. Bu zerinde, byk bir
sbe biimli bir ait, ortalama S cm. , sert
taban bir blm yer
Gneyde yine kavisli dnerek GB'ya G
hemen gneyinde kesime 100 x SO cm. lik bir alana
ince bir blme ile bir bek anak bulunmakta-
IT'ye ait boyunlu, iri kulplu siyah bir kaba ait paralar, zerine bir ktle-
nin (?) sonucu yerde ve etrafa
evresinde kaplara ait paralar ve birer tane ve vurgu Bu
K'inde, zamanda duvar 30x40 ve 40x50 cm.
da, henz iki kk blme yer
ana 6-S cm. ince yanyana dizilmesi
ve ortalama 10 cm. bol kumlu bir kerpi ile
blme ise 4-5 cm. sadece kerpiten
hafif yuvarlak olarak alan 17-
lSD kalkerli kesekli toprak ile evrilidir, bu
toprak iinde malzeme yok denecek kadar
Bu amada bir geen
kesiminde yer alan, dal rgl kerpi K zerinde kub-
beli bir ortaya sbe biimli tam K
ne yanmadan tr sert tabanI i ve alak kubbelidir.
b- atak
X
Geen K dzlemlerdeki anak
ve nesneler ile belirlenen 3 evre ancak ait mi-
mariyi kesin olarak Bu bu alanda daha anaka-
yaya kadar ancak ok gitmesi bu ama-
nemli bir rol Bu amada 20 cm. ka-
dar ve KB-GD ynnde uzanan ve buna dik ile ge-
len KD-GB ynnde kumlu kerpiten iki duvar izi ortaya Bu izlerin yak-
1.50 m. sbe biimli 1.50 x 0.80 m. henz
beyaz killi bir alan Duvar izlerinin
299
alanda bol miktarda anak bulunmakla birlikte taban olabilecek herhan-
gi bir dzleme de
1997 Elde Edilen Sonular
Bu elde zetlersek,
a) atak'ta iki amada anakayaya sonucu bu amalarda-
ki
b) Anakaya iindeki ceplerin dzeltilerek
ilk daha kuzeye ola-
glendirmektedir.
c) amalardaki prehistorik zellikle bu dnem
sinin daha iyi ve gelecek mimari ve
buluntular daha iyi etmektedir.
d) atak'ta bu prehistorik
mimari ile ilgili bilgilerin daha iyi bilgi ta-

Genel Sonular (izim: 1, 2)
Bu kadarki elde edilen genel
zetlersek, byk bir kesimi deniz tahrip atak'ta
Hellenistik Dnem' e ait temelli st mimarisi
olan, depo yerleri ve nitelikteki ile, bir iftlik
G'deki son iri ile
ikisi Arkaik ait kfeki bi-
birer antik mezar steli Yzeylerinde herhangi bir de-
sen ya da gsteren iz yoktur. Byk bir me-
zar olacak ancak bu kyn sakinleri de
bu getirerek Bu var-
evrede Arkaik Dneme ait kadar bilinmeyen bir
gstermesi nemlidir. yerle bir olan ve av-
ludaki zerini rten kiremitlerle gibi me-
zerine Avluda tabana gml depo kpleri ve amforalar
Mutfak bir iindeki ok sa-
nitelikteki gnlk ve anak mlek, dneminin
tipik zelliklerini birlikte belirgindir. Daha nceki
avludaki bir yerinde olan krek ve iindeki yer-
boylardaki ivilerin
bu mutfakta demir balyoz, demirin
nu gstermektedir. Bu da yap-
ve midyeleri veya sadece henz nedenlerini bilmedi-
amalar iin
Bu yer yer Hellenistik Dnem ilk
Tun gelmektedir. Bulunan malzeme daha ok Troya I-II ve
Bulgaristan Sveti Krilovo evresi ile benzerlik gstermektedir. Ilk Tun
300
ince steril bir katrnan ile hemen zerinde Toptepe ve
3. tabakadan Orta Kalkolitik Dnem' e ait bir tabaka daha var-

en st dzlemi iinde anak
aralarda alet yer yer hayvan kemikleri, kemik aletler
ve midye dzlem grlmektedir. Bu tabakaya ait
hi biri iin bazen tam yz vermeyen kerpi
duvarlar bazen de izlerinin
diziler kerpi dikme dizilerinin
evresinin bol kumlu killi toprak ile ukur
sbe birbirleri
lerdir. daralan kesimine bazen alak kubbeli bir ol-
grlmektedir. iinde dikmelerle bl-
meler de
anakaya iindeki ukurluk ve ceplerin
dzeltilerek ilk
daha kuzeye ve glendirmektedir.
kesimde ise Hellenistik Dnem'e ait daha iyi ve bulunan
anak dayanarak daha elit bir bir
Bunun oranla daha olan Ilk Tun gelmek-
tedir. Tek tk Kalkolitik anak rastIanmakla birlikte bu kesimde henz
Tun ve atak'ta ol-
gibi Orta Kalkolitik tabaka ile bir olup henz
belli Bu kesimde IT mimarisi ile ilgili elimizdeki yegane mimari
birbiri zerine tabanlar ve zerinde yer alan ok anak
ve ara gereleridir. Ilgin olan ve atak'
toprak zelliklerinin olduka Bunun nedenleri henz bilin-
memekle birlikte, mimaride malzemeden ngr-
mekteyiz.
.. , Kuzey Marmara hykler gibi,
M.O. 3. bin Anadolu ticaret bir merkez ol-
Bu dnemde Troya gibi, Kuzey Anadolu'nun byyen
merkezlerinin, zellikle deniz yolu ile olan ticarete nem Trakya
boyunca, liman olan dere kk
Bu i kesimleri ile olan ticareti
1998: 130- 132) ortaya IT
Dnem'ine ait koloni bu ticaret merkezlerinin duru-
mu daha da Hellenistik Dnem'de kk bir liman
olarak olup verilerle bilmemekteyiz. 1996
bir ekibi nnde dalarak bir n tarama yap-
ancak dalgalar deniz
bir kum ile varsa bile her hangi bir
engelleyici nedenlerdir. Epigrafya sonucu bir liman
olma bir yer ileride daha
malar gndeme getirilebilir.
301
KAYNAKA
MA, A. ZDOGAN, 1997, 1995 Sonu Bilimsel Raporu", VIl.Miize
Kurtarma Semineri, s.89-98.
M.A.,A. ZDOGAN, 1998, 1996 Sonu Bilimsel Raporu", VIlI.Mze
Kurtarma Semineri, s.363-379.
ZDOGAN,M.,1994, "Marmara Blgesi-Balkanlar-Orta Anadolu Kronoloji Sorununa Yeni
Bir XL. Trk Tarih Kurumu Kongresi, s. 69-79.
ZDOGAN, M., H. PARZINGER, N. KARUL 1998, 1996 XIX.
Sonularz I, s.123-149
302
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Resim 1: denizden atak, solda atak, ortadaki


blm, Deresi'nin
Resim 2: denizden solda atak, atak ve arkada
1997 kurtarma Harekat Tepe Tmls
305
Resim 3: 17-18U
Resim 4: 17 U; mimarisine ait arkada kerpi bir duvar, nde dikme
306
Resim s: 17 D; anakaya iinde olarak "cepler"
Resim 6: 17 D; alandabuluntu
307
Resim 7: 19T-U; st Hellenistik dnem ait duvarlar. dzlemde tahrip ocak
ve anak en st IT dzlemi
Resim 8: 19T-U; anak ve nesnelerden topluluk
308
Resim 9: 18-19T; 1996 blm
Resim 10: bu blm
309
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*
1997 GKEADA- HVK

Halime HRYILMAZ*
Nurten
anakkale yer alan Gkeada, genelolarak
ani ykselen sarp andezit tepeleri ve iine derin vadileriyle dikka-
ti ekmektedir. nemli jeomorfolojik birimleri yer alan Byk-
dere Vadisi, Kaleky, Bademli, ve Zeytinli modern yerleri ta-
Vadinin en nemli akarsuyunu Byk De-
re' nin kk bir tepe grnmnde olan Yenibademli Hyk'te a-
nakkale Arkeoloji Mzesi ve Mzeler Genel
izinleriyle 1997 Temmuz ve iinde arkeolojik de-
vam
ilk mevsiminde gibi, 1997 Troia
Sn. Prof.Dr. Manfred Gkeada Belediye Sn.
Halil ve Gkeada Sn. Mustafa Hulusi
maddi ve manevi destekleriyle gnlden des-
tekleyen anakkale Valisi Sn. Ekrem Ozsoy, Rize Vali Sn. Hasan
Ttn Yenibademli Hyk 1996 gibi, 1997
da Ekibimiz ve ilgi ve
her zaman iin 1997 Yenibademli Hyk ka-
bulunan kurulu yele-
rine, tm kurum ve sunanzs.
Yrd.Do.Dr. Halime HRYILMAZ. Hacettepe niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi Protohistorya ve
OnasyaArkeolojisi Anabilim Beytepe-ANKARA
Nurten SEVIN, Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr, ANAKKALE
(1) 1997 Yenibademli Hyk kurul yeleri: Arkeolog Hlya Blbl Akyol.Arke-
olog Grses, Arkeolog Funda Gk, H. .Edebiyat Fakltesi Meltem Hakan
, Tolga ve Sezin Tekin. .
(2) i 997 Yenibademli Hyk ve Mzeler Genel Mdr!
Hava Radar Mevzi 5.KomandoAlayl ve Garnizonu, Atatrk Anadolu
Lisesi ve Tapu Kadastro Sn.Sadettin
Sn. Hikmet Sn. Bseyin Sn. Recep Erden, Sn.Ilhan Gr, Sn.Gler
Sn. Ersin Grbz ve Sn.Nevzat maddi ve manevi ynden destek
311
1997 teras ta E 10, gneyde
layan yer F 11 ve kesiminde H 10 plankarele-
rinde olmak zere alanda (izim: 1).
A. BATI TERASTA YAPILAN
1996 E 9 bir blm ve "Dikdrtgen
olarak mimari durumunun
terastaki ana hedefi Bu nedenle daha nce E
9 gneyine, 5x10 m. yeni bir ama ilave E
10 1997 sonucu bir mimari drt ya-
evresi ve yer belirlen-

alanda, birinci evrede iki duvar ortaya (izim: 2).
Bunlardan 1 no lu duvar 2 no lu duvar ise
istikametinde 1 no lu ynde devam
eden blmnn tahrip nedeniyle ucu do-
kesitinde, 1 no lu duvarla 2 no lu yndeki uzan-
ise gney kesit iinde
2 no lu duvar i. Troia Dnemi 'ne ait tunel
kulplu anak topraktan ve zeri "V"
linde bezeklerle bir figrin ele (Resim: 1). Kuzey-
Anadolu figrinlerine kalan bu rnek, daha ok Yuna-
nistan' da Erken He\las Dnemi ncesine tarihlenen Sitagroi II3 ve 1II4
melerinde bulunan tipleri
1 ve 2 no lu kalan mekanda, drt evre Bu
levhalardan bir
(Resim: 2). Birinci evreye ait dzleminde, LTro-
ia Dnemi iin karakteristik keramik rneklerinden bol miktarda kmr
tanecikleri, byk hayvan kemikleri ve midye Me-
kan iinde ikinci evreye ait taban dzlemi zerinde ele geen ift ip delikli tu-
ve zerinde entik bezemeleri olan keramik rnekler, bu ev-
renin de i. Troia Dnemi ile ortaya alanda
nc evreye iri dikkati (Resim: 3).
1 ve 2 no lu duvarlarla olmayan bu gerek mimari karakteri,
ancak ortaya konulabilecektir. Bu evreye ait taban
renkte olup, gney kesiti tespit
Drdnc evreye iin, nc evrenin iri
sonra, kuzey ve yer yer korunan taban para-
k\l bir alan tespit Bu taban dzleminde bulunan ke-
ramik rnekler, 1996 E 9 ve Gelibolu yzey
Burada ilgili yneticilerine ve geen zverili ve destekle-
ri iin candan ederiz.
(3) M.Gimbutas, "Mythical Imagery of Sitagroi Society" : CRenfrew, M.Gimbutas, E.S.Elster (Ed.) Ex-
cavations at Sitagroi. A Prehistoric Village in Northeast Greece. YoU, Los Angeles, California 1986,
236,293, Fig.9.22 (84).
(4) a. e, 276,296, Fig. 9.126 (136).
312
benzerleridir. Alet olarak bir
ve bir ekiten taban byk bir blmn hayvan ke-
mikleri
Mekan iinde gibi, mekan
da drt evre tespit Bu ilk evresinde dzenli bir mimari plan
vermeyen durumdaki iki bulunurken, ikin-
ci evrede ynde kavisli edilen bir konstrksiyon or-
taya (Resim: 4). Bu konstrksiyonun kuzeyinde ve olmak
zere birer adet ele Konstrksiyonun i kalan
alanda 1,20 m. uzunlukta ve 0,20 m. bir alan B-
yk ve kk hayvanlara ait kemik, ve midye
bu gznne hem birinci evrede, hem de ikin-
ci evrede beslenme ynelik olarak
alanda nc evrede et-
orta byklkte basit bir ocak Bu
benzerine 1996 E 9 da Ocak iinde
daha ok mutfak ait paralardan birinci ve ikinci evrede oldu-
gibi, ok hayvan kemikleri ele Drdnc evreye
kuzey kesit ve taban zerinde kil tespit edil-
Bu evrenin byk hayvan kemiklerinden
genelde siyah, kahverengimsi mutfak ait gvde ve sahte
tunel kulplu anaklara ait yer Troia i kltr karakteri-
nin her drt evrede de devam ortaya
Mekan iinde birinci evreye ait ve kuzey
kesit kmelenen bir mimari btnlk gz-
(Resim: 5). seviye boyunca enkaz grnmn koruyan bu
yer alanda, geen "Diktrtgen uzun du-
yndeki beklenmesine bu duvara ait olabi-
lecek Bu durumda "Dikdrtgen uzun
iki ama kalan ve henz alanda yaparak ya kuzeyba-
ya da E 10 iinde kalan tahrip
Her seviyede ortaya durumda bulunma-
bugn iin nedenini bir tahribata etmektedir. Bu
tahrip alandan toplanan keramik rnekler, en bu Eski Tun
bitiminden nce meydana ortaya
E 10 kesiminde 0,68 m inilmesine her-
i hangi bir mimari Bu alanda yzeyden 0,30 m. derin-
. de, ilk kltr st seviyesinde ele geen topraktan bir ka-
figrini Eski Tun II Dnemi'nde Gkeada ve Midilli
da kltrel belgelernesi nemli Ayakta
duran bu figrinin tipinde olan rnekler, Thermi III6 ve IV
7

(5) "Gkeada-Yenibademli Hyk 1996 Kurtarma XIX. KST I, Ankara
1998,364.
(6) Excavations atThermi in Lesbos, Cambridge 1936, 152, Lev, No. 30-31; W.
Lamb Ye R.WHutchinson, "Excavations at Thermi in Lesbos, Seasons 1928-1929,1929-1930", BSA
XXX, 1928-29/1929-30,32, Ley.VIII, 30-31.
(7) W'Lamb, Excavations at Thermi in Lesbos, Cambridge 1936,52, Lev.Xx, 30-28 Ye 31-37.
313
rinden Bu tiplerin daha erken rneklerine Tesalya Blgesi'nde
Pyrgos'tae, ge rneklerine ise Olteniya Blgesi'nde Salkutsa'da-

Mimari iki mevsiminde E 9 ve E 10 ortaya
henz bir btnlk terastaki yerle-
belirgin bir ortaya Bununla bir-
likte 1996 "Dikdrtgen iinde veya ele
geen ok kemik, toprak ve madenden alet-
leri, E 9 daha ok atlye gibi
tr. Buna E 10 hayvan kemikleri ile
ve aletlerine fazla bu daha ok beslenme
bir yer ihtimalini
B. RAMPA ALANINDA YAPILAN
F II plankaresinde yer alan rampa
bu blgenin temizlenmesi ve yzeyde grlen izilmesi
mevsiminde sur bedeni ve buna yas-
lanan korkuluk ile, kuzey kesiminde yer alan
bir blm 1997 ise, taraftaki korkuluk
ile, gney blmnde yer alan izimi tamam-
(izim: 3). Temizlik korkuluk g-
olan ve yeni bulunan birka ile, O, 21 m.
olan ait bir sve izime ilave Korunan 9,30 m. ye
korkuluk ise, daha iyi olup, korkuluk
na paralel Her iki korkuluk kalan ge-
2,50 m.
Eski Tun ve Myken Dnemi kap bir arada
daha ok hykten rampa yzeyine srklenen malzemeler
de Fakat 1996 kuzey kesiminde, yzey-
den 0,20 m. derinde ele geen yerel Mykent? ait bu-
bu en Ge Tun orta-
ya
C. HYGN DOGU YAPILAN
ve tabakalara gre
dzeni ile ilgili bilgileri elde etmek H 10 plankaresinde LO x lO'luk
bir alanda Bu sonucunda ynlerde
uzanan oniki duvar Korunan ykseklik seviyelerine gre nu-
bu oniki duvardan, ancak tanesinin temel seviyesi-
ne kadar H 10 mimari nedeniy-
(8) C.Marangou, Figurines et miniatures du Neolithique Recent et du Bronze Ancien en Grece, Oxford
1992,323, Fig. 23 g.
(9) O.Hckmann, Die Figuralplastik der. sdosteuropdischen Jungsteinzeit und
Steinkupferzeit, Hildesheim 1968, 137, 155, Lev.46, 1661.
(LO) "Gkeada-Yenibadernli Hyk 1996 Kurtarma KST I, Ankara
1998,367.
314
le, sadece kalan alanlarda bu-

ait bu duvarlar ya dz ya da kavisli in-
(izim: 4). Bunlardan 4,88 m. 1 no lu duvar,
istikametinde olup, byk bir blm tahrip Bu zerine
denk ele geen bir figrini, Anadolu Es-
ki Tun II figrinleri cinsel alan iinde gsteril-
nem 3 no lu duvar,
da 4,78 m. ve 0,50 m. olan bu
yndeki 1 ve 2 no lu duvarlar Bu du-
ucu, kesit iinde 3 no lu duvara paralel edi-
len ve bir ait LO no lu duvar ise 2,40 m
uzunlukta ve 0,70 m. Bu 1 no lu du-
3 ve 4 no lu sonradan edilen 1,30
m. 6 no lu bugn iin
Ama iinde korunan en uzun duvarlardan biri 4 no lu Kuzey-
ucu kavisli edilen bu 6,56 m. dir. 4 no lu
kavisli nne edilen 5 no lu duvar ise, daha ve g-
yndeki 4 no lu kavsine do-
kesitinden ve kavisli edilen 9 no lu duva-
duvarlardan olarak pithos da
4 ve 5 no lu uyum 9 no lu ancak iki
ortaya
Kuzey kesitten ve henz en alt 2 no
lu duvar, kavisli 4,25 m.,
0,66 m. olan bu byk bir blm, ama-
Bu enkaz olarak
belirlenen kil 2 no lu duvarda
Olduka muntazam edilen 7 no lu ucu, 5 no lu du-
vara ucu alan iinde
4,25 m. 7 no lu ve 5 no lu drder
ortaya Bu her iki gney belirgin bir
kerpi
1,80 m. 11 no lu duvar ancak belli
bir oranda sonra
Gerek birbirine paralel, gerekse ynlerde kavisli edilen duvar
bu bir iskan sz ko-
nusudur. Kavisli edilen Anadolu Eski Tun gelene-
uygun olarak apsidal ait ya da Thermi
sinde kavisli dikdrtgen ait an-
cak H LO nmzdeki
H LO gney blmnde 4,5 ve 7 no lu
alanda, bir ortaya Bu
da, Orta Anadolu'da lll, ise Thermi J!z de bili-
(ll) E.F.Schmidt, The Alishar Hyk, Seasons of 1928 and 1929, YoU, OIP 19, Chicago 1932,54, Fig.
62, b 309.
(12) W. Lamb, Excavations at Thermi in Lesbos. Cambridge 1936, 177, Lev.xXVI, No. 30-54,31-73.
315
nen bir idol srdrlen sonu-
cunda, kesimde st seviyede bir alt
seviyede gney kesit korunan iri
kk bir alanda sapan (Resim: 6) ve
da tanesi olarak
bir
4 no lu ve kalan gen bir
alanda, belirlenen yzey itibaren 1,25 m.
derine Bu gen alanda toplam evre belirlenmesine henz ana
kayaya 4 no lu duvardan
ikinci evreye ait mermer bir figrin Erken Kiklad i
Dnemi figrinlerini bu figrinin, korunan
de Yz ve sol bu figrinin boynu
uzundur.
1 ve 3 no lu duvarlar ile, kesit ara-
iin Ancak bu alanda da, bel-
li bir derinlikten sonra, 10 no lu duvara Bu duvar da koru-
narak, onun kuzeyindedar biralanda devam evrenin sap-
bu 1,35. m. derine inilmesine ana kayaya
Birinci evrenin taban dzleminde siyah kk bir mlek
iinde bir kemik (Resim: 7) bulunurken, ikinci evrede
kl ve kmr tanecikleri, bu bir maruz ortaya
tur. Bu evrenin gaga.. bir testi, biri
bikonik iki Unc evrede de devam
lan kmr tanecikleri ilebirlikte, iri pithos ve kil
dan mimari Ilk evrede gibi, drt,
ve evrelerdeEski Tun keramik rneklerinden daha er-
kene tarihlenebilecek buluntular tespit
H 10 nedeniyle,
1 no lu kuzeyinde 4,50 x
2,00 m. lik bir alanda olanaklar lsnde 2,30 m. Toplam do-
kuz evrenin bu kltr dolgusunda iki duvar ( No. 8 ve 12) ve bir d-
ortaya nc evreye
ait 8 no lu sadece yzn
nc evreyi belirleyen taban zerinde iri pithos ve
da taneleri ele Bir sona n-
c evrenin taban dzlemi zerindeki izlerinin, 1 no lu gneyin-
de de devam Drdnc evre gibi mimari saptan-
evrenin, en nemli gaga bir testi ve daha ok
bir figrin (Resim: 8) ile temsil evre bulun-
drt delikli bir kapak'> (Resim: 9) ve sembolik anlam-
(13) Yenibademli Hyk 1996 ve 1997 ele geen 10 adet insan
(14) Mutedil denizlerde ve 50-60 cm. ye bu iki alt tr
daha ok "Zeus faber faber" (Dl ger zelliklerine sahip olup, halk
"Peygamber olarak Bu konuda bize bilgi veren Sn. Dr.Heinrich Bremere te-
ederiz.
(L5) Bu tr kapaklar Troia'da D 15 tipi olarak C.W.Blegen v.d., Troy General fntro-
duction, The First and the Second Settlements, Princeton 1950, Lev. 232:37.982.
316
da topraktan bir balta' (Resim: 10) bulun-
Yedinci evreye ait mimari
bir Mimari tespit
sekizinci evreden sonra, dokuzuncu evrede olduka iyi 12 no lu
duvar ortaya st ste iki bu
mimari karakteri, ancak belli bir oranda sonra
1997 H 10 yrtlen sonucunda,
ok Bu ve kerpi ana
gelerindendir. Henz mleki ET'da
(Troia i ettikleri henz bir btnlk ve
alanlar iinde
bilgilerimizin neden H 10 Troia i evresi
keramik envanterin bir btn
tr. Ancak bu amada henz anakayaya altta Troia i ncesi
var Troia i hemen s-
tnde daha sonraki devirlere tarihlenen zellikle stratig-
rafi daha bir
Arkeolojiye gnl bir haber vermesi zeri-
ne, ekibimiz sahilinde Boz Dere'nin denize kesimde
yeni bir tarih ncesi yerini ziyaret (Resim: ll). "Vaniyeri" ola-
rak bu keramik rnekleri gerek hamur ve astar, gerek-
se form ve bezerne Yenibademli Hyk ve Troia i
lerinden de kap olmayan bir kltrn rnlerini
belgelemektedir.
Oval grnml ve anakaya zerine kurulan bu gney yama-
ift delikli bir Dnemi'ne ait bir anak
yzey olduka kaba keramik
yer burada Troia I'den daha erken bir dnemin de ya-
etmektedir.
(16) topraktan balta rnekleri Troas Blgesi'nde ele "Sa-
olarak bu rnekler gnlk trden biim
dan da Yenibademli M.Korfmann, Vorbericht ber die Ergeb-
nisse der Grabung von 1982", Archaeologischer Anzeiger 174/2,]984, M.Korfmann,
ve - 1983 On Raporu", VI.KST, 1984, 109.
317
D i E
'd'"'''' so i
996
EI 1997
1996-1997
izim: 1
. YENIBADEMU
o
o
L-_
PLANKARESI E 10 1997
o

. O.
o
l'llor - - _.-.
;
!
i
f
!
i
i
i
;
i
,
,
,
,
i
i
i
!
,
!
!
!

f
........
".......
IO"hl
izim: 2
318
, .
... -..-. .._., ..' -, ."..-.""..---;


" ,
i
izim 3: YenibademIi Hyk 1997
i ru plankaresi
4--_.-
izim 4: YenibademIi Hyk 1997 HI0 plankaresi
319
Resim: 1
Resim: 2
320
Resim: 3
Resim: 4
321
Resim: 5
Resim: 6
322
Resim: 7
Resim: 8

Resim:9
323
Resim: 10
Resim: 11
324
*
1997 TEPE
Hayat ERKANAL*
. Mahallesi'nde bir yanmada zerinde bulunan Liman Te-
pe, yolu ikiye blnmekte, bu yola gre
da gney ve kuzeyolmak zere ikiye (izim: 1).
1997 daha ok yolun gneyinde kalan gney
kuzey ise belli problemlere ynelik sondaj
1997 grup halinde mmkndr.
1. Gney yrtlen (izim: 1/1);
2. Kuzey yrtlen sondaj (izim: 1/2-3) ve
3. Korumaya ynelik
GNEY ALANINDA YRTLEN
Gney daha nceki i kale savunma sistemine ait
bir bastiyon ve sur (izim: 1/1; Resim: 1). Bastiyon
Prof. Dr. Hayat ERKANAL, Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi Arkeoloji ve Sa-
nat Tarihi Blm, ,
(I) 1997 KUltr ve Mzeler Genel Institute for Aege-
an Prehistory (INSTAP), A.U. Dil ve Fakltesi ve Trk Tarih Kurumu des-
Tm bu kurum yetkililerine kurulu olarak candan ederiz. Urla Belediye
her 1997 da maddi, manevi her trl
byk Belediye Av. Blent olmak ze-
re tm Urla Belediyesi tqekkr bir bor etin Ttncler,
Hakan Bergman ve Ramazan Liman Tepe ilgilerini 1997 da esirge-
maddi daha da Bu
.. .. ..
(2) 1997 Liman kurul ye.leri:.B..y. Edebiyat fakltesi Uye-
Prof. Dr. Armagan Erkanal; Atatrk U. Uyesi Yard. Do. Dr. Serdar
Girginer; Akdeniz Grevlisi Tuncel;A.U. Dil ve Fa-
Gr. H.U. Edebiyat Fakltesi Gr. Aykurt; Arkeolog Di-
lek , Arkeolog zlem Szen, Arkeolog Ozlem Ttncler; A.U. Vi! ve Fa-
kltesi Dilaver Atmaca, Nuray Cem Dzgn, Esra Glseven, Evrim Gzey,
Grkem Ko, Bilge.. Ozlem Oyman, Ozan Carrodo Rijavec, Fatma Burcu Yarar,
Zeynep H.V. Edebiyat Gknil Arda, Meryem Kocabay. Ebru Oral, Ha-
Ozatay, Ozbek, Blent Ege U. Edebiyat Fakltesi Soydan
Oguz Tayf,1.!,n Caymaz, Evren Koan, Elvan Turan; Atatrk U.
Semra Irtrk. Bursa Arkeoloji Arkeolog Recep Oku
Kltr temsilcisi olarak
(3) H.Erkanal ve ffHryllmaz, "I 992 Liman Tepe XV.KST I, Ankara 1994,367-369, Res. 5-
8; H. ," Early Bronze Aze Urbanization in the Coastal Region of Western Anatolia" , Housing
and Settlement in Anatolia. A /listorical Perspective, yay. haz. Y. Sey, Istanbul 1996,77, Res.8-9.
325
kerpi i dolguya sahip olup gneye, yani anakaraya daire
de rampa olan yz plaka halin-
deki kire muntazam bir tr edi-
len sur bastiyonla bastiyona Bu durum
gz nne i kale savunma sisteminde
daha sonra sur Bu
yntemle herhangi bir savunma sistemi boyunca

En az 5 m. ykseklikte korunan bastiyonun kesimi ok iyi
fakat buna kesimi Klasik ait bir kuyu ve bir
tahrip (Resim: 1). Bu nedenle de bastiyonun gerek ortaya
1997 hem bastiyonun gerek
ni tespit, hem de i getirmek i kenarlara yer-
lerde iki kk sondaj Bu sondaj sonucunda
bastiyon duvar ieriye uzanan drt duvar
Bu duvar iten iki duvar
ortaya bir sistemin ortaya Bu sisteme gre
bastiyon trapez veya daire hcre grnmnde kk
mekanlar Bu iki yan ve bir arka duva-
n tek halinde kire rlmektedir (Resim: 2). Hcrelerin i-
leri daha sonra ve toprakla doldurulmakta, ise
ru rampa rlerek Bylece bastiyonun evre-
sinde ileri bir hcre mekanlar zinciri ortaya
Bu teknik sayesinde iteki kerpi dolgunun ol-

Hcre mekanlardan bir tanesi iindeki toprak dolgu malzeme-
si, ok daha eski tabakalardan Bu malzeme iinde Erken Tun
I, Ge Kalkolitik ve Erken Neolitik seramik rnekleri bir
de tespit Bylece Liman Tepe'de ilk olarak Erken Neolitik sera-
mik rnekleri elde Bu sonucunda Liman Tepe'nin
ilk olarak Erken Neolitik iskan
Bastiyonla ilgili tm bu sonucunda byk lde
ortaya fakat bastiyonun gerek Alt sevi-
yelerde grlen gerek kadar tahmin edilen-
den daha fazla etmektedir. Gerek ortaya konabilme-
si iin mevcut gerekmektedir. Onmz-
deki bu tr bir olursa, bastiyonun kesiminin
lan ortaya konabilecek ve ancak o zaman kesin bir ls verilebile-
cektir.
daire bastiyonlar Ege'de ilk kez Liman Tepe'de
grlmez. Yunanistan'da Lerna'da-, Syros-Kastri'de> ve Naxos-Panormos'
ta
6
takriben dneme ait daha kk boyutlarda bastiyonlar
Hatta Anadolu'nun i kesimlerinde, Burdur-Kuruay'da daha eski bir d-
(4) J. L. Caskey, "Excavations at Lema", Hesperia 26,1957,154,157.
(5) E. M. Bossert, "Kastri auf Syros", Deltion 22, 1967,57-59.
(6) C. Doumas, "Notes on Early Architecture", Archaologische Anzeiger 87, 1972, 161-163.
326
nemde yuvarlak bastiyonlar Fakat tm bu
Liman Tepe bastiyonu gerek nedeniyle, gerekse nede-
niyle bir nem
Bu gl savunma sisteminin nnde, daha ana kadar
tek bastiyonun nnde, 1992 Erken Tun a-
II'ye ait iki mimari tabakada tespit ok dar bir
alanda bu bir apsidal evin
ve bir byk ortaya fakat daha bilgiye ula-
Erken Tun II'ye ait i kale daha bir ifadey-
le bastiyon getirme bastiyonun gne-
yindeki alanda Bu yeni daha
nceki M.O. 6. ait mimari tespit ilk ola-
rak bu Arkaik ortadan .
sonra seviyede 5 adet ocuk tespit
Bu mezardan 3 tanesi sanduka, iki tanesi ise mlek mezar-
Sanduka mezarlar kire dik olarak kullanarak El
iki mezar blgeye (Resim: 3,4). Bu tr
mlekler Troya VIIb gibi bu tr
seramik rneklere Blegen "Barbar iki rnek saye-
sinde Anadolu'yu istila eden Trakya kkenli etnik Izmir'e kadar indi-
kesin olarak ortaya
Bu alanda iki grup seramik malzemeyle
Orta Tun seramik rnekleri ba-
daha ok Ge Tun malzemesi Neticede
deniz seviyesinden takriben 1,40 m. ykseklikte bir tabakaya
Bu tabakada yer yer veya tespit
bir istikametinde uzanmakta, sanki ba-
sit bir evin Bu tabakaya ait mimari
da daha bilgi vermek 1997 iin mmkn Bu tabaka-
dan ele geen seramik buluntular boya bezekli kyliks kaide
olduka Bu tr Miken rnekleri Frumark III
A 2 tipi olarak Bu nedenle bu mimari bu seramik
tipi ve tarihlendirilmesi gerekir. Daha se-
viyelerde bu tabakaya ait bir p ukuru ok tahrip
bu ukurun kenar rgleri yer yer Her ne
kadar belirgin bir mimari zellik tespit olsa da, Liman Tepe'de Mi-
ken ilk kez bir tabaka iinde bu ortaya olmakta-

Miken Dnemi 'ne mal edilen bu tabaka sonra, alt seviye-
lerde Erken Tun seramik malzemesiyle Buna kar-
srekli olarak Erken Orta Tun seramik r-
nekleri tespit Neticede Erken Orta Tun malzemesinin
alanda byk bir ortaya (izirn: 2; Resim: 5). Bu kuzeyba-
(7) R. Duru, Kuruay Hoyilk I, Ankara 1994, ll, Lev. 15.
(8) H. Erkanal, H. Hryrlmaz, "1992 Liman Tepe KST.l,Ankara 1993,368, Res. 6.
327
istikametinde kr duvar
grnmndedir. Bu bakan yz dzgn olup arka
bir bastiyona bu dayanma sonucunda bastiyon
byk lde tahrip Bu kr ucu, bastiyonu da tah-
rip eden bir Klasik kuyusu ucu ise dik
muntazam bir 5 m. korunan bu du-
mevcut ,98 m. dir. dzgn olan yz bel-
li bir teknik U halindeki iri toplama
tek levha halindeki kire yatayolarak
kapatan duvarda ise sadece iri boy toplama
3,30 m. bu 1,25 m. dir. Bu gney-
ucunda bulunan bir Klasik kuyusu
nc nemli da kr duvar grnmndedir.
yani i bakan yznde plaka halinde kire
bu en alt kaplama dikey, st
yatayolarak i yzn bu ar-
orta boy toplama dzensiz bir Bu nc
4,80 m., korunan ise 1,29 m. dir. Bu duvar
5 m. ve 4,20 m. dikdrtgen bir mekan
Bu 0,80 m. ve 4,20 m.
daha ince bir duvar Bu 0,60 m.
bir ok dar bir sahip bu dik-
drtgen iinde, takriben kk hcre
Bu hcrelerin 0,60 m. tek te-
mele sahip kerpi duvarlar Bu tek dar nnde
i m. ince uzun bir mekan Bu dar mekan ku-
tahrip kr duvara dayanmakta, ise 0,60 m.
temel zerine oturtulan bir kerpi duvarla
kesimleri alanlar iinde
Burada byk bastiyon nndeki kr duvarla bir teras du-
Bu teras nnde normal zemin inil-
ve tm bu mimari dzenlemeler zemin Hcre
dzenlemeler, ok dar mekanlar, mevcut zemin bu
depo olarak etmektedir. Bir zor geebile-
tek bir mekanlar bir yoktur. Bu
durum depo blmelerine daha ok gstermektedir. Burada
grlen ve gl ana duvarlarla bir yk Bu yk
de byk zemin zerindeki esas
Bu depo iinden ele geen seramik rnekler Orta Tun a-
en erken aittir. Bir tmlenebilen bu seramik rnekler, i
kale iinde Orta Tun 4. mimari
(Resim: 6).
Takriben deniz seviyesine kadar inen bu zemin depo bura-
da gereken Erken Tun II mimari zelliklerini byk apta tah-
rip Bu nedenle Erken Tun mimari zellikleri
kesiminde, yani Orta Tun zemin bir
328
alanda tespit (izim: 2; Resim: 5). Bu alanda grlen Erken Tun
II'ye ait bir sokak, bastiyondan gneye Bu yolun yas-
kaplama de olsa Yolun ge-
reken bina, Orta Tun tahrip Ancak bir
kk bir duvar bu ve yolun
etmektedir. Bu durum dikkate kaplama yolun 1,5 m. ge-
gerekir. Yolun bulunan ise ok iyi bir
vaziyette Bu yani yol boyunca uzanan
7,70 m. 0,85 m. korunan 1,34 m.
dir. Bu duvar her iki utan dik yapmakta ve
alan iinde devam etmektedir. iri ve orta boy
toplama fakat beIli bir rg Bu ya-
gerek mevcut gerekse iinden seramik rnekler gz nne
basit bir ev olarak gerekir. Iinden seramik r-
nekler, i kale iindeki koridorlu ev rnekleriyle dzeydedir. Bu nedenle
hem koridorIu evle hem de derecede nem syle-
nebilir.
Bu Erken Tun II iinde daha ok mika gri hamurlu,
kahverengi-gri seramik rnekler ele Kap olarak Troya
AI 6 tipindeki ie ekik anaklars; boyunlu, kresel gvdeli
mlekler (Liman Cups) olduka fazla grlmektedir. boyunlu, k-
resel gvdeli mlekler ok ince ve Buradan ele geen
ince kesik gaga bir testi hem olarak, hem de teknik
olarak koridorIu ev malzemesiyle benzer karakterdedir. Bu ele geen
malzeme grubu Erken Tun II'nin son evrelerine aittir. Bu sur
seramik ele koridorlu evin son evresiyle olmak-
Her iki sur ve koridorlu ev, karakterde malzeme ier-
diklerinden, dzeyde nem
KUZEY ALANINDA YRTLEN SONDAl
Daha nceki Liman Tepe'yi ikiye blen yolunun
hemen kuzeyinde Erken Tun I'e ait bir savunma sistemi
ve bu sistemin kuzeyinde dnemin sur ii mimari
getirilmek 1997 alanda
devam ve Erken Tun I'in 3. mimari
(izim: 112). Bu tabaka iinde mimari zellik olarak sadece ok
ve tahrip bir tespit kl katmanla-
iinden Troya A6 tipine giren iten anaklar, Tro-
ya A12 tipine giren anaklar, yksek kap kaideleri bir ele ge-
kl iinde urfirnis sos Er-
ken Kiklad II Dnemi'ne ait beyaz astar zerine koyu kahverengi boya bezeli
seramik tespit Bu tabakada bulunan seramik malzeme kar-
olarak Liman Tepe'de ortaya bu tabaka-
(9) C. W. Blegen ve Troy 12. General Introduction the First and Second Settlements, Princeton
1950, Lev. 263.
(10) H. Erkanal, S. Gnel , "1995 Liman Tepe XVIII. KST I, Ankara 1997,264-247.
(l i) C. W. Blegen ve Troy 12. General Introduction the First and Second Settlements , Princeton
1950, Lev. 257-260.
329
Erken Tun I'in son evrelerine tarihlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu ta-
baka Troya i ve Erken Kiklad n kltrleriyle Bu da ii-
ne alan Erken Tun i savunma sisteminin son 1997 da
Bu seneki sonunda savunma 2,70 m. lik bir

bir sondaj kuzey ger-
(izim: 1/3). Daha nceki burada yrtlen
sonucunda Erken Tun Ilnin en ge mimari yani 1. mimari ta-
ait bir yol Bu yolu
bir i zaman nedeniyle da
ilgili bilgiler noksan 1997 ok dar bir alanda da olsa
bu i duvar yola uygun olarak
istikametinde uzanmakta, ise dik
de bir yaparak alan iine girmektedir,
8 m. dir. ise 0,60 m. dir. edilirken levha halindeki kire
ve toplama birlikte Belli bir rg uygulan-
bu taban ve burada
bir apsidal eve ait yanyana kk boy toplama bir te-
mel Bu durumda bir apsidal ev zerine ol-
gre her iki belirgin bir zaman bulunma-
Apsidal evin uzun da istikamette, yani
istikametinde Bu uzun duvar apsis
Apsidal evin da 0,60 m.
duvar ise 4,80 m. dir. temel st kerpi kulla-
olabilir. Her iki mimari ancak
ortaya konabilecektir.
KORUMAYA
ok taban suyunu etkilemekte, taban
suyu zellikle ve ilkbahar 1,5 m. kadar ykselmektedir. Liman Te-
pe'de uzun sre su iinde kalan amur bu nedenle -
zlmekte ve duvarlar tehlikesiyle
Liman Tepe' de zellikle Erken Tun n bastiyonu ve koridorlu ev g-
ney taban suyunun ykselmesinden olumsuz ynde etkilenmektedir.
Bastiyonun i kerpi ve toprak dolgusu kesimlerde taban suyu
bu nedenle rgs kme Istanbul Tek-
nik Universitesi kerpi gz nne
rak bastiyon iinde 997 yeniden doldu-
Bu iin 5 ton dolgu malzemesi bozulan ve ka-
yan rg mimari izimler ve dikkate yeniden yer-
Tm bastiyonun gneyinde alt rg
bir alan orijinal yntem gz nne yeniden
Bylece bastiyon iindeki kerpi ve toprak dolgunun
byk apta Bu deneme mahiyetinde Ortaya
olumlu veya olumsuz sonular 998 kontrol edilecek ve bu so-
nular yeni koruma nlemleri
(12) Bu konuda bizleri Metin Ahunbay'a candan ederiz.
330
Koridorlu ev gney da taban suyunun ykselmesi sonucu
ma Duvar iinde bastiyonda uy-
gulanan yntemle yeniden byk atlaklar ve orijinal
teknik gz nne yeniden eski haline
Bu Teknik niversitesi kerpi prog-
ok kk kesimlerde malzeme denemeleri
1998 bu denemelerin etkenlere kont-
rol edilecek ve en daha alanlarda
SONU
1997 sonucunda Liman Tepe'de elde edilen yeni
sonular zetlenebilir:
Liman Tepe ilk olarak Erken Neolitik da iskan ve byk
Ge Tun kadar srekli olarak nemli bir merkezi
olarak antik Klazomenai dikkate olursa, srekli
Roma Devri'ne kadar devam etmektedir.
Liman Tepe M.. 2. binde kentin daha ok atlyeler semtini
Bu nedenle mimari zellikler genelolarak basit bir .
sahiptir. Liman Tepe'nin nemli
M.0. 2.bin merkezleri ve nemli daha gneyde, byk
antik Klazomenai
Erken Tun II'ye ait byk yeni bir sistem,
hcre sistemi Bastiyonu epeevre saran bu sistem sayesinde
st gereken kerpi i dolguyu ve
rgyil byk apta nlenmektedir.
Daha nceki Erken Tun II'nin basit konut-
mevcut 1997 de nemli
mevcut ortaya Hatta bunlar seramik mal-
zeme gz nne i kaledeki merkezi dzeyinde olabilmektedir. Bu
Liman Tepe'nin Erken Tun II' deki merkezi konumu daha ok
glenmektedir. Gerek ekonomik, gerek dini ve gerekse siyasi Liman
Tepe blgesel bir merkez olarak devreye ait evre
yerleri ya kk ky karakterinde, ya da savunma niteleri
Bunlar yolu zerinde bulunan
Kale Tepe kk, fakat gl bir savunma sistemine sahiptir. Bu savunma sis-
temi bir vadi iinden geen yolu kontrol
da bulunan ise bir kaya ktlesi iine Konglomera
tr bir sahip kayalar burada oyularak uygun mekanlar
Bu daha ok denizden gelecek tehlikelere
bir kale grnmndedir. evresindeki bu tr yerleri
de, Liman Tepe'nin merkezi konumuna getirmektedir.
331
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izim 1: Liman Tepe topografik ve genel grnm
332
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Resim 1: Erken Tun a II bastiyonu ve sur d u v a r
Resim 2: Bastiyon iindeki hcrelerden biri
334
Resim 3: Mezar olarak bir "barbar serami-

11lIIIIIIIIIIIIII11l
Resim 4: Mezar olarak bir "barbar
335
Resim 5: Gney Orta Tun ve Erken Tun II mimari
Resim 6: Orta Tun 4. mimari
ait bir kaideli kap
336
*
1997 BAKLA TEPE
Hayat ERKANAL*
Turhan ZKAN
konumu gz nne Bakla Tepe'nin gne-
yindeki tamamen hakim bir tepe zerinde grlr.
bir taraftan iki vadiyle denize, bir taraftan Izmir 'e, bir taraftan da
Kk Menderes (Kaystros) Vadisi'ne Bu nedenle Bakla Te-
pe hem ekonomik, hem de stratejik ok uygun bir yere Ay-
konuma, 2 km. gneydeki Tepe ve 6 km. gneydeki Kolop-
hon sahiptir! ... ve sonucunda Kolophon'un
daha ok M.O. 1. binde, Tepe'nin M.O. 2.binde, Bakla Tepe'nin ise
M.O.3. ve 4. binde sahne grlmektedir. Bu nedenle Bakla
Tepe'nin en eski Kolophon olarak yerinde
1996 kadar yrtlen sonucunda, Bakla Tepe'de 250 m.
bir Ge Kalkolitik ve bunun zerinde 90 m. bir
Erken Tun i tespit (izim: 1). 1997 bu yerle-
alanda devam
1. Erken Tun i (izim: 1/1);
2. Ge Kalkolitik Kuzey (izim: 1/2)
3. Ge Kalkolitik Gney (izim: 113)
ERKEN TUN AGI ALANI
Bu Bakla Tepe Erken Tun i blgesinin ke-
siminde (izim: 111). Burada
prof. Dr. Hayat ERKANAL,Ankara niversitesi, Dil ve Fakltesi, Protohistorya ve
Onasya Arkeolojisi Anabilim ..
Dr. Turhan OZ.KAN, Arkeoloji Mzesi Mdr, Konak-Iz.Mfk.
(I) H. Erkanal, T. Ozkan, "1996 Bakla Tepe KST I, Ankara 1998, ..
(2) 1997 Bakla Tepe kurul yeleri: Atatrk U. Edebiyat Fakltesi Uyesi
Yard. Do. Dr. Serdar H.U. Edebiyat Fakltesi Antropoloji Blm
dan Gr. Dr. Y Erdal, Gr. Dilek Erdal; G-
revlisi Tuncer; A.U. Dil ve Fakltesi Gr. H.U. Edebiyat
Fakltesi Arkeoloji Blm Gr. Aykurt; Antropolog Tlay zkan, Arkeolog Kadir
Bykulusol" Arkeolog Umit Arkeolog Dilek Neyir Kolonkaya. A.U. Dil
ve Tarih-Cografya Fakltesi arencileri Grkem Ko, Fatma H.U. Edebiyat
Fakltesi Koray Deniz, Meryem Kocabay, Ozbek, Blent
Haluk Ege U..Edebiyat Fakltesi Soydan Tayfun Caymaz,
Turan; Atatrk Universitesi Edebiyat Fakltesi Semra Irtrk.
337
hemen yzeyde istikametinde uzanan bir duvar tespit Bu
korunan 5,90 m., ise 0,90 m. dir. ucu .:
dik yaparak gneye ynelmekte ve bir mekan Gneydeki
duvar 4,30 m. olup, 1,16 m. bir sahip-
tir. mekan iinde kk boy toplama bir tespit
Bu mimari yzeye ok herhangi bir bulun-
tu Ele geen seramik rnekler de tek bir kltr
korunan duvarlarda iri i ve tarafa arada ka-
lan ise kiremit ve kk Ancak
bu kiremit dayanarak Roma Devri'ne tarihlemek mmkn
Bylece Bakla Tepe'nin en ge kltr bu
tespit
Roma Devri' ne ait bu ve gneyinde 11 adet mezar
Bu mezarlardan 7 tanesi basit toprak mezar, 3 tanesi kiremit-
leriyle ve geri kalan bir tanesi de tahta Tm mezarlar do-
istikametindedir. dz iskeletlerin
Mezar olarak ele geen bir demir ha ve iki kk testi Erken
Bizans Dnemi'ne aittir. bu dneme tarihlemek im-
kan dahilindedir.
Roma iinde bir de kp mezar (Resim: 1). Ka-
bartma bant bezeli kpn Bu kp mezar iinde 2 be-
bek iskeleti tespit Mezar olarak paralar halinde bir bronz kol-
ye, bir kk testi ve iki ele Kk testiye gre bu mezar
Ge Tun byk da M.O. 13. tarihlendirilmektedir.
Bu tarih 1996 ortaya Ge Tun oda da uymak-
tadrr>. Bylece 13. Bakla Tepe'de tmls karakterindeki oda
daha da mevcut ortaya
Bu tespit edilen en eski tabaka Erken Tun I'in en ge
temsil etmektedir (Resim: 2). Bu tabakada birbirine paralel iki duvar
Her iki duvar da istikametinde Bu du-
varlardan kuzeyde 7 m. lik bir gneyde ise 10,50 m.
lik bir Her iki da 0,70 m. dir. Bu duvar-
lar ve istikametlerinde, alanlar iinde devam etmektedir.
belli bir rme Kk boy topla-
ma dizilerek duvarlar Bu nedenle de duvarlar
gl srede ve yeniden
Gney zerinde evresi bir grlebilmektedir.
Duvarlar 4,80 m. dir. Tespit edilebilen ykseklikleri 0,92 m.
dir. Bu ykseklik iinde iki seviyede ocak
Burada iki uzun yan duvara sahip, ok evreli. bir sz konusudur. Bu evre-
lerden iki tanesi 1997 sonucunda tespit alt
daha eski evrelerin ortaya imkan dahilinde-
dir. Gneydeki da bir ocak
ocak da karakterdedir. Taban
nce kk daha sonra zerine seramik
(3) H. Erkanal. T. zkan, "1996 Bakla Tepe XiX. KST I,Ankara 1998,401-405.
338
dizit mektedir. Seramik par~alarinin uzerleri de ayrlca camur harc~yl a slvanmak-
t ad~r. Ocak tabanlari turn olarak ele gegmediginden, orijinal vekilleri tespit edi-
lememigtir. Daha ijnceki yllIarda apga qlkarrlan ocak tabanlari dikkate a1 rnlrsa,
oval bir gekle sahip ol mal ar~ miimkiindiir. Giiney duvar~ dlg~ndaki ocak tabanl
qevl-esi de normal ev taban1 go1-uniirnundedir. Tiim bu kal ~nt ~l ar rniigterek yan
duval-lr uzun evlere i ~a r e t etmektedir. Bu d u r u md a burada iig uzun ev ortaya GI -
karllrnq olmaktad~r. Bunlardan ortadaki her iki yan duvanyla, bu yan duvarlar~
paylagan jki komgu ev ise birer yan duvarla belirlenrnigtir. Bu iiq uzun evin ge-
net karakteri, 1995 yllinda a yga ykanl an diger uzun evlerle uyur n i ~i ndedi f l .
Bu uzun evler i ~i n d e n qkan serami k ornekler di kkate al l ~l ~r s a, turn uzun
evier a y n ~ donemi, yani Erken Tun$ Cag~ I' in en geq safhasl~lr ternsiI etmekce-
dir. Seramik ornekler ar-as~nda Troya A 12 tipinde keskin omuzlu, iqe qekik a g ~ z
kenarll qanaklar; A16 tipinde yuvarlak omuzlu, iqe qekik aglz kenar11 qanaklar
ve A25 tipinde basit agrz kenar l ~, tek kuIplu rnqrapalar qokunIuktadlr5.
Seramik ornekler drglnda bu k a z ~ alanlnda aynl Erken Tunc Cag~ 1 taba-
kas ~ nda iiq sera~nik idol ornegi bul unmugtur. Bu orneklerden bir tanesinin sade-
ce ~i i vde klsmr ele ge~ini+cir. Burada basit yassl gijvde iizel-inde iki ki i ~i i k GI -
krntl halinde kolIar belirlenrnigtir (Resim: 3laltta, ortada). Diger bir ornegjn sa-
dece alt k~srnl korunmuztur. Bu ornekte bir kaide uzerindeki govde yuvarlak bir
y aplya sahiptir (Resim: 3liistte, ortada). Ba p klrlk iiqiincii ornek o l d u k ~ a iyi ko-
runmugtur. Burada bacaklar plastjk olarak beljl+lenmigtir. Kollar ise ortadan bo-
hur nl u yassl bir qlklntl haljnde iglenmigtir (Resim: 31 sag bagta). B u idol tiirle-
Finin benzerlerini Anadolu'ya k o r n ~ i ~ Ege adalanndaki rnerkezlerde ve azellik-
le Thenni'de gorrnek rniirnkundiifl.
GEG KALKOL~TIK GAG KUZEY KAZI ALAN1
Bu alanda ilk olarak 1996 y111nda ~al l ?~l r nl g, 1997 y111nda alan bat1 istika-
metine, Erken Tunq Gag1 I yerlegimine dogru uzatrImlgtrr (Qizim: 112). 1997 yl-
11 ~al ~gmal ar l sonucunda k a z ~ alan~nin bat1 ucunda kuzey-giiney istikametinde
uzanan bir duvar tespit edilrnjgtir (Resim: 4). Bu duvar alanin giineyinde daha
iy i korunmug , kuzeye dogru tedricj olarak bozulmugtul: Korunan uzunl ugu 5,lO m.,
yuksekligi ise 2,10 m, dir. Orta biiyiiklukte toplama taglarla in2a edilen bu du-
vartn bat ~ya bakan yiizii rampa geklinde muntazam bir geluIde iglenrni~, dogu-
ya bakan kl sm~ ise kor duvar teknigiyle G ~ E Kalkolitik Gag tabakalarlnln olug-
turdugu yiiksekliie dayandlnlmlgtlr. Bu ozellikleri yle daha gok bir ~ e $ t teras
d u v a r ~ goriiniimiindedir. Bu teras duvarlnln bat~sinda, yani dl? klsmlnda karlgik
bir vekllde Erken Tunq Cagi I ve 11 seramigi tespit edilrnigtir. Seramik d~gl nda
teras duvar~ d ~ g klsrninda ayrlca iki nlertner ldol bul unmu~t ur (Resim: 3Jsol bag-
ta). Bat1 Anadolu ve Ege adalarlna ozgii b u tur idollerin benzel-leri Troya Z'de,
Beyccsultan 5. tabakada, Samos'ta ve daha bir qok merkezde goriijrnektedir7.
. . . . . . . - . . - . . . - . . .
(3)
F1. Erkanal, "Early Hronzc Age Urbanization in the Coastal Reoion of ,Western Anatulia", Horrsing
arid Settleyent ir;tinatolia. A Historical Perspecfive, av, haz. 8. Sey, IstanbuI 1996,73-74; H. Er-
kanal. ,T. Ozkan, 1995 Hakla ' kpe Kaz~l ar~", X V W !!ST 1, ~nkai - a 1997,265. Res. 2,
( 5) C. W. Blegen v.d., Troy 1 2. GenerrrI Introductiorl the First and SEOOI L~ Settlcrnents, Princeton 1950,
Let:. 129.
( 6)
W. Lamb, Excavations ui Tlzertni in Le~bus, Cambridge 1936, k v . XX 29-3, 32-32; XXI 30-41 ;
XXl l 2n-l
- - - .". - - ..
(7)
C. W. Bleoen v. d. , Troy I 2 . Genera/ Introduction the Ftrsf and Secotid Serrl~rner~tr, I'rince~on f 950,
Irv. I 27 Type 2; S. Lloyd, J. Mellaart, Beycesultcrr~ I , London 1462,266 Rcs. F 1.5-7; V Milojcic,
Sutt~ns I . Die Pral~istnrrrche Siedluug, Rorul 196 1 , 1. c~. 34-5.
Kk buluntular dikkate bu teras Erken Tun i d-
neminde Fakat hangi amala tam olarak an-
Erken Tun i savunma sistemi bir ait
imkan dahilindedir. Bakla Tepe zerinde bulunan Erken Tun i yer-
tepenin orijinal konumu sonucu kuzey ve dik bir yamaca, ve
gneyde hafif bir yamaca sahiptir. Hafif yamata ge-
reken savunma sistemi, Ge Kalkolitik iine bir hendek-
le daha kolay savunulur bir duruma olabilir. Bu kena-
mevcut teras ise evreleyen savunma
sistemiyle Bu konu ancak nmzdeki
sonunda
ERKEN TUN AG]] MEZARLAR]
Bu teras bulunan Ge Kalkolitik
1996 gibi gene Erken Tun i mezar-
drt mezardan ikisi basit
toprak mezar olup ikisi sanduka sanduka mezarlar Bak-
la Tepe' de ilk defa Basit toprak her ikisinde
de iskelet/er istikametinde Her ikisinin de
yneliktir. Bacaklar hocker olup gvde ve yz gneye evril-
Bireylerden biri 55 bir ise 12 bir o-
(Resim: 5). Her iki mezarda da taban kumla
na ait iskeletin n kap Bu kaplar-
dan iki utakiler yayvan gaga testi, ortadaki ise bir mlektir.
Iskeletin her iki kolunda da bilezikler iki
halkadan kpe, boynunda ise gene tanelere sahip bir kol-
ye Kolye taneleri iinde sadece bir tanesi Ta-
nelerin tam ise plaka halinde bir amulet Bu amulet yu-
varlak olup deliktir. Ust ip
tur (Resim: 6). Tm bu zellikleriyle minyatr bir bir idol grnmndedir. Ay-
bir amulet 1996 gene mezar olarak
1997 tespit edilen iki sanduka mezardan bir tanesi bir
aittir. Mezar istikametinde Mezar
basit levha yan yana dik olarak Uzeri gene ka-
rakterdeki sanduka mezar trapez olup drt
byk levha 1,29 m., ise 1,12 m.,
0,82 m. dir. Uzeri tek bir levha bu yeterli
daha kk boyutlarda iki levha daha (Resim: 7).
Bu sadece alt tespit edilebilen byk bir kp bulun-
Kp dar dayayabilmek iin kapak zel
olarak Bu da bize kpn ve zamanda
yani kpn mezarla iinde gstermektedir (Resim: 7).
ne amala belli Sunu imkan
dahilindedir. Mezar iinde 45 bir erkek bireyin iskeleti bulunmakta-
(Resim: 8). bir yara izi mevcuttur. bu ergin
bireyin vaziyette 12 bir ocuk iskeleti tespit
tir. Ergin birey mezara uygun olarak istikametinde hocker durumun-
da Yz ve gvde kuzeye dnktr. yayvan gaga
340
bir testi Bu kap bronzdan (7) bir
haner, ubuk iki metal kol ye tanesi ve bir metal delgi,
mezar olarak ele
Bu sene mezarlarla birlikte bu alanda tespit edilen Erken
Tun i mezar 11' e Bunlardan ikisi kp, ikisi sanduka
ve basit toprak Tm yn bulun-
istikametinde uzanan mezarlarda daima
Mezar trleri sosyal ve ekonomik Mezar
ana kadar tespit edilen en zengin mezarlar basit toprak mezar-
nemli bir zemin kumla Tm mezar-
iinde taneleri
GE AO TABAKALAR!
Erken Tun l' e ait mezarlar Ge Kalkolitik iine
mimari tabakalarda de olsa tahriba-
ta neden Bu Ge Kalkolitik mimari ilk
olarak 1996 1997 sonucunda toplam drt
tabaka iindeki 3. mimari tabakada bir byk apta Ka-
bulunan bu istikametinde
(izim: 2; Resim: 4). kuzeyi ve st tabakalar ta-
Bu nedenle ve tam olarak saptanama-
Fakat mevcut gz nne 10 m.
da, de en az 6 m. gerekmektedir. kuzey-
bir apsis Apsis iinde yer
yer ise tek 7 kanal
tespit Bu kanallar iinde ele geen bol miktardaki
taneleri, evin bu kesiminde muhafaza ortaya Bu
kanallar sayesinde ev toprakla kesilmekte, toprak ze-
minden gelecek olan rutubetin etkisi ortadan Apsis ise
byk bir avlu olarak korunan gney-
uzun grnmnde dzensiz bir
Ele geen dikkate evin ilk olarak
bu konstrksiyonun daha sonra iten ve amur
har ile (wattle and daub). Duvar
lan dikmeler bu dzensiz ve olma-

Bu apsisli evin 3,40 m. ikinci bir evin ka-
(izim: 2; Resim: 4). Bu evin
da 7 kanal grlmektedir. Buradaki kanallar da tek halindeki
Evin nemli bir alan iinde
sadece gney Burada tespit edilebilen uzun
yan 5 m. dar ise 4 m.
Iyi korunan bu tr evlerin apsis dar dz
gstermektedir. Ante olarak herhangi bir ka-
tespit Gerek gerekse yan
destek ve bu evin de yntemle
341
gstermektedir. Burada da duvarlar ilk nce malzemeyle
edilmekte, daha sonra iten ve amur (wattle and
daub).
tabakaya, yani Ge Kalkolitik 3. mimari ait nc
bir ev, daha nceki iki evin 1,40 m.
da tespit (izim: 2; Resim: 4). Bu ev, zerindeki 2. mimari tabaka
nedeniyle byk apta tahrip Burada tahribat nedeniyle
uzunluklarda,7 adet ift veya tek 6 kanal grlmektedir.
tam olarak belirlenemeyen ve apsis tamamen tahrip olan bu ev,
l.ve 2. evlere paralel, istikametinde uzanmakta-
Bylece iki ev ortaya Iki ev
kalan 1,40 m. alan sokak olarak Bu
sokak iinde yer yer tespit edilebil-
Bu gz nne tmnn olmasa bile, bir
veya kk
bir nemli 3. zerinde bulunan 2. mimari tabakaya
aittir (izim: 2; Resim: 4). Bu bulunan 3. 3. evinin tah-
rip neden Apsis ve uzun ok iyi ko-
runan bu evin zerine 0,40 m. uzun
korunan 8 m. dir. Apsis iki
Buna uzun duvar bir teknikle Duvar iinde belli
i uzanan uzunca i
da yuvalar Bu bulunma-
bu neden Burada b-
yk kanallar ve bu yuvalar iine
Bylece sistem biraz daha bir teknikle de olsa, bu 2.
mimari tabaka da Sadece malzeme
burada
Anadolu' da bu tr veya daha bir deyimle
Erken Neolitik itibaren Daha ge dnemlerde de
vi nedeniyle nemini yitirmeyen bu tipi Anadolu Yunanistan'a
kadar
evlerin Bakla Tepe'nin bu kesiminde arazi
ru tedrici olarak ykselmektedir. Bu nedenle 1996
ve duvar Ge Kalkolitik
1. mimari 1997 tespit yani arazi-
nin ykselmesi nedeniyle yok Arazinin faaliyetlere ol-
tahrip byk
orta kesimlerinde, Erken Tun yo-
alanda, st tabaka mimari mezarlar
iin daha derin seviyelere inmek mmkn Bu sonucun-
(8) M. "From Huts to Houses: Firsts in Architecture", Housing and Settlements in Anatolia. A
Historical Perspective, yay. haz. Y. Sey, Istanbul 1996,27-28, Res.IO.
(9) R. Duru, KSTI,Ankara 1996, Res. 1-2; S. Hood, Prehistoric Emporic
and Ayio Gala, Oxford 1981, 138-140, Lev. 26 a-c; V. Milojcic, "Bericht ber die Ausgrabungen aul
der Gremnos-Magula bei Larissa 1956", Archuologischer Anzeiger I-IL, 1956, 144-145, Res. i.
342
da en eski mimari tabakaya, yani 4. tabakaya ait bir tespit (Resim: 9).
Bu sadece dik yapan bir ve kk bir
ok kk bir alan-
da kenar gz nne bu 5 m. lik bir ge-
sahip istikametinde uzanan
bilgi sahibi olmak mmkn Bu da
olup iten ve amur (wattle and daub). Du-
varlar yanarken evin iine ve in situ durumundaki bir grup ka-
duvar bu seramik grubu ol-
yerde tespit Bu en eski Ge Kalkolitik mimari tabaka-
daha yeni olan tabakaya nazaran mimari zelliklere sahiptir.
Burada evler yeni tabakada veya
evlere itibar Bu teknik muhakkak ev da et-
4. tabakada henz bir ev tam olarak elde
den, bu konuya getirmek bugn iin mmkn
Ge Kalkolitik kuzey Ge Kalkolitik
mimari seramik ve kk buluntu 1996
tam olarak uyum En yeni tabaka olan 1. mimari tabakada Kum
Tepe Ib tipinde gri-siyah hamurlu, iten yuvarlak bir
kilde anaklar seramik grubu olarak
kil eder. 2. mimari tabakada tip anaklar iten yuvarlak
bir 2. tabakada keskin bir hat
Bu tabakada Ege'ye bir idol Bu idol ba-
daha ok Balkan rneklerini (Resim: 10). 3. mimari tabaka-
da tr anaklann i izgi halinde beyaz boya
bezek mevcuttur. Ilk olarak 1997 4. mimari tabakada ele
geen in situ kap grubu, bu tabaka seramik bilgi sahibi olma-
(Resim: ll). Bu seramik rnekler bulunan bir askos,
Anadolu iin yeni bir kap tipidir. Bu tr rnekler daha ok Ge Neolitik
da Ege' de Bu grup iinde "cheese pot" olarak
da kaplara ait paralar ele gibi bu kap tipi Yu-
nanistandan Anadolu'ya, hatta Gney Anadolu'ya kadar ok bir ya-
sahiptir. rengin hakim rneklerin de nemli
bir Anadolu iin yeni form
GE AG GNEY KAZ! ALAN!
Ge Kalkolitik gneyinde 1996 bir sondaj
ukuru, gerek gerekse mimari olumlu sonular
bunun zerine burada 1997 sondaj ukurunu da iine alan yeni
bir (izim: 1/3). Sondaj ukurundaki bir nceki
Ge Kalkolitik 1. ve 2. mimari
ca, 3. mimari tabakada ok bir grnm Bu
ortaya iki daire Bakla Tepe' de ilk defa
(1O) H.- G. Buehholz, V. Karageorghis, Altdgdis und Altkypros , Tbingen 1971,284 Res. 786.
343
grlmektedir (izim: 3; Resim: 12). Bu iki gneyde 3,10 m.
ise 2,56 m. Her iki da kenarlar iri toplama
larla i ise daha kk gl bir
taban Herhangi bir bu
veya taban-
zerinde bir konut grlmemektedir. bir konut
iin yeterli Her iki da ancak depo olarak olabilir.
Bu iki istikametinde uza-
nan bir yol (izim: 3; Resim: 12). Bu yol ala-
ve alanlar iinde devam
etmektedir. Yol zemini ok kk Bu yolda
uzun sre etmektedir. Yolun
3. mimari tabakaya ait bir tespit Bu
hangi amala
Yolun iki srdrlen sonucunda, 4. mimari ta-
bakaya ait byk bir ortaya (Resim: 12). Bu
da kk boy bir Korunan taban
gz nne bu istikametinde
grlr. Bu mimari tespit edilebilen 11,s0 m.,
korunan ise 5,50 m. dir. tespit edilen bir
ortaya konabilen tek Bu tabakayaait
gibi burada da iri grlr. kenar
iin genel fikir sahibi olmak mm-
kn Fakat mevcut taban dikkate bu da bir
uzun ev mimarisini
Bu kuzeyinde, stteki Ge Kalkolitik mimari tabakala-
seviyesinde insana ait kemik birlikte seramik rnekler ele
Bu seramik rnekler Erken Tun I' e aittir. Bunlar bir
askos siyah parlak dikkati ekmektedir. On tarafta iki, ar-
kada tek bulunan bu gvdesi birbirlerini kesen beyaz izgi-
lerle bezelidir. Gene yerde olduka byk bir seramik
zellikle Anadolu-Kiklad nem Bu rnek bir Kiklad ta-
aittir. Bu zerine izme suretiyle motifi Ge-
rek motif, gerekse kap dikkate bu Kikiadlar'daki Syros
grubu zellikleri grlr.
Hem bu hem de Erken Tun i gney ve
sondaj bir insan kemikle-
riyle birlikte Erken Tun i seramik rnekleri Benzer seramik
rnekler, Erken Tun i devir
da ele gemektedir. Bu durum bize Erken Tun i
ok daha bir alana gstermektedir. g-
bulunan mezarlar yzeye nedeniyle tahrip ve
bu tahribat sonucu hem mezar hem de iskeletler Bu neden-
le Ge Kalkolitik gney Erken Tun i ve
zellikle Kiklad mezar olarak
Ge Kalkolitik gerek iinde, gerekse
alanlarda ok fazla miktarda seramik silindirler ele Bu silindirIerin
genelolarak 0.10-0.15 m. ise 0.04-
344
0:07 m. Her iki ucu bu silindirlerin bir boru
boydan boya Bu tr silindirler ilk olarak 1997 bu
yolun 2. mimari tabaka seviyesindeki alanda
toplu olarak ele Bu toplu buluntu grubu iinde aynca bol miktarda
sileks kesiciler tespit Bu nedenle bu tr silindirler daha ok dokuma
olarak Sileks kesiciler byk
dokuma ipleri kesmek iin
Gerek Erken Tun i ve gerekse Ge Kal-
kolitik ok miktarda veya bronz silah, alet ve ss
yalan her iki kltr pota ve bol miktar-
da maden curufu bir maden retimine etmektedir. Ge
Kalkolitik gney 4. mimari tabaka seviyesinde ele geen bir
bronz veya balta ktlevi bir sahiptir (Resim: 13). Bakla
Tepe'nin en erken dnemine ait olan bu ktlevi metal buluntu, maden
teknolojisi seviyesini bir ortaya
GE AC MEZARLARI
Ge Kalkolitik Bakla Tepe'de gmme yer-
iigmme de iine daha ok bebekler ve
ocuklar gmlmektedir. Gmme ev iine gibi, ev
alanlara da Gmmede daha ok mlekler
mleklerin az da olsa kplerin grlmektedir. Gmmede
kullanma zelolarak mlek ve kp retilmemekte, gnlk
kaplar Bunlar veya
retiminde kp ve mlekler de zaman zaman
tedir. dar gelirse, boyundan hat-
ta gerekirse tm kap paralanarak cesedin zeri bu paralarla
kap genelolarak bir rtlmektedir.
1997 toplam 25 mezardan 5 tanesi toprak mezar, 3 tane-
si kp mezar, 17 tanesi ise mlek 17 mlek mezardan 15 tanesi
amphora tipi Erken Tun I'de gibi tm iine
taneleri Bebek ve ocuk birka boncuk tane-
si mezar hepsinde iskeletler hoc-.
ker Ge Kalkolitik kuzey 14 mezarda yn
yoktur. Buna Ge Kalkolitik gney 11 mezar-
da biri hari yn Bu mezarlarda
tir. Toplam 25 mezardan bir tanesi iki 1 tanesi ve
bebeklere aittir.
SONU
997 Bakla Tepe nemli sonular
ortaya Bu sonular zetlenebilir:
(ll) Tm bu ortaya Devlet Su Genel ve Mzeler Genel
Blge nn, Arkeoloji Mzesi
mmkn Bu ilgili yneticilerine ve tm zverili
ve destekleri iin candan bir bor
345
1997 Bakla Tepe'de ilk olarak bir Roma mimari ve Erken
Bizans Dnemi tespit
1997 Erken Tun zerinde bir Ge Tun kp
Bu mezar 1996 bulunan Miken Dnemi oda
ile evrede tespit edilen dneme ait kp bu tr
daha rneklerinin de Bakla Tepe' de mevcut or-
taya
Erken Tun i iinde kadar basit toprak mezarlar
ve kp mezarlar grlrken, ilk olarak 1997 sanduka mezarlar
malzeme, malzemenin ve mezar
Bakla Tepe sanduka Anadolu' nun i kesimlerinden ok Ege
zell ikleri gstermektedir.
1997 mezar olarak gereken yeni kap tip-
leri ortaya Bunlar bir beyaz boya bezeli askos ve bir Kik-
lad Ege nem Ozellikle Kiklad ilk olarak
Anadolu grlmektedir. Bu teknik olarak yerel mal-
zemeye uyum gstermesi, fakat buna ve izi bezerne tam
Kiklad zelliklerine sahip Kikiad-Anadolu yeni bir boyut
Ge Kalkolitik seramik rnekleri da
kilerine getirecek yeni rnekler mevcuttur.
Ge Kalkolitik 1997 plan olarak Ge
Kalkolitik 2. ve 3. mimari veya evler
Bu uzun evlerin dar birinde apsis
ise dz Apsisli st byk bir avlu
de Bunun evin gerek kanallar zerine Bu
tr kadar ante 3. mimari tabaka-
da daire depo Ge Kal-
kolitik de olsa kk yollar
mevcuttur. Bu yollar ok bir alana

346
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s
BAKLA TEPE 1996-97
izim 3: Ge Kalkolitik yuvarlak ve yolu
349
Resim 1: Ge Tun kp
Resim 2: Erken Tun i mimari
350
Resim 3: Erken Tun a i idolleri
Resim4: Erken Tun a i teras duvan ve Ge Kaltolitik
a mimari k a l m t l a n o. .
351
Resim 5: Erken Tun i basit toprak
Resim 6: Erken Tun i basit toprak ait (?)

352
Resim 7: Erken Tun i sanduka
Resim 8: Erken Tun i sanduka
353
Resim 9: Ge Kalkolitik a 4. mimari tabaka y a p s
Resim 10: Ge Kalkolitik a idol b a
354
Resim 11: Ge Kalkolitik 4.mimari
tabaka seramik rneklerinden

Resim 12: Ge Kalkolitik yuvarlak ve yolu
Resim 13: Ge Kalkolitik
355
1997 TROIA
Manfred KORFMANN*
i O / Kadar Genel Bir

Yeni dnem Troia Carl Blegen'in tam elli sonra,
1988 Troia ekibi, 1997 Eyll 10. mevsimi-
ni geride Bylece 1997 ile birlikte toplam olarak Troia' daki 26. ka-
mevsimi oldu. 10 sene iinde planlarda
grmek
(Plan: 1) olarak 2000 metrekarelik,
toplam olarak da 10 500 metrekarelik bir alanda gstermektedir.
Restorasyon ise (Plan: 2) 40 yerde resto-
rasyonla, bu alanda da hi de az bir sorumluluk
ortaya
durum 245 kez jeomorfolojik burgu iin de geer-
lidir (Plan: 3). Bu burgulann 134' Ll l 'i ise Troia evre-
sinde Prof. Dr. Ilhan 15 bu ova-
zaman iindeki dolgu tarihini ortaya
Magnetometer ve radar ile gsteren plan, bu alanda da
olduka aktif gstermektedir (Plan: 4). Bu 330 000
metrekarelik bir alanda yapmadan sistemine ait bir ok yeni bilgi
elde
Troia' daki bu paralelolarak anakkale Mzesi 'yle bir-
likte Kumtepe'deki Neolitik 1993,1994 ve 1995
i' Dnem LO. Olan 1997 Sezonunun nemli So-
nu
1997 1900 metrekarelik bir alanda, 12 yerde 6 yerde resto-
rasyon 90 bilim ve teknisyen ka-
*
Prof. Dr. Manfred KORFMANN, Universitat Tubingen Institut fr Ur und Frhgeschichte schloss D-
72070 Tubingen, ALMANYA
357
Temsilcisi olarak nce Ankara Anadolu Medeniyet-
leri Mzesi'nden Mehmet ile Mustafa Metin, daha sonra ise Antalya
Mzesi'nden Mustafa Demirel ile Cumhuriyet Mzesi'nden Soner

1997 erken dnemden
Troia I1II- M.. 2600-2400
Schliemann/Drpfeld kronoloji sistemini (\871-1894) Blegen' in (\932-
1938) ve bizim (1988-1997) sistemle olduka nemli
olan bir yerde, (EF4 (Plan: 5). Toplam 125 metrekare-
lik bir alanda, etkileyici temellerden meydana gelen II evresi tespit
edildi. Bir ok buluntu ykseklikteydi. Burada sz konusu olan Troia-I
Ge- bir sredir bilinen "Troia I-Sonu Ara Evresi", yani "Troia
lI"ydi. kadar elde kendi
bir "Troia n Kltr" yitirmektedir. Buna
men, bu konudaki son cevap, daha sonraki kampanyalarla (1998 ve 1999) orta-
ya
Troia III III- M.. 2450-2300
Troia II' den Troia III' e kadar mimari bir
G6 eski kontrol geriye toprak koni-
sinde Buradaki Troia n savun-
ma stnde sonucunda Troia
bir tabanda tipik Troia I Troia birlikte bulundu (Re-
sim: 1, 2). Bu buluntu Troia i ve Troia III olarak dnemlerin ortak
bir kltr temsil ettikleri Mimari srekli olarak bir
nceki dnemin izlemektedir. Biz bu dnemi da-
yanarak" Denizsel Troia-Kltr'' olarak Bu il-
gili bir de bilgiyi eklemek gerekmektedir: Troia hazine bu
bilgiler sayesinde Jroia Dnemi'ne tarihlenebilir. "Priamos Hazi-
nesi"= Hazine A. DnWTroia n da byk bir Troia III D-
nemi'nde hala Buradaki bir Troia III
iinden hazine bir kpe Ye-
yani yade kk figrini ise (Resim: 3,4)
hazine buluntulanndaki nl baltalanna dayanarak, 4000
km. hava Pamir blgesiyle
Bu mesafe, Troia' daki lapuslazuli eserlere dayanarak ortaya konan
Troia-Kuzey Afganistan daha az
Troia VIIVII- ve Sonu
ok byk ve derin bir tahmin bas-
tiyonunun iinde, olduka zor derine iniidi (Resim: 5).
buradaki su rezervinin son olarak hangi dnemde By-
le bir su sadece ya ya byle bir yeri temizlerne-
ye yetecek kadar insan gc ya da ihtiya
358
terk edilebilir. Bu seneki gre bu tarih, Troia VIIb-
Protogeometrik keramikle birlikte M.O. 1020
Bu alanda anakaya olduka yukanda ve bir yapmakta-
(Plan: 6). Belli ki eteklerinde su daha o dnemlerde bi-
linmekteydi. 3.6 metre kuyunun tabanmda topla-
nan su tespit edildi. Bylece 74 metrekplk suyu de-
polayacak son gnnde ise inilen derinlikte
olarak biriken suyla
Troia VI/VII- VI-Erken Direnek Sistemi ve evresi
Troia VI Dnemi beri gl bir dire-
nek sistemiyle Bu durumu daha 1993 tahmin 1997
bulduk. Bu kalenin gney
tam yer Byk bir plana sahip olan ve daha M.O. 17.
planlanan Troia Kalesi'nin grkemli du-
bu sistemin de olduka etkileyici grmek-
teyiz (Resim: 6). kesimdeki yani evler, Troia
VI'nm erken dnemlerinde ise yerde metal ve
tekstil renklendirme atlyeleri Bu alanda bir spriz olarak, normalde Fe-
nikelilerin blgesi olan Filistin-Suriye tekstil renklen-
dirmesinde erguvani deniz kabuklan (Murex)
kadar bu tr midyelerden toplam olarak 10 kilo bulduk. Bu da bize Troia'da ka-
liteli tekstil rnlerinin gstermektedir.
Kutsal Alandaki 'in Bir Blm- VI Sonu: Deprem; VlIa:
Kaybedilen
Kalenin savunma hemen nndeki
hir' de, kaleden gelip, sz konusu geen
ve ovaya giden yolun ve solunda 1997
n, bize hem Troia VI'nm sonunda, hem de Troia bir
gsterdi (Resim: 7). Birinci bir
deprem sonucunda, ikincisinin ise Troia' daki ok kaybe-
dilen biri sonunda meydana tahmin etmekteyiz.
Troia VI/VII- Kale ve Kule
Troia VI'nm sonuna belki de Troia VIIa'nm yakla-
M.O. 1200'lerde byk olan VIU (Resim:
7). Gney kulesinin iinde bir sondaj ise kalenin en gl kulesinin de
bu dnemde ortaya koydu. Bu da en erken dnem yola uy-
zamanda n de bu dneme
aittirler.
359
Troia VI-X (ve M.. 1700'lerden 19. Sonuna
Kadar
Kalenin 150 m. ile yeni sonular
elde edildi. Troia VI Dnemi'ne ait gereken bu yapay Bizans
Dnemi ve kadar Son on Troia'da
lar 2. bin yani Troia VI ve VII Dnemi 'yle ilgili bilgilerimizi ve d-
olduka Bu kentin ve kltrel
ile ilgilidir. Bize gre, gelenekselolarak Ege'ye, yani Yuna-
nistan'a keramik ve benzeri buluntular yoktur. Kuzeye, Bulgaris-
tan'a ise, eldeki buluntular byle bir edecek yo-

Daha nce, btn zellikleriyle Anadolu'ya ynelik bir kent ol-
bir ok kez ortaya
Son dnemlerde ise Anadolu'nun bu blgesinin Luwi dil ait ol-
ve Hitit metinlerinde geen blgeye (kent ya da blge ol-
sun) eden Wilusa /Truisa ile olan Ilios/Troia iddia eden
sesler ykselmeye Bizler de ortaya bir ok arkeolojik bu-
luntuyu gznne Ilios-Wilusa tersini ne srerneyiz.
Hatta 1996-1997 bu destekleyen iki yeni buluntu daha elde et-
tik. Birincisi, 1995-96 sonucunda ApolloneApaliunas
ikincisi ise 1997
Bu ve bir ok verinin Wilusa=Ilios olduka ciddi bir
kilde biz ve onunla t-
nel ya da benzeri sistemlerin Troia' da ile ilgili sorulara cevap ve-
rebilecek durumda gerektirmekteydi. Bu konuda Troia'da bir yer ak-
la gelmekteydi: 1879 ve geen zaman so-
nunda tekrar dolan
Bu alandaki nce iinden 19 m. ileriye
ru kazarak e ve en az bir o kadar daha devam eden
(Plan: 7). Solda, kuzeydeki kolda st hala dz bir kanal
Buradaki ilerledike akan bir suyla Soldaki l-
kolunda, sonunda, geen iki ay son-
bir saatte 30 litre su birikti. Bu yaz bu kolu ve alanda
sonucunda yeni bilgiler elde umuyoruz.
Bizler hemen yani 2.
savunma ykseltide, 2. binde de iinden, kay-
inen bir delikle buradaki sisteminin iine

Troia IX-Roma Donemi
.. Bu seneki odeionun nnde olduka iyi kalitede bir Augustus
(M.O. 31- M.S. 14.) (Resim: 8). Bu buluntu odeionun ilk kez
360
kimin problemine Hadrian'
(M.S.l17-138) da odeionda imar 1993 bulunan
Hadrian heykeli ile Bunlara ek olarak, yine bu sene bulunan
larla da (211-217) imar Btn
bu hkmdarlar kutsal kent Ilion'a, mitolojik anakentini ve
yerini kutsamaya M.O.2
Augustus'un gezisi ona eden Vergil,Augustus'a
Aeneis'i bir burada odeonda
Troia X-Bizans Dnemi
Troia VI Dnemi'nde gibi, Yunan ve Roma
'nin savunma gereken alan, daha nceki dnem-
lerde malzemesi edinmek Burada kaynak-
inen kuyunun alanda, iine 15
mezar (Resim: 9, 10). Bu mezarlarda toplam olarak 24 gm
tespit edildi. Gmlerin hepsi 13:. Bizans Dnemi 'ne aittir. Mezarlarda
olduka az gm hediyesi bir ha ya da kaplama bir kpe
gibi (Resim: 11, 12).
361
Plan 1:1988-1997
gsteren plan
Plan 2: 1988-1997 restorasyon ve evre dzenlemesi
gsteren plan
362
Plan 3
... , .... , .
...
... r
<) .. , ,.
;
. ..... ....
i ,...
, _...", ...
_.. l .....
,._ _ " ,
" ,.'r
Plan 3:Jeomorfolojik yerleri gsteren plan
Plan 4:Magnometer ve radar ile gsteren plan
363
Plan 5: Yeni dnem sonucunda ya-
yeni Troia kronolojisi
Nordost-Bostion Vi 9
WASSERFOHRENDE SCHICHT
Brunnen Bb
o 5

20m
Plan 6: bastiyonunda anakayaya ve anakaya-
daki su tabaka
364
A -
c - D
'--NACH TEXT
VON SCHLlEMANN
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ZOm
Plan 7: Troia kalesi'nin 150 m.

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G06.021l.001
Resim 1 :G6 Troia III dnemi ile birlikte bulunan
Troia i
365
Resim 2: G6 Troia i dnemi
ile birlikte bulunan Troia III
1_-.
.. ..

Resim 3: fi-
grinin
Resim 4: figrini
366
Resim 5: bastiyonununda ncesi restorasyon ve koruma a-

Resim 6: Troia VI dnemi ait, iine sa.
vunma sistemi
367
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1997 PANAZTEPE
ERKANAL*
1997 Panaztepe ve Mzeler Genel
Hacettepe Universitesi'nin, Trk Tarih Kurumu'nun ve Institute for Aegean
Prehistory (INSTAP- New York)' nin maddi ve manevi ile
tr. Bu vesileyle tm ilgililere
ekibi Prof. Dr. Hayat Erkanal, Do. Dr. Sevin Gnel; Gr.
Gr. Bora Uysal, Gr. Kadir Bykulusoy.
Gr. Neyir Kolonkaya ve Gr. Derya ile Arkeolog Umit
Arkeolog Iknur arkeoloji Koray Ersin M. Ak-
Berrin Olgu Deniz, Seil Koca, IIkay Ay-
Turan, Haluk ve Blent ile Bergama Restorasyon Yksek
Okulu stajyer Nebibe Karaca'dan
1997 Panaztepe iki ay olup, temsilcisi
olarak Malatya Mzesi'nden Ahmet Mercan ve Seluk Mzesi'nden Umran
grev tr kendilerine
krlerimizi
1997 Panaztepe'nin kesimindeki ala-
ve kesiminde yer alan olmak zere stra-
tigrafik sorunlara aramak iki blgede
(Plan: 1).
Bu ki byk blm Panaztepe'nin ger-
Bu blgede 1994
1
itibaren srdrlen
yama zerinde kesin stra-
tigrafik bilgiler erozyon sonucunda mimari tabakalar byk
lde ya tmyle yok ya da zelliklerini byk lde Bu
arada tesadfen ele geen kk da tabaka bir
tespit Bu nedenle 1997 daha
ok hyk karakteri kesimine Bu
menin ve evrelere getirilmek
* Prof. Dr. ERKANAL, Hacettepe niversitesi, Edebiyat Fakltesi, Arkeoloji Blm
06532 Beytepe"ANKARA
(1) A. Erkanal, "1994 Panaztepe XVII. KST I, Ankara, 1996, s. 330
c335.
371
1994-1995 bu Bizans Devri 'ne ait ya-
Bu bir alanda derin-
daha eski tabakalara Ust
sonucu Ge Tun mimari ok defa plan olarak ha-
le Buna Orta Tun ve bu tabakalara mi-
mari zellikler ok daha iyi bir durumda tespit Bu tabakalarda p
neden kk apta bozulmalar Sz ko-
nusu p biri Bizans Dnemi 'ne ait olup, iinden
seramik buluntunun ve kemik gibi eserlere de rast-
Restore edilen yonca testi M. S. 11.- 12.
dirilmektedir.
1997 mimari tabakada ok miktarda in situ bu-
luntu elde In situ daha bir
kilde tarihlendirilmesinde nemli
1997 tespit edilen tabakadan en stte Ge Tun
tarihlendirilebilir. 1996 sadece bir bir i
1997 ve taban seviyesine inilerek in situ durum-
da kap rnekleri Bunlardan bir tanesi ikisi dikey, iki-
si yatayolmak zere drt kulplu olup Orta Anadolu ile
(Resim: 1). Bu mimari tabakaya ait pek ok seramik rnekte gibi
bu kap da Gri Minyas Bu kap devety
mlekler ve Gri Minyas fincanlar tabaka iinde
Gene bu tabakada olduka fazla kap kaidesi grlmektedir. Bunlar dip
zerinden muntazam bir kesilerek kapak olarak (Resim:
1). Sz konusu bu tabaka Beycesultan IILIII ve Troya VII a ile

Bu izleyen Orta Tun ait 1. mimari tabaka ise Panazte-
pe' de 2 km. bir alanda yer yer tespit Orta
Tun olgun evresi olarak gereken bu mimari tabaka
Panaztepe'de dnemler iinde en nemli kentsel dokuyu Bu
tabakaya ait iki byk bir 1995-1997 yrtlen
lar sonucu ortaya Yer yer tespit edilen duvarlar ve korunan
taban uzun bir rnekana aittir. Birinci safhada boyu 18,70 m.,
ise 5,60 m. dir. Ikinci safhada ise boyu 12,10 m.,
ise 4,50 m. ye Tm 0,60 m. dir. Eski saf-
haya ait duvarlarda bir sistemi Genelolarak bir ke-
narda iri kenarda ise daha kk tek yatay halinde kulla-
(Resim: 2). Ikinci yatay ise ters bylece duvar
rgsnn daha gl Ikinci safha kk ve
orta boy monolit
de uzun blok Bu tek bir me-
kana sahip olup belli Fakat tespit edilen mimari zellikler gz
nne daha ok tek mekandan Iinden
malzemeye gre uzun bir sre Bu malzeme iinde
bulunan ve 1995 ko
de ve seramik rnekler, muhtemelen dinsel
leve sahip gstermektedir.
(2) A. Erkanal. "1995 Panaztepe XVILL. KSTI, Ankara 1997, s. 290, res. 5.
372
Gerek bu gerekse ait tabakadan ele geen seramik mal-
zemede ince rnekler kaba rnekler ise
Gri Minyas rnekleri de olduka byk bir grubu Bunlar gri
veya kahverengi hamurlu olup gri Kap olarak daha ok ke-
yiv bezeli ve dikey kulplu kaseler; "S" profilli ve yu-
varlak gvdeli fincanlar; yonca testiler ve kaideli kaplar
Kaideli kaideleri ya yiv bezemeli, ya da yiv bezernesiz olup dzdr.
Bu 2. mimari