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1.

Proving Techniques
(a) Direct proof
(b) Exhaustion proof
(c) Construction proof
(d) Existential proof
(e) Contradiction proof
(f) Contrapositive proof
(g) Induction proof
(h) Pigeonhole principle
(i) Combinatorial proof
(j) Inclusion Exclusion principle
2. Natural Deduction
(a) Conjunction introduction: F
1
, F
2
¬ F
1
∧ F
2
(b) Conjunction elimination: F
1
∧ F
2
¬ F
1
(c) Conjunction elimination: F
1
∧ F
2
¬ F
2
(d) Disjunction introduction: F
1
¬ F
1
∨ F
2
(e) Disjunction introduction: F
2
¬ F
1
∨ F
2
(f) Disjunction elimination: F
1
∨F
2
, F
1
⇒ F
3
, F
2

F
3
¬ F
3
(g) Negation introduction: F
2
⇒ (F
1
∧ F
1
) ¬ F
2
(h) Double negation elimination: F
1
¬ F
1
(i) Implication introduction: (F
1
¬ F
2
) ¬ F
1
⇒ F
2
(j) Double negation introduction: F
1
¬ F
1
(k) Implication elimination (Modus Ponens):
F
1
, F
1
⇒ F
2
¬ F
2
(l) Modus Tollens: F
1
⇒ F
2
, F
2
¬ F
1
(m) Universal quantifier elimination: ∀XF ¬ F[t/X]
(n) Universal quantifier introduction: F[Y/X] ¬
∀XF
(o) Existential quantifier introduction: F[t/X] ¬
∃XF
(p) Existential quantifier elimination:
∃XF
1
, (F
1
[Y/X] ¬ F
2
) ¬ F
2
3. Model Semantics
(a) Model: An interpretation I is a model of a for-
mula F iff I(F) is true.
(b) Tautology: A formula F is a tautology iff all
interpretation are models.
(c) Contradiction: A formula F is a contradiction
iff no interpretation is model.
(d) Contingency: A formula F is a contingency iff
it is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.
(e) Logical Consequence: F
1
[= F
2
iff all models of
F
1
are models of F
2
(f) Logically Equicalent: F
1
≡ F
2
iff they have the
same models.
(g) I(∃XF) = I(
_
c∈U
H
F[c/X])
(h) I(∀XF) = I(
_
c∈U
H
F[c/X])
4. Boolean Algebra
(a) Identity of : x 1 = x
(b) Identity of +: x + 0 = x
(c) Complementation of : x ¯ x = 0
(d) Complementation of +: x + ¯ x = 1
(e) Associativity of : x (y z) = (x y) z =
x y z
(f) Associativity of +: x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z =
x +y +z
(g) Commutativity of : x y = y x
(h) Commutativity of +: x +y = y +x
(i) Distributivity of over +: x (y + z) = (x
y) + (x z)
(j) Distributivity of + over : x + (y z) = (x +
y) (x +z)
(k) Idempotence of : x x = x
(l) Idempotence of +: x +x = x
(m) Annihilator of : x 0 = 0
(n) Annihilator of +: x + 1 = 1
(o) Absorption of : x (x +y) = x
(p) Absorption of +: x + (x y) = x
(q) Unicity of complement: If xy = 0 and x+y = 1
then y = ¯ x
5. Set Theory
(a) Axiom 1: Empty set. There exist a set with no
elements ∃X(∀Y ((Y ∈ X)))
(b) Axiom 2: Extensionality: Two sets are equal
if and only if they have the same elements
∀X∀Y ((∀Z(Z ∈ X ⇔ Z ∈ Y )) ⇔ X = Y )
(c) Axiom 3: Pairing: There exists a set Z that
contains X and Y . ∀X∀Y ∃Z∀T((T = X ∨ T =
Y ) ⇔ T ∈ Z)
(d) Axiom 4: Unions: ∀S∃T∀Y ((Y ∈ T) ⇔
∃Z((Z ∈ S) ∧ (Y ∈ Z)))
(e) Axiom 5: Power Sets: ∀S∃T∀X((X ∈ T) ⇔
(X ⊂ S))
(f) Axiom 6: Regularity: ∀X(X ,= ∅ ⇒ (∃Y (Y ∈
X ∧ ∀Z(Z ∈ X ⇒ (Z ∈ Y )))))
(g) Axiom 7: Infinity: ∃X(∅ ∈ X ∧ (∀Y (Y ∈ X ⇒
Y ∪ ¦Y ¦ ∈ X)))
(h) Axiom 8: Separation: ∀X∃Y ∀Z(Z ∈ Y ⇔ (Z ∈
X ∧ P(Z)))
(i) Useful propositions and definitions:
i. Empty set is the subset of all sets:
∀X∀Z((∀Y (Y ∈ X)) ⇒ (X ⊂ Z))
ii. Definition of subset: ∀X∀Y (X ⊂ Y ⇔
(∀Z(Z ∈ X ⇒ Z ∈ Y )))
iii. Another test for equality: ∀X∀Y ((X ⊂ Y ∧
Y ⊂ X) ⇔ X = Y )
iv. Intersection: Let S be a set of sets. T
is the intersection of the sets in sets if
∀S∃T∀Y ((Y ∈ T) ⇔ ∀Z((Z ∈ S) ⇒ (Y ∈
Z)))
6. Relations
(a) The binary relation ! is a subset of the Carte-
sian product S T
(b) s!t ⇔< s, t >∈ !
(c) Dom(!) = ¦s ∈ S [ ∃t ∈ T(s!t)¦, Im(!) =
¦t ∈ T [ ∃s ∈ S(s!t)¦, coDom(!) = T
(d) Inverse: If ! ⊂ S T, then ∀s ∈ S∀t ∈
T(t!
−1
s ⇔ s!t)
(e) Composition: If ! ⊂ S T, !

⊂ T U, then
∀x ∈ S∀z ∈ U(x!

◦ !z ⇔ (∃y ∈ T(x!y ∧
y!

z))).
(f) Composition is associative, and (!

◦ !)
−1
=
!
−1
◦ !
−1
(g) Reflexive: ∀X ∈ A(x!x)
(h) Symmetric: ∀x, y ∈ A(x!y ⇒ y!x)
(i) Transitive: ∀x, y, z ∈ A((x!y ∧ y!z) ⇒ x!z)
(j) Equivalence relation: ! is reflexive, symmetric
and transitive.
(k) If ! is an equivalence relation on a set A, then
the equivalence class of x, E
R
x
= ¦y ∈ A[x!y¦.
A/! is the set of equivalence classes.
(l) If ! is an equivalence relation on a set A, then
A/! is a partition of A.
(m) The transitive closure of !, !

satisfies the
properties that !

is transitive and ! ∈ !

.
Furthermore if o is another transitive relation,
then ! ∈ o ⇒ !

∈ o
(n) Repeated composition: !
n
=

1≤i≤n
!
(o) !

=


i=1
!
i
(p) Anti-symmetric: ∀x ∈ A∀y ∈ A((x!y∧y!x) ⇒
x = y)
(q) !is a partial order if it is anti-symmetric, reflex-
ive and transitive. A relation that is a partial
order is denoted as _
(r) Two elements are comparable if a _ b∨b _ a. A
total order is a partial order where all elements
are comparable.
(s) Maximal element: ∀y ∈ A(x _ y ⇒ x = y).
Maximum element, ·: ∀x ∈ A(x _ ·)
(t) Minimal element: ∀y ∈ A(y _ x ⇒ x = y).
Maximum element, ⊥: ∀x ∈ A(⊥ _ x)
(u) A is well ordered iff every non-empty subset of
A as a minimum element.
7. Functions (f ⊂ S T unless stated otherwise)
(a) Uniqueness: ∃!x ∈ Tp(x) ≡ ∃x ∈ T(p(x) ∧ ∀y ∈
T(p(y) ⇒ x = y))
(b) Definition of function: f : S → T ⇔ ∀x ∈
S ∃y ∈ T(x f y ∧ (∀z ∈ T(x f z ⇒ y = z)))
or ∀x ∈ S ∃!y ∈ T(x f y)
(c) Notation: f(x) = y ⇔< x, y >∈ f
(d) Dom(f) = S
(e) x is a pre-image of y if f(x) = y while the inverse
image of y is the set of all its pre-images.
(f) The restriction of f to U is the set ¦< x, y >∈
U T [ f(x) = y¦
(g) Injection: ∀y ∈ T ∀x
1
∈ S ∀x
2
∈ S ((f(x
1
) =
y ∧ f(x
2
) = y) ⇒ x
1
= x
2
)
(h) Surjection: ∀y ∈ T ∃x ∈ S (f(x) = y), Im(f) =
T
(i) Bijection = Injection + Surjection
(j) f is bijective iff f
−1
is a function
(k) Notation: g(f(x)) = (g ◦ f)(x). If f : S → T
and g : T → U are both functions, then g ◦ f is
a function.
(l) Identity function, J
A
: ∀x ∈ A(J
A
(x) = x)
(m) If f : A → A is injective, then f
−1
◦ f = J
A
(n) A n-ary operation on a set A is a function f :

n
1
A → A
(o) Proving injectivity: Suppose f(x
1
) = f(x
2
),
then prove x
1
= x
2
(p) Proving surjectivity: Express x in terms of y
and then check if it is within the domain.
8. Number systems
(a) Peano’s Axioms: The set of natural numbers is
the smallest set such that:
i. ∃0 (0 ∈ N)
ii. There exist a function s on N. s(n) = n

,
the successor of n.
iii. ∀n ∈ N (n

,= 0)
iv. n ∈ N ∀m ∈ N (n

= m

⇒ n = m)
v. ∀K ⊂ N ∀n ∈ N ((0 ∈ K ∧ (n ∈ K ⇒ n


K)) ⇒ K = N)
(b) Ordering Lemma: Let m ∈ N
c
. Then n ≤ m∨
m ≤ n.
(c) Addition is the smallest binary operation on N
such that:
i. ∀n ∈ N (n + 0 = n)
ii. ∀n ∈ N ∀m ∈ N(n +m

= (n +m)

)
(d) Multiplication is the smallest binary operation
on N such that:
i. ∀n ∈ N (n 0 = 0)
ii. ∀n ∈ N∀m ∈ N(n m

= (n m) +n)
(e) Integers
i. Let ≈ be a relation on N N such that
∀n
1
∈ N ∀n
2
∈ N ∀m
1
∈ N ∀m
2

N (< n
1
, n
2
>≈< m
1
, m
2
>⇔ n
2
+ m
1
=
m
2
+ n
1
). The set of integers is given by
Z = (N N)/ ≈
ii. a +b =< a
1
+b
1
, a
2
+b
2
>
iii. a −b =< a
1
+b
2
, a
2
+b
1
>
iv. ab =< a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
, a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
>
(f) Rationals
i. Let ≈ be a relation on NN¸¦0¦ such that
∀n
1
∈ N ∀n
2
∈ N¸¦0¦ ∀m
1
∈ N ∀m
2

N¸¦0¦ (< n
1
, n
2
>≈< m
1
, m
2
>⇔ n
2

m
1
= m
2
n
1
). The set of rationals is given
by Z = (N N¸¦0¦)/ ≈
ii. a b =< a
1
b
1
, a
2
b
2
>
iii. a +b =< (a
1
b
2
+b
1
a
2
, a
2
b
2
>
iv. a −b =< (a
1
b
2
−b
1
a
2
, a
2
b
2
>
v. a/b =< a
1
b
2
, a
2
b
1
>
9. Number Theory
(a) Let n ∈ N and m ∈ N
+
. m[n ⇔ ∃q ∈ N (n =
mq)
(b) Division algorithm: Let n ∈ N, m ∈ N
+
, ∃!q ∈
N ∃!r ∈ N (n = q m+r ∧ r < m)
(c) n and m are relatively prime (n ⊥ m) iff ∀c ∈
N
+
(((c[n) ∧ (c[m)) ⇒ c = 1)
(d) p is prime if p > 1 ∧ (∀n ∈ N
+
(n[p ⇒ (n =
p ∨ n = 1)))
(e) The gcd of n and m is defined such
that (gcd(n, m)[n) ∧ (gcd(n, m)[m) ∧ (∀q ∈
N
+
(((q[n) ∧ (q[m)) ⇒ q ≤ gcd(n, m)))
(f) The lcm of n and m is defined such
that (n[lcm(n, m)) ∧ (m[lcm(n, m)) ∧ (∀q ∈
N
+
(((n[q) ∧ (m[q)) ⇒ lcm(n, m) ≤ q))
(g) Bezout’s Identity: Let n ∈ N
+
, m ∈ N
+
. ∃a ∈
Z ∃b ∈ Z (n a +mb = gcd(m, n))
(h) Euclid’s Lemma: Let n ∈ N
+
, m ∈ N
+
. Let
p ∈ N
+
. (prime(p) ∧ (p[n m)) ⇒ (p[n ∨ p[m)
(i) Factorisation: n =

i∈I
p
i
(j) Fundamental theorem of arithmetic: Every pos-
itive natural number has a unique factorisation.
(k) n ≡ m (mod c) ⇔ (m < n ∧ c[n − m) ∨ (n <
m∧ c[m−n) ∨ (n = m)
(l) If n
1
≡ m
1
(mod c) ∧ n
2
≡ m
2
(mod c), then
n
1
+n
2
≡ m
1
+m
2
(mod c)
(m) If n
1
≡ m
1
(mod c) ∧ n
2
≡ m
2
(mod c), then
n
1
n
2
≡ m
1
m
2
(mod c)
(n) Fermat’s Little Theorem: If p is prime then a
p

a (mod p)
10. Cardinality
(a) A set is finite iff it is the empty set or there is a
bijection from the set to some Z
n
(b) Cardinality of a finite set is 0 if the set is empty
set or n if there is a bijection from the set to
some Z
n
.
(c) ℵ
0
≡ [Z
+
[
(d) A set is countably infinite iff [S[ = ℵ
0
. Other-
wise it is uncountable. A set is countably infinite
iff its elements can be arranged without dupli-
cation and omission in an infinite list.
(e) Given n countably infinite sets, the cartesian
product of these sets are also countably infinite
(f) The union of countably many countable sets is
countable
(g) The set of real numbers is uncountable
(h) [A[ < [T(A)[
(i) [R[ = [T(Z)[
11. Counting
(a) Product Rule: If A
1
, A
2
, A
n
are finite sets,
then [

n
i=1
A
i
[ =

n
i=1
[A
i
[.
(b) Sum Rule: If A
1
, A
2
, A
n
are disjoint finite
sets, then [

n
i=1
A
i
[ =

n
i=1
[A
i
[.
(c) Difference Rule: if A is a finite set and B is a
subset of A, then [A−B[ = [A[ −[B[.
(d) Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion:
[

n
i=1
A
i
[ =

1≤i≤n
[A
i
[ −

1≤i≤j≤n
[A
i

A
j
[ +

1≤i≤j≤k≤n
[A
i
∩ A
j
∩ A
k
[ − +
(−1)
n+1
[

n
i=1
A
i
[
(e) The number of permutations of a set of n dis-
tinct elements is n!
(f) The number of ordered selection of r objects
from n objects is P(n, r) =
n!
(n−r)!
(g) The number of unordered selection of r objects
from n objects is C(n, r) =
n!
(r!(n−r)!
(h) The number of permutations of n objects where
there are n
i
indistinguishable objects of type i
for i = 1, 2, k and

k
i=1
n
1
= n, is
n!
n
1
!n
2
!···n
k
!
(i) The number of r-combinations with repetition
allowed that can be selected from n items is
C(n +r −1, r)
(j) Binomial theorem: (x +y)
n
=

n
r=0
_
n
r
_
x
n−r
y
r
(k) Pascal’s identity:
_
n+1
k
_
=
_
n
k−1
_
+
_
n
k
_
(l) Generalised Pigeonhole Principle: If N objects
are placed into k boxes, there is at least 1 box
which contain at least ,
N
k
| objects.
12. Graphs
(a) A pseudograph G = (V (G), E(G), f
G
) consists
of
i. A non-empty vertex set of vertices
ii. An edge set of edges
iii. An incidence function f
G
: E(G) →
¦¦u, v¦[u, v ∈ V (G)¦
(b) An edge e is called a loop if f
G
(e) = ¦u¦ for
some u ∈ V (G)
(c) If f
G
(e
1
) = f
G
(e
2
), then the two edges are called
multiple or parallel edges
(d) A simple graph has no loops or parallel edges, a
multigraph has no loops
(e) An edge e is incident with vertices u and v if
f
G
(e) = ¦u, v¦. The two vertices are adjacent.
Two edges are called adjacent if they have are
incident with a common vertex.
(f) A directed multigraph G = (V (G), E(G), f
G
)
consists of
i. A non-empty vertex set of vertices
ii. An edge set of directed edges
iii. An incidence function f
G
: E(G) →
¦(u, v)[u, v ∈ V (G)¦
(g) A complete graph is a simple graph where every
two distinct vertices are adjacent
(h) A complete bipartite graph on (m, n) ver-
tices, denoted by K
m,n
is a simple graph with
V (K
m,n
) = ¦u
1
, u
2
, u
m
¦ ∪ ¦v
1
, v
n
¦ and
E(K
m,n
) = ¦¦u
i
, v
j
¦[i = 1, , m; j = 1, n¦
(i) A graph H is a subgraph of G if V (H) ⊆ V (G),
E(H) ⊆ E(G) and ∀e ∈ E(H) (f
H
(e) = f
G
(e))
(j) The vertex degree d
G
(v) of vertex v is the num-
ber of edges incident with v
(k) Handshake Theorem: Let G be an undirected
graph. Then

v∈V (G)
d
G
(v) = 2[E(G)[
(l) A walk of length n in G is defined as an al-
ternating sequence of vertices and edges of G
v
0
e
1
v
1
e
2
e
n
v
n
where e
i
connects its endpoints
v
i−1
and v
i
. A trail is a walk of distinct edges
while a path is a trail with distinct vertices.
(m) A graph is connected if there is a walk between
any two vertices in the graph.
(n) An undirected graph H is called a connected
component of G if H is a subgraph of G, H is
connected and no connected subgraph of G has
H as its proper subgraph.
(o) An Euler trail is a trial traversing all edges in a
graph. A closed walk is a walk that starts and
ends at the same vertex. A tour is a closed walk
that traverse all edges in a graph at least once.
An Euler tour is a tour that traverse each edge
exactly once.
(p) A graph has an Euler tour if and only if it has
no vertices of odd degree. A graph has an Euler
trail but not an Euler tour if and only if it has
exactly two vertices of odd degree.
(q) A Hamiltonian path is a path containing all ver-
tices in G. A cycle is a closed trail whose origin
and internal vertices are distinct. A Hamilto-
nian cycle is a cycle which contains all vertices
of G.
(r) Let G be an undirected graph and the vertices
are ordered as V (G) = ¦v
1
, v
2
, v
n
¦. The ad-
jacency matrix of G is the nn matrix A(G) =
[a
ij
] such that a
ij
= [¦e ∈ E(G)[f
G
(e) =
¦v
i
, v
j
¦¦[
13. Trees
(a) A tree is an acyclic connected undirected graph.
A forest is an acyclic undirected graph.
(b) There is a unique path between any two distinct
vertices in a graph iff the graph is a tree
(c) If G is a tree iff [E(G)[ = [V (G)[ −1
(d) A graph H is a subgraph of graph G if V (H) ⊆
v(G), E(H) ⊆ E(G) and ∀E(H) f
H
(e) = f
G
(e)
(e) A spanning subgraph of a graph is a subgraph of
a graph which contains all vertices in the graph.
A spanning tree is a spanning subgraph which
is a tree
(f) A graph is connected if and only if there is a
spanning tree
(g) A weighted graph is a graph where all edges has
an associated real valued weight
(h) A minimum spanning tree of a connected
weighted graph is the spanning tree that has the
smallest possible sum of weights in its edges