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Air Pollution

Sources, Effects & Control

Highlights
Introduction Clean air composition Definition of Air Pollution, History & Episodes Sources of Air pollution Based on activity Based on shape of entry of pollutants

Factors affecting air pollution Classification of air pollutants

Effects of Air Pollutants


Major effects: (a) Eyes, (b) Respiratory system Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Solid form (ex. dust, smoke, fume etc.) + liquid form (ex. Mist, fog)

TSPM Total SPM RSPM Respirable SPM

Effects of Air Pollutants


Major effects: (a) Eyes, (b) Respiratory system SPM >10 m Settle in Cilia of the nose <10 m - enters the respiratory system 2-10 m enters trachea <2 m enters bronchus
PM 2.5 RSPM or PM 10

Effects of Air Pollutants


For residential areas, max annual conc. TSPM 140 g/m3; RSPM - 60 g/m3

National Ambient Air Quality Standards of India (http://moef.nic.in/modules/rules-andregulations/air-pollution/)

Effects of Air Pollutants


Eye problems From gaseous & PM When contact with internal mucous line
Pollutant
Aldehyde Ammonia Arsenic Cadmium Chlorine Lead Nickel

effect
Irritation to eyes, skin Corrosive to mucous membrane Damage to skin Damage to kidney and liver Irritation to eyes & throat Deposition in lungs Lung cancer & respiratory system

Effects of Air Pollutants


Carbon Monoxide: Diffuses into blood CO + Haemoglobin Carboxyhaemoglobin

CoHB - Absorbs CO2 200 times more than that of O2 Ambient air quality standard - 10 ppm Dangerous at 750 ppm

Effects of Air Pollutants


Sulphur Dioxide:
Cause irritation (Throat ~ 8-12 ppm) Reduction in visibility & Respiratory diseases Dangerous to life ~ 400-500 ppm for few min

Coal induced pollution:


From burning coal smoke, flyash, sulfur compounds Occurs in cold climate when calm meteorological conditions prevail

Effects of Air Pollutants


Oxidants: O3 cause eye irritation ~ >0.1 ppm
Photochemical smog O3, PAN, PBN, aldehyde

Photochemical Smog:
Air stagnation, abundant sunlight, high concentrations of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere By the interaction of some HCs & Oxidants Produce Peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN)

Effects of Air Pollutants


Oxides of Nitrogen: NO & NO2 Haemoglobin has 300, 000 times more affinity towards NO2 than O2 Cause lung cancer Dangerous level ~ 150 ppm

Effects of Air Pollutants


Diseases: Lung cancer destruction of lung tissues reduction of Bronchioles diameter Bronchial Asthma Emphysema Narrowing of air ways

Chronic Bronchitis

Diminish the ability of lungs to exchange O2 and CO2

Air Pollution Control Devices

Control by Source Correction


Change in raw materials Low sulphur fuel in place of high sulphur fuel Removal of non essential ingredients Process modification Use of exhaust hoods and ducts Recovery Equipment modification/replacement Replace old equipment by new equipment Proper maintenance of equipment

Selection of Air Pollution Control Devices


(1) Carrier gas characteristics Pressure Dew point Density Viscosity Temperature etc (2) Operational factors Head room Floor space Service requirement etc

Selection of Air Pollution Control Devices


(3) Process factors Allowable pressure drop Gas flow rate Collection efficiency requirement etc (4) Particulate characteristics Shape & Size Density Stickiness Corrosiveness & Toxicity Electrical conductivity etc

Particulates Collection Devices

Classified into three groups Based on Collection /Operation mode Internal Separators (a) Gravity Settling Chamber, (b) Cyclone Wet Collection Devices Electrostatic Precipitators

1. Gravity Settling Chamber

Enclosed chamber where the velocity of the dust laden gas considerably reduced Particles settle by gravity Horizontal gas velocity - to allow stream line flow Gas velocities ~ 0.30 to 3 m/s Particles coarser than 40 microns settle
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Gravity Settling Chamber

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

2. Cyclone Separators
Separation - Transforming the inlet gas velocity into a double vortex Gas spirals down the inner surface & spirals up at the central portion Particles concentrate due to inertia Efficiency increases with Inlet velocity of the gas (no agglomeration) Diameter & density of the dust particle Dust concentration in the gas Smoothness of the inner wall of the cyclone
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Cyclone Separators

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Cyclone Separators
Advantages: No moving parts Withstand harsh conditions Operate in a wide range of conditions Disadvantages: Moderately efficient High operating cost Pressure drop problems
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Wet Collectors
Separation - By wetting the particle with liquid Mechanism: Liquid droplet diffusion/condensation/impinging the wetted or un-wetted particles on a collecting surface Common wet collection devices Cyclonic scrubbers Spray chambers Venturi scrubbers Packed towers
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Mechanism of Wet Collectors


Water Gas Outflow Gas Inflow

Wastewater & Particulates


Note: Direction of gas & water flow may be different based on type Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

1. Cyclonic Scrubbers
Also called wet cyclones Particulates separated by centrifugal force & impingement of water at the entrance Moisture elimination section consists of zigzag plates Water requirement ~ 2 to 50 lit / 40 lit of gas Gas flow rate ~ 2000 lit/min Removal particles 5 m
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Cyclonic Scrubbers

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

2.Venturi Scrubbers
Clean about 4000 lit of gas/min Consists venturi throat through which carrier gas pushes at a velocity of 3400 to 12600 m/min The scrubbing liquid, usually water is added in the direction of flow of gas at the throat at the rate of ~ 0.3-1.5 lit/lit of gas Efficiency can be as high as 99%

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Venturi Scrubbers

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

3. Spray Chambers
Fine water spray washes the gas

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

4. Packed Towers
For cleaning air and gases Gas passed upward through the bed Liquid flows down through the bed (prevents reentrainment of the deposited particles) Collecting surface area should be large Materials used in bed low density, resistant to corrosion, and chemically inert Pressure drop remains constant Sludge should properly disposed off
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Packed Towers

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Wet Collectors
Advantages: - Handle flammable and explosive dust - Gas absorption and dust collection - Handle mists & Cooling of hot gases - Handle corrosive gases and dust Disadvantages: - High corrosion potential - Liquid waste stream treatment - Freezing protection needed - No recycling of particulate - High energy costs
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Electrostatic Precipitator
Can be applied to a great variety of problems Efficiencies as high as 99.99% Capacities up to 2,00,000 lit/min Temperatures up to 6000 C Pressure drop is very low ~ 6 to 10 mm of water Dirty gas is allowed to pass through narrow, vertical gas passages formed by parallel rows of grounded collecting electrodes Electrically insulated high voltage wires are spaced precisely on the centre lines of each passage thereby causing dirt gas to pass between the high voltage wires and the grounded plates
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Operational principle
Ionization of gas Dust charging dust particles get negatively charged because the negatively charged ions collide with them Precipitation of dust negatively charged dust particles are driven by electrical forces to the positively charged grounded plate and held to them goes on accumulating to form a thick layer As the thickness of the dust layer increases more than 6 mm, electrical attraction becomes weak efficiency of the ESP comes down a sharp rap causes the dust layer to shear away agglomerates are collected in hoppers
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Working Mechanism of ESP

Gas Outflow Gas Inflow

Electric Plates

Particulates
Internal separators Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Electrostatic Precipitator

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Electrostatic Precipitator

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

Electrostatic Precipitator

Internal separators

Wet collectors

Electrostatic precipitators

ESP Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages:

- High efficiencies for small particles


Large gas volumes with low pressure drops Dry collection of valuable materials Wet collection of fumes or mists Low operating costs

Disadvantages:
High capital costs No control of gaseous emissions Inflexible to changing operating conditions Large space requirements Resistivity problems
Wet collectors Electrostatic precipitators

Internal separators

Air Pollution Control Gas & Vapor


SOX, NOX, VOCs, CO Absorption Adsorption Thermal incineration Catalytic incineration Condensation

Absorption Units
Spray towers Plate towers Packed towers Venturi scrubbers Principle Transfer of pollutants from gas phase to the liquid phase Diffusion and dissolution

Adsorption Units
Pollutants adsorbed in the surface pores of the adsorbents Activated carbon Activated alumina Silica gel Molecular sieves Ex.: Dehydrated zeolites

SOx Control Methods


Desulfurization (Coal cleaning) Low sulfur fuel Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) - dry or wet processes
(activated carbon adsorption/Water absorption)

- Regenerative processes
FGD - flue gas react with lime and thereby removes i.e. wet limestone-gypsum process)

NOx Control Methods


Thermal NOx vs. fuel NOx combustion modifications - low NOx burners - flue gas recirculation - staged combustion Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Selective Non-catalytic Reduction (SNCR)
* Chemical reaction (through catalyst) degrade NOx into N2 and H2O (ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction)

Meteorology of Air Pollution


If hot air released into the atmosphere, - Air tends to expand and rise - Equal to surrounding air temp. & density No heat transfer between air parcel & atmosphere Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR) ~ -1C/100 m Ambient (or) Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR)

Meteorology of Air Pollution


If ELR > DALR ELR < DALR ELR = DALR Lapse rate if zero Inversion Super adiabatic lapse rate Sub adiabatic lapse rate Neutral lapse rate called Isothermal layer

Surface of earths temperature

cooler than temperature at high altitudes

Plume Behavior

Stack Height & Mixing Depth


Dispersion of pollutant Function of stability of atmosphere Stack height Stack height Determines GLC of pollutant Effective stack height (He) = H + H H Physical stack height; H Plume rise Mixing Depth Ht. available for mixing

Stack Height & Mixing Depth

Hollands Equation
h = (Vs D/u) [ 1.5+2.68 X 10-3 P D {( Ts Ta )/Ts} h = rise of plume above the stack in m vs = stack gas velocity m/sec D = inside exit diameter of stack in m u = wind in m/sec P = atmospheric pressure in millibars Ts = stack gas temperature in 0K Ta = air temperature in 0K

Briggs Equation
QH h = 0 . 84 (12 . 4 + 0 . 09 h ) u Q H = heat release in cal / s
1 4

(m ) u = wind speed (m / s ) h = plume rise (m )


h = height of stack

For hot releases 106 cal/s or more

For less hot releases,

3 V0 d h = u V0 = afflux velocity (m / s )

d = stack exit diameter (m )

Modelling of Dispersion of Pollutants


Dispersion models Quantify transport & dispersion in atmosphere Gaussian Dispersion Model Follow Gaussian curve in both directions (X & Y)

Assumptions:
Pollutants released at a steady state Wind speed is constant Major distribution of pollutant along x-axis

Gaussian Dispersion Model

Concentration of pollutant at ground level,

Concentration along plume centre line,


C x , 0 , 0 ,H Q = e 2 u y z
2 1 H 2 Z

Refer: http://www.ajdesigner.com/phpdispersion/ground_level_equation.php

Stack Height Indian Practice


Values obtained using the above equations shall be subject to the following minimum values
Chimneys for industries in general (except TPP) -30m For TPP up to 500 MW capacity -220m For TPP >500 MW capacity -275m For boilers generating steam @less than 2t/h - 9m For boilers generating steam @ >30t/h - 30m For boilers of intermediate capacity - 9 to 30m For DG sets, minimum stack height shall be 1.5 to 3.5 m more than the height of the building and shall be worked out as
H=H + 0.2 KVA

Where H= height of building H = stack height KVA is the capacity of generator.