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1.

0 TITLE

Flow Characteristic through the Convergent-Divergent Duct
2.0 OBJECTIVE

1. To study the pressure-mass flow rate characteristic for convergent-divergent duct
2. To demonstrate the phenomena of choking


3.0 INTRODUCTION

Converging-diverging nozzles designed for the accurate measurement and control of
all gaseous flow rates. This situation can be found in many engineering application including
steam and gas turbine, aircraft and spacecraft propulsion system, and even industrial
blasting nozzle and torch nozzle. A flow is considered to be a compressible flow if the
change in density of the flow with respect to pressure is non-zero along a streamline.

In general, this is the case where the Mach number in part or all of the flow exceeds
0.3. The Mach .3 value is rather arbitrary, but it is used because gas flows with a Mach
number below that value demonstrate changes in density with respect to the change in
pressure of less than 5%. Furthermore, that maximum 5% density change occurs at the
stagnation point of an object immersed in the gas flow and the density changes around the
rest of the object will be significantly lower.

The factor that distinguishes a flow from being compressible or incompressible is the
fact that in compressible flow the changes in the velocity of the flow can lead to changes that
the temperature which are not negligible. On the other hand in case of incompressible flow,
the changes in the internal energy such as temperature are negligible even if the entire
kinetic energy of the flow is converted to internal energy like the flow is brought to rest.

The Mach number of the flow is high enough so that the effects of compressibility can
no longer be neglected. For subsonic compressible flows, it is sometimes possible to model
the flow by applying a correction factor to the answers derived from incompressible
calculations or modelling. For many other flows, their nature is qualitatively different to
subsonic flows. A flow where the local Mach number reaches or exceeds 1 will usually
contain shock waves. A shock is an abrupt change in the velocity, pressure and temperature
in a flow; the thickness of a shock scales with the molecular mean free path in the fluid which
form because information about conditions downstream of a point of sonic or supersonic flow
cannot propagate back upstream past the sonic point.

The behaviour of a fluid changes radically as it starts to move above the speed of
sound in that fluid which is when the Mach number is greater than 1. For example, in
subsonic flow, a stream tube in an accelerating flow contracts. But in a supersonic flow, a
stream tube in an accelerating flow expands. Consider that steady flow in a tube that has a
sudden expansion where the tube's cross section suddenly widens, so the cross-sectional
area increases. In subsonic flow, the fluid speed drops after the expansion. In supersonic
flow, the fluid speed increases. The mass flux is conserved but because supersonic flow
allows the density to change, the volume flux is not constant.


4.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND



Figure 1: Convergent-Divergent Duct

From the figure above, air is suck into the converging diverging section by a vacuum pump.
The atmospheric air can be considered stagnant. The energy equation for the flow between
the stagnant atmospheric condition (0) and the throat (2) can be written as;
) 1 (
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
0 0
0
0
0
2 2
+ + + + + = + + + + f w w U gz
V P
q U gz
V P
p p


The differences between (0) and (2) are negligible and the flow can be approximated to be
frictionless and adiabatic, thus isentropic. As such;

0 0 0
0
= = A = = V gz w q

Since the air can be treated as ideal gas, following ideal gas relationship can also be used,
manipulated and substituted into the energy equation.
V
P
V P
C
C
R C C
R
P
T = + = =
p
; ;

Therefore equation
RT P But
CvT
V P
CvT
P
becomes Equation
p
p p
=
+ + = + +

,
) 2 (
2
0
) 1 (
2
2
2
2
0
0
0

So, ) 3 ( =
R
P
T
p


) 4 (
1
1

=
+ = =
+ =

R
Cv
CV
R
Cv
Cp
R Cv Cp


Substitute (3) and (4) into (2),
With some algebraic manipulation the throat velocity,

can be derived

( )
) 5 (
1
2
2 1 1
2 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 2 1
2
2
0
0
2
2
2
2
0
0
2
2
2
0
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ + =

+
p p

p

p

p p
p p p p
P P
V
V P P
V P P
R
P R V P
R
P R P





For isentropic flow (Using isentropic flow equation relation for ideal gas)
) 6 (
1
2
2
0
2
2
0
0

|
.
|

\
|
=
=

p p
p p

P
P
P P

Substitute (6) into (5)
( )
) 7 ( 1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
0
2
0
2
0 0
2 0
0
0
2
0
2
0 0
2 0
0
0
2
1

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

p

p
p

p
p

r
P
V
P
P
P
P P P
V
P
P
P
P P P
V
i


Where
0
2
P
P
r =
The mass flow rate in the section can be computed by m =
1 1 1
A V p
and can be shown to be.

p p p
2
2 2 0 2 2
1
0
2
0 2 2 2 r V A V A
P
P
V A m =
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= ) 8 (
1
2
1
2
0
0
2 0 |
.
|

\
|

p

p r r
P
A


.
m
5.0 APPARATUS



Figure 2: Compressible Flow Bench



Figure 3: Inclined Manometer



Figure 3: DC Motor Speed Controller



Figure 4: Dynamometer Figure 5: U-Tube Manometer







6.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Make sure the plug is switching off before conduct the experiment.
2. Connect all the tube according to instruction given by lab instructor.
3. Connect respective tube to the compressor inlet.
4. While machine is running, make sure there is no blockage/object around the duct that
may interfere the air flow into the duct.
5. The choking valve of compressor exhaust has been closed to stop the flow of the
manometer fluid from entering to compressor
6. The inclined manometer tube is connected to read the value of (P
o
P
1
) and U-tube
manometer to read (P
o
-P
2
) and (P
o
-P
3
).
7. Set the speed control to 0 and the speed of motor is increase slowly by rotating the
control knob clockwise until the level needed.
8. Continue the experiment by adjusting the motor speed to 30 sets all of them.
9. The reading of all 30 sets of speed is taken by calculating the different in h from the
barometer.

7.0 RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

No.
1
P
(kPa)
2
h
(mm)
3
h
(mm)
2
P
(kPa)
3
P
(kPa)
0 1
P P
(kPa)
0 2
P P
(kPa)
0 3
P P
(kPa)
2
0
P
r
P
=
m
-

(kg/s)
1. 0.05 0.25 0.25 0.033 0.033 101.275 101.292 101.292 0.0003 0.0002
2. 0.10 0.75 0.25 0.100 0.033 101.225 101.225 101.292 0.0010 0.0004
3. 0.15 1.00 0.25 0.133 0.033 101.175 101.192 101.292 0.0013 0.0005
4. 0.20 1.50 0.25 0.200 0.033 101.125 101.125 101.292 0.0020 0.0007
5. 0.25 1.75 0.25 0.233 0.033 101.075 101.092 101.292 0.0023 0.0008
6. 0.30 2.00 0.50 0.267 0.067 101.025 101.058 101.258 0.0026 0.0008
7. 0.35 2.25 0.50 0.300 0.067 100.975 101.025 101.258 0.0030 0.0009
8. 0.40 2.75 0.75 0.367 0.100 100.925 100.958 101.225 0.0036 0.0010
9. 0.45 3.25 0.75 0.434 0.100 100.875 100.891 101.225 0.0043 0.0012
10. 0.50 3.50 0.75 0.467 0.100 100.825 100.858 101.225 0.0046 0.0012
11. 0.55 4.00 0.75 0.534 0.100 100.775 100.791 101.225 0.0053 0.0014
12. 0.60 4.25 1.00 0.567 0.133 100.725 100.758 101.192 0.0056 0.0014
13. 0.65 5.00 1.00 0.667 0.133 100.675 100.658 101.192 0.0066 0.0016
14. 0.70 5.50 1.25 0.734 0.167 100.625 100.591 101.158 0.0072 0.0017
15 0.75 5.75 1.25 0.767 0.167 100.575 100.558 101.158 0.0076 0.0017
16. 0.80 6.00 1.25 0.800 0.167 100.525 101.158 101.158 0.0079 0.0018
17. 0.85 6.50 1.25 0.867 0.167 100.475 100.458 101.158 0.0086 0.0019
18. 0.90 7.00 1.25 0.934 0.167 100.425 100.391 101.158 0.0092 0.0020
19. 0.95 8.00 1.50 1.067 0.200 100.375 100.258 101.125 0.105 0.0022
20. 1.00 8.25 1.50 1.101 0.200 100.325 100.224 101.125 0.0109 0.0022
21. 1.05 9.75 2.00 1.301 0.267 100.275 100.024 101.058 0.0128 0.0025
22. 1.10 10.0 2.00 1.334 0.267 100.225 99.991 101.058 0.0132 0.0025
23. 1.15 10.50 2.25 1.401 0.300 100.175 99.924 101.025 0.0138 0.0026
24. 1.20 11.25 2.25 1.501 0.300 100.125 99.824 101.025 0.0148 0.0027
25. 1.25 12.00 2.25 1.601 0.300 100.075 99.724 191.025 0.0158 0.0028

Table 1: Data calculated from the experiment
Sample Calculation
The calculation can refer this information:
3
0
2
22 295
13600
@ 101.325
@ 1.4
287 .
9.81
o
mercury
atm
T C K
kg m
P P kPa
k
R J kg K
g m s
p

= =
=
=
=
=
=


For data no. 1

h
2
= 0.25 mm = 0.0025 m
h
3
= 0.25 mm = 0.0025 m
P
1
= 0.05 kPa

2
P gh p =
= 13600 (9.81) (0.0025)
= 0.033 kPa

3
P gh p =
= 13600 (9.81) (0.0025)
= 0.033 kPa



P
0
P
1
= 101.325 0.050 = 101.275 kPa
P
0
P
2
= 101.325 0.033 = 101.292 kPa
P
0
P
3
= 101.325 0.033 = 101.292 kPa

2
0
P
r
P
=
=


= 0.0003

0
P
RT
p =


3
3
101.325 10
287 295
1.197kg m

=


2
2
4
d
A
t
=


2
5 2
(0.0095 )
4
7.088 10 m
t

=
=




For mass flow rate,

2 1
0
0 2
0
2
1
P
m A r r

p
p
+
| |
=
|
|

\ .


=
() (

)(

) (

) (

)

= 0.0002 kg/s

Graph

Figure 6: Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
0
P
2
(kPa)


Figure 7: Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
2
(kPa)
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
99.5 100 100.5 101 101.5
M
a
s
s

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
,

m

(
k
g
/
s
)

P0 P2 (kPa)
(Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P0 P2
(kPa))
(kg/s)
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
M
a
s
s

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
,

m

(
k
g
/
s
)

P
2
(kPa)
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
2
(kPa)


Figure 8: Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
0
P
3
(kPa)



Figure 9: Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
3
(kPa)

0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0 50 100 150 200 250 M
a
s
s

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
,

m

(
k
g
/
s
)

P
0
P
3
(kPa)
Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
0
P
3
(kPa)

0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
M
a
s
s

f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e
,

m

(
k
g
/
s
)

P
3
(kPa)
(Mass flow rate, m (kg/s) against P
3
(kPa)

Figure 10: P0 P2 (kPa) against P
0
P
3
(kPa)


99.6
99.8
100
100.2
100.4
100.6
100.8
101
101.2
101.4
0 50 100 150 200 250
P
0


P
2

(
k
P
a
)



P
0
P
3
(kPa)
P
0
P
2
(kPa) against P
0
P
3
(kPa)

8.0 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

9.0 REFERENCES


1. Fluid Mechanics, Fundamental and Applications by Yunus A. Cengel and John. M.
Cimbala First Edition in SI Units
2. Fluid Mechanics by Frank M.White
3. Fluids Power with applications, Sixth Edition, Anthony Esposito
4. Fluid Mechanics, J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek, J. A. Swaffield, Third Edition,
Longman Scientific & Technical
5. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Robert W. Fox, Alan McDonald, Second Edition,
John Wiley & Sons.