C I V I L - M I L I T A R Y



Week 46 13 November 2012


Comprehensive Information on Complex Crises

Economic Development Governance & Rule of Law Security & Force Protection Social & Strategic Infrastructure

This document provides an overview of developments in Afghanistan from 30 October – 12 November 2012, with hyper-links to source material highlighted in blue and underlined in the text. For more information on the topics below or other issues pertaining to events in Afghanistan, contact the members of the Afghanistan Team, or visit our website at www.cimicweb.org/cmo/afg.

Highlighted Topics
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►Clicking the links in this list will take you to the appropriate section.

Three international oil firms bid on oil and gas deposits in northern Afghanistan. Wood and coal prices have risen sharply, endangering Afghans as winter nears. Hizb-e Islami will participate in presidential elections if they are fair and transparent. European Union defers USD 25 million in aid over poor progress in justice reform. Afghanistan disputes SIGAR conclusions regarding ANA capabilities. Ministry of Interior say foreign countries try to perpetuate the conflict in Afghanistan. Herat residents claim Iran is obstructing the progress of Salma Dam project. Construction of Hairatan-Mazar-e Sharif railway second phase will be launched soon.

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Economic Development

Steven A. Zyck ► steve.zyck@cimicweb.org


CFC publications are independently produced by Desk Officers and do not reflect NATO or ISAF policies or positions of any other organisation.
The CFC is part of NATO Allied Command Operations.

he International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced on 12 November that Afghanistan’s economic growth in 2012 is likely to be higher than previously projected and that inflation was likely to be lower than in recent years, according to Reuters. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth was likely to be 11%, and inflation would hover around 5%. In 2011, Afghanistan’s GDP grew by 5.77% and inflation stood at 11.81%, according to the IMF’s World Economic Outlook. Three international energy companies, Dragon Oil of the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait Energy and Turkey’s TPAO, have bid for the exploration rights to oil and gas blocks in the AfghanTajik basin, reports the Economic Times. Afghan Ministry of Mines official Abdul Jalil Jumrani said the following of the bids: “It is a great day for the people of Afghanistan because we’ve never had such big companies interested in Afghanistan.” Exxon Mobil, one of the world’s largest oil companies, did not ultimately bid after having reportedly considered doing so. The successful bidder will be announced in the first quarter of 2013. Afghan President Hamid Karzai arrived in Mumbai, India on 09 November in order to promote Indian investment in Afghanistan, according to The Times of India. During the visit, which involved meetings between President Karzai and representatives of major Indian corporations, the Indian and Afghan governments signed a number of bilateral agreements; the agreements address issues such as mining, development cooperation and fertilisers in addition to broader political and security issues, reports the Economic Times. Early during President Karzai’s visit, the Indian Cabinet approved USD 100 million for a Small Development Project (SDP) initiative in Afghanistan. The projects to be funded under the SDP initiative focus on a number of sectors, including education, health and agriculture. This is the third phase of India’s SDP initiative in Afghanistan, which began in 2006. However, this disbursement is far larger than the previous two phases. India has committed approximately USD 2.3 billion in aid to Afghanistan since 2001.

For further information, contact: Afghanistan Team Leader rainer.gonzalez@cimicweb.org The Afghanistan Team afghanistan@cimicweb.org

In other regional news, The Economist joined several other media outlets in highlighting how Iran’s economic troubles are causing difficulties for western Afghanistan. Each day approximately 1,000 Afghans, mostly working-age men, are returning to Afghanistan from Iran. The returnees had worked illegally in Iran, mostly in factories and on construction sites. However, economic mismanagement and international sanctions have hobbled the Iranian economy and removed job opportunities for Afghans. Iran’s economic troubles are also causing difficulties for businesses in western Afghanistan. A loss of imports from Iran means that raw materials needed for industries in parts of Afghanistan have dried up, and increasing scarcity has forced prices up in markets in Herat. However, the news was not all bad for western Afghanistan. The provincial governor’s office in Herat told Pajhwok Afghan News that Canadian experts are using satellite images to assess gas reserves in Kashk-i-Kohna, Rabat Sangi and Gulran districts. The three districts border Turkmenistan, which is home to massive natural gas reserves. The assessment in Herat was recently held up by insecurity, which led the Canadian experts to leave the area, though work is anticipated to resume within the coming days. The Associated Press writes that Kandahar, the largest city in southern Afghanistan, is beginning to face an economic downturn. Businesspeople say that their profits are beginning to decline sharply. Esmatullah Khan, a 29-year-old businessman who had provided goods and services to foreign forces in Kandahar, says that he and many other businesspeople are planning to leave Kandahar. In addition to seeing their incomes decline, they are particularly concerned about being targeted by the Taliban once foreign forces depart. Declining aid levels for Kandahar are also weighing on Afghans’ decision whether to stay in the area or depart. According to the Associated Press, the United States Agency for International Development disbursed USD 161 million for Kandahar province in 2011 but will only be providing USD 63 million this year. Afghans say the price of wood and coal for heating are rising quickly in Kabul as the winter approaches, writes Wadsam. Prices this year are reportedly higher than in the past. Traders say they are paying as much as AFN 6,000 (USD 118) for 50 kg of wood and are in turn charging around AFN 7,000 (USD 137) to AFN 7,500 (USD 147) for the same quantity. Ordinary Afghans as well as labour unions have been hoping to draw attention to the rising prices, which they believe the Kabul municipal government should somehow reduce. However, Khair Mohammad Safdari, who oversees markets in the municipality for the government, says they have no legal authority to set fixed prices. In a closely related issue, the Kabul Money Exchange Union told Wadsam that one US dollar now costs AFN 53.30, a rate higher than in recent years. Traders and experts say that fewer US dollars are available in Afghanistan as the international community’s presence declines and as demand for US dollars increases in neighbouring Iran.. The head of the Afghan Central Bank, Noorullah Delawari, says that the increase is also tied with the outflow of dollars from the country, including for the Hajj, the annual Islamic pilgrimage. The rising value of the US dollar against the afghani means that prices for imported goods are rising, thus putting added strain on Afghans’ purchasing power. Afghanistan’s silk industry is facing threats from cheaper, imported silks, thus causing difficulties for silkworm farmers and silk makers, according to The Daily Mail. The silk trade in Afghanistan, particularly in the western city of Herat, has been evolving over time. Pure silk was increasingly replaced by synthetic varieties, which cost one-seventh as much per kilogram. Now synthetic silk products from foreign countries, such as China, are increasingly available on Afghan markets. While an Afghan silk scarf might cost around USD 8, an imported scarf could be purchased for as little as USD 3. Accordingly, Afghans involved in the silk trade are facing hard times, and their livelihood and their centuries-old craft are in danger of disappearing from Afghanistan. A number of other economic development issues, which are summarised below, emerged during the past two weeks.  A number of fixed-price stores – akin to American “dollar stores” or British “pound stores” – are flourishing in Kabul, reports Wadsam. They sell goods for a fixed rate of either AFN 89 (USD 1.75) or AFN 99 (USD 1.94). While their customers are growing rapidly, some customers complain that some of the items are of low quality.  Afghanistan’s Council of Ministers announced that the Ministry of Commerce and Industries, rather than the agriculture or counter-narcotics ministries, is responsible for promoting Afghan saffron within the country and abroad. Several Afghan government entities, including the ministries of agriculture and counter-narcotics, have been involved in promoting Afghan saffron in recent years.  President Hamid Karzai ordered Afghanistan’s Foreign Minister and Attorney General to summon former Central Bank chief Abdul Qadir Fitrat back to Afghanistan, according to Pak Tribune. He fled to the United States in June 2011, claiming that his life was in danger for having combatted corruption and large-scale fraud at Kabul Bank. Some within President Karzai’s government, however, believe he should be tried for failing to stop the theft of nearly USD 1 billion in assets from Kabul Bank by politicallyconnected shareholders and borrowers.

Governance & Rule of Law

Stefanie Nijssen ► stefanie.nijssen@cimicweb.org


lection officials announced that Afghanistan’s presidential and provincial council elections will be held on 05 April 2014, just months ahead of the last phase of the security transition process, according to The Guardian. Afghanistan’s National Coalition party said the date of the presidential election should be pushed back in order to avoid the risk that a long winter will make voting impossible for residents in remote areas, Tolo News reports. In addition, Pajhwok Afghan News writes that the Coordination Council of Political Parties, a group of more than twenty Afghan political parties, said provincial council elections should be held in 13 November 2012 Page 2

2013 rather than in 2014. Members of the Council argued that, since presidential terms are five years and provincial council terms are only four years, provincial council elections should be held in 2013 if they are to be constitutional. While organisations such as the United Nations and the Free and Fair Election Foundation of Afghanistan (FEFA) welcomed the setting of an election date, others voiced concern that electoral reforms are not happening at an adequate pace. Some legislators, for instance, are working on their own draft of the electoral law while waiting for President Hamid Karzai to submit his draft to the Wolesi Jirga, the lower house of parliament, Pajhwok reports. In other election news, Hizb-e-Islami, the political-militant group led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, said that it will participate in the upcoming presidential election in 2014 if it appears to be fair and transparent, reports Tolo News. Pajhwok also notes that Balkh province’s governor, Atta Mohammad Noor, known for his opposition to President Hamid Karzai, has hinted that he may run for the presidency. Noor is also a powerful supporter of Abdullah Abdullah, the leading opposition candidate in the 2009 presidential elections, according to Foreign Policy. Insurgents belonging to the Haqqani Network have reportedly indicated that the group would take part in peace talks with the United States, but only under the direction of Afghan Taliban leaders, according to NBC News. This statement was accompanied by a warning that the insurgent group would continue high-profile attacks and would pursue their aim of establishing an Islamic state. The group’s announcement comes after the Afghan government welcomed UN sanctions against the Haqqani Network and announced that it would henceforth refuse to enter into negotiations with the group, says Reuters. In other negotiations-related news, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, the former head of Pakistan’s Jamaat-e-Islami political party, offered to act as mediator for peace talks between the Afghan government, the Taliban and Hezb-e-Islami, according to The Express Tribune. As a first step, Hussain proposed convening a jirga with the Taliban and Hizb-e-Islami. The Pakistani government on 12 November accused Afghan forces of killing at least four civilians in a cross-border shelling attack, increasing tensions just as Afghan High Peace Council chief Salahuddin Rabbani visited Islamabad to discuss peace talks with the Taliban, reports the Associated Press. Mohammad Ismail Khan, a former Northern Alliance militia commander who is currently Afghanistan’s Minister of Energy and Water, said that former mujahideen fighters are forming armed groups to protect and secure Afghanistan as the bulk of foreign troops withdraw, reports Tolo News. Ismail Khan said a mujahideen council had been formed in Herat province and will connect all the mujahideen leaders across Afghanistan in supporting the Afghan security forces. Members of the Meshrano Jirga, the upper house of the Afghan legislature, have lashed out in response to Ismail Khan’s plan and called for his impeachment, writes Tolo News. Members of the Civil Society Network have called on the Afghan government to take action against the plan to reconstitute mujahideen militias, saying they are unconstitutional, run counter to Afghanistan’s national interests and could propel the proliferation of private militias. The European Union has deferred the disbursement of USD 25 million for the Afghan Ministry of Justice, according to Tolo News. EU officials say the funds are being withheld given the Afghan government’s insufficient progress in judicial reform. EU spokesman Abdullah Yadgare said it was not clear when the funding for the five-year justice programme will be reinstated. In related news, Afghan Vice President Marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim criticised the Afghan judicial system and accused the government of failing to properly charge and try people suspected of criminal acts, according to Khaama Press. A number of other justice-related articles recently focused on the Afghan Local Police (ALP). Four members of the ALP from Kunduz province were found guilty and sentenced by a Kabul judicial panel to 16 years in prison for the rape of an 18-year-old girl, writes The New York Times. Meanwhile, the Wolesi Jirga Complaints Commission has accused Hakim Shujayee, an ALP commander from Uruzgan province, of involvement in sexual abuse, armed robberies and murder, says Pajhwok. The Commission said on 11 November that residents would take action against the man if security forces failed to arrest him within 24 hours. The Christian Science Monitor describes how the Afghan postal service has become one of the most efficient national institutions despite using only limited foreign assistance. Fouzia Roufi, a member of the Wolesi Jirga’s telecommunication commission stated: “The Afghan postal service is a promising administration. Whenever we talk to people, they are happy about the services they provide.” Mohammad Naseem Rahimi, acting head of the postal service, thinks his institution’s approach could be a model for other government entities. Unlike government offices that employ full-time foreign advisers, who are paid comparatively high salaries, the Afghan postal service has been largely self-sufficient and has only occasionally hired temporary foreign advisers. A number of other articles related to governance and rule of law appeared this past week, including those summarised below.  Officials from the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission said that sexual abuse cases have increased by twenty per cent over the past few months, according to Ariana News. For instance, cases noted during the past week included the sexual abuse of a three-year-old boy in Takhar province and that of a five-year-old girl in Balkh.  Gul Agha Shirzai, Nangarhar’s provincial governor and future presidential candidate, has dismissed US officials’ recent allegations of corruption against him, saying the assertions were politically motivated, writes The Wall Street Journal. US documents reportedly indicate that Shirzai earns millions of dollars from illegal taxation. Officials at the Attorney General’s Office and at the High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption said no investigation had been launched since they had no “credible evidence” against Shirzai.

13 November 2012

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 Kandahar’s provincial governor, Tooryalai Wesa, says that the internationally-backed effort to transform Kandahar’s government into a credible administration is working, reports Reuters. Wesa says the influence of Kandahar’s warlords is down and district governors can now drive to distant villages. However, he also warned that disillusionment may set in if the central government does not provide the provincial administration with the necessary funds to finish projects and provide services.  Finance Minister Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal presented next year’s budget, to the Meshrano Jirga, writes Tolo News. Zakhilwal said USD 3.7 billion will be allocated to the operating budget and USD 3.2 billion will be marked for the development budget. The government estimates that 46% of the budgeted funds will come from foreign sources.  The Ministry of Finance has said that government institutions have only used an average of 31% of their development budgets for the current fiscal year, says Ariana News.  The Afghan government launched a comprehensive investigation into the International Crisis Group (ICG) activities in Afghanistan after the group published a report regarding the security situation in Afghanistan, writes Khaama Press. NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said the ICG has a right to express its views and called on the government to avoid interfering in the group’s operations, according to a separate Khaama Press article.

Security & Force Protection


Officials in Helmand province are concerned that poppy cultivation and opium trafficking are continuing to disrupt security, reports Pajhwok Afghan News. During a conference held to create awareness of the poppy cultivation issue, Governor Mohammad Naeem Baloch, stated that the provincial government would do its best to curb narcotics production. Baloch urged groups to promote alternative sources of income for farmers and tribal elders and scholars to assist the government in eradication. Baloch further noted that the Taliban’s Quetta Shura procures weapons and ammunition using profits from opium trade, so they continue to encourage farmers to grow poppy and support its cultivation. The Ministry of Defense of Afghanistan disputed the contents of the report by the US Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) regarding the capabilities of the Afghan military, reported Khaama Press. The SIGAR report detailed how, despite USD 800 million in NATO funding, Afghan security forces will be unable to maintain the current bases due to insufficient and poor troop quality. SIGAR also announced that it would launch an investigation into USD 230 million (£143 million) worth of missing spare parts ordered for the Afghan army. On Monday, 05 November, a US military prosecutor presented the gruesome details of the case against US Army Staff Sargent Robert Bales, who is accused of murder in the deaths of sixteen Afghan civilians, reports Khaama Press. The military prosecutor is seeking the death penalty for Bales, who is accused of leaving his Army outpost in the middle of the night and using his M-4 rifle during attacks in the villages of Balandi and Alkozai in Panjwai district in Kandahar province. Bales wife and lawyer stated that Bales cannot recall what occurred that night but prosecutors paint a different picture. They said that Bales came back to the base after he attacked the first village and told other soldiers what he had done before he left again to attack the second village. Prosecutors called Bales actions “deliberate and methodical”. Bales faces sixteen counts of premeditated murder, six counts of attempted murder, and charges of assault and possession and use of steroids and alcohol while deployed. NATO Secretary General Andres Fogh Rasmussen recently stated that NATO is ready to continue its mission in Afghanistan beyond 2014 at the invitation of the Afghan government with or without a UN mandate, says Ariana News. “We can further operate after 2014 by the demand of Afghan government. This is completely in accordance with international laws. In addition, it would be good if we have an approved mandate by the UN, but we can continue operation upon an invitation of Afghan government,” stated Rasmussen. Currently, NATO’s combat mission would change to a support mission at the end of 2014. The support role would include training and equipping the Afghan forces. Finally, Ministry of Interior officials alleged that foreign powers, including Pakistan, are trying to perpetuate the conflict and install a puppet government in Afghanistan, highlights Pajhwok. Police officials acknowledged that insurgents had infiltrated police ranks with the support of some neighbouring countries. Further they stated authorities were doing all they could to address the problem and were investigating any officers with links to insurgents. The visits by officials and additional investigations were a result of the recent spate of insider killings plaguing Afghan and ISAF forces. In other security-related news from Afghanistan and its region:  Twenty people were killed when a suicide bomber on a motorbike detonated his explosives in front of a District 4 police station in Kandahar city, informs Tolo News. The blast was so large it broke windows of surrounding buildings.  Ten civilians including women and children were killed when the vehicle they were riding in struck a roadside bomb in Mosa Qala district Helmand province, reports Khaama Press. Among the dead were five women and a child. This comes only one week after a similar incident in which eleven civilians were killed in Mosa Qala district.  Sweden announced an agreement to extend its troop deployment in Afghanistan through the end of 2013; however, their force strength would be reduced by 200 soldiers, reports Khaama Press. Sweden currently has 500 troops deployed under the NATOled International Security Assistance Force mission in Afghanistan. 13 November 2012 Page 4

 During a meeting with police commanders, Wardak tribal elders stated that they are ready take responsibility for the security of the villages, reports Tolo News. The elders went on to say their young sons had the ability to secure and resist the anti-government insurgents in the area. “Our young people are ready to defend the security of their areas,” stated an elder. Police Commander General Abdul Qayoum Baqizoye said that the offer from the elders was welcome news and if sincere t they would be provided weapons and equipment. Baqizoye went on to state that if residents cooperate with security forces, the security situation will become better in more districts.

Social & Strategic Infrastructure
Residents in the Chesht district of Herat province claim that Iranian officials are obstructing the progress in the construction of Salma dam by bribing the Indian companies who are in charge of the project, according to Wadsam. The project, which was launched in 2006, remained incomplete until Indian officials sent supervisors and workers to Herat last year to restart the project. However, when supervisors left the construction site to return to India, the personnel at the site reportedly stopped working. While Indian officials have attributed the delay to security conditions in the surrounding area, Afghan officials claim that Iran’s effort to hamper the development of the project is the real reason for the lag. Salama dam’s chief of security Aziz-ul Rahman said there are no security issues in the districts and that more than 200 troops are deployed throughout the area to guarantee the security of the construction works. Tribal elders in the area told Wadsam that Indian officials working at the site have been seen meeting with Iranian officials and allegedly receive bonuses from Iranian counterparts to impede the construction of the Salama dam. Iran perceives the Salma Dam as a threat to their sustainable water access because the dam has the potential to significantly reduce the flow from the Hari Rud River to Iran.

Rainer Gonzalez ► rainer.gonzalez@cimicweb.org
Humanitarian Update The World Food Programme (WFP) is rushing to provide food supplies to those who will be cut off during the winter, reviews a WFP press release. The supplies have been distributed mainly within Badakhshan province, where winter snowfall on the Pamir mountain range usually renders 11 out of 28 districts inaccessible. In this region, eighty per cent of the population is classified as food insecure. The WFP plans to distribute 10,000 metric tonnes of food throughout this winter in Afghanistan. Asylum seekers, mainly from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, that were transferred to the small island of Nauru in the Pacific Ocean by the Australian government have begun a hunger strike, reports Agence France-Press. The asylum seekers demand to be transferred to the Australia mainland. The government of Australia sent asylum seekers to Nauru and Papua New Guinea’s Manus Island in mid-August to deter others from making the same trip to Australia. The Australian government warned that it could be years before their asylum claims are processed.

In similar news, Wadsam reports that the construction works for the Shah wa Aros dam in Kabul province have reached 35 per cent completion and will be finished in less than two years. During a visit to the site, Minister of Energy and Water Ismail Khan said the dam would provide irrigation to more than 3.5 hectares of land, produce 2 MW of electricity and enough water for almost five million people once completed. The project is run by an Iranian company at a cost of USD 50 million. Iran and Afghanistan have agreed to build a gas pipeline to export Iranian gas into Afghanistan, report Wadsam. Ali Reza Zeighami, managing director of the National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company, will soon travel to Afghanistan to discuss the details of the agreement. Zeighami added that under the agreement Iran will export one million tonnes of oil products “60 to 70 per cent of this consignment would be oil gas, 20 to 30 per cent of it would be gasoline, and the remaining 10 to 20 per cent jet gas, and their prices, too, would be in accordance with the international prices of these products, each year, respectively.” Local officials have expressed concerns over pressure that is being placed on community infrastructures because of the constant influx of people into Herat city, and say new approaches should be taken to control the increasing numbers of people moving into the city, according to Ariana News. The Governor of Herat, Daud Saba said the current infrastructure of the city of Herat cannot support the rising population. Saba said, “New approaches must be taken to provide answers to the needs of all people in Herat Province. Otherwise an unknown tragedy can be expected to occur”. Healthcare providers in Herat have concerns about how the province’s healthcare facilities will be able to respond to the needs of the growing population as well as the increasing number of births that are placing strains on hospitals. Local officials claim that the city has the capacity for one million residents though there are currently three million people living there. Afghan officials have announced the construction of the second phase of the Hairatan-Mazar e Sharif railway line, which will link the capital of Balkh province with Faryab province and Tajikistan, reports Tolo News. The railway extension will stretch 230 km from Mazar-e Sharif to the Ankhoy district in Faryab. Another 38 km length extension will run to Tajikistan from Mazar-e Sharif. The railway, which will be funded by the Asian Development Bank at a cost of USD 350 million, will ease ground transport in the country and will pave the way to connect the Afghan economy to other countries in the region, according to the Ministry of Public Works. A number of other social and strategic infrastructure issues emerged this past week, including those summarised below.  Several patients of the maternity ward at the hospital in Ghanikel district on Nangarhar province have stated that workers are illegally receiving money in exchange for services, says Pajhwok Afghan News. The hospital belongs to the Afghan government and is therefore obligated to provide free health services for Afghans. Rahman Gul, the hospital’s head, said that the allegations are baseless although at least one staff member was laid off for seeking money from patients. 13 November 2012 Page 5

 The revenues of Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), the Afghan national electricity company, have increased by twenty per cent over the past year, highlights Tolo News. Abdullah Razaq Samadi, DABS chief, says that revenue increase is a result of the modernisation of electricity networks, the extension of electricity lines to other provinces, the prevention of electricity cuts as well as more people paying their electricity bills.  The Afghan Minister of Education, Ghulam Farooq Wardak, inaugurated the National Agriculture Education Center in Kabul on 06 November, according to Wadsam. The centre, which is funded by the Dutch government, will provide training and education to farmers as well as processors and traders who are involved in agricultural enterprises. The centre’s curriculum is being developed by Wageningen University in the Netherlands.  A vocational programme for rural girls who could not pursue higher education has been launched in Balkh province, reports Pajhwok. The course, funded by the World Bank at a cost of USD 2 million, will provide training for more than 13,000 girls in trades such as tailoring, carpet weaving and handicraft.  Colombo Plan, an international non-governmental organisation, has funded an educational training centre for ex-drug users in Kabul, informs Pajhwok. The centre, at a cost of USD 330,000 will train 500 ex-drug users in various disciplines. Recent Readings & Resources        “Humanitarian Assistance in Review. South Asia: 2003-2012”, United States Agency for International Development, October 2012. “Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: A Risk Assessment Report”, Carlton University, October 2012. “Stability: International Journal of Security and Development”, Volume 1, Issue 1, October/November 2012. “Humanitarian Implementation Plan South Asia”, European Commission, Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid, October 2012. “Afghanistan Market Price Bulletin: October 2012”, World Food Programme, October 2012. “Map: Reported incidents directly affecting humanitarian access”, UNOCHA, October 2012. “Map: Health Cluster District Vulnerability Ranking”, UNOCHA, October 2012.

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ENGAGE WITH US 13 November 2012




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