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By: P.Lchinger Plant Manager Cement Vigier, Switzerland Urs Maier Managing Director ALRO Antriebstechnik GesmbH. Switzerland Reinhold A. Errath Technology Manager ABB Schweiz AG Senior Member IEEE

1- Introduction Long belt conveyors have always been a challenge for drive and control applications. There are several methods for the drive to be applied. Depending on the geographical conditions, the material to be transported, the fulfillment of the environmental requirements and the operating methods, a different drive system can and must be supplied. This paper describes the drive system for a down hill conveyor which is mounted between the quarry area and the raw material section of the plant. Because of the operational requirements, the drive is to be adjustable in speed, and capable of regenerating the power on the down hill section. A new technique, the so-called Active Front End technology, was applied and will be described in detail. All operating processes nowadays are monitored, with sophisticated control systems. The paper gives a good insight to how the control algorithm was applied and is operating. One of the big advantages proclaimed for this technology is that it is extremely network friendly. The paper shows in detail, what this means, using measurements and analysis in the network. The paper describes, as well, all the environmental fulfillments with the use of a tube conveyor. The content of the paper would not be complete without having a look into the energy balance, from active power taken out of the network, and the regenerative power fed back into the network. It puts an eye, as well, on the aspect of the operating and the life cycle cost. 2 - Basic Data and Physical Layout The Vigier Cement AG (VIGIER), member of the VICAT Cement Group in France, is operating a Cement factory in the Berner Jura (Switzerland, Kanton Bern) since 1891. The yearly production capacity is about 700000 metric tons. In 2003, Vigier Cement opened a new Quarry area. The limestone and Clay material will be transported for a short distance with Dumpers direct to the Receiving station of the Crusher. The crushing capacity is 800t/h. The Crusher in the Quarry area is linked by a 3 km long conveying system to the Cement plant down hill. During transport a difference in height of 280 meters in total, at an inclination of up to 28 degrees, is to be overcome. The challenge was to minimize the number of conveyors, and consequently the number of transfer stations, with part of the conveying in a tunnel. The main conveying system consists of a combination of two Conveyors, both of them with down hill configurations. The first Conveyor is of a tubular design, and this makes it possible to handle a conveying capacity of up to 1400 t/h, even when declining up to 28 degrees. The tubular conveyor design is a closed belt design, especially suited for descending conveying lines and also is environmentally friendly. The second conveyor is a troughed belt conveyor.

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The transport capacity was designed for Normal operation: For max. 10 min. For max. 5 min. 800 t/h 1'000 t/h 1'400 t/h

Ciments Vigier SA, Reuchenette, Switzerland

Tail End Tube Conveyor with 2 Motors

Tail End Troughed Belt Conveyor with 3 Motors

Head End Tube Belt Conveyor

E-House with drives

Cooling unit

The picture 2.0 shows mainly the down hill part of the installation

Conveying Data Conveying Capacity Conveying Capacity max. 10 min. Conveying Capacity max. 5 min. Conveying Speed Total Conveying Length Change in Elevation

800 t/h 1000 t/h 1400 t/h -1 Variable max. 3.1 ms 2645 m - 274 m

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Conveyor Centre distance Difference in Altitude Max. Slope Nominal Diameter of the Tube Belt width Trough Belt type Idler diameter Installed motor power Vertical curves Horizontal curves Belt Speed

Tube Belt Conveyor 244.46 m - 81 m 28 400 mm 1600 mm EP1000/4 108 mm 2 x 160 kW 3 x 120 m -1 3 ms

Troughed Belt Conveyor 2397 m - 193 m 5 1200 mm Three-part, 40 degrees ST1800 133 mm 3 x 160 kW 5 x 2000 m -1 3 ms

Tube Belt conveyor 550 m +4.1 m 400 mm 1600 mm

1x160 kW, 1x55 kW

3 ms


3 - Conditions to get the license for Operation When the project with a new Quarry was started, several Quarry options were available. As the awareness in Switzerland in terms of environmental issues is very pronounced, several feasibility studies were made before the new quarry area was defined. The study was followed up by the authorities and the powerful environmental care society. The output of the study was a quarry and transporting concept. It was clear right from the beginning, that for the material transport, a conveyor systems has to be used. The transport of the limestone and the clay with trucks had no chance to get the operating license, because of transport cost reasons over the life-cycle of the quarry, and also the understandable environmental conditions resulting. Also, because of environmental reasons, the material transport had to be realized partly inside a tunnel. Due to the climate, special attention had to be given to the design of the robustness of the equipment for the transportation system. The quarry area is situated 900 m above sea level, and this means for Switzerland, especially in the wintertime, very rough operating conditions. At this elevation, it is not uncommon to get temperatures well below the water freezing point, for long periods of time, due to the high amount of snow. This is also one of the reasons to have some part of the conveyor inside the tunnel, and the other part covered. 4 Possible Drive Options for down hill conveying Downhill Conveyors are defined as an equipment where the braking energy usually will not be destroyed or burned, but rather will be fed by regeneration back into the network. It has to be categorized between two different operating modes Fixed speed Adjustable speed 4.1 Fixed speed operation and energy regenerating back to the network

Any fixed speed drive, like a squirrel cage induction motor or a wound rotor motor, has the inherent behavior to - Run as a generator as soon as the motor gets excited, and this is the case when it is connected to the network and - The speed, driven by the down hill load, will bring the motor revolutions above the synchronous speed

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In fixed speed drive configuration, no additional equipment has to be installed for the motor to act as a generator. Below the synchronous speed, the slip to the network frequency is negative, so the motor behaves like a motor, driving the load, and taking the energy out of the network. When the load, like in the application of a down hill Conveyor, drives the motor above the network frequency, the slip will become positive and the motor will behave as a generator, consequently feeding the energy back to the network. In adjustable speed, the drive must have a 4 quadrant behavior in order to run like a motor or a generator. Older configurations have used, and are using, Thyristor equipped network input circuits. These input circuits are relatively simple, because they are network commutated. The operative function does fulfill the requirements in terms of adjustable speed and to be regenerative as well. However, if during the regenerative period, the network disappears, that means the MV breaker for some reason opens, the equipment will lose the commutation and provoke herewith a short circuit in the input Thyristor bridge. Short circuits are always related to fuse burnings. Todays configuration is done by a Circuit called an Active Front End (AFE). Equipment with the AFE configuration does not act with the same negative behavior as mentioned beforehand with the Thyristors. If the system loses the network, no fuses will burn and the equipment is ready again as soon as the energy is back. 4.2 4.2.1 Braking that means, to stop the drives and bring the conveyor to standstill Fixed speed drives

Squirrel Cage Induction Motors have very restricted facilities to brake, but will be used only on smaller installations. The only way is either switch it off, and brake with the mechanical brake, or brake with countercurrent. The latter will not be used very frequently, because the countercurrent braking applies a heavy counter torque in the instant of switching over, and the belt may start to slip, resulting in the current to the network being higher than permitted. The Wound Rotor Motor has more possibilities to brake in a controlled way. Whenever this configuration is used, its a configuration with higher power, and working on a medium voltage level. The motor is equipped with a secondary starter and a DC injection brake. The braking torque can be adjusted and dosed, according to the requirements of braking time and braking torque. 4.2.2 Adjustable speed drives

Todays state-of-the-art down hill configuration is based on an Adjustable Speed Drive with 4Q behavior, which means acceleration and braking in the forward direction, and acceleration and braking in the backward direction. For the 4Q drive system, no change in polarity of the torque happens, when changing the speed of a running drive down to zero. The change in speed always will bring smooth reactions to the belt. The speed can be decreased to zero. Even holding in the position at zero speed would be possible with a 4Q drive. In general, for smaller transportation systems, a low voltage version is utilized. For down hill Conveyors of bigger size, in the range of 800 kW and above, and especially when the belt conveyor is long, MV equipment will be used. The energy will be regenerated to the network 5. Case study from Cement Vigier - The big question - Fixed speed or variable speed? The first question when planning a drive system for a conveyor is, shall it be driven by fixed speed motors or variable speed drives? To answer this question, it is necessary to clarify the additional investment cost for the variable speed drives, and compare them with the advantages achieved, and the operation and service costs, as well as the life time of the conveying system, like belt, mechanical components and structure.

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5.1. Basic requirements for belt conveyor systems The mechanical construction of the belt is the most expensive and most exposed Component of a Conveyor project. Along with the selection of an adequate drive system, it must be ensured that the stress on the belt will be kept inside the design limits. This basic requirement must be maintained for all possible operating conditions, including emergency cases. The load sharing of the different drives has to be coordinated in such a way, that all associated drives develop a similar torque even in part load condition, starting / stopping procedures, but especially in full load or emergency case scenarios It has to be ensured, that torque peaks transmitted to the belt, are never of a magnitude which is higher than 20 to 30% of the needed torque, regardless if such peaks occur in the acceleration, operational or deceleration phase. The drive system for the belts must have the capability to allow for a maintenance speed of 10 % of the nominal speed in both directions. Torque peaks must be controlled and limited to an allowable magnitude for all the mechanical components like Gearboxes, couplings, shafts etc. Possible Belt slipping has to be monitored.

5.2 Soft starting Taking the above-mentioned basic requirements into consideration, the belt must be started and stopped very softy, and in a controlled manner, in order not to stress the belt. This can be best achieved with an S shaped acceleration and deceleration ramp. In cases where the belt conveyor is very long, it might even be necessary to start the drives on the head end earlier than the ones on the tail end, to tighten the belt first. 5.3 Service speed The service speed is normally at approx. 10% of the nominal belt speed. If DOL motors are used, a separate low speed motor system is required. With the speed controlled drive system all speeds can be driven with the same equipment. 5.4 Conveyor braking Depending on the topology, belt conveyor braking might be needed: For horizontal conveying systems, no braking during operation is required. If the terrain is ascending and descending, partial braking during loading and unloading the belt might be used. Down hill conveyors require a continuous braking during operation, if the friction losses are smaller than the regenerated energy by the load. 5.4.1 Braking systems for down hill conveyors Down hill belt conveyors have to be equipped with an emergency brake. It has to be closed, if on of the rope and with it the corresponding emergency switch is operated, as well as in the cases where over speed is possible (down hill conveyors or conveyors with downhill sections). An electrical brake system cannot fulfill the safety standards because of the possible power loss or defects in the electrical system. To avoid excessive wear of the mechanical brake, an electrical brake system is often used as a main brake during normal operation to decelerate the conveyor from high to zero speed, while the mechanical disc brake takes over the stand still and the emergency cases. For sizing the mechanical brake, it has to be taken in consideration, that it has to be able to brake the fully loaded conveyor from maximum speed to zero speed.

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5.4.2 Possibilities of braking with frequency converter In case electrical braking is required, the motor acts as a generator and feeds energy into the DC link of the converter. As a result of this, further braking of the motor causes an increase in the DC link voltage since the energy cannot be reduced. However, the surplus energy has to be reduced if over voltages are to be prevented. This can be achieved by different means: With a brake chopper and braking resistor in the DC link With an regenerative supply-section

The method with a braking chopper and braking resistor converts the surplus energy into heat, and therefore has no economic value. The second option, with the recovery unit, allows all of the energy, with the exception of mechanical losses of the conveyor system and internal losses of the drive system, to be fed back into the mains. 5.5 Braking Chopper with Braking resistor In the standard drives solution, normally a diode bridge either 6- or 12-pulse is implemented. Energy flow is only possible from the AC Network to the converter and not vice versa. Since the braking of a rotating motor respective load, will increase the voltage in the DC circuit of

Diagram 5.5 shows a typical braking chopper configuration

the converter, this energy has to be eliminated. Heating them in a resistor can do this. As soon as the DC circuit reaches a higher voltage level, a braking chopper will be activated and connect the DC bus directly to a resistor, the so-called braking resistor. It can be installed inside the cubicle or even outdoors. This installation is relatively simple and well known, but will waste the energy. A braking chopper might be a solution if: the braking is needed only occasionally there is only a small amount of braking energy there is the request for electrical braking in case the main AC supply is lost

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Regenerative Supply

Active front end

Contrary to the above-mentioned concept is the regenerative drive based on an inverter at the supply unit. In this way, it is possible to feed back the braking energy to the AC network, so that the energy is not wasted, and provides an economic advantage. Modern IGBT-based regenerative units are able to control the DC Bus voltage, regardless of the power flow and direction. The drive can be operated, if required, with a cos phi = 1, which means only active current is taken from network, and The harmonics are reduced to a minimal value (THD < 4%). 6.0 Decision on the Conveyor Drive System

In the DOLOperation with squirrel cage motors, both the starting and stopping torque, nor the acceleration and deceleration time in function of the load, can be adjusted. But this is essential for a long lifetime of the belt. Even with Slip ring motors, where the starting and stopping torques can be limited, a load dependent starting and stopping time cannot be realized. This behavior can be achieved only with an adjustable speed drive. Also, Conveyor systems are often installed at the end of a power line with a relative weak network. This means, direct on-line starting of a squirrel cage motor causes a voltage drop in the mains, the magnitude of which depends on that mains short circuit power rating. In other words, the motor being started cannot count on the full voltage, as the voltage drop in the supply cable of the motor additionally reduces this. In the case of 2 - 160 kW motors, connected by a 100 meter long cable to a low-voltage network with a short-circuit power rating of 200 MVA, the voltage across the motor terminals will be reduced to about 87% of its nominal value! A square-law relationship exists between the motor torque and the applied voltage, so that in this case less than 64% of the accelerating torque is available. It means that, for a conveyor with a constant torque characteristic, there is even a possibility that the motor will not accelerate, and the rotor will overheat and eventually be destroyed. An Active Front End frequency converter takes only active power from the mains. The torque of a squirrel cage induction motor is built up by the ratio of motor voltage and frequency (motor speed). The nominal torque can, therefore, already be available from zero speed, if the converter keeps the ratio U/f constant during acceleration. To achieve a higher starting torque, the flux in the motor has to be increased by increasing the voltage during the starting phase. A typical starting current of a DOL motor is 7 x IN, and therefore much higher, compared with a converter drive having only 1 2 times x IN, depending on the required starting torque. In any case, the voltage drop will be 3 to 4 times lower than with a DOL motor. Under these conditions, it is obvious to select an Adjustable Speed Drive with a Frequency converter 7.0 Project Engineering Detail Calculations Concept and definition of the drive and the motors The dimensioning of the motors and the creation of the concept of the drive system were based on the following requirements: Creation of the simulation and calculation model for all possible operating and loading conditions, including simulation of starting, stopping and emergency stopping scenarios Power trip under full, half and empty loading conditions Maximum allowed belt tension, in terms of mechanical belt stress and belt slip limits Determine regulation algorithm to minimize the belt tension All of the above mentioned conditions had to be verified for the regenerative and the motoric operation. Maximum utilization of equal drive components and motor sizes, in order to minimize the spare parts components Allow for future performance increases

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The result of the study led to the following concept: Down Hill Conveyor 1 Tube Conveyor, with two motors on a common drum at the tail end. Down Hill Conveyor 2 Troughed Belt Conveyor in the tunnel, with 3 motors total, 2 motors on the common first drum and 1 motor on the second drum. All 5 motors are of the same power with the same physical sizes Each drive system consists of: Frequency converter driving a squirrel cage motor of 160 kW Disc Brake between the motor and Gearbox (The purpose of the Disc Brake is to hold the loaded belt when it is out of operation, at standstill, and in case of a power dip, to brake the drive system safely to zero speed). Gear Box Load cell, to measure the torque, in order to avoid over tension and stresses for the belt. In the normal operating condition, the motors are running with a predefined speed. The speed can be decreased below the nominal speed, for whatever reason, but can also be increased above the nominal speed in order to fill up an empty stockpile, etc. During the starting and stopping procedure of the belts, the torque developed by the drive will follow the S curve reference, and no excessive belt stress be produced. Special attention will be given to the dynamical belt stress parameters during the starting and stopping procedures. The determination of the drive power is based on the following calculation:
Total required force is

Force without load + Force with load in horizontal conveying + Force to convey materials on incline

F Tot = F 0 + F 1 + F 2 P Mot shaft = F Tot x v / Gear

Formula 7.0 shows the theoretical power needed


CxfxL QtxH x(3.6 xGmxv + Qt ) + 367 x 367

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Input Capacity of the belt Friction resistance in belt Friction in pulleys 0.025 ... 0.030 Belt weight/m incl. rotating parts Center to Center Length Belt width (tube belt = diameter) Height Drum diameter Belt speed Gear ratio Gear box efficiency Output data Required motor shaft power at full load

Sign Qt C f Gm L B H D v i Sign [th-1]

Belt conveyor Tube Troughed 1'400 0.6000 0.0281 151 244 400 -81 1.02 3.30 25 0.98 1'200 0.5200 0.0250 80 2'397 1'200 -193 1.02 3.30 25 0.98

[kgm ] [m] [mm] [m] [m] -1 [ms ] [%]


Belt conveyor Tube Troughed [kW] -273 -449

Table 7.0 shows the physical parameters for both belt conveyors 8.0 The Drive Solution In the previous sections, the results of the evaluation have basically shown a concept with adjustable speed drives with the same type of motors. In the next sections, which kind of adjustable speed drives will be the most suitable ones, will be evaluated. 8.1. Possible Drive solutions A drive solution for a conveyor, driven by several drives, can be either a single drive or a multi drive system. The single drive system consists of individual frequency converters, including rectifier and inverter, while the multi drive has a common rectifier section and DC-bus, but individual inverters, which can be controlled independent from each other. The decision, if single or multi drive, depends basically on the drive arrangement of the conveyor. If several drives are used on the head and/or tail end, multi drive might be the preferred solution. Otherwise, single drives can be used. Looking at the two conveyors of Ciments Vigier, the local situation allows placing the E-house in the area of the head end of the tubular belt conveyor, and the tail end of the troughed belt conveyor. The two motors of the tubular belt conveyor are mounted on the tail end, which is located on the highest point, and is 250 m from the E-house. This configuration requires long motor cables. They have to be shielded, and three core type, to fulfill the EMC requirement. The cost comparison showed that the centralized E-house, with only one 16 kV supply and transformer, is more economical than the decentralized solutions. 8.2 Basic principles of a voltage source frequency converter As was shown earlier, there are very good reasons to control the belt conveyors by means of variable speed drives. The frequency converters considered here are of the voltage-source type. The system voltage is first rectified and then stored in a DC link, consisting mainly of capacitors. The inverter, with switchable semiconductor devices, subsequently converts the DC voltage back into AC to allow adjustment of its frequency and voltage. The speed of a connected cage induction motor is now varied according to the applied frequency. To ensure that the induced flux remains constant, the voltage also has to be varied as a function of the frequency.

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Single line diagram 8.2 shows the basic principle of a single drive frequency converter VVVF

8.3. Variable speed drive solutions 8.3.1 Basic principles of Single Drive Configuration Every individual frequency converter needs its own separate feeder from an LV distribution system and supply cable. The space requirement depends on the number of drives used in the same place, but is usually larger for single drives compared with a multi drive system.

Single line diagram 8.3.1 shows the basic configuration of single frequency converter drives

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8.3.2 Basic principles of a Multidrive System Unlike individual drives, which have to have their own rectifier, DC link and inverter, the Multidrive system generates the required DC voltage in a central unit and feeds it into a common DC bus, to which the individual, independently operated inverters are connected. All the desirable features of an individual drive are still retained. The Multidrive, with common DC-bus, is as an optimum drive solution for belt conveyor projects, where several drives can be located in the same place. If more than one belt conveyor is in the system, the drives should be placed on the handover points, so that the drives of both conveyors can be connected to one Multidrive. However, to find the optimal design, each system has to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

Single line diagram 8.3.2 shows the basic configuration of multidrive frequency converter

The individual inverters connected to the common DC bus do not have to have the same power rating. On the contrary, a Multidrive package can consist of drives of very different sizes. The power outputs as well as the motor speeds can therefore be different. The total installed motor rating should nevertheless not exceed the power rating of the central incomingfeeder bridge. And the terminal voltage of all the individual motors should be the same, since the variable converter output voltages are always taken off the common DC bus. Each inverter is connected individually to the overall control system allowing individual motor control. Each inverter module has the inherent capacity of a 4 Q drive With variable speed drives it is possible to make the adjustments that are necessary to meet the exact requirements of the production process. 8.3.3 Technology for supply section with Active Front End There was a tremendous development in the field of electrical variable speed drives, where the supply section has also been optimized, to satisfy the increasing market demand for better network quality. The new supply technology is generally called Active Front End (AFE), and consists of an intelligent IGBTmodulation and LCL-filter technology, to generate a nearly pure sinusoidal current waveform. Viewing the th harmonics up to the 40 , a low harmonic content is the result, and the IEEE 519 and EA G5/4 requirements can be fulfilled without additional external passive or active filters outside the supply section. At the same time, the power factor is controlled, and kept to 1, at any load point. Due to cos = 1, and sinusoidal waveform, the losses are less and the peripheral equipment like the transformer, cables, etc. can be sized for the reduced load.

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9. Harmonic distortion All adjustable drive system, are producers of harmonics but in different magnitudes. The following section will show the difference in harmonic pollution between the main technologies used 9.1. Explanations of some considered and important items: 9.1.1 Fixed speed Motor No harmonic distortion caused by the motor 9.1.2 Adjustable speed drive with a 6 pulse rectifier very frequency converter generates harmonics, causing distortion of either the voltage or current waveshape. The amount of the current harmonic distortion depends on the type of supply section of the converter, while the voltage harmonic distortion depends mainly on the network configuration. The total rated power of the belt conveyor drives, fed by the converter, generates via a 6-pulse diode th bridge, in the worst case a current harmonic distortion of the 5 harmonic of approximately 30-35% on the primary side of the converter transformer. The Power factor (cos ) however is reasonable at about 0.96
Harmonics with 6 pulse configuration
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 35 37 47 49 Current Harmonics

Picture 9.1.2 shows the current Harmonics in a 6 pulse configuration and the respective sine wave

Adjustable speed drive with a 12 pulse rectifier It is common engineering practice in bigger drives units to use two input diode bridges, instead of one. With two input bridges and 30 degrees shifted transformer vector groups, a much better performance in th th terms of harmonic distortion can be achieved. The first appearing harmonic is the 11 and the 13 . The th 12-pulse diode bridge, in worst case, creates a current harmonic distortion of the 11 current harmonic of approximately 9% on the primary side of the converter transformer. The Power factor (cos ), however, is reasonable at about 0.96, the same as with 6-pulse configuration

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IN/I1 (%)

Harmonics with 12 pulse configuration

40 35 30 IN/I1 (%) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 35 37 47 49 Current Harm onics

Picture 9.1.3 shows the Current Harmonics in a 12 pulse configuration and the respective sin wave

Adjustable speed drive with Active Front End Best in class nowadays is the drive input circuit with the AFE configuration. Besides needing only a simple transformer without vector group shifting like the 6-pulse configuration, it also creates minimal harmonics, so that the standards of IEEE 519 and also the EN 50160 are not violated. That means no repair of the network by Filter and Compensation has to be done. The power factor (cos ) can be set at 1, or, under certain circumstances, even a leading PF can be achieved. Picture 9.1.4 shows the Current Harmonics in an AFE configuration and the respective sin wave
IN / I1 (%)

Harmonics with AFE Configuration

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 35 37 47 49 Current harmonics

Theoretical values should always be taken with caution, because, in actual practice, the situation may well be different. What really counts is when the measurement is done on the MV level of a busbar. In the Vigier Cement plant, measurements were made with and without the down hill conveyors equipped with Multidrive and AFE. The measurements showed about the same level of quality of the network as the theoretical values, as it can be seen in 9.2 9.2 Harmonic Measurements As shown in picture 9.1.2 to 9.1.4 the harmonics created from the drives, is of a different magnitude, shape and frequency spectrum in all 3 examples, shown as theoretical values. Without any doubt, the AFE configuration shows the best results. Before the implementation of the drives, one of the other conditions was to make a review in the plant, register the harmonic content on the common plant AC Bus, and compare it during operation, after the implementation of the new equipment.

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Maximum 10-minute values during whole measurement period Average of all 10minute values during whole measuring period Minimum 10-minute value during whole measuring period

before installation of Belt conveyors 1.680 % 1.007 % 0.460 %

After Installation of Belt conveyors 1.490 % 0.882 % 0.200 %

Limits IEEE 519 5%

Limits IEC 8%

Table 9.2 shows the THDu (%) (Total Harmonic Distortion- Voltage) on the 16 kV bus for several conditions before and after the installation of the Belt Conveyors From the two voltage measurements, the results show that all single harmonics as well as the THDU are below limits of standard EN 50160. In percentage of the 50 Hz voltage, the maximum value of the THDU was: 1.680 % in the case before and 1.490 % after connection of the AFE of the Belt Conveyor. 9.3 Other functionalities of the AFE Compensate the reactive power in the network The Active Front End can, during the normal operation, be used to compensate the reactive power created by other equipment. This means it can operate in a power factor - leading configuration in the magnitude of about 140% of the required drive power. It could even in certain limits, be used as a power factor online regulator.


Active Power from the network Active Front End Drive Active Power for the Motor Motor

Capacitive Power to increase Cos of network

Figure 9.3 Relationship between - Power taken out of the network, Power provided for the motor and capacitive Power used for Power Factor Correction

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Ciments Vigier - Optimized drive solution for the Down Hill Conveyors

10.1 Installation Down Hill Conveyors consisting of: 1 pc. 1 pc. Troughed belt conveyor, 2397 m, 3 motors requiring 146 kW / 500 V each on head end. Tube belt conveyor, 245 m, 2 motors requiring 135 kW / 500 V each on head end. Max. possible designed power consumption is 708 kW at 1500 rpm (motor shaft). Total required power consumption is 565 kW at 1500 rpm (motor shaft). Speed range with rated constant torque is 150 1500 rpm (motor shaft). All motors are exactly the same, so that they are interchangeable and only one spare motor is needed. 1 pc. Multidrive system containing The system is fed from a 16 kV network via a drive transformer rated at 1000 kVA. The rectifier unit, Type Active Front End AFE, is dimensioned for 800 kW continuous shaft power. An individual inverter unit is provided for each of the five motors and connected to the common DC bus. Each unit is operated independent of the other, and has its own serial interface to the process control system.

The Picture 10.1.A Shows the configuration, of the troughed belt conveyor tail end (two of the three motors/braking/ gear units)

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The Picture 10.1.B shows A Multidrive with Active Front End. Cooling air bottom entry though the false floor. The air inlet louvers in the door are closed. Cooling air outlet on top.



27 49 50 50G 51


49 50G 50 51 27






CONVERTER TRAFO 1000 KVA 16 KV / 50 Hz Uk = 6% 3x500 V / 50 Hz

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230 V / 50 Hz 230 V / 50 Hz 24 VDC









230V Fr dieses Dokument und den darin dargestellten Gegenstand behalten wir uns alle Rechte vor. Vervielfltigung, Bekanntgabe an Dritte oder Verwertung seines Inhalts sind ohne unsere ausdrckliche Zustimmung verboten. ABB 1989





3 x 500V


3 x 500V

3 x 500V

3 x 500V





3 x 500V

















CONVEYOR 1 160 KW, 500V 150-1500 RPM

CONVEYOR 1 160 KW, 500V 150-1500 RPM

CONVEYOR 1 160 KW, 500V 150-1500 RPM

CONVEYOR 2 160 KW, 500V 150-1500 RPM


Down Hill Conveyor 2 VIGIER CEMENT

Drawn Check Norm Release 2 15.05.02 / MAI Changed Changed Based on 3 1


Repl. for 4 Repl. by

Responsible Title Department



Down Hill PRELIMINARY Conveyor 1

1:1 Doc. A4 Size Language 7 6

IBDC / 90409-05



Single line diagram 10.1.C shows Multidrive for Down Hill Conveyors Ciments Vigier, Switzerland As shown in the Single line diagram 10.1.C, each drive from the both downhill Conveyor belts has its own inverter and motor. The Inverters are connected to a single DC Bus Bar. This provides the inherent strength of the Multidrive solution. Regardless of whether belt 1 is regenerative, and belt 2 motoric or any other operating condition, whenever power is being generated, the power will be made available first on the DC Bus Bar. Only the balance of the sum of the power will be taken out of the network or fed back to the network.

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This very cost saving and functionally desirable configuration was only possible because of the geographical situation. That is, the drives for downhill conveyor one, and the drives for downhill conveyor 2, are both in the vicinity of the E- house. 11. Drive performance
Graphic 11.1: Down Hill Conveyor Emptying and stopping the belts

Procedure of emptying and stopping the material transportation Crusher will be stopped and the Down Hill belt 1 be empted. The Down hill belt 1 will be ramped down in 15 seconds to zero speed. The Down Hill Belt 2 will be empted The Down Hill Belt 2 will be ramped down in 15 seconds to zero speed.

In can be clearly seen, the power of both belts are successively reducing with the emptying process of the belt from 324 kW to 130 kW and breaking the belt to zero speed a short regenerating power can be noted as well.

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Graphic 11.2 Down Hill Conveyor Starting under load, with material on the belts

Procedure of starting the belts in loaded condition The Down Hill Belt 2 will be started first and accelerated in 21 seconds with a S shaped curve to the nominal speed After a certain time, the Down Hill Belt 1 will be started and accelerated in 18 seconds to with a S shaped curve to the nominal speed

The Belt tension of the Down Hill Belt 2 moves immediately in the negative range that means holding back the loaded belt to accelerate by its proper load. When the belt will be accelerated with the predefined S shaped ramp as explained above, the belt tension reduces. Finally when the drive reaches its nominal speed, the belt tension increase and comes with a few oscillations to its operating point. The behaviour of the Down Hill belt 1 shows a similar behaviour Only when both belts are successfully in operation, the crusher can be started up 12. 12.1 Safety Protection Emergency Braking

For downhill conveyors, about the same increased protection philosophy has to be implemented as for cable cars or other down or uphill transportation equipment. A loaded declined regenerative conveyor, when operating, must be restrained from running away by the power source. Any interruption of power or mechanical failure of the Drive will permit the belt and load to run out of control. To prevent this, a properly operating brake is a must. Practically all conveyors involving lift or lowering, need, in addition to the braking force which can be provided by the drive itself, or the mechanical brake in cases where the drive is not able to brake, a holding action after the conveyor has come to the standstill. For any down hill conveyor there is an obvious need to apply a controlled torque to decelerate the load at a

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reasonable reduction in the rate of speed. A torque too high would stress the belt too much, and, worse, a slipping between the braking belt cylinder and the belt could start to occur. As the resistance between the cylinder and the belt decreases, and the belt is slipping as in a normal operating condition, the chance to stop the belt, when slipping, becomes a hazardous task and almost impossible. Thats why a controlled torque with the drive in normal braking mode for about 20 seconds, or with the brake also for about 20 seconds, is so important. A belt slip can be detected with a double speed measurement and a comparison between them. One speed measurement is made on the driven motor or the driven cylinder, and the other measurement on an idler roll from the conveyor system or a speed pick up directly on the belt. In case a belt slip is detected, the braking activity has to be released immediately, until a synchronisation of the both speed detection points is achieved, followed by a new braking action with controlled braking torque. Another important point is that the brake must be dimensioned to provide sufficient holding power to keep the conveyor belt securely at a standstill when the fully loaded but not in operation. 12.2 Braking torque control with the mechanical brake

The pure motoric - braking is relatively simple because the braking torque has a direct relationship to the motor (generator) current. With the control of the current, a direct control of the torque is achieved. The mechanical brake - braking for emergency cases needs some additional mechanical adjustable equipment in order to apply the right braking torque. This is achieved by the incorporation of load cells. These cells measure the braking torque, and supply the right breaking information to the disc brake via the hydraulic system. Based on this information, the braking torque will be applied accordingly, without stressing the belt with excessive belt tension. 12.3 Belt Control and protection strategy

The Belt Conveyor system requires a control system. The control system architecture is composed of the drive controller and the belt control system. The drive controller provides the speed and torque for starting, operating and stopping procedures. The belt control system provides run and stop commands, interlocking to other equipment and protection facilities, for belt alignment like drift switches, belt slip, take-up over travel, pull cord switches and, eventually, bin level information. The belt control system consists of a quantity of belt permissives, operator stations, start warning systems, interlocking and sequencing of individual conveyors, as well as starting, interlocking and stopping procedures of the sequenced conveyors. In starting the last conveyor downstream, the material flow has to be started first, but in stopping or interlocking the most upstream conveyor must stop first. 12.4 Protection strategy

The high potential energy stored in the large volume of material laying on the downhill conveyor has to be safe controllable in all situations. For the personal and equipment safety the high standard of category 4 is required. The pull rope switches are designed for a maximum of safe operation under severe conditions and are actuated by a plastic coated steel wire rope placed along side the conveyor. The rope can be pulled at any point and it will trip, automatically lock the switches and activate the safe emergency stop circuit of the drive respectively of the mechanical brake. Each switch is bi-directional in operation and has two ropes fitted to it from opposite directions terminating with a spring at the anchor points. The springs will operate the switch in the event of rope breakage. The rope length in both directions may be up to 50 meters. After tripping, the mechanical latch can be released only on the switch itself by the reset lever. Depending on the site conditions, the housing of the pull rope and drift switches have to be correctly selected for normal, salty, dusty, coal or aggressive atmosphere.

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The large number of pull rope and drift switches is collected in groups from both sides of a remote I/Obox, which are placed in a distance of approx. 1000 m. There are two possibilities to wire the pull rope switches to the safety circuit of the system: Either each rope switch is hard wired to a safety relay of category 4, as it is done in Vigier or with serial bus communication connected to safe remote digital inputs. For long distances the signals are converted via an optical link module and transmitted via optical cables to the PLC. Each pull rope switch and drift switch has a second contact with its own address, so that the exact position can be indicated in the PLC, a remote station or a portable service PC. Also these signals are collected the same way as mentioned above, but they are not integrated in the safety circuit. 13 Conclusions It is a relatively simple matter to decide on which investment to select when only the direct investment costs, without environmental conditions and maintenance and life cycle costs are considered. This paper has shown, however, that the operating costs should, even with the environmental sustainability, play a far more important role in such a decision. A much broader approach to the decision-making process is called for. The possibility of grouping individual drives in an installation such as the Multidrive in Ciments Vigier, opens up new areas of application in which variable speed drives can be employed to increase the costefficiency over the lifecycle of Cement plants. The use of an AFE technology does not only comply with the efficient energy feed back to the network, but also in terms of creating current harmonics well below what IEEE 519 is tolerating.

1-4244-0372-3/06/$20.00 (c)2006 IEEE