Version 3.

1 Updated 21 January 2009

UNITY SECURITY FORCE STANDING ORDERS

“A moth eaten rag on a worm eaten pole, It does not look likely to stir a man’s soul, ‘Tis the deeds that were done ‘neath the moth eaten rag When the pole was a staff, and the rag was a flag.”
- Sir Edward Hanley

Preface 1. It is a long-standing tradition for military forces, wherever they are in the world, to form and maintain a collective set of orders pertaining to its unique operation. Our Force is indeed no different, and as such, we have compiled our own set of orders that reflect our unique place in the world as a Virtual military. These orders should be read and regularly reviewed by all personnel regardless of their position or their length of service. It is imperative to the successful operation of the Force that these orders are implemented with fairness and diligence. Above all, these orders should be read with our strategic goals in mind, recognising that we are here to: a. b. c. Have fun; and Provide a realistic military experience; and Learn new things
nd

2.

3.

Original edition dated at WELLINGTON, NEW ZEALAND the day of 22 December 2005.

D. M. H. Hall General Chief of Staff

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CONTENTS
Preface ............................................................................................................................................. 1 CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Chapter 1 Command .......................................................................................................................... 7

Section 1 USEC Command ............................................................................................................. 7 Authority ........................................................................................................................................... 7 Structure ........................................................................................................................................... 7 Secondment of Personnel ................................................................................................................. 7 Supernumerary Appointment of Personnel ........................................................................................ 7 Section 2 Structure ......................................................................................................................... 8 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Section 3 Force Commanders ......................................................................................................... 9 Definition .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Appointment ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Title .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Role of Force Commanders .............................................................................................................. 9 Asset Authority................................................................................................................................ 10 Operational Authority ...................................................................................................................... 10 Operational Authority Limitations ..................................................................................................... 11 Release of Assets ........................................................................................................................... 11 Section 4 Commanding Officers .................................................................................................... 12 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Appointment ................................................................................................................................... 12 Role of Commanders ...................................................................................................................... 12 Communication ............................................................................................................................... 12 Mission Planning ............................................................................................................................. 12 Asset Management ......................................................................................................................... 13 Unit Training ................................................................................................................................... 13 Unit Operations and Events ............................................................................................................ 13 Member Management ..................................................................................................................... 13 Section 5 Subunit Leaders ............................................................................................................ 14 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Appointment ................................................................................................................................... 14 Role of Subunit Leaders .................................................................................................................. 14 Section 6 Administrative Commanders .......................................................................................... 15 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 15 Appointment ................................................................................................................................... 15 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 15 Administrative Command ................................................................................................................ 15 Duration of Administrative Command .............................................................................................. 15 Activity of Administrative Commanders ........................................................................................... 15 Section 7 Inspector General .......................................................................................................... 16 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 16 Appointment ................................................................................................................................... 16 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 16 Role of the Inspector General.......................................................................................................... 16 Chapter 2 Discipline......................................................................................................................... 17

Section 1 General ......................................................................................................................... 17 Maintenance of Good Order and Discipline ..................................................................................... 17

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Collective Responsibility ................................................................................................................. 17 Fun and Realistic Environment ........................................................................................................ 17 Dismissal ........................................................................................................................................ 17 Dishonorable Discharge .................................................................................................................. 17 Administrative Discharge ................................................................................................................ 18 Honorable Discharge ...................................................................................................................... 18 Section 2 Offences ........................................................................................................................ 19 Conduct unbecoming of an Officer .................................................................................................. 19 Conduct prejudicial to service discipline .......................................................................................... 19 Absent without leave (AWOL) ......................................................................................................... 19 Avoidance of duty ........................................................................................................................... 19 Ill-treatment of person of a lower rank ............................................................................................. 20 Abusive or threatening behaviour .................................................................................................... 20 Insubordination ............................................................................................................................... 20 Disobeying a lawful command ......................................................................................................... 20 Failure to comply with written orders ............................................................................................... 20 Disgraceful conduct ........................................................................................................................ 21 Breach of confidentiality .................................................................................................................. 21 Section 3 Summary Disposal of Charges ...................................................................................... 22 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 22 Authority to raise charges................................................................................................................ 22 Process to summarily dispose of a charge ...................................................................................... 22 Documenting a Charge ................................................................................................................... 23 Section 4 Courts Martial ................................................................................................................ 24 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 24 History ............................................................................................................................................ 24 Forms of Court Martial .................................................................................................................... 24 Application for trial .......................................................................................................................... 24 Convening Order for a General/Restricted Court Martial .................................................................. 24 Procedure for Court Martial ............................................................................................................. 24 Documentation................................................................................................................................ 24 Section 5 Software Piracy ............................................................................................................. 25 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 25 No Piracy ........................................................................................................................................ 25 Poor Quality Anti-Piracy Methods .................................................................................................... 25 Chapter 3 Personnel ........................................................................................................................ 26

Section 1 Authority for Personnel Management ............................................................................. 26 Authority to issue promotions .......................................................................................................... 26 Authority to issue demotions ........................................................................................................... 26 Authority to issue reversions in rank ................................................................................................ 26 Section 2 Promotion of Enlisted Members ..................................................................................... 27 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Private ............................................................................................................................................ 27 Private First Class ........................................................................................................................... 27 Corporal.......................................................................................................................................... 27 Sergeant ......................................................................................................................................... 28 Staff Sergeant ................................................................................................................................. 28 Master Sergeant ............................................................................................................................. 28 First Sergeant ................................................................................................................................. 29 Sergeant Major ............................................................................................................................... 29 Sergeant Major of the Force Group ................................................................................................. 29 Sergeant Major of the Force ............................................................................................................ 30

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Section 3 Promotion of Commissioned Officers ............................................................................. 31 Second Lieutenant .......................................................................................................................... 31 First Lieutenant ............................................................................................................................... 31 Captain ........................................................................................................................................... 31 Major .............................................................................................................................................. 32 Lieutenant Colonel .......................................................................................................................... 32 Colonel ........................................................................................................................................... 32 Section 4 Promotion of General Ranks .......................................................................................... 34 Promotion of the General Staff ........................................................................................................ 34 Brigadier General ............................................................................................................................ 34 Major General ................................................................................................................................. 34 Lieutenant General ......................................................................................................................... 34 General........................................................................................................................................... 35 General of the Force ....................................................................................................................... 35 Section 5 Reversion in Rank ......................................................................................................... 36 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 36 Reversion of Enlisted Members ....................................................................................................... 36 Reversion of Commissioned Officers............................................................................................... 36 Reversion of General Staff .............................................................................................................. 36 Chapter 4 Decorations ..................................................................................................................... 37

Section 1 Badges .......................................................................................................................... 37 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 37 Astronaut Badge ............................................................................................................................. 37 Unity Flight Academy Badge ........................................................................................................... 38 Combat Badges .............................................................................................................................. 38 Section 2 Medals .......................................................................................................................... 39 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 39 Order of Wear ................................................................................................................................. 39 Gallantry Crosses ........................................................................................................................... 39 Service Crosses .............................................................................................................................. 40 Service Medals ............................................................................................................................... 41 Service Stars .................................................................................................................................. 42 Section 3 Ribbons ......................................................................................................................... 44 Ribbons .......................................................................................................................................... 44 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 44 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 44 Regulations ..................................................................................................................................... 44 Chapter 5 Operations ....................................................................................................................... 45

Section 1 Command and Control................................................................................................... 45 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 45 Command. ...................................................................................................................................... 45 Control ............................................................................................................................................ 46 Section 2 Operational Planning (OPLAN) ...................................................................................... 47 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Mission Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 47 Definition of the Battlespace ............................................................................................................ 48 Definition of the Battlespace Effects ................................................................................................ 48 Section 3 Operation Orders (OPORD) ........................................................................................... 49 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 49 General........................................................................................................................................... 49 Staff Duties ..................................................................................................................................... 49

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Superscription ................................................................................................................................. 49 Text ................................................................................................................................................ 50 Situation ......................................................................................................................................... 50 Mission ........................................................................................................................................... 50 Execution ........................................................................................................................................ 50 Administration and Logistics ............................................................................................................ 51 Command and Signal...................................................................................................................... 51 Communications ............................................................................................................................. 51 Section 4 Flying Operations .......................................................................................................... 52 Definitions ....................................................................................................................................... 52 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 52 Mission Commanders ..................................................................................................................... 53 Formation Leader ........................................................................................................................... 53 Use of Time Acceleration in Flight Simulators.................................................................................. 53 Virtual Air Traffic Network (VATSIM) ............................................................................................... 53 VATSIM Approved Call-sign ............................................................................................................ 54 Shutting Down Engines in Flight ...................................................................................................... 54 Touch and Go Landings .................................................................................................................. 54 Aerobatic Flight ............................................................................................................................... 54 Low Flying ...................................................................................................................................... 55 Maximum Accumulated Flight Hours ............................................................................................... 55 Pilot Reporting ................................................................................................................................ 55 Section 5 Ground Operations ........................................................................................................ 57 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 57 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 57 Statistics Padding ........................................................................................................................... 57 Routine Combat Missions ............................................................................................................... 57 Blue on Blue Incidents .................................................................................................................... 57 Combat Estimate ............................................................................................................................ 58 Section 6 Maritime Operations ...................................................................................................... 59 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 59 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 59 Mission Commander ....................................................................................................................... 59 Use of Time Acceleration in Simulators ........................................................................................... 59 Movement Orders (MOVEORD) ...................................................................................................... 59 Officer of the Watch Reports (OWR) ............................................................................................... 60 Section 7 Joint Operations ............................................................................................................ 61 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 61 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 61 Section 8 Special Operations ........................................................................................................ 62 Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 62 Authority ......................................................................................................................................... 62 Section 9 Deployments ................................................................................................................. 63 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 63 Detachment Commanders .............................................................................................................. 63 Deployment Life Cycle .................................................................................................................... 63 Campaign Ribbons ......................................................................................................................... 63 Chapter 6 Training ........................................................................................................................... 64

Section 1 Officer Training Course (OTC) ....................................................................................... 64 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 64 Course Content............................................................................................................................... 64

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Section 2 Joint Operation Planning Course (JOPC) ....................................................................... 65 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 65 Course Content............................................................................................................................... 65 Section 3 Junior Command Course (JCC) ..................................................................................... 66 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 66 Course Content............................................................................................................................... 66 Section 4 Senior Command Course (SCC) .................................................................................... 67

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Chapter 1 - Command

CHAPTER 1 COMMAND
SECTION 1 USEC COMMAND
Authority 1.1.1. The Unity Security Force Command (UCOM) has the primary authority for the management, command, and control of all Force Groups (FG). All subsequent units are subordinate to UCOM for the purposes of command and control. Structure 1.1.2. a. UCOM is comprised of the following: The Chief of Staff (CoS); being the Commander-in-chief of all USEC forces. The Chief of Staff is a position established at General rank, and ultimately reports to the Chairman of the Unity Virtual Aviation Community. The Office of the Chief of Staff (OCoS) ; comprising the Deputy Chief of Staff (DCoS) who acts as a direct report to and in place of the Chief of Staff as required, as well as any other personnel seconded to UCOM on a Tour of Duty (ToD). The Directors of USEC Directorates including: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Director of Personnel (DPers) Director of Training (DTrg) Director of Recruiting (DRec) Director of Operations (DOps) Director Virtual Intelligence Agency (DVIA)

b.

c.

Secondment of Personnel 1.1.3. Personnel may be seconded to UCOM either directly by the Chief of Staff or when approved at their own request, however, these secondments are not normally to last more than six months. Supernumerary Appointment of Personnel 1.1.4. The majority of UCOM positions, including those of directors, are to be filled by suitably qualified personnel operating in a supernumerary capacity from their primary position. Typically, the following conventions should be observed: a. b. Force Commanders (Colonel and above) should be provided a Director level supernumerary appointment. Commanding Officers (Major and above) should be provided a Director level supernumerary appointment where no Force Commanders are available, otherwise should be provided a Deputy Director level appointment. Subunit Leaders (Second Lieutenant and above) should be provided an Officer level supernumerary appointment.

c.

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SECTION 2 STRUCTURE
Introduction 1.2.1. USEC is divided into Groups, Units, and Subunits in order to provide the best management structure and overall command and co-ordination. A number of units that USEC has commissioned may not currently be active. 1.2.2. The roles of Force Commanders, Commanding Officers, and Subunit Leaders are covered in detail in the sections that follow.
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Unity Security Force Structure

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Stars indicate rank level of General in that position

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SECTION 3 FORCE COMMANDERS
“Leadership is a potent combination of strategy and character. But if you must be without one, be without strategy.”
- General Norman H. Schwarzkopf

Definition 1.3.1. Force Commanders (FC) are Generals authorised by the Chief of Staff to personally command entire Force groupings. Appointment 1.3.2. The FC should be an officer of General rank depending on their experience and the size of the Force under their command. In exceptional circumstances they may be as junior as Colonel. The Chief of Staff (or delegate) has the authority to appoint Force Commanders. Title 1.3.3. a. b. c. d. e. Force Commanders hold the following position titles in the Force: Commander Maritime Force (CMF) Commander Land Force (CLF) Commander Air Force (CAF) Commander Special Force (CSF) Commander Force Support (CFS)

1.3.4. The Commander should only be referred to their position in the singular, in other words, as Commander Land Force, not Commander Land Forces. They should also not be referred to as Land Force Commander, or Chief of Land Forces, nor as Director Land Forces. Role of Force Commanders 1.3.5. The Force Commander is a specific role denoting very senior authority at USEC, with the power to commit USEC Forces to operational activity under their own authority. 1.3.6. Force Commanders perform a key role in co-ordinating the overall management objectives of the Chief of Staff at the Force level. In addition to co-ordinating instructions from the Chief of Staff, the FC has a pivotal role in co-ordinating directly with other FC to achieve successful Joint Operations (and achieve the so-called Joint Effect). 1.3.7. a. b. c. d. e. Broadly speaking, the successful Force Commander will manage the following: Major interoperability exercises and operations Management of Unit Commander careers Strategic management and review of Force elements Management and Administration of Force Assets Creation of High-priority mission taskings

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Asset Authority 1.3.8. Force Commanders are authorized to deploy and task assets that have been assigned to their Force Group as required. 1.3.9. Force Commander of General rank are authorized to second assets from other Force Groups as required for operational necessity, however where possible as a courtesy they are to formally request the asset from the relevant Force Commander. Operational Authority 1.3.10. Force Commanders who are of General rank are authorized to commit USEC Forces to operational activity without approval of the Chief of Staff in the following circumstances: a. Humanitarian Operations (HUMOP) of a local nature. Common sense should prevail when deciding whether to authorize aid to a civil power, but broadly speaking an event is considered of a local nature when: (1) (2) (3) b. There is no loss of life; and The event is believed to be of natural origin; and The event is not highly emotive or controversial

Search and Rescue (SAR). Under no circumstances should SAR operations be authorized for searches of real persons, whether missing or not. The following provides broad guidelines for considering SAR missions: (1) (2) The event has occurred in the virtual world, such as crashing of a USEC aircraft; or The event occurs in the real world but does not involve a missing person, such as searching for loss of property

c.

Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC). Under no circumstances should CASEVAC operations be authorized for evacuations of real persons, whether truly injured or not. The following provides broad guidelines for considering CASEVAC missions: (1) The event has occurred in the virtual world, such as casualty of a USEC soldier

d.

Force Support (FORSUP) to deployed USEC or coalition forces. Force support includes Recon, Logistics, and Transport functions up to but not including direct combat engagement. Under no circumstances should force support operations be authorized to real-world combat areas where USEC does not have a specific deployed Force. Force Commanders may authorize Force Support request listed below in order of priority: (1) (2) (3) (4) Requests from other Force Commanders for Force support Requests from ATC organizations such as IVAO, VATSIM, and FS-MP Requests from other Virtual Militaries for Force support Requests from Virtual Airlines for Force support

e.

Exercises and Training. Force Commanders may approve exercises and training of any kind, including that with other Virtual Agencies so long as the following is met: (1) (2) No Classified or Restricted material or property is transferred to external parties without the express consent of the Chief of Staff; and The Virtual Agency is not involved in any activities that might be considered in offensive or emotive.

1.3.11. It is vital that Force Commanders apply common sense to the commitment of USEC forces to operations, particularly where they are modelled on real world events. Well-meaning operations to simulate assistance to real-world disasters can greatly offend people involved or impacted by those

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events in the real world. Should any doubt exist as to the risks involved in authorizing an operation, the Chief of Staff or Director of Operations should be approached for advice. Operational Authority Limitations 1.3.12. Only the Chief of Staff has the authority to approve operations that meet the definition of Special Operations as defined in Paragraph 5.8.2. Release of Assets 1.3.13. Force Commanders are expected to release assets for the use of non-specialist assets for familiarity training where operational requirements allow. Assets should be released weekly through the Mission Pool for each asset type, with the briefing to specify any restrictions and clearly state the asset is being released for Familiarity training.

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Chapter 1 - Command

SECTION 4 COMMANDING OFFICERS
“Sorting out muddles is really the chief job of a commander.”
- Archibald Percival, Lord Wavell

Definition 1.4.1. Commanding Officers (CO) are commissioned officers authorised by the Chief of Staff to personally command individual units within the force. Appointment 1.4.2. The CO should be an officer of the rank of Major, Lieutenant Colonel, or Colonel depending on their experience, but in case of a new or small unit they may be as junior as Lieutenant. The Chief of Staff (or delegate) and Force Commanders have the authority to appoint Commanding Officers. Role of Commanders 1.4.3. Commanding Officers (CO) perform one of the most vital roles in the Force. As the direct conduit between senior command and the Force members, the Commander is primarily responsible for communicating and implementing senior command directives. 1.4.4. a. b. c. d. e. Broadly speaking, the successful commander will manage the following: Communication Unit Training Unit Operations and Events Unit Asset Management Member Management

Communication 1.4.5. Commanders should be actively communicating informally through the forums and on messaging programmes (such as MSN, ICQ, or AIM), and formally through MyMail and/or news items posted on the website. As a guide, every week unit members should have received some form of update from their commander. 1.4.6. It is important that commanders remain objective and professional in all their communications, this is particularly relevant in forum discussions. Mission Planning 1.4.7. Commanders are expected to create missions for personnel to complete on a weekly basis, both directly to members within their unit and also via the mission pool in the Operations Directorate. 1.4.8. Commanders of Flight Simulator units who do not, on a regular basis, create missions for their personnel will be subject to disciplinary proceedings. Performance of Commanders is directly assessed against both the quality and the quantity of missions that are provided.

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Asset Management 1.4.9. Commanders are expected to Repair aircraft that are present in their fleet, and request the delivery of Supplies where this is needed to effect repair and operation of their unit. Unit Training 1.4.10. At the core of the strategic objectives of the Force is training and development of its members and this is completed through both Force level training and unit level training. Unit level training is achieved by the running of events targeted with specific training objectives. 1.4.11. Commanders are responsible for either arranging this Unit level training directly, or delegating it to specific staff internally. As such, commanders may appoint a Training Officer of a rank not lower than nd a 2 Lieutenant to act in a training role within their command squad. 1.4.12. It is important that both the Commander and/or the Training Officer be in close contact with the Directorate of Training to ensure local unit training activities are integrated with the overall Force training strategy. Unit Operations and Events 1.4.13. Commanders are encouraged to conduct their own operations and events for their members, such as weekend events. Where possible UCOM will provide assistance to commanders in the running of these events. 1.4.14. Under no circumstances are Units to conduct active operations without the prior authority of the Force Commander or Chief of Staff. For more information on active operations, see Chapter 4. Member Management 1.4.15. Commanders have the prerogative and authority to promote their members and award decorations, so long as such actions fall within the policy and guidelines issued by UCOM including these orders. A commander has the authority to promote a member up to the rank below their own, although they do not have the authority to commission officers. For more information on this policy see Chapter 3, Section 1. 1.4.16. Each decoration has their own specific instructions relating to their award to members and who can approve them. Where a commander does not have the authority to approve an award for a member they think is deserving, then they are to write to the relevant authority requesting the award be made.

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SECTION 5 SUBUNIT LEADERS
Definition 1.5.1. Subunit Leaders are appointed by the Commander to command individual squads within a unit, typically “flights” for Air units and “platoons” for Ground units. Appointment 1.5.2. Squad Leaders should be commissioned officers ideally of the rank of 1 Lieutenant or Captain. Where no commissioned officers are available, a Non-commissioned officer of at least the rank of Corporal may be appointed as a Subunit Leader. 1.5.3. Commanders have the authority to appoint Subunit Leaders but should advise UCOM accordingly. Role of Subunit Leaders 1.5.4. These leaders have some delegated authority from their commander to promote, issue decorations, and conduct events. Subunit leaders are to ensure they use this authority within the policies issued by UCOM, particularly relating to promotion and awarding of medals.
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SECTION 6 ADMINISTRATIVE COMMANDERS
Definition 1.6.1. Administrative Commanders are appointed by the Chief of Staff to units that are in distress in an operational or leadership capacity. Appointment 1.6.2. Administrative Commanders should be commissioned officers with an extremely good working knowledge of USEC Policy and website systems. Authority 1.6.3. Administrative Commanders have the authority of a Commanding Officer, but must report regularly to the Inspector General, and the Chief of Staff as required. Administrative Command 1.6.4. Early Intervention has proven to be the factor that is the greatest indicator of successfully turning around a unit that is not meeting Operational or Administrative standards. A unit is said to be in distress where: a. b. c. d. e. The Commanding Officer is AWOL; or The Commanding Officer is not competent to lead the unit; or The Unit has insufficient personnel numbers to remain active; or The Unit roster is complete inactive; and There is not a suitably qualified Commissioned Officer to manage the unit.

1.6.5. Administrative Command is a last resort for the Chief of Staff, and should precede the disbandment of a unit as an attempt to bring the unit back to activity. 1.6.6. A unit should not be placed under administrative command where an active, competent, and qualified Commissioned Officer is available within the Unit. Where such an officer exists, that Officer is to be appointed the Acting Commanding Officer for the unit. Duration of Administrative Command 1.6.7. Units should, unless exceptional circumstances exist, be placed in Administrative Command for periods longer than four weeks. If a unit has not managed to recover within this time, consideration should be given to deactivating it. Activity of Administrative Commanders 1.6.8. Generally speaking, an Administrative Commander should not use the assets belonging to the unit for their own flight or ground operations, unless they are well qualified with this type of asset. There is not a requirement for Administrative Commanders to become or remain current on Unit assets,

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SECTION 7 INSPECTOR GENERAL
Definition 1.7.1. The Inspector General is a senior military officer responsible for the inspection of military units to ensure that they meet appropriate standards of training and efficiency. They are a general auditor of operations to ensure operation in compliance with general established policies of the Force. Appointment 1.7.2. The Inspector General is nominated by the Chief of Staff. The Chief of Staff must take nomination comments from other officers into consideration before the appointment is made. 1.7.3. a. b. c. d. e. To be nominated, an officer must satisfy the following: Must be a commissioned officer of Colonel rank or greater; or Where no such officer exists, a Lieutenant Colonel may fill the vacancy until such time as a suitable Colonel is available; and Must have served twelve (12) months or greater; and Must hold and maintain a Top Secret Special (TSS) security clearance; and Must have an unblemished security and discipline record.

Authority 1.7.4. The Inspector General has wide ranging authority and powers in the conduct of their activity, including investigation and reporting on senior officers. 1.7.5. The specifics of the authority of the Inspector General are currently under review.

Role of the Inspector General 1.7.6. a. b. c. d. e. The Inspector General is tasked with: Investigating Blue on Blue incidents (see paragraph 5.5.9); and Overseeing the promotion of the General ranks; and Reviewing Court Martial and Summary Judgements; and Reviewing all PIREP, COMREP, and WATCHREP submissions; and Additional tasks as directed by the Chief of Staff.

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Chapter 5 - Operations

CHAPTER 2 DISCIPLINE
SECTION 1 GENERAL
Maintenance of Good Order and Discipline 2.1.1. In order to be most efficient any organization, whether modeled on real-world military or not, needs to ensure that its members maintain the highest discipline standards while retaining a pragmatic and holistic approach to operations. As such, the core focus of disciplinary measures in the Force is the maintenance of good order and discipline. Degree of Discretion 2.1.2. Those in leadership and authority positions within the Force are generally authorized to exercise a degree of discretion when deciding who will be subject to penalties and how they are implemented. This discretion should be used to ensure fair, just, and equitable treatment, as well as ensuring that continued offenses are not committed. 2.1.3. Discretion must be exercised within the parameters offered in the Standing Orders, for example, where a member is charged and found guilty, discretion may not be exercised to offer a less punishment than the minimum outlined. Collective Responsibility 2.1.4. All members share a collective responsibility for ensuring that their behavior, and that of their peers, subordinates, and even commanders, is beyond reproach. Ultimately, mutual respect and professionalism is the key to successful maintenance of discipline and its usefulness in achieving our aims is far greater than any imposed authority. Fun and Realistic Environment 2.1.5. The primary aim of USEC is to provide a fun and realistic environment that simulates real-world military activities. Poor and/or antisocial behavior directly impacts on the organizations ability to achieve this. Dismissal 2.1.6. Members sentenced to dismissal are immediately dismissed from USEC and are banned for rejoining the Force. They are to be banned for use of any USEC facilities including the website, forums, TeamSpeak, and gaming servers. 2.1.7. Any offense with a maximum punishment of Dismissal must be processed using the Trial by Courts-Martial detailed later in this chapter. Dishonorable Discharge 2.1.8. Members sentenced to dishonorable discharge are to be immediately discharged from USEC and banned from rejoining for a specific period. The Chief of Staff may issue a wavier to this period of banning, and members may be entitled to rejoin USEC at any time should this be granted. Members who are reenlisted after dishonorable discharge are to be stripped of all awards and rejoin USEC at the rank of Private.

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Administrative Discharge 2.1.9. Members sentenced to administrative discharge are to be discharged from USEC and may have their account reactivated at any time. Those administratively discharged will forfeit any good conduct medals or ribbons, and may have service length ribbons forfeited. While members may return to duty at any stage, where they are an officer they may be reverted in rank should no positions become free. 2.1.10. Those who have been administratively discharged for a period of longer than 14 days must serve for an additional 12 months beyond any reentry date before becoming eligible for the Distinguished Service Medal. 2.1.11. Charges carrying a maximum sentence of Administrative Discharge for an enlisted member may be implemented by the Chief of Staff (or delegate) without trial by Court-Martial or the full summary disposal procedure. This new method will be used to expedite the discharge process for those who are AWOL. Honorable Discharge 2.1.12. Members who voluntarily request discharge are to be immediately discharged and may return at any stage at their previous rank with all medals, ribbons, and badges. Every effort will be made to find previously commissioned officers with a relevant commissioned post. Where one is not available, they should be offered a reversion in rank until such time as a vacancy becomes available.

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SECTION 2 OFFENCES
Conduct unbecoming of an Officer 2.2.1. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned Officer to act or omit an act likely too bring discredit on the Force, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. c. Dishonourable Discharge; or Administrative Discharge; or Reversion in rank

2.2.2. Charges possible under this offence are wide and varied but typically involve dishonesty or inappropriate behaviour that stops short of 2.2.18 “Disgraceful Conduct”. The choice of sentence is highly dependant on the severity of the offence. Conduct prejudicial to service discipline 2.2.3. It is an offence against these orders for any Enlisted Member to act or through the omission of an act likely too bring discredit on the Force, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. c. Dishonourable Discharge; or Administrative Discharge; or Reversion in rank

2.2.4. Charges possible under this offence are wide and varied but typically involve dishonesty or inappropriate behaviour that stops short of 2.2.18 “Disgraceful Conduct”. The choice of sentence is highly dependant on the severity of the offence. A written warning is usually appropriate for an offence of a minor nature given the member is not involved directly in a managerial position. Absent without leave (AWOL) 2.2.5. It is an offence against these orders for any Enlisted member or Commissioned Officer to be is absent without reasonable excuse for a period of three weeks or more, and is liable for a sentence of: a. b. c. Administrative Discharge; or Reversion in rank; or Written warning

2.2.6. Where a member has been deemed to have abandoned their post, the standard course of action is to issue an administrative discharge. If the member later returns to duty with a reasonable excuse for their absence, they are to be reappointed to duty. 2.2.7. A member is considered “absent” if they do not check their MyMail within a period of seven days without having first informed their Commanding Officer of their absence. Avoidance of duty 2.2.8. It is an offence against these orders for any Enlisted member or Commissioned officer to purposefully or without reasonable excuse, avoid any duty or activity for which they have indicated they would attend or ought to have been able to attend, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. Reversion in rank; or Written warning

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2.2.9. Where any doubt exists as to whether or not the member ought to have been able to attend, or where they might have had reasonable excuse to avoid the duty, then a written warning should be preferred as the sentence. Where members habitually avoid duty, consideration to charging the member under 2.2.1or 2.2.3 above should be considered. Ill-treatment of person of a lower rank 2.2.10. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned or non-commissioned officer either through action or inaction to mistreat subordinates, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. c. Administrative Discharge; or Reversion in rank; or Written warning

Abusive or threatening behaviour 2.2.11. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to threaten or abuse another Enlisted member, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. Reversion in rank; or Written warning

2.2.12. Where members habitually abuse or threaten other members, consideration to charging the member under 2.2.1or 2.2.3 above should be considered. Members who abuse or threaten members of the public should be charged under 2.2.1or 2.2.3. Insubordination 2.2.13. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to act in an insubordinate, threatening, or insulting manner to a superior officer, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. c. Dishonourable Discharge; or Reversion in rank; or Written warning

2.2.14. It is a defence that the accused did not know the member was a superior officer, in which the member should be charged with 2.2.11. Disobeying a lawful command 2.2.15. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to disobey any lawful command from a superior officer, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. c. Dishonourable Discharge; or Reversion in rank; or Written warning

Failure to comply with written orders 2.2.16. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to fail to comply with any UCOM, standing, or routine order that they have read or ought to have read, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. Administrative Discharge; or Reversion in rank; or

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c.

Written warning

2.2.17. This only applies to written orders as listed above, where an order is contained in an email, operational order, deployment instruction, or MyMail, the member should be charged under 2.2.15. Disgraceful conduct 2.2.18. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to willingly behave in a disgraceful and indecent manner, and is liable to a sentence of: a. Dismissal

2.2.19. Charges under this section are for acts totally inconsistent with service. For example, the Force has a zero-tolerance policy regarding cheating, hacks, or any falsification or exploitation of gaming software, and any offences of this nature should be charged under this section unless there is compelling reasons otherwise. 2.2.20. It is important to note that the offence must be conducted willingly. Where this cannot be proven beyond reasonable doubt, the member should be charged under 2.2.1 or 2.2.3. Breach of confidentiality 2.2.21. It is an offence against these orders for any Commissioned officer or Enlisted member to release classified information intentionally or through negligence, and is liable to a sentence of: a. b. Dishonourable Discharge; or Reversion in rank

2.2.22. The sentence for this offence is highly dependant on the classification of the information, the seriousness of the intent or negligence, and any other mitigating factors.

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SECTION 3 SUMMARY DISPOSAL OF CHARGES
Introduction 2.3.1. The purpose of Summary Disposal of charges is to provide a fast, effective, and efficient method of dealing with most cases of alleged offences in the most fair and equitable method possible. 2.3.2. There are two processes open to resolution of charges, the first of which is Summary Disposal of a charge, whereby the officer hearing the charge reviews the evidence, presents a ruling, and chooses a punishment within the directions contained in these orders. The second process is trial by Courts Martial, a slightly more complicated process designed to remove all bias and implement sentences in a fair and equitable way. Authority to raise charges 2.3.3. Any superior officer (any member of a higher rank than the member who is accused of an offence) may raise a charge. This in particular includes Subunit Leaders, Commanding Officers, and the Sergeant Major of a unit. 2.3.4. To raise a charge, the superior officer must inform their Commanding Officer who then becomes the officer hearing the charge. Where the Commanding Officer is raising the charge, they may hear it themselves or request an officer will be appointed at UCOM to hear the charge. Process to summarily dispose of a charge 2.3.5. a. b. c. d. 2.3.6. a. b. c. The superior officer raising the charge is to: Discuss the matter directly with the accused member Gather the available evidence Research which offences within these orders need to be considered MyMail the consolidated information to the hearing officer (being either the CO or UCOM) The officer hearing the charge is to: Review the available evidence Discuss the matter directly with the accused member Decide whether to remand the matter to a Court Martial (1) (2) Refer to Chapter 2Section 4 - Courts Martial for more information regarding when a charge should be remanded. If so, the officer hearing the charge is to immediately inform the Chief of Staff, Deputy Chief of staff, and the accused member – via MyMail and email if appropriate and not continue any further action.

d.

If the matter does not need to be remanded to a Court Martial, the officer hearing the charge is to make a judgement using the “Summary Disposal of Charge” form available from UCOM and include a sentence The accused member is then to: Decide whether to accept the judgement and sentence; or (1) (2) Appeal the judgement; and/or Appeal the sentence

2.3.7. a.

b.

Where the member chooses to appeal, the matter should be referred to trial by Court Martial

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Documenting a Charge 2.3.8. a. Charges should be formed using the following template: Defining the Charge. Outline the name of the member, the charge against them, and the details of that charge framed against the detail contained in the Standing Orders; for example: (1) CAPTAIN JOHN DOE is charged with Disgraceful Conduct under paragraph 2.2.18. of the Unity Security Force Standing Orders, in that he willingly behaved in a disgraceful and indecent manner by using a teleport hack during an Armed Assault nonoperational mission. CAPTAIN JOHN DOE is charged with Abusive or threatening behaviour under paragraph 2.2.11. of the Unity Security Force Standing Orders, in that he has displayed threatening and abusive behaviour towards both Force and Public personnel.

(2)

b.

Additional Charges. Consideration should be giving to additional charges that may be listed against the member, these may be: (1) Secondary Charges. Additional charges to be tried together with the Primary Charge. In general, only a Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary charge is listed, although more can be provided if needed. Alternate Charges. These charges may be provided where difficulty establishing the exact nature of the charge is encountered. The alternate charge is only considered where the first charge is dismissed by the judgement or reviewing authority.

(2)

c.

Notes. Below the each charge should be a heading titled “Notes” that contains details supporting the charge in bullet form. These may refer to attached evidence but should be written in factual language, a briefly as possible. Statements should be noted and referred to, and may be quoted directly, but should not be included in their entirety. (1) Where an online discussion occurs, the notes section can include a summary of the3 conversation particularly where certain members hearing the charge agree or disagree on points of policy.

d.

Findings. Below each notes section should be a Finding section, which contains the findings of the judgement or court. Those member(s) in agreement should be grouped together according to their finding. Judgement. At the conclusion of the document should be a Summary of Findings and Judgement section, that outlines any sentence imposed on the member subject to the reviewing authority.

e.

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SECTION 4 COURTS MARTIAL
Purpose 2.4.1. The purpose of the Courts Martial process is to provide the fairest, most consistent, and just approach to resolving disciplinary matters within the Force. History 2.4.2. As of 2008, eight Trials by Court Martial have occurred. All but one of these trials have related to disciplinary matters, with one relating to operational negligence. The process has been refined over time to provide a quick, fair, and fast system for resolving complaints. A convention has arisen whereby they are held without publicity or fanfare, and while the results are not hidden they are neither publicised directly. 2.4.3. The maintenance of the privacy of an individual is important to USEC, regardless of breaches they have committed against these orders. Forms of Court Martial 2.4.4. a. There are two forms of court martial for the trial of offences under these orders, namely: General Court Martial. A general court martial comprising five or more officers and normally the president will be of General Rank. This court is normally convened for the trial of commissioned officers and the more serious offences committed by enlisted members. Restricted Court Martial. A restricted court martial comprising three or more officers and the president will be of the rank of Major or above. This court is normally convened for the trial of offences committed by enlisted members.

b.

Application for trial 2.4.5. Upon decision to convene a Court Martial, the convening officer is to immediately MyMail the Chief of Staff and the accused member informing them of the decision to try the member by Court Martial. Convening Order for a General/Restricted Court Martial 2.4.6. The Chief of Staff is to review the application, and if consistent with USEC orders and policy, approve the trial and issue a “Convening Order for a General/Restricted Court Martial” in the Officers Forum. This order should list the following: a. b. c. President of the trial; and Members to comprise the trial; and Charges to be heard

Procedure for Court Martial 2.4.7. Ideally, the trial is to be conducted formally online via IRC or MSN, with the accused present to answer questions and discuss the matter. Where this is not possible or required, the members of the Court Martial should at least meet and a submission via email sought from the accused. Documentation. 2.4.8. The documentation should follow the same format as that for documenting a charge, as outlined in paragraph 2.3.8 above.

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SECTION 5 SOFTWARE PIRACY
Introduction 2.5.1. Computer Games offer an excellent way for people from all over the world to learn, share, communicate, and enjoy themselves in a variety of ways. With the advent of the Internet there have been even more ways which people can share their computer gaming experiences and participate in online communities such as the Unity Security Force. 2.5.2. For many years Software Piracy was somewhat of an accepted practice within many online communities and bulletin boards as a method of distributing software, particularly through newsgroups and Internet Relay Chat (IRC). This has continued with the advent of peer-to-peer sharing systems that on one hand allow freeware authors to easily distribute their creations, but on the other hand for copyright infringement to occur. No Piracy 2.5.3. It is in the best interests of the Force for Software Piracy to be combated, so that Game manufacturers continue to be profitable and create future platforms that we use to enjoy playing within our community. Indeed our own community creates many software platforms itself which it wants to be protected and therefore it is important to respect protecting of others rights also. 2.5.4. a. The following is prohibited: Providing software via the USEC Forums, servers, or websites with the intent of breaching lawful copyrights.

Poor Quality Anti-Piracy Methods 2.5.5. It is important that organizations like USEC work to reduce software piracy, but it equally important to ensure that the methods used by game companies are reviewed and discussed. The discussion of anti-piracy methods (particularly where they are “bugged” or of poor quality) in the USEC forums is specifically supported.

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CHAPTER 3 PERSONNEL
SECTION 1 AUTHORITY FOR PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
Authority to issue promotions 3.1.1. a. b. c. d. e. f. The following have the authority to issue promotions: Chief of Staff; and Deputy Chief of Staff; and Director of Personnel; and Force Commanders; and Commanding Officers; and Subunit Leaders

3.1.2. This authority is restricted to those members directly under the day-to-day command of the individual, excluding the CoS, DCoS and DPers who have the authority to promote any member of the Force. Authority to issue demotions 3.1.3. a. b. The following have the authority to issue demotions: Sentence of an officer hearing a charge that has been summarily disposed of; or Sentence of a Court Martial

Authority to issue reversions in rank 3.1.4. The following have the authority to issue reversions in rank, in accordance with Chapter 3Section 5 of these orders: a. b. c. d. e. Commanding Officers (for enlisted members only); and Force Commander; and Director of Personnel; and Chief of Staff ; or Any delegate nominated by the Chief of Staff

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SECTION 2 PROMOTION OF ENLISTED MEMBERS
Introduction 3.2.1. The promotion system within USEC has been developed with specific guidelines, resulting in the quickest progression (excluding any capacity for accelerated promotion) from Private to Sergeant Major being twelve months of unbroken service. Private 3.2.2. Promotion to Private (PVT) is at the discretion of recruiting staff, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. Submitted a recruitment application; and Completed the Basic Recruit Exam; and Satisfied to the Director of Recruiting their intention to serve USEC and remain active.

Private First Class 3.2.3. Promotion to Private First Class (PFC) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 2 weeks continuous service; and Completed any basic training or assessment required; and Active in unit events and on the forums

3.2.4. Accelerated promotion may be approved by a Commanding Officer or UCOM where compelling reasons exist, such as previous USEC experience. Corporal 3.2.5. Promotion to Corporal (CPL) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. 4 weeks continuous service; and Active in unit events and on the forums

3.2.6. Accelerated promotion may be approved by a Commanding Officer or DPERS where compelling reasons exist, such as previous USEC experience.

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Sergeant 3.2.7. Promotion to Sergeant (SGT) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. 3.2.8. 4 weeks continuous service as a corporal; and Pass the NCO exam; and Active in unit events and on the forums; and Completed any specialist init training or assessment required

DPERS is the only authority that can approve accelerated promotion to Sergeant.

Staff Sergeant 3.2.9. Promotion to Staff Sergeant (SSGT) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 4 weeks continuous service as a Sergeant; and Active in unit events and on the forums; and Assisted in the leadership and/or management of Unit affairs

3.2.10. Staff Sergeant is as high as a member can go without being directly involved with the management and organization of their unit and events. If a member is not an active participant in the leadership and direction of their unit, they must not be promoted beyond Staff Sergeant. Master Sergeant 3.2.11. Promotion to Master Sergeant (MSGT) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. 4 weeks continuous service as a Staff Sergeant; and Exceptionally active in unit events and on the forums; and Completed all required unit specialized training; and Displayed leadership

3.2.12. Master Sergeant is considered a leadership rank; members being promoted to this rank must have displayed activity in the leadership and management of unit affairs. This could include the following (list is not exhaustive): a. b. c. Leading squads in ground or air missions Participating in the organization of training or events Promoting or developing standards within the unit

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First Sergeant 3.2.13. Promotion to First Sergeant (FSGT) is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. Sergeant Major 3.2.14. The rank of Sergeant Major (SGTMAJ) is both a rank as well as a position of Authority within a unit. It is a role and rank of significant tradition throughout the Armed Forces of the World. Each Unit within the Force may appoint a single Sergeant Major from within its members, as decided by the Commanding Officer. 3.2.15. Promotion to Sergeant Major is at the discretion of a Commanding Officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. Of the rank of Master Sergeant or above; and 8 weeks continuous service as a Master Sergeant; and Exceptionally active in unit events and on the forums; and Participated in the organization of training or events; and Displayed significant leadership

4 weeks service in current rank; and Considered the most skilled enlisted member of the unit; and No other Sergeant Major’s exist in the unit

Sergeant Major of the Force Group 3.2.16. As the senior Sergeant Major (SGTMAJ(FG)) within a Force Group, they are appointed within the command squad of one of the units in a Force Group and are the most senior enlisted member in the Force Group. 3.2.17. Their responsibility is as the most skilled member of the group, with a keen focus on training and stewardship over new members. They are generally referred to as Sergeant Major, rather than their full title. 3.2.18. Promotion to Sergeant Major of the Force Group is at the discretion of a Force Commander, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 8 weeks continuous service as a Sergeant Major; and Considered the most skilled enlisted member of the Force Group; and No other members at the rank of Sergeant Major of the Force Group exist in the Force Group

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Sergeant Major of the Force 3.2.19. One Sergeant Major may be selected as the senior member out of the entire Force. Typically they will be stationed in UCOM directly, or they may continue to serve in their unit. 3.2.20. Their responsibility is as the most skilled member of the entire Force, with a keen focus on training and stewardship over new members. They are generally referred to as Sergeant Major, rather than their full title. 3.2.21. Promotion to Sergeant Major of the Force (SGTMAJ(F)) is at the discretion of the Chief of Staff, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 8 weeks continuous service as a Sergeant Major of the Force Group; and Considered the most skilled enlisted member of the Force; and No other members at the rank of Sergeant Major of the Force exist in the Force

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SECTION 3 PROMOTION OF COMMISSIONED OFFICERS
“No man can be a great officer who is not infinitely patient of details, for an army is an aggregation of details.”
- George S. Hillard

Second Lieutenant 3.3.1. Newly Commissioned Officers are appointed to this rank, on successful completion of the Officer Training Course (OTC), although they may be commissioned at a higher rank where they have proven experience either within USEC or outside. 3.3.2. Where a Second Lieutenant is posted as a Commanding Officer of a unit, such a posting is considered provisional unit they have been substantiated to the rank of First Lieutenant.

First Lieutenant 3.3.3. Lieutenants typically fill Sub-unit leader positions within Units, although may be posted into Training Officer or other junior staff roles. 3.3.4. Promotion to First Lieutenant is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. e. 4 weeks service as a Second Lieutenant; and Completed any unit training or assessment required; and

Active in unit events and on the forums; and Displayed leadership; and If a Sub-unit leader, the squad must be active

3.3.5. Accelerated promotion may be approved by a Commanding Officer or UCOM where compelling reasons exist, such as previous USEC experience as an NCO. Captain 3.3.6. Captains are typically seasoned Squad leaders, Executive Officers, or Staff Officers, who are preparing for Senior Management positions within Unit and Force command. 3.3.7. Promotion to Captain is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. e. 8 weeks service as a First Lieutenant; and Completed the Joint Operation Planning Course (JOPC); and

Active in unit events and on the forums; and Displayed exceptional leadership; and If a Sub-unit leader, the squad must be highly active

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3.3.8. The Chief of Staff is the only authority that can approve accelerated promotion to Captain, on request of a Commanding Officer. Major 3.3.9. Majors are typically new unit Commanding Officers, Senior Executive Officers, Senior Staff Officers, or Junior Directors in UCOM. In exceptionally large Units with senior officers commanding them, Majors may command subunits. 3.3.10. Promotion to Major is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. e. f. 3.3.11. 8 weeks service as a Captain; and Completed the Junior Command Course (JCC); and

Appointed as a Unit Commander; or Serving as a Staff Officer; or Serving as an Executive Officer; or Squad Leader in a Unit that is commanded by a General The Chief of Staff is the only authority that can approve accelerated promotion to Major.

Lieutenant Colonel 3.3.12. Lieutenant Colonels are highly competent Unit Commanders, Senior Executive Officers, Senior Staff officers, or competent Directors in UCOM. 3.3.13. Promotion to Lieutenant Colonel is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. Colonel 3.3.14. Colonels are exceptionally competent Officers, and the Chief of Staff can only make promotion to this rank. In order to be eligible for promotion to Colonel, Lieutenant Colonels must complete the Senior Command Course (SCC). 3.3.15. This is the most senior Officer rank before the “General” officer ranks, and achievement of this rank is considered a great honour within the Force. 3.3.16. Promotion to Colonel is at the discretion of a superior officer, once the member has achieved the following as a minimum: a.
1

12 weeks service as a Major; and Participated in a decorated Force operation1; and

Completed the Senior Command Course (SCC); and Serving in a Supernumerary position

12 weeks service as a Lieutenant Colonel; and

An operation is considered “decorated” when it receives an official ribbon for participation. A member must be a recipient of this ribbon to be considered a participant for the purposes of promotion.

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b. c. d. e.

Participated in a decorated Force operation; and Completed the Senior Command Course (SCC); and Serving in a Supernumerary position; and Received the Operational Planner Ribbon

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SECTION 4 PROMOTION OF GENERAL RANKS
“It takes fifteen thousand casualties to train one majorgeneral.”
- Ferdinand Foch

Promotion of the General Staff 3.4.1. General Staff are to be nominated for promotion through the USEC Forums. The forum note is to be using the standard promotion nomination form as decided by the Inspector General and the Chief of Staff. Such notices are to solicit the comment from other Officers, with Generals and the Inspector General required to comment. 3.4.2. Successful nominations are those that, in the eye of the Inspector General and Chief of Staff, are sound both in policy and in terms of support from fellow officers. Brigadier General 3.4.3. Promotion to the rank of General grants the officer the authority to act on behalf of the Chief of Staff for the area they are commander of. They have nearly the same powers as that granted to the Chief of Staff, and therefore it is important that only the most trusted and skilled officers are appointed to the General ranks. 3.4.4. New Force Commanders are, generally, appointed at the rank of Brigadier General unless there are compelling reasons otherwise (as detailed in the sections below). Directorates of particular importance that require high degrees of autonomy from the Chief of Staff also may be staffed by Brigadier Generals. Major General 3.4.5. Promotion to Major General is at the discretion of a fellow officer by duly nominating them, once they has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 6 months service as a Brigadier General; and Outstanding contributions to their Force Group during this time; and The Force Group under their command is sized at more than 40 personnel, across no less than three Units.

Lieutenant General 3.4.6. Promotion to Lieutenant General is at the discretion of a fellow officer by duly nominating them, once they has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. 6 months service as a Major General; and Outstanding contributions to their Force Group during this time; and The Force Group under their command is sized at more than 60 personnel, across no less than four Units.

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General 3.4.7. Promotion to General is at the discretion of a fellow officer by duly nominating them, once they has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. 6 months service as a Lieutenant General; and Appointed as the Deputy Chief of Staff; or Appointed as the Chief of Staff; and Outstanding contributions to USEC during this time; and

e. The entire Force comprises at least one hundred (100) personnel, across no less than four Force Groups. General of the Force 3.4.8. Promotion to General of the Force is at the discretion of a fellow officer by duly nominating them, once they has achieved the following as a minimum: a. b. c. d. 6 months service as a General; and Appointed as the Chief of Staff; and Outstanding contributions to USEC during this time; and The entire Force comprises at least 200 personnel, across no less than four Force Groups.

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SECTION 5 REVERSION IN RANK
“Each decision we make, each action we take, is born out of an intention.”
- Sharon Salzberg

Introduction 3.5.1. Reversion in rank is an administrative process where a member has requested, or through an administrative action or inaction is deemed to have requested, that they be relieved of their present duties and returned to membership status. 3.5.2. While a reversion in rank is administrative, rather than disciplinary, in nature there may be disciplinary implications particularly where the reversion is involuntary. For example, reversions in rank generally result in the member restarting their eligibility for the Distinguished Service Medal, entitling them only to the Meritorious Service Medal for that period of service. Reversion of Enlisted Members 3.5.3. Upon request of a member, a Commanding Officer has the authority to issue a reversion in rank. Reversions are issued to members who wish to return to “soldiering” rather than pursuing a management role, for example, a reversion from Sergeant Major to Sergeant. Reversion of Commissioned Officers 3.5.4. Where a reversion involves resigning of a commission as an officer, the Chief of Staff, a Force Commander, or the Director of Personnel may approve this. Where an officer is reverted to an enlisted rank, they should be reverted to the highest rank they held prior to commissioning, or one of the following conventions, whichever is higher: a. b. c. d. Where the member was a Lieutenant Colonel or Colonel, they should revert to a Staff Sergeant; or Where the member was a Captain or Major, they should revert to a Sergeant; or Where the member was a 1st Lieutenant, they should revert to a Corporal; or Where the member was a 2
nd

Lieutenant, they should revert to a Private First Class

Reversion of General Staff 3.5.5. Where a reversion involves the resigning of a commission as a General, only the Chief of Staff may approve this. a. Where a General is reverted to an officer they should be reverted to the rank of Colonel, but only where a position at that rank is available. Should such a position not be available, they should be reverted to the next suitable high ranked position. Where a General is reverted to an enlisted member they should be reverted to the highest rank they held prior to commissioning, or the rank of Master Sergeant, whichever is higher.

b.

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CHAPTER 4 DECORATIONS
SECTION 1 BADGES
“We ought not to judge of men's merit by their qualifications, but by the use they make of them.”
- Richard Cecil

Introduction 4.1.1. Badges recognize relevant education or competency by members the Force, such as qualification training. Astronaut Badge 4.1.2. The Astronaut Wings were instituted as part of the Unity Virtual Aviation Community in 2003 when the Sim Space Command joined UVAC. Only one member of the Unity Virtual Aviation Community was ever awarded their Astronaut wings for their involvement with SimNASA space operations. 4.1.3. The Astronaut Wings replace the UFA wings when awarded. They are not to be worn together on a USEC uniform. The Astronaut Badge

4.1.4. a.

Astronaut Wings are to be awarded to personnel who have completed the following objectives: Astronaut Pilots: (1) (2) UFA Qualified. Recipients must already have received their UFA Wings (or equivalent in the case of external of allied personnel). Operations above 100km. Recipients must have conducted an official operation at or above the space boundary, as defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale at 100 km (62 miles, or approximately 328,000 feet).

b.

Astronaut Specialists: (1) Pending a review of the award of the Astronaut Wings, all Astronaut specialists are to receive their Astronaut wings without differentiation from that received by Astronaut Pilots. Operations above 100km. Recipients must have conducted an official operation at or above the space boundary, as defined by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale at 100 km (62 miles, or approximately 328,000 feet).

(2)

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Unity Flight Academy Badge 4.1.5. The Unity Flight Academy Wings were instituted as part of the Flight Academy at the Unity Virtual Aviation Community, when it was established in 2002. Since then, it has been custom for pilots who have completed rigorous flight training to be awarded their wings. The Unity Flight Academy Badge

4.1.6. Flight Academy Wings are to be awarded to personnel who have completed the following objectives: a. b. c. d. Basic Ground School Exam. Students must have achieved a pass of 70% or better; and FSX Private Pilot License. Students may provide evidence of having completed their Private Pilots License examination that is shipped with Flight Simulator X; or FS2004 Checkride. Students who do not have FSX can opt to undertake a multiplayer checkflight with a qualified instructor; or Recognition of prior learning. The Chief of Staff, the Director of Training, or the Director UFA may approve personnel to be exempt from second stage assessment based on prior learning at an approved institution (such as vUSAF).

Combat Badges 4.1.7. Reserved.

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SECTION 2 MEDALS
“God will not look you over for medals, degrees or diplomas, but for scars.”
- Elbert Hubbard

Introduction 4.2.1. A medal is defined as an embossed metal disc, cross or star struck to commemorate a particular event or service and awarded to individuals who become eligible for it or as a decoration or honour for distinguished military or civilian service. Order of Wear 4.2.2. Medals are displayed below qualification badges but above ribbons on a uniform, with the following order of wear applying: a. b. Crosses represent highest achievements of gallantry and service and are worn above other medals; and Medals represent lengthy periods of dedication and service and are worn above all other medals other than crosses, with the exception of the Unity Medal, which has special precedence over all other Medals and Awards; and Stars represent single acts of dedication, service, and skill. They have the lowest order of wear for medals.

c.

Gallantry Crosses 4.2.3. Gallantry Crosses are awarded to recognize individual acts of conspicuous and extraordinary bravery of members during operational service. 4.2.4. The authority to issue Gallantry Crosses rests with the Chief of Staff. Nominations for the award of a Gallantry Cross must be supported by a member of the General Staff, usually the Force Commander of the nominated members Force Group. All Gallantry Cross nominations must be reviewed by the Inspector General. 4.2.5. Any member of the Force may nominate another for a Gallantry Cross, and should do so through their regular chain of command. 4.2.6. a. The following guidelines should be followed for specific awards of these medals: Distinguished Flying Cross. The DFC is awarded to recognise exceptional acts performed while flying in an operational environment. This medal is awarded for events that occur during one specific event, rather than a series of lesser events over a space of time. The DFC may be referred too as either the Flying Cross, or the Distinguished Flying Cross. Examples of acts which may qualify for the award include: (1) (2) Using an aircraft to rescue member(s) from imminent danger, and successfully removing them from that danger without loss of the aircraft. Exercising outstanding and unprecedented skill in the use of an airframe, while under extreme peril, in such a way that directly affects the success of a major mission objective.

b.

Combat Cross. The Combat Cross is awarded for acts of exceptional gallantry in the face of the enemy on an operational mission or deployment, while engaged in ground operations. This award represents the highest decoration solely for ground forces. Examples of acts which may qualify for the award include:

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(1) (2)

Successfully rescuing member(s) from imminent danger without experiencing major loss of life or equipment. Exercising outstanding and unprecedented skill in the conduct of their duties, while facing extreme peril, in such a way that directly affects the success of a major mission objective.

c.

Maritime Cross. The Maritime Cross was instituted on 16 April 2007 to recognise acts of exceptional gallantry in the face of the enemy on an operational mission or deployment, while engaged in maritime operations. This award represents the highest decoration solely for maritime forces. (1) (2) Using a maritime vessel to rescue member(s) from imminent danger, and successfully removing them from that danger without loss of the maritime vessel. Exercising outstanding and unprecedented skill in the use of a maritime vessel, while under extreme peril, in such a way that directly affects the success of a major mission objective. The Maritime Cross may, where appropriate, be awarded for the use of aircraft in a maritime setting, where the award of this cross is deemed more appropriate than the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross. Flying Cross Combat Cross Maritime Cross

(3)

Service Crosses 4.2.7. Service Crosses are awarded to recognize individual acts of extraordinary service by of members during operational or non-operational combat service. a. Leadership Cross. The Leadership Cross was instituted on 7 April 2008 to recognise outstanding leadership by members of the Force in an Operational context. Award of this medal is made to members who demonstrate outstanding leadership in an operational or nonoperational mission for the Force. In order to qualify for this award, the mission must be conducted online as part of a sanctioned Force operation or non-operational mission with a filed Combat Report. (1) b. This award may not be made for an event that occurred prior to 1 April 2008.

Force Cross. The Force Cross was instituted on 16 April 2007 to recognize acts of bravery during a mission or deployment. The award is designed to recognize acts that fall below the award of gallantry medals but are still deserving of significant recognition. It may be awarded for exceptional bravery in non-operational missions. (1) By convention all awards of the Force Cross are subsequently reviewed by the Inspector General, after they are made, to ascertain if they may qualify for a Gallantry Cross.

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Leadership Cross

Force Cross

Service Medals 4.2.8. Service Medals are awarded to recognize lengthy periods of conspicuous, extraordinary service by members. A key feature of the award of these medals is the length over which they have displayed the various qualities that have earned them the medal. 4.2.9. a. The following guidelines should be followed for specific awards of these medals: The Unity Medal. This is the greatest honour that can be placed on a USEC member. Any member may nominate someone for this award through their command chain, and it is up to the Director of Personnel to appoint an officer to oversee an investigation to see if the nomination should be substantiated. This award should be seen in line with “lifetime achievement” awards by other organizations. Guardian Medal. Struck in March 2008 in response to the efforts of senior staff in recovering from a server crisis, the Guardian Medal is the highest medal that can be awarded to a Force member for an act in support or service of the Force. The Guardian Medal is awarded for acts demonstrating heroic service, dedication, and commitment, to the Force in times of crisis or disruption. Distinguished Service Medal. This medal is awarded to those who have served around 12 months, with conspicuous dedication and commitment well in advance of that which could be expected of them. They must have had no disciplinary or administrative blemishes during their Force career. This medal recognizes the outstanding service of long-time USEC members. (1) Those who have been administratively discharged must serve for an additional 12 months beyond any reentry date before becoming eligible for the Distinguished Service Medal. Prior to this award being made, a detailed study must be conducted of the member’s background. Particular attention should be made regarding the In-Confidence personal file that commissioned officers are authorized to see.

b.

c.

(2)

d.

Meritorious Service Medal. This medal is awarded to those who have served around 12 months, with dedication and commitment in advance of that which could be expected of them. They must have no serious disciplinary or administrative blemishes within at least the last 6 months of service. This medal recognizes dedicated service of long-time USEC members. (1) Those who have been administratively discharged for periods longer than 14 days must serve for an additional 6 months beyond any reentry date before becoming eligible for the Meritorious Service Medal.

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The Unity Medal

Guardian Medal

Distinguished Service Medal

Meritorious Service Medal

Service Stars 4.2.10. a. Medals are displayed below qualification badges but above ribbons on a uniform. Achievement Star. The Force Achievement Star was instituted on 20 March 2008 to recognise significant achievement by members of the Force. Award of this medal is made to members who, in the eyes of command, have made a significant achievement whilst in service of the Force. In order to qualify the act must be considered as representing an exceptional achievement for the individual concerned, at that time and place. (1) b. This award may not be made for an event that occurred prior to 1 March 2008.

Gold Star. First announced in June 2002, the Gold Star is the highest in a series of three medals designed to recognise acts of service to the Unity Virtual Aviation Community. The Gold Star is awarded for acts demonstrating exceptional service, dedication, and commitment, to the Force. Silver Star. The Silver Star is the second in a series of three medals designed to recognise acts of service to the Unity Virtual Aviation Community. The Silver Star is awarded for acts demonstrating significant service, dedication, and commitment, to the Force. Bronze Star. The Bronze Star is the first in a series of three medals designed to recognise acts of service to the Unity Virtual Aviation Community. The Bronze Star is awarded for acts demonstrating service, dedication, and commitment, to the Force. Achievement Star Gold Star Silver Star Bronze Star

c.

d.

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Valor Stars 4.2.11. The Valor Star System was instituted on 7 January 2009 to recognize acts of skill during a mission or deployment. The awards are designed to recognize skill and achievement that does not fall within the category of bravery or gallantry medals, and fall into Bronze, Silver, and Gold categories. a. b. c. Gold Valor Star. A Gold Valor Star may be awarded for exceptional skill in non-operational missions. Silver Valor Star. A Silver Valor Star may be awarded for significant skill in non-operational missions. Bronze Valor Star. A Bronze Valor Star may be awarded for skill in non-operational missions. Gold Valor Star Silver Valor Star Bronze Valor Star

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SECTION 3 RIBBONS
Ribbons 4.3.1. Ribbons are awarded to recognise events and service of members of the Force. Broadly speaking ribbons fit into the following categories: a. b. c. d. Service Ribbons; are awarded for length of time served (such as 1 year) or specialist service (such as service as a Staff Officer at UCOM). Campaign Ribbons; are specific to individual campaigns and are awarded for participation in the operation by Force members. Qualification Ribbons; are awarded to members on completion of courses and training. Citations; are awarded to recognise meritorious service by an individual or an entire unit in a specific operation.

Purpose 4.3.2. The purpose of ribbons is to recognise and reward members within the Force, for collective or specific acts, service, dedication, skill, or action beyond the strict call of duty. Authority 4.3.3. The Director of Personnel holds authority for the creation, development, and awarding of ribbons to Force members. Regulations 4.3.4. When a decoration is created, regulations regarding the award of it are placed on the website and should be used to govern its award to members. Where it is not clear a member is eligible for an award, direction should be sought from DPERS or UCOM.

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CHAPTER 5 OPERATIONS
SECTION 1 COMMAND AND CONTROL
“Keep cool and you command everybody.”
- Louis de Saint-Just

Introduction 5.1.1. Command and control are separate terms with different meanings although they are often incorrectly considered to be a single term. Command. 5.1.2. Relates to making decisions. The authority to control is inherent in command but may be delegated. Command concerns the authority and responsibility to allocate assets and order movement of units and weapons. It is defined as the authority that a commander in the military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. It includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of or directing, coordinating, and control of military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. Command also includes a responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. Command of various elements may be exercised under the following headings: a. Full Command (FULL COMD). The military authority and responsibility of a superior officer to issue orders to subordinates and covers every aspect of military operations and administration. It usually only exists within national services or extremely close allies. Operational Command (OPCOM). The authority granted to a commander to assign missions or tasks to subordinate commanders, to deploy units, to re-assign forces and to retain or delegate Operational Control (OPCON) and/or Tactical Control (TACON) as may be deemed necessary. It does not of itself include administration or logistic control. OPCOM may also be used to denote forces assigned to a command. While OPCOM allows a commander to specify missions and tasks, to assign separate employment to components of assigned units and to reassign forces away from his own force, it does not carry the authority to disrupt the basic organisation of a unit to the extent that it cannot readily be given a new task or be redeployed elsewhere. In Allied joint operations OPCOM of one nation’s unit(s) by another national commander may be necessary: (1) (2) (3) (4) to achieve effective integration of effort; when the peculiarities of the operation dictate; and when the distance from, or lack of communication with, higher authority presents unacceptable difficulties. Tactical Command (TACOM). Is the authority delegated to a commander to assign tasks to forces under his command for the accomplishment of the mission assigned by the higher authority. It is narrower in application than OPCOM but includes the authority to delegate or retain tactical control.

b.

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Control 5.1.3. A function of command and concerns the priority with which the support of a unit or formation is applied. It is concerned with putting the decision into effect and monitoring progress and results. It does not give the supported unit or formation the authority to allocate assets or order movement, nor does it require it to accept administrative responsibility. It is defined as: ‘that authority which may be less than FULL COMD exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate organisations, or other organisations not normally under his command, which encompasses the responsibility for implementing orders or directives. All or part of this authority may be transferred or delegated’. Control of various elements may be exercised under the following headings - OPCON and TACON: a. Operational Control (OPCON). OPCON is: ‘the authority delegated to a commander to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks which are usually limited by function, time, or location; to deploy units concerned, and to retain or assign tactical control of those units. It does not include authority to assign separate employment of components for the units concerned. Neither does it, of itself, include administrative or logistic control’. The object of placing units under OPCON of a commander is to give that commander the benefit of their employment in his support without further reference to a senior authority and without the need to establish a forward joint agency. The commander given OPCON of a formation or unit may not exceed the limits of its use as laid down in his directive without reference to the authority issuing the directive. OPCON is more limited than OPCOM and does not include the authority to reassign forces or to employ a formation, or any part of it, on tasks other than the assigned task, or to disrupt its basic organisation so that it cannot readily be given a new task or be redeployed elsewhere. Tactical Control (TACON). TACON is: ‘the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or manoeuvres necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned’. In general, the delegation of tactical control is only necessary when two or more units not under the same operational control are combined to form a cohesive tactical unit. A commander having tactical control is responsible for formulating the plan and issuing the necessary orders to the unit. TACON is inherent in OPCON. It should be noted that some allies, particularly the UK and NATO, use this term in its most limited sense conferring nothing more than the ability to coordinate localised activity within an assigned AO.

b.

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SECTION 2 OPERATIONAL PLANNING (OPLAN)
“No plan survives contact with the enemy.”
- Helmuth von Moltke

Introduction 5.2.1. To employ manoeuvre warfare successfully a commander must be able to react rapidly and decisively to an evolving situation. Initiative and boldness are essential requirements for success. Overdirection and over-concern for detail by superiors must be avoided. Orders should be issued that define the purpose of an operation but leave the execution to the commander directly responsible. 5.2.2. A common doctrine, standing operating procedures, and drills are the instruments of command that enable the use of operational directives or orders. Commanders must have a thorough understanding of the battle one level up and a good grasp of the concept of operations two levels up. Only with this knowledge is it possible to fight the battle within the higher commander’s intentions. Mission Analysis 5.2.3. The first step in the process is to conduct the mission analysis. This is designed to enable a subordinate commander to review not only the tasks that he or she has been given but also the purpose behind them or, in other words, what is in the superior commander’s mind. It will also permit the subordinate to: a. b. c. Identify any additional task implicit in carrying out the superior’s orders, Exploit a situation without waiting for further orders in the way in which the superior would intend if present, and React to a changed situation of which the commander may not be aware.

5.2.4. As a result of mission analysis, the commander arrives at a clear and concise statement of tasks to be accomplished and the purpose to be achieved. This mission becomes the basis for the appreciation, to which all thought is focused, and it will also become the mission in the commander’s orders. The mission analysis should occur continuously during execution to ensure the validity of the mission. 5.2.5. A commander can derive the mission in a number of ways. At the lowest tactical level (sub-unit and below) the mission could be given directly by the superior commander. However, the commander may have to develop it from tasks received, together with an understanding of the superior commander’s intentions, mission, and concept of operations. It can also be deduced from a change in the tactical situation, arguably the real strength of the mission analysis process. Mission analysis is the means through which a commander develops a thorough understanding of the mission, regardless of how it is derived. 5.2.6. a. b. c. d. e. f. To identify these points, six questions need to be answered: What is the current situation? What is the intention of the higher-level commander and what is my role in the overall plan? What am I required to do, or what tasks must I complete in order to carry out the mission? Are there any constraints and what freedom of action do I have? What are the critical facts and assumptions? Has the tactical situation changed and what tasks would my commander give me had he known of the situation?

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Definition of the Battlespace 5.2.7. The battlespace includes all aspects of the environment encompassed by the area of operations (AO) and the area of interest (AI). The higher commander normally designates the area of operations by assigning boundaries, while the area of interest extends beyond these boundaries to include external influences that may well impact upon friendly operations over time. At the lower tactical level the most important element of the battlespace to be reviewed is the ground, and the consideration of any opportunities it may present for fire and movement in relation to the enemy. At higher levels and in certain operations it may be appropriate to consider the impact of other factors, such as the local infrastructure or population. Definition of the Battlespace Effects 5.2.8. Defining the battlespace effects involves determining the effect of the ground and weather. Ground analysis should follow the acronym OCOKA: a. b. c. Observation and Fields of Fire. The ability to see and effectively engage the enemy is determined. Concealment and Cover. Areas that offer protection from observation and enemy fire, possible routes, assembly areas, and forming up places (FUPs) are identified. Obstacles. Any natural and artificial terrain features that may impede or channel movement are identified. Terrain types are usually categorised as offering unrestricted, restricted, or very restricted movement to tactical formations. Key and Decisive Terrain. Key terrain is that which affords a marked advantage to either side through its seizure or retention. Decisive terrain is an area or locality, the seizure of which has an extraordinary impact on the operation. Avenues of Approach. The routes that either force may take to its objective or to key or decisive terrain are identified. This will in turn suggest potential battle positions which cover such approaches.

d.

e.

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SECTION 3 OPERATION ORDERS (OPORD)
“There is no surer way to misread any document than to read it literally.”
- Learned Hand

Purpose 5.3.1. The purpose of an operation order (OPORD) is to give subordinate commanders the essential elements required to carry out an operation. These are the: a. b. c. d. General 5.3.2. An OPORD should include only such detail as is necessary for the commanders of subordinate formations and units to issue their own orders and to ensure coordination. The detail of how supporting and specialist units carry out their tasks should be issued in their own orders, which will use the same format as an OPORD unless otherwise specified. 5.3.3. The production process of an OPORD is simple but it must be approached methodically. At the stage of producing an OPORD the plan has already been decided. Therefore, it is largely a matter of organising the relevant information correctly. Staff Duties 5.3.4. The staff duties for the operation order will remain standard but their purpose is to place the order in its correct context and avoid confusion. The following paragraphs outline the requirement. Superscription 5.3.5. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. The following detail is required as part of the superscription: Security Classification. At the top and bottom of each page. Page Number. Page No of Total (Page 4 of 20) at the top of each page. Address. The name of the headquarters or unit and then its location on the line below (in capitals). Order Number. (OPORD 06) derived from the sequential numbering of OPORDs issued by the unit or headquarters. References. References will always include maps but may also include INTREPs, other orders, and even oral orders. Time Zone. To preclude the need to refer to the time zone within the body of an OPORD the time zone in use throughout the OPORD is stated at the beginning. Taskorg. Written below the time zone if the order is issued as an OPORD overlay or as an annex to a written OPORD. Situation, Mission, Assignment of tasks to formations and units, and Support and assistance to be provided.

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Text 5.3.6. The sequence of the text is a progression from the basic orders format. It is composed of five paragraphs. Each heading is written in full. These are: a. b. c. d. e. Situation; and Mission; and Execution; and Administration and Logistics; and Command and Communications

Situation 5.3.7. The situation should be gleaned from the intelligence reports for ‘Enemy’ and from the higher commander’s orders: a. Enemy: (1) This paragraph should give clear guidance as to the enemy’s composition, disposition, location, movement, estimated strength and identity, intentions, and capabilities within your area of operations and area of interest. It is not sufficient to merely transpose the enemy information provided in the higher formation’s order as that information relates, in the main, to the enemy threat at the higher level. Analysis is required to determine what the enemy’s intentions, missions, and capabilities are within your area of operations. If your higher formation has issued an intelligence report, then it is reasonable to assume that your intelligence staff has analysed it and passed the relevant information on to subordinate units. This information can then be referred to as a reference at the start of the operation order. The enemy paragraph should assess the enemy most likely (ML) and most dangerous (MD) courses of action and include a list of identified enemy strengths that should be avoided or negated, and vulnerabilities that should be targeted or exploited during the operation. By convention, the enemy paragraph should include the expected enemy air threat.

(2)

(3)

b. c. Mission

Friendly Forces. For a thorough mission analysis to be conducted by subordinate commanders they must know the overall intention. . Civilians. An overview of the civilian situation as it affects your operation should be given.

5.3.8. Ensure that the mission is a clear, concise statement of who (for example, UX302 C-130 Flight) does what (attacks to secure objective GOLD), when (D-Day, H-Hour, 050200Z Jan 20XX), where (in zone, in sector, along axis RED) and why (to facilitate passage of exploiting force, to facilitate the Div destruction of 85 Mot Bde. This should be a result of the essential tasks derived during mission analysis and should link to the overall intent. Do not include "be prepared" missions in the mission statement. Execution 5.3.9. a. This should include: Purpose. Purpose describes the commander’s vision for the operation in terms of the effect that he or she wishes to achieve on the enemy (the what).

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b. c. d.

Key Tasks. A brief description of the key tasks required to achieve the desired effect on the enemy (the how). Endstate. This describes the endstate in relation to mission accomplishment and future orientation, in terms of enemy, friendly, and battlespace. Scheme of Manoeuvre. Provides a concise narrative of the scheme of manoeuvre (the how) from the beginning of the operation through to the endstate. It describes the operation in terms of the battlefield framework and should, where possible, do this by phase and include main and supporting efforts. This paragraph should complement the overlay and add to the clarity of the operation BUT is not a restating of the intent paragraph. It should be clear and CONCISE. It includes: Phases. If it is not possible to include phases under the scheme of manoeuvre, the operation should be sequenced by phase from start state to end state. Each phase should include timings, key tasks, and main effort. Unit Missions or Tasks. It is a commander’s responsibility to assign missions to his or her subordinates. This can be done as a mission with a linking purpose followed by additional tasks or as a series of tasks. The decision to allocate either a mission or a task is one for the commander to make based on personal knowledge of the subordinates' experience and training. If the requirement is to be prescriptive and restrict latitude then a mission is appropriate. If the commander has confidence that the subordinates will achieve his or her intent and wishes to confer the maximum freedom of action on them, then tasks only should be given. It is then up to the subordinate commander to identify, through mission analysis, what he or she must do, in what sequence, and how. The allocation of tasks only, does not preclude the prioritising of critical tasks. Each manoeuvre element that has a column in the Taskorg should be tasked in this paragraph of the operation order.

e.

f.

Administration and Logistics 5.3.10. As complete a picture of the combat service support situation as is required should be given to provide non-combat service support commanders and their staffs a visualisation of how the operation will be logistically supported. Even if a combat service support annex is to be issued separately, although this is unlikely below brigade level, there will still be some key data that needs to be included in the main body of the OPORD. Command and Signal 5.3.11. The locations of headquarters are of prime importance and this paragraph is to include the one up headquarters (Tac/Main/Rear) and own headquarters (Tac/Main/Rear). Details should also be included on when they open or plan to move. The succession of command should be covered as well as an alternate headquarters. Communications 5.3.12. Communications are normally conducted during missions via TeamSpeak. Details of the TeamSpeak server and any password should be included. Notice should also be made if the communications will be recorded during operations.

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SECTION 4 FLYING OPERATIONS
“There is an art, or, rather, a knack to flying. The knack lies in learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss.”
- Douglas Adams

Definitions 5.4.1. Any activity conducted through the Flight Simulator series of games, such as Flight Simulator 2004, in a flyable aircraft not exceeding 300,000 feet AGL is considered a flying operation. This includes the use of a ground based activity (such as ATC) inside a mission conducted inside Flight Simulator, and Flying Operations in support of either Ground or Maritime Operations (such as those within Armed Assault or Operation Flashpoint). 5.4.2. a. The following definitions apply to Flying Operations: Actual Hours. These represent the actual hours experienced by the pilot in real time, so is therefore affected by the level of time acceleration utilized. Prior to 9 June 2007, these related roughly to the listing of hours on Pilot Logbooks. Virtual Hours. These represent the virtual hours experienced by the aircraft in virtual time. They are not affected by the level of time acceleration utilized. These are usually related to the booking of aircraft. Pilots are required to enter this in their Pilot Report (PIREP) which is then placed against the appropriate Aircraft. In-Control Hours. These represent the actual hours experienced by the pilot under which the pilot was in control of the aircraft. Pilots who are at the controls, but utilizing autopilot, as accrue In-Control hours. Since 9 June 2007 these hours are used on pilot logbooks. The purpose of the logged hours is to assess experience in control of an aircraft, not simply to record the length of a journey one has undertaken. The following applies to the record of In-Control Hours: (1) The pilot must be situated at the controls of the aircraft (at their computer). They can be involved primarily in other tasks, such as work or study, but they must be in a position of actively monitoring the progress of their flight. Where a pilot is not actively managing their flight for more than a brief period (such as going to the toilet, getting a cup of coffee, or checking on sleeping children), the absent period should be deducted from the In-Control Hours. Only real-time hours passed is considered when calculating In-Control hours. Therefore, time acceleration (see para 5.4.8) will not speed up the rate at which these hours are logged. To calculate the In-Control time pilots should record the real-world time they started, and deduct this off the real-world time they finished the flight and remove any periods they were not actively monitoring the progress of their flight.

b.

c.

(2)

(3)

(4)

Authority 5.4.3. a. The following authority is issued for the conduct of flying operations: Operational Flight. The Force Commanders hold authority for the conduct of Operational Flying missions under the direction of the Chief of Staff. The Mission Pool should be utilized for all Unclassified and confidential flying operations wherever possible. Routine Flight. Unit Commanding Officers hold the authority for the conduct of Routine Flying missions under the direction of Force Commanders and the Director of Operations. The Mission Pool should be utilized for all routine flying operations wherever possible.

b.

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c.

Training Flight. Qualified unit members may issue themselves training flights, however they may not: (1) Move an aircraft from its geographical region. Under no circumstances is a pilot to authorize their own flight, where such a flight involves travel a distance into another geographical location. For example, an aircraft located in the United States must remain in the United States. Conduct lengthy flights. Pilots may not authorize their own flights to conduct a flight in excess of five (5) hours Virtual Hours (hours experienced by the aircraft in virtual time, see above). Where a pilot wishes to conduct such a flight, they must gain approval from a commissioned officer.

(2)

Mission Commanders 5.4.4. Where the overall responsibility for a task or mission is best vested in one individual, a Mission Commander is to be appointed. The Mission Commander should be unencumbered by the day-to-day operation of individual but be strategically situated to enable the best control of the assets assigned. 5.4.5. All members who are UFA are eligible for appointment as Mission Commanders but the appointing authority must be satisfied that those appointed possess sufficient qualifications and experience to be able to effectively accomplish the task. 5.4.6. Mission Commanders are responsible for the operational conduct and overall success of the assigned mission or task. The specific duties of Mission Commanders may vary according to the task but commence at the planning stages of a task and are only relinquished at the conclusion of the task as a whole. They embrace: a. b. c. The overall pre-planning of a mission and planning of individual flights; The welfare of the crew, and passengers both in the air and at en-route stopovers, Communication with the tasking authority;

Formation Leader 5.4.7. USEC aircraft may be flown in close or tactical formation provided a Formation Leader has been appointed and authorised. Formation leaders must be UFA qualified and current on type, and be qualified to lead a formation of like or similar aircraft unless they are undergoing dual instruction in formation flying by a suitable instructor. Use of Time Acceleration in Flight Simulators 5.4.8. The use of time acceleration is not permitted during flying of USEC aircraft unless specifically authorised in a mission briefing. This authorisation will only be given where pilots are flying solo on long voyages. Where authorisation is given it should stipulate the maximum acceleration permitted along with any restrictions. Typically acceleration of no greater than four times (x4) should be permitted. 5.4.9. Commanding Officers may approve requests from Pilots for a relaxation of this order on personal grounds. Such requests should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and advice sought from DOPS as required. Virtual Air Traffic Network (VATSIM) 5.4.10. VATSIM is a non-profit organization operating a dedicated, worldwide, Internet-based flightsimulation network. As a Virtual Airline (VA) approved partner, USEC is authorized to conduct the following flight activities using the network: a. Civilian, or civilian-style flights; and

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b.

Flight testing operations of aircraft

5.4.11. Under no circumstances are military, or paramilitary flights to be flown on the VATSIM network 1 under current status. 5.4.12. Flight Testing operations are expressly authorized, so long as such testing is of an aircraft under civilian purposes. Use of spacecraft is expressly forbidden on the VATSIM network. Approvals for Flight Testing operations likely to, or scheduled to, go above 90,000ft are to be approved by the Chief of Staff under all circumstances. VATSIM Approved Call-sign 5.4.13. The official Call-sign to be used on VATSIM is "USF", followed by the pilot’s ID number. For example, if the Pilot ID was115, the VATSIM call-sign is USF115, pronounced phonetically, U-SEC OneOne-Five. Shutting Down Engines in Flight 5.4.14. Pilots of multi-engine aircraft may intentionally shut down an engine in flight for operational purposes or for training, under specific conditions. Commanding Officers are to issue orders detailing the conditions under which each multi-engine aircraft type may be intentionally flown with one or more engines shut down. 5.4.15. Notwithstanding paragraph 5.4.14 above, the following restrictions apply to shutting down engines in flight: a. b. Unless in emergency, USEC aircraft are not to be operated with less than 50% of the normal number of engines readily capable of producing their maximum power output; Intentional shut-down of the engine of a single engine aircraft may only be conducted under the supervision of an Instructor.

Touch and Go Landings 5.4.16. Touch and go landings are a convenient way of increasing training value from available hours. They are to be conducted according to orders issued by Commander Officers or specific operation orders which are to specify a limit to the number of consecutive touch and go landings permitted and detail supplementary checklists if required. Rejected take-offs are not to be practised during touch and go landings. Aerobatic Flight 5.4.17. a. b. Aerobatic flight is defined as: An intentional manoeuvre in which the aircraft is in sustained inverted flight or is rolled from upright to inverted or from inverted to upright; or Manoeuvres such as rolls, loops, spins, upward vertical flight culminating in a stall turn, hammerhead or whip stall, or a combination of such manoeuvres.

5.4.18. Aerobatic flight is prohibited in USEC aircraft unless the type is specifically approved for the conduct of aerobatics. DOPS is to further define the aircraft types cleared for such manoeuvres and the conditions under which such flight is to be undertaken.

UX102 has separate regulations that are coordinated and controlled directly between CO102 and VATSIM.

1

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Low Flying 5.4.19. a. For the purposes of this order the following definitions apply: Minimum Separation Distance (MSD). MSD is defined as the minimum distance around an aircraft within which no object that is not part of, or attached to, the aircraft (or formating aircraft) is permitted to enter. Low Flying (LF). LF is defined as flight below 1000 feet MSD over populated areas and 500 feet MSD elsewhere, to a minimum of 250 feet MSD, except when conducting a take-off or landing, a hover in a helicopter, an overshoot from an approach to land, or a circling approach or published missed approach procedure following an instrument approach. Operational Low Flying (OLF). OLF is defined as flight below 250 feet MSD. Contour Low Flying (CLF). CLF is defined as helicopter flight down to 25 feet MSD. Minimum indicated airspeed is 35 KIAS and maximum speed is to be adjusted to that which is safe for the terrain and separation distances from obstacles. Nap of the Earth (NOE). NOE is defined as helicopter flight at varying airspeeds and heights above obstacles such that the aircraft can be stopped in half the distance to the nearest obstacles and not closer to obstacles than 10 feet horizontally from the main rotor, 15 feet horizontally from the tail rotor and five feet under both rotors. In addition: (1) When authorised for NOE, Aircraft Captains are to fly to those limits specified for CLF except that when required to fly within 25 feet MSD or less than the minimum speed, then the limits of NOE are to apply. For NOE flight, OGE hover power is to be available under the prevailing conditions. Helicopter flight at 35 KIAS or less within 50 MSD requires visibility not less than 1500 metres and depth perception not affected by rain or moisture on windscreens and windows.

b.

c. d.

e.

(2) (3)

f.

Military Low Flying (MLF). MLF is a generic term that includes sub-paragraphs b-e above.

5.4.20. As a guiding principle, aircraft are not to be operated at a lower MSD than is necessary to achieve the particular mission. The absolute minimum for fixed wing flying is 50 feet MSD. Helicopters may be operated according to NOE techniques applicable to type. 5.4.21. While their primary task does not specifically include such authorisation, pilots may be forced to engage in low flying due to unfavourable weather or operational necessity. Pilots are to report all instances of enforced low flying in their PIREP. Maximum Accumulated Flight Hours 5.4.22. In the interests of safety and quality, pilots must not accrue more than 10 Virtual Hours (hours experienced by the aircraft in virtual time, see above) time in any 24 hour period unless exceptional circumstances apply. Where such exceptional circumstances apply, the pilot is to be stood down for a period of a full 24 hours at the earliest opportunity. 5.4.23. Exceptional circumstances include those flights that necessitate a flight time in excess of 10 hours, and operational missions lasting longer than 10 hours. Pilot Reporting 5.4.24. Failure to submit PIREPs using the format described below may result in disciplinary action. Where a pilot does (or can) not submit a PIREP according to this format (for example, due to security requirements for classified operations) they are to duly note the deviation from standing orders, and the reasons for doing so, in their report comments.

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5.4.25. A Pilot Report (PIREP) must be submitted according to the following format, and must be broken into each separate part: a. Weather (1) (2) (3) b. Route (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) c. Aircraft (1) (2) (3) d. Story (1) Short narrative of your flight. Any notable problems: Cargo/Fuel/Passengers loaded: Fuel used (duplicate): Takeoff ICAO: Enroute waypoints: Landing ICAO: Takeoff runway: Landing runway: Takeoff SID: (If applicable) Landing STAR: (If applicable) Takeoff METAR: Landing METAR: Any notable phenomena:

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Chapter 5 - Operations

SECTION 5 GROUND OPERATIONS
Definition 5.5.1. Any activity where the primary vehicle or mechanism for movement and operation occurs on land is considered a ground operation. Since 9 June 2007 this no longer includes use of Aircraft inside a match or mission predominantly used for Ground Forces. Authority 5.5.2. The Director of Operations holds authority for the conduct of Operational Combat missions under the direction of the Chief of Staff. 5.5.3. Joint Operations Planning Course (JOPC) qualified members hold the authority for the conduct of Routine Combat missions under the direction of their Unit Commanding Officer. Statistics Padding 5.5.4. The practice of padding statistics through the repeated procedural killing and reviving of a enemy in co-operation is strictly prohibited and members found to be involved in this will be charged accordingly. Routine Combat Missions 5.5.5. All USEC Combat Missions should be reported using the Combat Reporting (COMREP) procedure. COMREP access is only granted to personnel who have completed the JOPC examination and is available by accessing the Operations Directorate. 5.5.6. The requirements for a mission to be considered an official USEC Combat Mission are listed as follows: a. b. c. No less than 3 players were present on the server; and At least 3 USEC personnel attended; and A JOPC qualified member was present.

Blue on Blue Incidents 5.5.7. During Ground Operations, unless explicitly stated, Blue on Blue incidents will result in an inquiry and potentially disciplinary action. History has shown a growing tendency for the closure of operations to result in personnel letting off steam in such incidents. 5.5.8. Great care is to be taken on the part of all personnel in the interests of minimizing Blue on Blue incidents, particularly those that occur as a result of “high spirits” at the end of missions. 5.5.9. a. b. c. The following now applies to Blue on Blue incidents: All Blue on Blue incidents occurring after 20 October 2008 are to be reported to the Inspector General for investigation through the relevant Combat Report (COMREP); and The Inspector General is to decide whether the incident warrants further investigation and/or disciplinary action; and Where the Inspector General believes such disciplinary action should occur, they are to direct the most senior officer present during the incident (or another individual if required) to prefer a charge against the individual.

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(1)

As a general rule, Failure to comply with written orders (paragraph 2.2.16) is to be used as the charge in that the member failed to comply with this section of Standing Orders, prohibiting Blue on Blue incidents.

Combat Estimate 5.5.10. Both the JMAP and the Individual Appreciation process as taught at USEC are essentially linear processes, and do not suit some commanders. The Combat Estimate contained in this section emphasises feedback throughout the process, and can be utilised from section through to brigade level. While not yet formally taught on any course, some commanders may chose to experiment with this as an alternative to the more cumbersome MAP. 5.5.11. This process is sufficiently flexible to guide a commander’s intuitive decision making process in battle, and is listed as follows: a. Seven Questions. The fundamental questions that need to be addressed at all levels of planning are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) b. What are the enemy doing and why? What have I been told to do and why? What effects do I want to have on the enemy and what direction must I give to develop a plan? Where can I best accomplish each action/effect? What resources do I need to accomplish each action/effect? When and where do the actions take place in relation to each other? What control measures do I need to impose?

Time. When time is short or an operation is underway, experience, intuition, and a map may be all that is needed to address the questions. For more complex operations, when time and the staff are available, more sophisticated tools and techniques can be employed. It is stressed that at the lower levels of command, especially in the heat of action, it is highly unlikely that the commander will need to do more than work quickly through the seven questions mentally, using them intuitively, in order to make a quick, timely plan. Non Linear Progression. The questions are not a linear progression. They are inter-related and overlapping. The whole process is iterative with feedback from some questions requiring further direction.

c.

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Chapter 5 - Operations

SECTION 6 MARITIME OPERATIONS
Definition 5.6.1. Any activity conducted through the Flight Simulator or Silent Hunter series of games, such as Flight Simulator X, Armed Assault, and Silent Hunter 4, in an ocean-going vessel is considered a maritime operation. This includes the use of a land based activity (such as ATC) inside a mission in support of maritime forces. Authority 5.6.2. The Force Commanders hold authority for the conduct of Operational Maritime missions under the direction of the Chief of Staff. 5.6.3. Unit Commanding Officers hold the authority for the conduct of Routine Maritime missions under the direction of Force Commanders and the Director of Operations. Mission Commander 5.6.4. Where the overall responsibility for a task or mission is best vested in one individual, a Mission Commander is to be appointed. The Mission Commander should be unencumbered by the day-to-day operation of individual vessels but be strategically situated to enable the best control of the assets assigned. Use of Time Acceleration in Simulators 5.6.5. Due to the inherently slow progress of Naval Vessels time acceleration is expressly authorized for both training and operational activities, with the following restrictions: a. b. c. Not to be used when operating with Ground or Air Forces; or Not to be used when within 10nm of land; and When in formation with other ships Time Acceleration should only be used where all ship Captains have agreed on the acceleration settings and have correctly configured their autopilot. 5nm before each waypoint Time Acceleration should be deactivated until after required turns have been successfully made; and Time Acceleration greater than x8 must be approved by a Commanding Officer or Force Commander

d.

5.6.6. Commanding Officers may approve requests from Sailors for a relaxation of this order on personal grounds. Such requests should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and advice sought from DOPS as required. Movement Orders (MOVEORD) 5.6.7. Prior to departure of a USEC Vessel a Movement Order must be completed by the appropriate authority. The movement order commences the transit of a ship located in the USEC system. The ship will automatically commence transit at the time and date of the MOVEORD, and personnel will be able to complete watches on the ship using the OWR reporting process (see below). 5.6.8. a. b. c. The following are approved to complete a vessel movement order: The Chief of Staff; and Director of Operations; and Commander Maritime Force; and

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d.

Commanding Officer PTG

5.6.9. It is vital that adequate planning is completed in the MOVEORD to ensure that the ship has the required supplies to complete each leg of the journey, with the following supply requirements: a. Serviceability. The ship must have a serviceability rating of 80% or better otherwise it will be unable to continue with its journey. The following broadly applies to serviceability: (1) (2) (3) b. 1% serviceability is lost per day during favourable weather 2% serviceability is lost per day during poor weather 5% serviceability is lost per day during stormy weather

Fuel. Once a ship’s fuel has descended to 5% of its total, the ship will automatically stop leaving the remaining fuel to power systems required. Commanders and Operations staff are to be particularly careful that ships have adequate re-supply to prevent this occurring. Provisions. A ship must have 5% or more provisions onboard the ship. At 5% or lower provision levels the ship will stop pending re-supply. A MOVEORD contains the following information: Operation (if any); and Departure date and time; and Waypoint locations; and Rendezvous and re-supply locations; and Arrival location

c. 5.6.10. a. b. c. d. e.

Officer of the Watch Reports (OWR) 5.6.11. At any stage during a MOVEORD, qualified personnel may take over a leg of a journey to complete a period of “Officer of the Watch”. 5.6.12. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. A OWR contains the following information: Start Location and Date/Time; and Finish Location and Date/Time; and Distance travelled; and Fuel taken aboard; and Provisions taken aboard; and Service and refit activity; and Delay to be incurred as a result of (c) to (e) above.

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Chapter 5 - Operations

SECTION 7 JOINT OPERATIONS
Definition 5.7.1. Any operational activity conducted across different series of games, such an operation or mission conducted using Flight Simulator for staging personnel into battle, and then Armed Assault for the conduct of the battle, is considered a joint operation. 5.7.2. Any operational activity conducted between Force Groups, regardless of whether they utilize the same gaming engine, is considered a Joint Operation. Authority 5.7.3. The Director of Operations holds authority for the conduct of all Joint Operations under the direction of the Chief of Staff.

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SECTION 8 SPECIAL OPERATIONS
Definition 5.8.1. Any operational activity designated as a special operation by the Chief of Staff. Special Operations at USEC usually refer to any operation that is not traditionally undertaken by USEC as part of its general operation. 5.8.2. a. b. c. d. Presently, Special Operations include the following: Activities of the Virtual Intelligence Agency; and Activities above 300,000ft AGL; and Flight Testing activities below 300,000ft AGL; and Land and Maritime Activities Classified Top Secret and above.

Authority 5.8.3. The Chief of Staff and the Commander Special Force hold the authority for the conduct of Special operations.

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SECTION 9 DEPLOYMENTS
Purpose 5.9.1. A key element in the successful application of force to achieve operational objectives is the initial deployment of the force. Careful consideration of a number of factors are necessary to devise a deployment plan that is defendable, enables timely commitment of the force, permits force sustainment and enables the commander to gain the initiative in a timely fashion. Failure to achieve a successful deployment will cast doubt on the possibility of success of any campaign plan. Key considerations will be: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Identification of joint force areas of operation (JFAO); Identification of points of entry; Identification of force deployment areas; Modes of transport and quantity required; Sequenced deployment of combat elements; Sequenced deployment of logistic elements; and Sustainment policy/priorities.

Detachment Commanders 5.9.2. A Detachment Commander (DETCOM) may be appointed for extended deployments or where individual unit command is not available or practical. In this situation a Detachment Commander is to be appointed, with a rank no lower than Captain, to command the overall Deployment. Detachment Commanders have the same authority as a Commanding Officer over all personnel involved in the deployment. Deployment Life Cycle 5.9.3. Any Mission consists of a number of stages that may overlap depending on the situation and operating context. The mission will follow prescribed and distinct phases, which the logistics planning needs to be developed around. These phases include: a. b. c. Mobilisation Phase. Development of the mission plan and budget, promulgation of initial Warning Orders and Operational Instructions. Concentration Phase. Deploying force preparation; including the acquisition, assembly and build-up of equipment and pack-ups, personnel pre-deployment training and equipment issue. Directed Level Operational Capability − Operational Level Operational Capability (DLOC – OLOC) Generation Phase. Concurrent with any concentration, training and equipment issues may need to be undertaken to bring units up to prescribed operational capability levels. Deployment Phase. The deployment into the Area of Operations (AO). Sustainment Phase: (1) (2) Logistic sustainment occurs to meet the operational tempo, mission duration and required reserve levels. Personnel and equipment rotations.

d. e.

Campaign Ribbons 5.9.4. Prior to deployment, planning authorities are to discuss the development of a Campaign Ribbon with the Director of Personnel.

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Chapter 6 - Training

CHAPTER 6 TRAINING
SECTION 1 OFFICER TRAINING COURSE (OTC)
Introduction 6.1.1. The Officer Training Course provides Commissioning training to new officers to ensure they are able to carry out their duties. Course Content 6.1.2. a. b. c. d. The course focuses on the following areas: Force History. The history of USEC including its formation, development, and key staff members. Force Structure. The current structure of the Force including units, their commanders, and their functions. Authority. The powers of the various positions outlined in Chapter 1 “Command”. Discipline. Study of the offences listed in these orders under Chapter 2, Section 2 “Offences”.

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Chapter 6 - Training

SECTION 2 JOINT OPERATION PLANNING COURSE (JOPC)
Introduction 6.2.1. The Joint Operation Planning Course provides mid-level officers with training in how to plan and run USEC operations, in the form of deployments. Course Content 6.2.2. a. b. The course focuses on the following areas: Operational Plans (OPLAN). As detailed in Chapter 4 “Operations”. Operation Orders (OPORD). As detailed in Chapter 4 “Operations”.

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Chapter 6 - Training

SECTION 3 JUNIOR COMMAND COURSE (JCC)
Introduction 6.3.1. The Junior Command Course provides aspiring officers insight into how to perform the functions of Commanding Officers. Course Content 6.3.2. a. b. c. d. The course focuses on the following areas: Command Structure. Study of the authority of command positions as detailed in Chapter 1 “Command”. Personnel Management. Instruction on promotion and the award of decorations as detailed in Chapter 3 “Personne” Summarily Disposing of Charges. How to proceed through the charge process as explained in Chapter 2, Section 3 “Summary Disposal of Charges”. Courts Martial. An introduction to the Courts Martial process as detailed in Chapter 2, Section 4 “Courts Martial”.

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Chapter 6 - Training

SECTION 4 SENIOR COMMAND COURSE (SCC)
6.4.1. (Reserved)

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