ISBN 978 3 900734 98 5
GUIDE TO THE LIGHTING OF URBAN AREAS
CIE 136-2000 UDC: 628.971.6 ; 625.712 628.971.7 Descriptor: Exterior lighting, lighting of urban roads Lighting of public squares
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ILLUMINATION The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) is an organisation devoted to international co-operation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters relating to the art and science of lighting. Its membership consists of the National Committees in 37 countries and one geographical area and of 10 individual members. The objectives of the CIE are : 1. To provide an international forum for the discussion of all matters relating to the science, technology and art in the fields of light and lighting and for the interchange of information in these fields between countries. 2. To develop basic standards and procedures of metrology in the fields of light and lighting. 3. To provide guidance in the application of principles and procedures in the development of international and national standards in the fields of light and lighting. 4. 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As such it occupies an important position among international organisations. LA COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ÉCLAIRAGE La Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) est une organisation qui se donne pour but la coopération internationale et l'échange d'informations entre les Pays membres sur toutes les questions relatives à l'art et à la science de l'éclairage. Elle est composée de Comités Nationaux représentant 37 pays plus un territoire géographique, et de 10 membres individuels. Les objectifs de la CIE sont : 1. De constituer un centre d'étude international pour toute matière relevant de la science, de la technologie et de l'art de la lumière et de l'éclairage et pour l'échange entre pays d'informations dans ces domaines. 2. D'élaborer des normes et des méthodes de base pour la métrologie dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 3. De donner des directives pour l'application des principes et des méthodes d'élaboration de normes internationales et nationales dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 4. De préparer et publier des normes, rapports et autres textes, concernant toutes matières relatives à la science, la technologie et l'art dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 5. De maintenir une liaison et une collaboration technique avec les autres organisations internationales concernées par des sujets relatifs à la science, la technologie, la normalisation et l'art dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. Les travaux de la CIE sont effectués par 7 Divisions, ayant chacune environ 20 Comités Techniques. Les sujets d'études s'étendent des questions fondamentales, à tous les types d'applications de l'éclairage. Les normes et les rapports techniques élaborés par ces Divisions Internationales de la CIE sont reconnus dans le monde entier. Tous les quatre ans, une Session plénière passe en revue le travail des Divisions et des Comités Techniques, en fait rapport et établit les projets de travaux pour l'avenir. La CIE est reconnue comme la plus haute autorité en ce qui concerne tous les aspects de la lumière et de l'éclairage. Elle occupe comme telle une position importante parmi les organisations internationales. DIE INTERNATIONALE BELEUCHTUNGSKOMMISSION Die Internationale Beleuchtungskommission (CIE) ist eine Organisation, die sich der internationalen Zusammenarbeit und dem Austausch von Informationen zwischen ihren Mitgliedsländern bezüglich der Kunst und Wissenschaft der Lichttechnik widmet. Die Mitgliedschaft besteht aus den Nationalen Komitees in 37 Ländern und einem geographischen Gebiet und aus 10 persönlichen Mitgliedern. Die Ziele der CIE sind : 1. Ein internationaler Mittelpunkt für Diskussionen aller Fragen auf dem Gebiet der Wissenschaft, Technik und Kunst der Lichttechnik und für den Informationsaustausch auf diesen Gebieten zwischen den einzelnen Ländern zu sein. 2. Grundnormen und Verfahren der Meßtechnik auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu entwickeln. 3. Richtlinien für die Anwendung von Prinzipien und Vorgängen in der Entwicklung internationaler und nationaler Normen auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu erstellen. 4. Normen, Berichte und andere Publikationen zu erstellen und zu veröffentlichen, die alle Fragen auf dem Gebiet der Wissenschaft, Technik und Kunst der Lichttechnik betreffen. 5. Liaison und technische Zusammenarbeit mit anderen internationalen Organisationen zu unterhalten, die mit Fragen der Wissenschaft, Technik, Normung und Kunst auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu tun haben. Die Arbeit der CIE wird in 7 Divisionen, jede mit etwa 20 Technischen Komitees, geleistet. Diese Arbeit betrifft Gebiete mit grundlegendem Inhalt bis zu allen Arten der Lichtanwendung. Die Normen und Technischen Berichte, die von diesen international zusammengesetzten Divisionen ausgearbeitet werden, sind von der ganzen Welt anerkannt. Tagungen werden alle vier Jahre abgehalten, in der die Arbeiten der Divisionen überprüft und berichtet und neue Pläne für die Zukunft ausgearbeitet werden. Die CIE wird als höchste Autorität für alle Aspekte des Lichtes und der Beleuchtung angesehen. Auf diese Weise unterhält sie eine bedeutende Stellung unter den internationalen Organisationen. Published by the COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ECLAIRAGE CIE Central Bureau Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, AUSTRIA Tel: +43(01)714 31 87 0, Fax: +43(01)714 31 87 18 e-mail: email@example.com WWW: http://www.cie.co.at/ CIE 2000
ISBN 978 3 900734 98 5
GUIDE TO THE LIGHTING OF URBAN AREAS
CIE 136-2000 UDC: 628.971.6 ; 625.712 628.971.7 Descriptor: Exterior lighting, lighting of urban roads Lighting of public squares
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This Technical Report has been prepared by CIE Technical Committee 4-34 of Division 4 “Lighting and Signalling for Transport” and has been approved by the Board of Administration of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage for study and application. The document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field of light and lighting described, and is intended to be used by the CIE membership and other interested parties. It should be noted, however, that the status of this document is advisory and not mandatory. The latest CIE proceedings or CIE NEWS should be consulted regarding possible subsequent amendments.
Ce rapport technique a été préparé par le Comité Technique CIE 4-34 de la Division 4 “Eclairage et signalisation pour les transports” et a été approuvé par le Bureau d'Administration de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, pour étude et application. Le document traite des connaissances courantes et de l'expérience dans le domaine spécifique indiqué de la lumière et de l'éclairage, et il est établi pour l'usage des membres de la CIE et autres groupements intéressés. Il faut cependant noter que ce document est indicatif et non obligatoire. Pour connaître d'éventuels amendements, consulter les plus récents comptes rendus de la CIE ou le CIE NEWS.
Dieser Technische Bericht ist vom CIE Technischen Komitee 4-34 der Division 4 “Beleuchtung und Signale für den Verkehr” ausgearbeitet und vom Vorstand der Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage gebilligt worden. Das Dokument berichtet über den derzeitigen Stand des Wissens und Erfahrung in dem behandelten Gebiet von Licht und Beleuchtung; es ist zur Verwendung durch CIE-Mitglieder und durch andere Interessierte bestimmt. Es sollte jedoch beachtet werden, daß das Dokument eine Empfehlung und keine Vorschrift ist. Die neuesten CIE-Tagungsberichte oder das CIE NEWS sollten im Hinblick auf mögliche spätere Änderungen zu Rate gezogen werden.
Any mention of organisations or products does not imply endorsement by the CIE. Whilst every care has been taken in the compilation of any lists, up to the time of going to press, these may not be comprehensive.
Toute mention d'organisme ou de produit n'implique pas une préférence de la CIE. Malgré le soin apporté à la compilation de tous les documents jusqu'à la mise sous presse, ce travail ne saurait être exhaustif.
Die Erwähnung von Organisationen oder Erzeugnissen bedeutet keine Billigung durch die CIE. Obgleich große Sorgfalt bei der Erstellung von Verzeichnissen bis zum Zeitpunkt der Drucklegung angewendet wurde, ist es möglich, daß diese nicht vollständig sind.
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The following members of TC4-34, Urban Lighting, took part in the preparation of this revision to CIE Publication 92. The Committee comes under CIE Division 4, Lighting and Signalling for Transport. This present publication replaces CIE 92 - 1992 "Guide to the lighting of urban areas".
W.J.M. van Bommel S. R. Chowdhury D.Crawford J.E. Jewell N.E. Pollard S. Sakamoto D.A. Schreuder R.H. Simons K. Sørensen A.C.M. de Visser R.S. Yates
Netherlands India United States of America United States of America Great Britain Japan Netherlands Great Britain Denmark Netherlands South Africa (Chairman)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY RESUME ZUSAMMENFASSUNG INTRODUCTION 1. BENEFITS OF URBAN LIGHTING 1.1 Safety of Person and Property 1.2 Reduction in Road Accidents 1.3 Contribution of Lighting to Community Character and Vitality 2. RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 Residential Areas 2.1.1 Collector Roads 2.1.2 Local Roads 2.1.3 Specialised Residential Areas 2.2 Industrial Areas 2.3 Commercial Areas 2.4 Miscellaneous Areas 2.4.1 Pedestrian Walkways and Paths 2.4.2 Pedestrian Road Crossings 2.4.3 Pedestrian Staircases and Ramps 2.4.4 Cycle Paths 2.4.5 Pedestrian and Cycle Bridges 2.4.6 Pedestrian and Cycle Underpasses 3. APPENDICES 3.1 Lighting levels for urban areas 3.2 Methods of Calculation and Measurement 3.3 Comparison of Light Sources 3.4 Terminology 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY
IV IV IV 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 16 16 17 18 18 20 21 23 23 24 25 28 30
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GUIDE TO THE LIGHTING OF URBAN AREAS SUMMARY The purpose of this guide is to supplement the lighting recommendations and standards for roads and areas of public use as detailed in the Publication CIE 115-1995. The recommendations cover the effect of light on night time crime and suggests lighting requirements for residential roads and community areas, industrial roads, central business districts and malls, pedestrian paths and access facilities and cycle tracks. In addition to proposing levels of luminance and illuminance the recommendations consider aspects such as modelling of people and structures within the environment, the effects of glare and sparkle, suitability of light sources as far as colour appearance and colour rendering are concerned, the effect of the lighting on the environment and the general aesthetics of the lighting equipment used.
GUIDE D’ECLAIRAGE DES ESPACES PUBLICS RESUME Le but de ce guide est de préciser les règles d'éclairage des rues et espaces publics non pris en considération dans la publication CIE 115-1995. Ces recommandations étudient l'influence de l'éclairage sur la criminalité nocturne. Elles précisent les besoins en éclairage pour les rues résidentielles, les espaces publics, les rues des zones industrielles, les centres d'activité, les circulations et accès réservés aux piétons et les pistes cyclables. En complément des niveaux d'éclairement et de luminance, ces recommandations prennent en compte d'autres facteurs tels que le modelé du visage, l'aspect de l'environnement, les effets de l'éblouissement et leur contrôle, le choix des sources de lumière en fonction du rendu des couleurs et de la qualité de l'ambiance colorée, l'influence de l'éclairage sur l'environnement, l'esthétique des luminaires et des installations d'éclairage.
LEITFADEN FÜR DIE BELEUCHTUNG ÖFFENTLICHER PLÄTZE IN WOHNGEBIETEN ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Der Zweck dieses Leitfadens ist es, für Straßen und öffentliche Plätze, die in Publikation CIE 115-1995 noch nicht behandelt wurden, Beleuchtungsnormen zu empfehlen. Die Empfehlungen behandeln den Einfluß der Beleuchtung auf die nächtliche Kriminalität und es werden Richtlinien für die Beleuchtung von Straßen in Wohngebieten und Gemeinden, für Straßen in Industriegebieten, für innerstädtische Geschäftsstraßen und Einkaufszentren, für Fußgänger-, Fahrrad- und Zugangswege vorgeschlagen. Zusätzlich zu den vorgeschlagenen Leuchtdichte- und Beleuchtungsstärkewerten werden Aspekte wie das "Modelling" von Personen und der umgebenden Gebäude, der Einfluß von Blendung und Glanzlichtern, die Eignung von Lichtquellen unter Berücksichtigung von Lichtfarbe und Farbwiedergabeeigenschaften, die Wirkung der Beleuchtung auf die Umgebung, sowie die ästhetische Wirkung der Beleuchtungsinstallation betrachtet.
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INTRODUCTION The purpose of this publication is to supplement the recommendations for the lighting of public thoroughfares within urban areas which are listed in Publication CIE 115-1995 "Recommendations for the Lighting of Roads for Motor and Pedestrian Traffic" and CIE 321977 which deals with "Lighting in Situations Requiring Special Treatment". This guide includes the justification for the lighting of these public thoroughfares and methods of lighting specific areas such as cycle tracks, pedestrian areas and malls, residential and other nonarterial routes, alleys and lanes. The recommendations will cover analyses of lighting criteria, environmental aspects and installation design. Traditionally in many countries residential and industrial areas of a town were designed on a grid system where roads generally were straight, intersections with other roads were at right angles to each other and all roads were designed to cater for all types of traffic. Later, through the introduction of outside designed features such as schools and shopping centres, some of these roads developed into arterial routes or link roads between these centres. To facilitate traffic movement along these routes frequently intersecting roads were made into stop or yield roads and occasionally at the junction of one of these routes with another, traffic lights were introduced. The effect was that certain essentially residential roads were turned into busy traffic routes for which no provision had been made in the original township and road design. This frequently led to unacceptably high traffic speeds, noise and accidents. In recent times the design of new urban areas has changed to eliminate many of the above mentioned problems. Roads no longer run straight, curves are introduced, carriageway widths are decreased to limit certain types of traffic, chicanes and humps are constructed in the road surface to limit speeds. Shopping, community centres, industries and other areas of concentration of people are isolated from the residential zones. The effect is to make the environment safer and, through the introduction of discontinuities in streets and community meeting areas, to make the whole appearance of the area more aesthetically pleasing. The cyclist and the pedestrian have been given areas restricted to their own usage or clearly defined portions of general access routes have been provided. The intention of this guide is therefore to evaluate the visual requirements of each of the road users and make recommendations for their safe and easy progress along roads and paths in old and new types of urban areas. In addition, as one of the main purposes of urban lighting is the improvement of the night-time appearance and character of the area, recommendations are given on how such effects can be aimed at and how lighting equipment should be aesthetically incorporated into the total visual scene. In the guide, traditional units of illuminance have been recommended. However, the more recent introduction of the concept of semi-cylindrical illuminance is considered to be appropriate for identification of obstacles and persons in pedestrian orientated areas and recommended values are also given. These methods of design can be used separately or semi-cylindrical illuminance can be used as a supplementary criterion to horizontal illuminance to ensure adequate facial recognition. In the same way, a new approach to discomfort glare assessment has been introduced in certain residential and pedestrian areas where lower mounted luminaires are used. As some urban areas will require special artistic treatment of the lighting to provide variety and points of interest to attract pedestrians, the values given in this guide should be used with discretion and artistic allowance permitted in these areas. In many places, the recommended values will be considerably exceeded but they should nevertheless be regarded as minimum for security of persons and property. The pleasantness of an installation will often be gauged by the amount of modelling achieved by the lighting on human features and decorative components in the area. Some information on this aspect is given in Section 3.2 c. It is important with all lighting installations that they be efficiently maintained at all times. In the exterior environment the problem of deciding on specific cleaning intervals is particularly complicated due to the changing weather conditions in a particular area and at varying times of the year. A lot will depend on the IP rating of the luminaire (see Table 3.2)
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and the presence of dust, wind, rain, snow, changing temperatures etc. The recommended lighting levels can only be met if these aspects are taken into account in the design stage and implemented efficiently. 1. BENEFITS OF URBAN LIGHTING 1.1 Safety of Person and Property Public lighting was originally introduced into urban areas as a means of reducing crime, both to people and property. Today, crime and vandalism are still major problems in many public areas and surrounding properties. Many investigations have been carried out into the contribution lighting can make to reduce these undesirable aspects of community living. The majority of these investigations have unfortunately been limited in area and/or detail of the lighting standards and are therefore inconclusive. Furthermore, "crime" can take many forms, for example: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Mugging i.e. personal assault and theft from persons; Theft of and from vehicles in the streets; Thefts from vendors and stalls in the streets; Vandalism of public and private property; Theft from gardens and other private property adjoining the street; Misuse of thoroughfares usually lanes and isolated thoroughfares as toilets and for sex acts; Shop and housebreaking; Acts of sabotage and terrorism.
It would be a very long and difficult exercise to obtain any reliable data on the effect of lighting on any or all of the above. In many cases these acts are not reported to the police as many members of the public believe that lesser crimes would not receive effective investigation. There is, however, a very definite public conviction that areas of poor, or no lighting do attract criminal acts. This is amply demonstrated by the fact that requests to public authorities for the installation of new or improved lighting from members of the public and the police are far more frequently based on crime prevention in residential and commercial areas than road traffic accident reduction. In view of this the aspect of crime and lighting is very high on the priority list of any public authority and attention must be given to the subject in any consideration of public lighting. From data and information collected the benefits derived from the installation of lighting can be summarised as follows: a) b) c) There is a strong indication that darkness is an ally of the criminal and terrorist; Urban lighting does discourage vandalism and minor crimes and foulage and misuse of public thoroughfares, particularly in lanes; As the provision of lighting in urban areas does improve the distance of visibility, pedestrians can react earlier to potential threats. It assists law enforcement officers in identification of criminals and vagrants, anticipating criminal tendencies and in enabling the police to keep an eye on the safety of their colleagues; Urban lighting provides a sense of security to residents and all road users, particularly pedestrians, at night.
The continued provision of funds for urban lighting projects, other than for reduction in road accidents, must therefore be encouraged as it plays an important part in the safety and pleasantness of an area at night. 1.2 Reduction in Road Accidents There exists documentary evidence that the provision of lighting on roads to recognised standards will reduce the number and severity of accidents at night. This is well covered in Publication CIE 93-1992 "Road Lighting as an Accident Countermeasure". Much of the data collected refers to accidents on motorways and arterial routes but little information is available on the contribution lighting can make to reducing night time accidents on local and residential roads. Accidents involving pedestrians constitute a high 2
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percentage of all road accidents, especially during dark or twilight hours. Many of these occur at entrances to railway stations and at bus stops. However there is a substantial number of evening and night time accidents which occur in residential areas. These take place near schools and recreation centres as well as in purely residential streets where children play either on sidewalks or in the street itself. Another problem is the old and infirm and others who cross roads at places other than designated road crossings. To this must be added the danger imposed by the presence of animals and pets in the streets which can cause accidents either when the motorist or cyclist (motor or pedal) hits the animal or swerves to avoid it. It is possible that the generally lower speeds of traffic on residential roads gives a false sense of security to pedestrians. Whatever the cause the relatively high incidence of accidents on these streets cannot be ignored. Adequate and appropriate standards of lighting must be provided if the number of accidents occurring at night are to be reduced. 1.3 Contribution of Lighting to Community Character and Vitality There are a number of people who will strongly resist the installation of street lighting in a town, and particularly in the area in which they live. The chief claim is that street lights destroy the natural environment by driving away birds and small animals. Opposed to this is the strong feeling amongst other people that lighting at night in the streets and other public areas can contribute considerably to the character and vitality of a city. This can generate a sense of civic pride and provide a draw card for tourists. Driving through an unlit town at night creates a sense of isolation from the community. There is no incentive to stop for refreshment or shelter. Many a central business district of a town has become deserted, especially at night due to lack of amenities, attractions and a sense of security all of which could be enhanced by lighting of streets, squares, malls and buildings to a high standard and quality. This lighting will not come exclusively from the standard street lights, but will emanate from shop and hotel windows, electric signs, tree and building floodlighting and attractive lighting units in pedestrian areas. The provision of lighting in an urban area will also be of assistance to visitors to the town or strangers in a particular area. It provides proper orientation within the area and allows quick and accurate identification of streets and houses. Good lighting will always assist the services of ambulances, fire fighting crews, police cars and rescue teams in an emergency. For guidance on the decorative aspects of urban lighting readers are referred to Publication CIE 94-1993 "Guide for Floodlighting". 2. RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction In this section recommendations are given for the following application fields: - Residential areas; - Industrial areas; - Commercial areas; - Miscellaneous areas: pedestrian walkways and paths, pedestrian road crossings, pedestrian staircases and ramps, cycle paths, pedestrian and cycle bridge and underpasses. The recommendations for each application are divided into three sections viz: "Design Objectives", "Installation Design" and "Environmental Factors". In the Section "Design Objectives" lighting requirements are set out in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 in the Appendix. The lighting recommendations are given in two forms. Firstly in horizontal illuminance at ground level and secondly as a new alternative design guide using the parameter semicylindrical illuminance at 1,5 m above ground level. (a) Horizontal Illuminance This form of lighting design has been accepted over a long period of time and is the basis of Publication CIE 115-1995 for class P roads and some current national codes of practice. It is
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comparatively easy to calculate and measure and does not depend on observer position. For this reason it is included in the guide as a design standard. In general the average values recommended should be used in calculating the lighting levels and checks made to ensure that at no place does it fall below the recommended minimum value. (b) Semi-Cylindrical Illuminance In areas dominated or used by pedestrians the most important lighting requirement at night is to be able to recognise other people approaching or in the vicinity at a reasonable distance away. To provide the very necessary sense of security it must be possible to recognise if the other person is likely to be friendly, indifferent or aggressive in sufficient time to make any appropriate response. The minimum distance required to recognise any sign of hostility and take evasive or defensive action is, according to research, 4 m in front of the observer (2.10, 2.40, 2.42). Vertical illuminance of a sufficiently high level at the average height of a human face - approximately 1,5 m above pavement level - will provide the requirements of adequate visibility. For a number of reasons pure vertical illuminance from whatever direction is not the optimum parameter. The comparatively recent introduction of the concept of semi-cylindrical illuminance has therefore been included in this guide. Research has indicated that the minimum semi-cylindrical illuminance necessary to recognise and gauge a person’s intention at 4 m is 0,8 lux at 1,5 m above ground level. At 10 m distance, which would give greater time for any necessary avoiding action the recommended level is 2,7 lux. To ensure at each location a sufficiently high possibility of recognition the minimum semi-cylindrical illuminance is given in the recommendations. As the lighting will also be required to contribute to the attractiveness of certain areas, an important part of which will be the recognition of people in a crowded place, recommended average values are given where applicable. Details of the method of calculation and measurement of semi-cylindrical illuminance are given in Section 3.2 (a). (c) Discomfort glare In the same way, a new approach to discomfort glare assessment has been introduced for low mounted luminaires, up to approximately 7 m, where the risk exists of pedestrians having to look straight into the luminaires. This is based on the luminance of the light emitting area of individual luminaires and details of calculation methods are given in Section 3.2 (b). As far as luminaire design is concerned, little practical experience with this new approach to glare has so far been obtained. Relatively high glare values have therefore been suggested in the specification tables. Lower values should be strived for. By giving the lighting parameters for the pedestrian requirements in different forms innovative thinking is not stifled but encouraged whilst the more conservative designers can still utilise traditional parameters. Designers must decide which parameters best suit their requirements and calculate accordingly. Achievement of one parameter will not necessarily ensure realisation of the other recommended parameters as this will depend on the light distribution characteristics of the luminaires being used. (d) Modelling In some situations e.g. civic squares, the appearance of people, the street furniture and architectural features in the area needs to be considered. Guidance on this aspect of design is given in Section 3.2 (c). 2.1 Residential Areas This section of the recommendations is restricted to collector and local roads as described above for strictly local residents’ access. In addition the needs of other road users such as cyclists and pedestrians will be considered and recommendations made regarding the provision of lighting for their needs. Residential areas can be defined as areas of a village, town or city which are suitable for or are occupied by private dwellings. These dwellings might be any of the following: a) individual low-rise structures for single family occupation, generally with front and side gardens;
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terrace type buildings where the houses are usually of uniform style built in one block along the street front; specialised residential areas comprising townhouse complexes, residential precints, or cluster housing where groups of houses are built either at right angles to the street front or are grouped in one area with a single access to the street front; areas of high-rise residential hotels and blocks of flats; dwellings in old towns with shops and offices combined in the same building where streets can be straight or curved, wide or narrow.
Except for c) the roads fronting the residential units can vary in character from a culde-sac to a major arterial road. This is a particular feature of older residential suburbs which were constructed on a grid system. In any such suburb it is often very difficult to separate "through" roads from strictly local access roads and these too can change over time as adjacent suburbs develop or alter their character such as from residential to commercial. The demands of these new or changed suburbs will inflict varying demands on the usage of existing roads. For example, a previously low density, local access road can change to a through road as one of the main access roads to a new suburb. The building of a school in a previously unoccupied area can also change the character of the roads surrounding and providing access to it. It is difficult to accurately define residential areas for lighting recommendations. Where the residences are located on an arterial route of whatever importance, the lighting design must be dictated primarily by the road traffic requirements such as laid down in Table 5.1 of the Publication CIE 115-1995. However, considerable thought should be given to other street users such as pedestrians and particular attention be paid to Section 6.5 of the above document which deals with the lighting of the surrounds to the road. The modern view regarding residential areas is to remove domestic buildings from any form of arterial route and, with the slight exception of collector roads catering for that area, restrict access to residents, visitors and delivery vehicles. Restrictions can take many different forms - extremely narrow roads, roads with frequent curves, construction of speed humps and chicanes in the roadway, culs-de-sac and loops or crescents (see Fig. 2.1). Even older gridtype suburbs are being re-assessed from the point of view of traffic and many of the roads in these areas are being altered to restrict access in manners similar to new townships. 2.1.1 Collector Roads Design Objectives These roads can be defined as principal roads in a residential area which link all local roads to an arterial route. Fundamentally these are Class M2 and M3 roads of Publication CIE 1151995 but as they will be roads through residential complexes the additional requirements of residents must be included in the lighting design. These roads could be main feeder roads to community centres, park-and-ride sites, bus or train stations. There is therefore likely to be a fair amount of cycle and pedestrian traffic and their special requirements should be considered. See Section 2.4. Installation Design As the lighting must cater both for the vehicle users on the carriageway and pedestrians on footways it is recommended that lights be installed where necessary on both sides of the road in either opposite or staggered formation. The lighting of these roads will generally form a transition between an arterial traffic route and the local street. It is therefore recommended that the height of the poles above ground level be between that of the poles in the other areas. In practice this will mean mounting heights from 6 to 10 m. Spacing-to-height ratios between luminaires will depend mainly on the type of light distribution of the luminaire and, to a lesser extent, on the road and pavement width. This will need to be calculated. In practice it is unlikely that these will exceed 4 to 5 times the mounting height of the luminaires.
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Fig. 2.1 Diagrammatic illustration of typical classification of roads in urban areas
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Environmental Factors The aesthetic appearance of all street lighting equipment both by day and night must receive careful consideration. In residential areas the environment can contribute considerably to the quality of life in the area and the street lighting, like any other street furniture, must be related to that environment. This will entail consideration of the mounting height of the luminaire, the overhang or outreach of any bracket employed, the shape and proportions of the luminaire and pole both individually and in relationship to each other and their surrounds. Frequently luminaires and poles are purchased independently of each other and used according to the technical requirements of the installation. While these requirements cannot be ignored it is recommended that the luminaire and its support be considered as an integral unit. The pole itself should be slim and be painted either to be as unobtrusive as possible or to be a feature in its own right. It could be noted that a glossy paint finish will tend to soften the outline of columns in sunlight and make the pole less conspicuous. Wherever possible the design of all lighting equipment should be integrated into the design of the other elements of the street furniture. In this connection the poles can be used to carry directional signs, street names, rubbish bins and sometimes plant holders. Where such attachments are used it is extremely important that they and their fixings do not reduce the mechanical strength of the pole, increase wind area over that used in the pole design or obstruct access to cable joints or fuses in the pole. Wherever possible poles and other structures should have compatible shapes and finishes. As luminaires will be chosen with a light distribution suitable to illuminate the footways behind the poles there is the inevitable danger of unwelcome light penetration through the windows of dwellings alongside the street. This will be particularly severe with terrace houses and other buildings without front gardens. Correction of this problem after installation of the lighting may result in the installation of unsightly screens on the luminaires. In the majority of cases with single or double-storey homes and luminaires mounted at 8 m or more the problem area of the luminaire is the lower horizontal face of the glass or bowl of the luminaire. At lower mounting heights the problem area is likely to be the vertical face of the luminaire towards the building. In the former case any form of screening is likely to affect the uniformity of the road luminance and is therefore to be discouraged. In the latter, installation of screens within the luminaire can be a part of its initial design or simple unobtrusive screens can be fitted internally. No fixed recommendations on this subject can be given here as the reaction to light penetration in houses varies considerably between nations, people and ages of residents. Any restrictions must therefore be decided locally. While glare restrictions for this type of road should comply with the recommendations of Publication CIE 115-1995, the lighting of these roads should however also provide a pleasant atmosphere to the pedestrian user, a limited amount of "sparkle" in the direction of the walkways can be considered. The colour quality of the light source will have a significant effect on the appearance of the environment and is therefore an important design consideration [2.5, 2.9, 2.45]. See also Publication CIE 94-1993 "Guide for Floodlighting". 2.1.2 Local Roads Design Objectives As pedestrians are often frequent users of this class of road at night the standard for visibility is not solely the luminance of the road surface. By design, the roads will restrict the speed of vehicles and therefore the time available for a vehicle driver to see an obstacle is greatly increased. The lighting design criteria for these roads should, therefore, optimise the road user’s ability to: a) b) c) d) visually orientate in the environment; detect obstacles in his/her path; perceive the movements and intentions of other people; read street signs and house numbers; 7
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recognise landmarks, bus stops, refuse containers, fire hydrants, kerbs, etc. appreciate the appearance of the street and its environment.
In the above, a road user includes the driver of a motorised vehicle, a cyclist or a pedestrian. Installation Design The arrangements of luminaires will be dependent on the width of the street between property boundaries. Generally a single row of luminaires should be adequate, but where the transverse distance between a luminaire and the property line on the opposite side of the street exceeds twice the mounting height of the luminaire, an additional row will be required on the opposite walkway. The actual light distribution of the luminaire may however dictate other arrangements. The chosen mounting height of the luminaires will depend on the relationship of the luminaires to other street furniture. It will normally vary from 4 m to 8 m. The lower mounting heights may be dictated by the presence of trees. At all times, sufficient clearance must be allowed where the luminaires overhang the carriageway. Usually local regulations will dictate the minimum clearance permitted. The spacing between luminaires will be determined according to the light distribution characteristics of the equipment and the need to comply with the illuminance level and uniformity value recommended. With this form of lighting it may be necessary to group luminaires in clusters, to locate them relative to other items of street furniture or align them with other features in the area (see Figure 2.2). Wherever such restrictions are necessary, the visual requirements and lighting levels should continue to be enforced.
Fig 2.2: Relationship of luminaire to pole and surroundings. No precise distribution data can be recommended as this will vary considerably according to the type of luminaire chosen. In many installations it may be desirous, from an aesthetic point of view, to have a significant proportion of the light directed at and above the horizontal to illuminate features in and bounding the street. While recognising the need to control glare the limitations may not be too severe if the background luminance of building facades and other street furniture is comparatively high. However, the problem of light penetration into nearby domestic windows should not be forgotten and it may be necessary to select luminaires with controlled distribution in this direction or install shields inside the luminaires. The siting of luminaires can be a problem in tree lined roads. Some recommendations in this connection are given in Publication CIE 32-1977. Care should be taken to ensure that, particularly in new townships and estates, young trees will not, after a few years, grow to the same height as the luminaires and completely obscure the lighting. Incidences are known where 8 - 10 years after the planting of the trees the authorities have had to decide to completely replace all the lighting because of this problem. 8
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A large range of light sources can be used in these areas. See Section 3.3. With the type of luminaire which is likely to be chosen for the lighting of local roads, the use of comparatively low mounting heights and irregular installation geometry the alternative method of glare restriction described in Section 3.2 is recommended. This method limits the luminance of the luminaire according to the area of the emitting surface in the direction of an observer. Environmental Factors At all times it is important to ensure that the appearance of the street is attractive both by day and by night. Luminaires and poles should be selected or designed to ensure that they appear as an integral unit. Where appropriate, multi-lamp units may be used (see Fig. 2.2). Care should be taken to ensure that the choice of luminaire, pole, paint finishes and related equipment accord with the general architecture of the buildings in the vicinity and the design of other street furniture. Luminaires mounted on the face of buildings bordering the street can often provide attractive lighting if these are in conformity with the architecture of the building and have appropriate light distribution. Mounting heights should be chosen to relate aesthetically to the height of the buildings bordering the street. Where possible the mounting height should not exceed half the average height of the buildings in the street, but should not be less than half the width of the street. There are some instances where the area is of special historical, architectural or aesthetic importance. In these cases, attractive lighting design together with careful choice of equipment is a fundamental part of the lighting designer’s responsibility. The effect of lighting should be to provide good modelling and to create as natural an appearance as possible without harsh shadows. Details of modelling calculations are given in Section 3.2 (c). Light pollution of the night environment is becoming a serious problem today in many parts of the world. In any exterior lighting scheme this should be taken into account at the design stage and luminaires selected with a reduced upward light component. This can be done with reflectors and/or refractors mounted within the luminaires. A special CIE committee has been formed to investigate this problem. 2.1.3 Specialised Residential Areas A comparatively new development in residential design is the building of new or the conversion of existing residential areas into complexes with restricted access. These areas frequently provide living entities of comparatively high density where the people residing in these areas share the amenities of the common property between and surrounding the residential units. The movement of motor vehicles within the area is severely curtailed and right-of-way is accorded to the pedestrian. To achieve these requirements vehicle paths are very narrow and physical or visual obstructions are erected at fixed spacings, in some cases not more than 50 m apart. In some complexes vehicles are required to use the same paved areas as other users, such as children, who will play in these areas. Design Objectives The lighting should provide for the following requirements at night: a) b) c) d) e) provide a friendly atmosphere where residents can congregate and meet friends; allow vehicles and cycles to move safely at low speeds in the complex to allocated parking areas. This will also require that all obstructions are plainly visible; permit the playing of games by children; discourage criminal activities in the complex by eliminating any dark corners; restrict unwanted spill light into bedroom windows.
The recommended lighting levels need not, in fact preferably not, be uniform throughout the area. Variations in levels can add to the visual attraction of the night time environment. Travel and play areas will require appropriately high levels. Areas where people
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congregate will require intermediate levels with greater emphasis on semi-cylindrical illuminance and areas of landscaping and parking of vehicles will require minimum standards. Installation Design As the design of poles, standards and luminaires must be in keeping with the architectural characteristics of the complex, considerable importance must be paid to the choice, use and positioning of equipment. This applies not only to the relationship of lighting components to the surroundings but also to other inter-related features e.g. luminaire to pole (see Fig. 2.2). In many areas wall-mounted equipment utilising high pressure discharge lamps or fluorescent tubes, will be most suitable. Careful placing of these will restrict backward light through windows and will provide the requirements of vertical illuminance in the public areas. Post top and wall mounted luminaires will also be acceptable but care should be taken that, in the vicinity of play areas, balls thrown in play will not damage the lighting units. Illuminated bollards can also provide decorative features along pathways and in landscaped areas. In all cases the colour of the light source should be chosen to complement the buildings and gardens in the complex. It is important that colour rendering is reasonably good and will tend to flatter human complexions. This will permit the use of many colours of fluorescent tubes, high pressure colour-corrected mercury, high pressure sodium and tungsten filament lamps. Environmental Factors In view of the importance of making these areas as attractive as possible to encourage residents to utilize the facilities offered to the maximum extent it is important that the total environment be considered in the lighting design. Lighting equipment and methods should be diverse within the complex to provide variety and interest. Variations in brightness and comparative darkness should be deliberately arranged to provide modelling of buildings, ornaments, flora and people. Where wall-mounted luminaires are used they should not, for aesthetic reasons protrude more than 1,5 m from the wall. 2.2 Industrial Areas As with residential suburbs, the design of industrial areas has undergone considerable changes over recent years. Although large industries have tended to congregate in specific regions, small industries have been allowed to develop fairly haphazardly in commercial and in some cases, even in residential suburbs. Many local authorities have recognised the need to control small industries and as a result there is a growing tendency to create industrial complexes or estates. Large financial organisations today build attractive industrial estates where buildings are let or sold to individual small industrial concerns. The emphasis on such developments is an informal design of road layout and open grassed and landscaped areas to make the whole complex attractive. Roads are generally wider than in residential areas to cater for heavy and large vehicles delivering goods to and collecting from the various factories. Where public transport is provided, sidewalks are also generally wider to cater for pedestrian traffic. Design Objectives Where industrial areas are part of an existing town the premises are likely to be located on arterial or collector roads, and the standard of lighting should be as laid down in Publication CIE 115-1995. Minor public roads and roads in the newer industrial townships can in many areas be used extensively for short periods at night particularly where factories employ shift workers. Where facilities exist, or can be provided, for dimming of discharge lamps e.g. by change in supply frequency, or 2-lamp luminaires with separate switching, substantial savings in electricity can be made by regulating the standard of lighting automatically according to demand. In some industrial areas factory owners tend to rely on public lighting to provide security for their premises. This is not generally public authority policy and is not therefore
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included in these recommendations. In new industrial estates however, the developer may wish to provide this facility in which case the following levels are recommended behind the street boundary. Average vertical illuminance on building facade: Average horizontal illuminance on surrounds: 4 lux. 2 lux.
These figures are based on medium reflectance factors (approximately 0,15) of buildings, and levels may have to be increased or decreased according to the average reflection factors of the buildings in the area. 2.3 Commercial Areas In the early days of development of the majority of villages and towns, the commercial area, i.e. shops, places of entertainment and restaurants, were located at the centre of the area. As development proceeded the streets within this area grew progressively busier as more and more pedestrians filled the sidewalks and vehicles the roadway. This created a dangerous situation particularly for pedestrians; parking too became a problem as car owners wanted to park their cars in close proximity to their main shopping points. One of the methods used to redevelop these centres was to limit or restrict vehicle access to the main streets and cater almost exclusively for pedestrians. To make these changes effective the whole appearance of these areas had to change to make them attractive. The street had to be given a character of its own both by day and by night. Traditional roadways were blocked off and redesigned to create walking, resting and landscaped areas. An important aspect of these redevelopments was the attention given to lighting design and its related equipment. Many commercial pedestrian orientated areas, particularly pedestrian malls, are designed specifically to attract shoppers to the area which mainly cater for the smaller specialist types of shops, pavement stalls, cafes and department stores rather than super- or hypermarkets where large parking areas are required in close proximity. In some cases access for emergency or delivery vehicles is provided. In special conservation areas, buildings and monuments of historical or local importance can all be used to stimulate interest in an area which will arouse the curiosity of people and prompt them to investigate further. This section of the guide therefore covers three aspects: 1) 2) 3) the older type of town centre with main streets and shopping centres; streets with a high density of shopping and roadways limited to bus traffic and/or lower volume vehicle access; outdoor shopping malls exclusively for pedestrian use.
Design Objectives The lighting requirements of vehicle drivers will be similar to those of Publication CIE 115-1995 for each classification of road, except that in areas of high pedestrian usage it is essential that lighting standards be increased by at least one class and that the spill light onto walkways be increased proportionally. This will ensure that drivers can more readily see pedestrians on the roadway or those about to step off the walkway to cross the road. As these areas are generally pedestrian orientated their needs require specific attention. Pedestrians must be able to: a) see the footway or road surface along which they are walking. This is necessary to see steps, ramps or to avoid stumbling over obstructions or into damaged surfaces in their pathway; recognise the intentions of approaching pedestrians, be they friendly, indifferent or hostile. It is important that such intentions be determined, usually from facial expressions, not less than 4 m away to enable the viewer to take any necessary avoiding action. The quality of the lighting should also be such that later identification of people is possible if needed; see approaching vehicles and be able to judge their distance, direction of travel and approaching speed;
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identify building signs and other objects that provide for spatial orientation within the area. This is particularly important for strangers and tourists.
In addition, the lighting should provide an interesting, pleasant and vibrant night-time visual scene which will attract people to the area and encourage social contact. At night modest scale decorative floodlighting can serve a genuine traffic need. A local landmark known and of unquestioned use during the day as a means of orientation and direction to both motorists and pedestrians can be lost totally during the hours of darkness. They can be illuminated in many ways, from a major floodlighting scheme down to a single unit attached to an adjacent road lighting column or even by spill light from strategically positioned decorative street lighting units. Much that is ’negative’ within our urban environment can be lost at night, and by imaginative public lighting the finer and more worthwhile elements of an area can be highlighted. It is a growing need of public lighting to enhance all that is good within the urban environment and hence bring to as many people as possible better visual appreciation of good architecture and town planning that will in time help to enrich their lives. If the area is totally uninspiring then thought should be given to using the lighting equipment itself as an attraction and choose columns and luminaires accordingly. Installation Design For general traffic route lighting the performance of a road lighting luminaire is measured by its ability to illuminate the horizontal plane of the road surface so as to give it a high luminance by which objects on it can be viewed. Within commercial areas much more visual information is required from surfaces other than the horizontal. In particular the vertical plane is important as this covers not only pedestrians but door entrances, signs and indeed most other ’objects’ of note within an urban environment. Luminaires therefore need to be selected to give light as much on the vertical as on the horizontal planes but with care not to produce too much glare. It should be noted that glare is in itself related to ambient lighting levels and therefore in an environment of relatively bright vertical surroundings (i.e. background luminances) higher actual luminaire intensities can be permitted than is usual on more general traffic routes. However, in many civic centres and squares which are frequently open to vehicular traffic and are often used by, or are termini for public transport, it is extremely important that in these areas glare be strictly controlled. Disability glare (or sometimes even severe discomfort glare) could result in a vehicle or tram driver not seeing a child in danger in the generally crowded pedestrian population which these areas attract. Pedestrians like a degree of ’sparkle’ in their lighting equipment. Most standard road lighting luminaire optics are asymmetrical, i.e. they send light up and down the road rather than across. In commercial areas, each portion needs to be examined to determine whether it is indeed simply a ’road’ or could be better classed as an ’area’, the latter of which will require different optical characteristics, e.g. symmetrical distribution in order to spread its light more effectively. Overall efficiency should be measured in terms of the total luminaire package which will include its overall design concept of quality, maintenance and effectiveness in meeting all the lighting needs. A fair amount of flexibility in mounting heights and choice of luminaires is permitted in these areas. The actual choice will depend on the architectural environment and the areas available for mounting columns. Some ideas are suggested below: (a) Low mounting heights below 3 m Due to the decorative nature of these types of low mounted system, the values given in Table 3.2 are not relevant. Special bollards or luminaires integral with other components of street furniture at lower mounting heights (typically less than 1,5 m) may be used provided they are specially designed and use special materials, such as concrete, in their construction. Consideration should however be given to the fact that when low mounted units are used there will be very
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little illumination at face level, which could negate the requirement of recognition of people and their intentions. (b) Medium mounting heights of 3 - 5 m Frequently decorative type luminaires singly or in clusters will be used for this type of lighting. (c) Intermediate mounting height of 5 - 10 m Standard street lighting luminaires can be used with these mounting heights arranged either singly or in clusters. The standard curved type or straight column with long outreach brackets will generally be unattractive and so should be used with discretion. (d) High mounting heights above 10 m Deep bowl type luminaires or floodlights are best suited to this type of installation. Care should be taken with the former that adequate vertical illumination is provided so narrow angle units will not generally be favoured. Floodlights can be mounted on similar columns or on buildings and are ideal for creating attractive modelling effects. Glare control must be considered with floodlights, plus the possible problem of light penetration into any residential quarters which may exist in these civic centres. Frequently wall mounted or catenary suspended rows of luminaires across the mall can be considered. Advantages of these systems include the following: a) b) c) d) e) There is no ground restriction for pedestrian or vehicle traffic; They offer no restrictions for the erection of temporary or mobile displays and structures; The cost can generally be lower; They can be installed after completion of the construction of the mall or modified later; They can be used for special decorative attachments at festive periods. The disadvantages include the following: a) b) c) d) e) Fixtures of brackets, suspension cables and supply points to building faces may require the approval of the owners which might not always be readily given; Balconies and shades over doorways and windows can create unwanted dark areas; The lighting may be obscured if there is heavy planting of trees; Luminaires in close proximity to the building can create unattractive patches or streaks of light on the face of the building; Light penetration into residential units on the mall can be difficult to control.
The final choice of system and design will therefore be dictated by many extraneous conditions and the lighting designer will need to work in close collaboration with building and landscape architects. In many cases combinations of systems will be very attractive especially when special lighting of flower beds and other decorative features are included. Irregular grouping and placing of lighting units can create visual interest which could be lacking with straight rows of individual lights mounted regimentally at fixed spacings. Multi-lamp post top mounted units can be informally or symmetrically arranged on the column. Generally more than five units on a single column will not be aesthetically acceptable except in very large open areas and at higher mounting heights. An advantage of multiple light units is that lower light output luminaires can be used to give the required illuminance and thereby the problems of glare can be reduced. Of course the efficiency of a multiple light unit is lower than that of a single light unit. Where the width of the mall changes along its length consideration can be given to varying the number of lights on a column. This will add to the general interest of the environment. Generally light sources should be chosen for their efficacy, long life, colour appearance and colour rendering properties in pedestrian dominated areas. The sources should complement their luminaires, specifically their optics. In decorative units fitted with glass refractors or other lens type systems designed for use with ’point’ sources, clear glass high pressure discharge or tungsten lamps should be employed.
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For long life and high efficacy, the use of high pressure sodium light sources may be an obvious choice. However the colour rendering of the standard lamp is not perfect and is particularly poor in the green portion of the spectrum. Therefore for areas of parkland, treed areas, flower gardens, squares and village greens – light sources with better colour characteristics should be considered. The different colour appearances of light sources can be exploited by the public lighting engineer to bring ordered variety to the night time urban scene. Many architects, together with most of the general public prefer the colour of tungsten filament lighting particularly in historic preservation areas. This should be understood and appreciated and whilst not generally wanted for public lighting on grounds of short life and low efficacy, alternatives such as low wattage de-luxe high pressure sodium lamps and the compact tubular fluorescent lamps can be useful. Extremely attractive effects can be created by the use of strong and varied contrasting colours in area floodlighting. Apart from the conventional lamps special metal halide lamps exist with additional additives such as thallium or indium which give a very concentrated green or blue colour to the light source. These can be effectively used to floodlight some types of trees and large shrubs. The mixing of coloured light sources in an area can create spectacular effects. If, for example, high pressure sodium lamps are selected for general lighting, interesting contrasts can be obtained if colour-corrected mercury lamps are used in areas with trees or shrubs, incandescent lamps are used to illuminate statues and metal halide lamps to floodlight some building facia. The combinations are practically endless and the skill of the designer will be called upon to achieve the best overall decorative effect. On the other hand, the more the type of light sources vary the more complex the maintenance will be. Compromise may be necessary. In pedestrian areas with some vehicle access, especially busways, the need for compromise between the vehicle driver's and pedestrian requirements must be taken into account. An obvious conflict in such areas is the possible effect of glare to the driver from low mounted luminaires, bearing in mind the fact that in many buses the driver's eyes are at a higher level than those of the ordinary motor car driver. In shopping malls it is extremely important that the original designs for the lighting installation are carried out at an early stage in the total design of a mall. It must be designed integrally as part of the overall concept and where ground mounted units are used they should be co-ordinated with other units comprising the general street furniture to reduce visual clutter. Underground cables feeding these lights must be carefully located so that they are run free of any other structures and services such as water pipes and drains. In the event of failure of a cable it must be possible to easily locate and quickly repair the fault without excessive damage to paving or other features. Luminaires must be chosen for ease of cleaning and maintenance as access is often difficult especially in normal working hours. They must be vandal-resistant and yet be attractive. Light distribution must provide the required horizontal and vertical illuminance but may have to be restricted towards residential units. Switching can be provided to reduce the lighting levels after hours of high usage but at no time should this be below a semi-cylindical illuminance of 0,8 lux at 1,5 m above ground level measured longitudinally with the mall. Environmental Factors Within commercial areas the general appearance of lighting equipment is of major importance, not only as illuminated at night, but also in its unlit appearance during the day. Care must therefore be taken that all lighting equipment including columns and brackets should be designed as an integrated unit which will complement rather than detract from the aesthetic considerations of the area. When large ancillary control gear boxes are a necessity, careful thought needs to be given to erecting these remotely and out of sight or make them as inconspicuous as possible. All the physical, physiological and psychological criteria such as height and size of columns, colour, design and light distribution of luminaires should be in accord. The general lighting should complement the area rather than define a traffic route. The final appearance of a lighting installation can be impaired by the incorrect locating of some if not all of its parts. Wall brackets and columns need to be positioned not only in
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relation to windows but also to where in the urban scene a light would look right, show up a particular piece of architecture or define an area, e.g. at the corners of a town square or village green. Where bracket arms are used, these should be kept as short as possible. Scale is as important as choice of materials. If and when ’period’ style lanterns are used care should be taken to match historical periods. If a higher level of lighting is required than is obtainable with such lanterns a dual system should be considered. In some sections, such as conservation areas, where the lighting need can only be met by the use of modern aesthetically unacceptable units, two separate lighting systems should be considered, e.g. suitable decorative type units would be given prominence within the visual scene while the more efficient utilitarian units, possibly in the form of floodlights, are mounted inconspicuously under the eaves of adjacent buildings. Statues, fountains, trees and other objects of special interest within the area should be individually illuminated, preferably with contrasting colours of light sources to those used in the general lighting. The night-time appearance of lighting within trees can look most attractive, but care must be taken when dual purpose luminaires are used that the luminaire is first free to perform its duty to illuminate the horizontal and vertical planes within its vicinity with only its relative stray light or specially directed component bringing beauty to the trees. In some cases lower-than-normal mounting heights may be used to bring luminaires below the tree canopy. When locating equipment care must be taken to render it safe from vandalism and accidental damage without unduly increasing the difficulty of maintenance - often conflicting requirements. During hours when all shop window lights and signs are illuminated these must all be considered as a part of the luminous atmosphere. The supplementary lighting from commercial premises, if controlled, can provide an attractive and dynamic aspect to the total environment by introducing useful variations to the overall lighting levels. However, it must be remembered that during the late evening and night when shops are closed and the commercial light is reduced, the public lighting must be good enough to ensure security of shops and night pedestrians’ safety as well as permit efficient off-loading of vehicles during delivery times to shops and the safe passage of any motorised traffic. Therefore the needs of the general public lighting must be considered in combination with all the commercial lighting and separately. Where possible, facilities will often be given by developers or complex owners to attracting patronage of the area by the organisation of exhibitions, open-air fashion and stage shows, fairs and other activities. It is important that suitable supply points for portable equipment be designed into the original layout to cater for these events. Central switching of these outlets at some convenient point will provide many advantages. Sometimes stalls can be temporarily erected and the provision of suitable plug sockets in lighting columns or other parts of the street furniture will reduce the need to run unsightly and often unsafe temporary cables to supply these stalls with power. For many of these areas special lighting requirements are necessary and reference should be made to Publication CIE 94-1993 "Guide for Floodlighting ". Pedestrian areas can, in some instances, be enhanced at night by encouraging the use of illuminated direction and advertising signs. Again, depending on the character of the area, the signs could be animated or still. Uncontrolled use and brightness of these signs could, however, create problems with visual acuity and the total aesthetic environment and should therefore be controlled by the local authority. The following maximum luminance values for advertising signs are recommended [2.8].
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Table 2.1 Maximum sign luminance values Illuminated area measuring not more than 0,5 m 2 m2 10 m
Luminance 1000 cd / m
800 cd / m2 600 cd / m 400 cd / m
any greater area 2.4 Miscellaneous Areas
In all urban areas there may be the need to light miscellaneous areas such as pedestrian bridges and underpasses, cycle paths and road crossings. The latter is covered in Publication CIE 32-1977 "Lighting in Situations Requiring Special Treatment" and should be read in conjunction with these recommendations. Of particular relevance is Section 2.4.2 which describes measures to improve the conspicuity of a pedestrian crossing. 2.4.1 Pedestrian Walkways and Paths In many new urban areas, paths are specifically provided to allow pedestrian access from parking lots to shopping and recreation areas, paths which link residential complexes to areas of communal gatherings and paths through parks. Some guidance for the lighting of such paths is given below: Design Objectives The chief requirements for the lighting of these areas will be: a) b) to allow pedestrians to see obstacles on and/or irregularities in the paved surface on which he/she is walking; to enable pedestrians to recognize fellow users of the area in sufficient time to determine the intent of these persons (friendly or hostile) and to take the necessary avoiding action when required; to provide an attractive area which will draw people and allow them to enjoy facilities provided in comfort and safety. Table 2.2 Lighting requirements for pedestrian walkways and paths (maintained values) EH ave Parks in residential areas City centre Arcades and passageways 5 lux 10 lux 10 lux EH min 2 lux 5 lux 5 lux ESC min 2 lux 3 lux 10 lux
The horizontal illuminance value (EH) will apply across the pathway and, preferably 5 m on each side. The semi-cylindrical illuminance values will apply in both longitudinal directions paralel to the path. Refer to 3.2 (b) regarding recommended glare restrictions. Installation Design The major problem associated with footway lighting is the need for all lighting equipment to be manufactured of strong and durable materials to resist vandalism. For this reason no luminaires should be mounted less than 4 m above the pathway except possibly bollards manufactured from concrete or other vandal-resistant materials. Poles should be smooth finish without any protrusions which can be used for foot or hand holds. In areas not prone to vandalism additional luminaires can be installed to floodlight flower beds, emphasise rest areas and illuminate steps, notice boards, telephone kiosks, etc. These luminaires could be flexible spotlights, bollards, "mushroom" flowerbed lights, wall or parapet recessed lights or special local lighting units built into the structure.
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Environmental Factors As aesthetics will in many cases dominate the design of equipment in a walkway the luminaires and poles must be chosen to form an integral part of the other furniture in the area. As with local roads (Section 2.1.2) some provision of "sparkle" in the installation can be advantageous. This should not, however, be taken to extremes as the glare then produced will reduce visibility and negate the requirements for lighting these areas. At all times light sources with reasonable colour rendering properties should be used to encourage maximum useage of these public areas. The supplementary lighting of flowers, shrubs or trees may call for contrasting light sources such as tungsten or metal halide. 2.4.2 Pedestrian Road Crossings Design Objectives The chief requirements for these areas will be: a) b) to allow for the safe passage of pedestrians across the roadway; to allow pedestrians to see any obstacles and/or irregularities in the road surface. Table 2.3 Lighting requirements for pedestrian road crossings (maintained values) EH ave Commercial and industrial areas Residential areas 30 lux 20 lux EH min 15 lux 6 lux
The average horizontal illuminance should never be less than 1,5 times the illuminance of the roadway on each side of the crossing. Higher levels up to 50 lux may be necessary in mixed traffic situations. Installation Design Adequate lighting for safety at crosswalks requires additional equipment at that location. This may take the form of an increased number of the luminaires used in lighting the entire route in a manner such as using two at each corner of an intersection with pedestrian crosswalks or two fixtures at each mid-block crossing. Alternatively, special fixtures with narrow and/or directional beams may be suspended or mounted above the crosswalks to provide the increased illumination. Narrow directional fixtures may be of the so-called "downstream" type on one-way streets. Where such units would produce undue glare, projector type luminaires inclined at a maximum of 30° from the downward vertical can be used successfully. In some countries regulations require that mid-block pedestrian crossings are marked by means of illuminated signs or beacons at each end of the crossing and on central islands. These signs should be installed between 2 m - 3 m above the footway and allow a clearance between pole and kerb of not less than 300 mm. The luminance of these units should not be less than 300 cd/m2 which may be increased in brightly lit areas. The beacons may be required to flash on and off in which case all units at a crossing should flash simultaneously at between 40 to 60 flashes per minute. Suspended illuminated signs over the crossing may also be required. These may be part of the luminaires lighting the crossing and will need to be mounted not less than 5 m above the road surface to provide adequate clearance. Crosswalks represent areas of traffic conflict. As a result, strong contrasting colours may be used to alert both motorists and pedestrians to the possibility of danger. This can be achieved by using a different type of light source at the crossing to that used in the rest of the street. Because of the need for maximum visual acuity and the ability to recognise and judge speeds of motor vehicles which might pose a threat to the person crossing the roadway, the
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glare created by the crosswalk lighting should be minimal to both pedestrians and motorists. This may require special shielding or directional fixtures. Environmental Factors Luminaires with an angular distribution pattern may be used at crosswalks. Care should be taken that the road lighting does not create excessive light penetration into adjacent residences. Since special luminaires may be used for crosswalk lighting, every effort should be made to be sure that they and associated mounting equipment are compatible with the design of general street lighting equipment and the other associated street furniture. 2.4.3 Pedestrian Staircases and Ramps From time to time staircases, short flights of steps and ramps will be necessary in pedestrian walkways. Care must be taken to ensure that these changes in grade are visible to pedestrians. Design Objectives The chief requirement for these areas will be to allow pedestrians to see the stairs and any obstacles and/or irregularities in the stairs. Table 2.4 Lighting requirements for pedestrian staircases and ramps (maintained values) EH ave Staircases: (a) on risers (b) on treads Ramps >40 lux >40 lux EV ave <20 lux -
There should be a marked difference between the illuminance values of risers and treads to ensure adequate contrast for easy visibility. NOTE: On inclined ramps the specified values for the horizontal illuminance refer to the inclined surface. The appearance of people and the staircase is of importance and care should be taken in choosing light sources. Coloured light may be used in areas surrounding the staircases, especially if it is part of a decorative public lighting area, but the staircase and its users should be carefully lit with a source of good colour rendering index. Installation Design Units mounted in the railings or attached to the walls of the staircase may be used. Since these will be mounted below the eye of the normal viewer, they may be the preferred method of producing the required light levels without accompanying glare but could compromise visibility of people’s faces. The selection of vandal-resistant luminaires is important. Since the staircases may be in the midst of residences, luminaires should be chosen which will not direct an undue amount of light into the adjacent dwellings. Luminaires with strong downward light distribution or directional lights may be used to achieve the required lighting levels on the steps. Environmental Factors Lighting equipment should, if possible, be selected and located to meet the aesthetic requirements of the stair design. Historic or decorative fixtures should be used which will meet the quality and quantity lighting requirements but without compromise to the visual effect required by the staircase designer. 2.4.4 Cycle Paths In many countries there is a demand for the provision of lighting for the safe passage of cyclists during dark hours. Surveys conducted in the Netherlands indicated that a very large 18
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number of cyclists feel unsafe and ill-at-ease at dusk or during the night and that the lack of lighting is considered by many to be a factor which contributes towards accidents. This is particularly important where cycle tracks cross roads. A cyclist must negotiate his way in all types of weather without protection against the elements, and therefore viewing conditions can at times be extremely poor. Design Objectives The main requirements for safety on cycle paths are that the cyclist should easily be able to identify: a) b) c) d) e) f) the boundary between path and verge; sharp bends, humps and fixed obstacles; objects on the surface such as stones, branches, etc. potholes and cracks in the surface; position and speed of other users of the path; junctions with roads carrying other traffic.
The positions of cycle paths will vary considerably within a town or city. They can be located alongside major arterial routes, minor roads, canals or completely separated from any other transport route such as through parks and open or wooded fields. Each situation must be considered individually and consideration be given to the suitability of using the lighting of an adjacent route for the cycle path. Although not strictly a part of the lighting installation, it is economically prudent to ensure that cycle paths are adequately marked as this can reduce energy and installation costs of the lighting provided. Edges of the path should be marked with non-slip white paint to emphasise the boundary between the path surface and the verge. Path surfaces with a smooth texture should be avoided as, under rainy conditions, the reflection of the film of water can obscure markings and give a very irregular luminance distribution. Chevron boards at turnings and bends should also be provided and adequate vertical illuminance on these features should be provided by the general path lighting. As the main requirement of visibility will be the determination of changes to or the presence of objects on the pathway the concept of path surface horizontal illuminance are recommended as standards. As speeds of cycling will vary from 10 km/h to 20 km/h for pedal cycles and up to 40 km/h for mopeds the lighting requirements will not be as stringent as that laid down for other motorised traffic as time of perception will generally be longer. Based on this the following recommendations are made: Table 2.5 Lighting requirements for cycle paths (maintained values) EH ave Straight stretches Paths with side roads Junctions with traffic routes 3 lux 5 lux 10 lux Uniformity min/ave 0,3 0,3 0,3
NOTE: It is recommended that the criteria for junctions be applied to the cycle path for a distance of at least 100 m on either side of the junction. At all such junctions the traffic route should be illuminated to at least 50% higher standard than normal for 100 m either side of the crossing for traffic speed limits up to 50 km/h and 160 m for speed limits up to 100 km/h. Should the traffic route and cycle path be in an area where neither is lit, consideration must be given to providing lighting specifically at these junctions to the levels recommended. Transition lighting for both routes should also be provided from light to dark areas which will not decrease faster than a factor of 2 per 10 m of road until a level of 0,1 cd/m2 is reached.
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Installation Design As cycle paths generally have a width of 2 m - 4 m, high mounting heights will not be required. A height of 4 m - 5 m is therefore recommended. Often symmetrical distribution post top mounted luminaires are used. However, their efficiency in terms of road luminance to energy consumption is poor. A far greater efficiency can be obtained by using smaller size cut-off broad distribution luminaires similar to those used for motor traffic. With this system the majority of the light will fall on and be reflected by the path surface and if the geometry of the installation is well designed, the verges of the path will also receive adequate illumination. Glare will generally result from the headlights of oncoming vehicles using adjacent roadways. If there is no lighting provided on the pathway the problem will be aggravated and it may be necessary to provide anti-glare fencing or plantings between the two carriageways. The provision of lighting will ease the problem. Glare from light sources used to illuminate the cycle path can be kept under control if mounting heights of luminaires are restricted to heights above 4 m and glare shields are provided. Environmental Factors Except in parks and special areas of architectural merit the provision of lighting will have minimal effect on the environment. As mounting heights are low compared with adjacent road lighting the columns and luminaires will not intrude visually. In some cases the one column can be used to accommodate both luminaires. If cut-off distribution luminaires are used the light penetration into nearby domestic premises will not be significant. In parks it may be necessary to select lighting equipment which will match other units in the park. In these cases symmetrical distribution post-top mounted luminaires can be justified as the resultant lighting will enhance the appearance of surrounding trees, plantings and grassed areas. For most requirements the choice of the light source is not considered important. It may be preferable to use a different colour to that used on an adjacent roadway to draw the attention of motorists to the cycle path and the traffic it is carrying. In certain areas such as parks and town centres, particularly where recreational cycling is encouraged, it would be preferable to choose light sources whose colours do not distort human features or the colours of plantings in the vicinity. 2.4.5 Pedestrian and Cycle Bridges Design Objectives The chief requirements for these areas will be: a) b) c) to allow for the safe interaction of pedestrian and cyclists particularly where the bridge is shared; to allow pedestrians and/or cyclists to see any obstacles and/or irregularities in the bridge surface; to allow pedestrians and/or cyclists to recognize fellow users of the facility and to determine their friendly or hostile intentions. Table 2.6 Lighting requirements for pedestrian and cycle bridges (maintained values) L ave Shared with collector road 1 cd/m EH ave Shared with local or separate from other traffic 5 lux
U0 0,4 EH min 1 lux
ESC min 2 lux ESC min 1 lux
Where the bridge is shared with a road a minimum illuminance of 50% of that on the adjacent 5 m of roadway must be provided on the footway. Horizontal values will apply across the whole bridge at ground level.
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Semi-cylindrical values will apply in both directions parallel to the run of the road. Where bridges are lighted decoratively, care should be taken to ensure that the lighting equipment for that purpose does not interfere with the pedestrians or cyclists, either as a result of glare or excessive shadows on the pavement. Installation Design For bridges shared with motor vehicles, the design of the installation should be in accordance with the requirements of that traffic but also should meet the requirements of the pedestrian or the cyclist. Where bridges are used only as a pedestrian walkway or cycle path, greater freedom in the choice of equipment may be allowed since there will be no motorised traffic with which to be concerned. Lighting equipment may be placed as part of the bridge design so that it is advantageous from an overall aesthetic standpoint, but it must provide the lighting values required. A wide variety of decorative luminaires are available which would be compatible with the architecture and engineering of the bridges and yet be satisfactory for lighting purposes. Handrail mounted lighting may be considered if it is necessary to avoid luminaires and poles above the bridge silhouette. These must provide sufficient illuminance for the pavement, but other light in the area must provide the necessary vertical illuminance for safety and personal recognition. The appearance of people and the bridge structure is of importance and colour rendering characteristics of light sources should be considered. Coloured light sources may be used decoratively on the bridge structure but should be masked off the walkways to avoid distorting the appearance of persons using the bridge. Environmental Factors The aesthetics of the bridge design are likely to be the controlling factor in choosing lighting equipment, as noted above. Care should be taken to ensure that while the lighting equipment should not compromise the bridge design, there will be no reduction in the required quantity and quality of walkway illumination. 2.4.6 Pedestrian and Cycle Underpasses Pedestrian and cycle underpasses or tunnels are likely to be a part of any urban transportation system and adequate lighting must be provided for them due to the potential special safety and security needs. Design Objectives The chief requirements for these areas will be: a) b) c) to allow for the safe interaction of pedestrians and cyclists where the underpass is shared; to allow pedestrians and cyclists to see any obstacles and/or irregularities in the pavement; to allow pedestrians and cyclists to recognize fellow users of the facility and to determine, well in advance, their friendly or hostile intentions. Since underpasses and tunnels are enclosed spaces where flight from a hostile person may be difficult, special attention must be given to meeting security requirements.
Table 2.7 Lighting requirements for pedestrian and cycle underpasses (maintained values) Pedestrians and cycles only Day: Night: EH ave 100 lux 30 lux EH min 50 lux 15 lux ESC min 30 lux 10 lux
Where underpasses are shared with residential industrial or commercial roads the recommendations as laid down in Publication CIE 88-1990 should be used where applicable. Installation Design Short underpasses (such as those encountered where a roadway or pedestrian walkway or cycle path goes beneath a roadway or other structure) can generally be lighted satisfactorily 21
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with standard luminaires if they are positioned properly. They should be positioned so that there are not large discontinuities in the pavement lighting. Care must be taken that the uniformity does not fall below that specified. These luminaires should also provide suitable vertical illumination on the supporting structures as an aid to avoiding accidents. Long underpasses or pedestrian tunnels, where such overlapping of the lighting from the luminaires of the road lighting system cannot be accomplished, require special treatment. This must be done by means of ceiling or wall mounted equipment. Long underpasses also reduce greatly the ability of daylighting to provide the required levels of illuminance. Therefore, lighting will generally be required during the daytime. Further information on the lighting of long underpasses and tunnels may be obtained from Publication CIE 88-1990 "Guide for the Lighting of Road Tunnels and Underpasses". The appearance of persons in an underpass or tunnel is of prime importance because of the security implications. If the underpass or tunnel is part of a decoratively illuminated area, care should be taken that any strongly coloured display lighting is counterbalanced by lighting within the tunnel to provide acceptable colour rendering. The reflectance of subway walls and ceilings should not be less than 0,5 and should be maintained at this value. Environmental Factors The aesthetics of the underpass design may play a large part in determining the lighting system. If the structure of the underpass is lighted decoratively as part of a larger public lighting scheme, that lighting may serve the pedestrian and cyclist requirements if the colour is satisfactory and there is not too much glare. If the decorative scheme does not provide the necessary lighting requirements the roadway lighting scheme should not conflict and thereby destroy the designed aesthetic effects. Since the entrances to underpasses or tunnels are likely to be cuts in the earth or berms and have extensive planting, the colour of the lighting scheme should take these colour-rendering requirements into account.
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3. APPENDICES 3.1 Lighting Levels for Urban Areas There are seven classes of lighting , P1 to P7, which are enumerated in Table 3.1. P1 is used for prestige areas where a high level of lighting is required to produce an attractive ambience. The remaining six classes are graded according to use by pedestrians, and the need to preserve the character of the environment. Classes P5, P6 and P7 should be used only where crime risk is negligible. Where the crime risk is likely to be high, consideration should be given to choosing a class which is one step or in severe cases two steps higher than the class that would be chosen in the absence of crime risk (e.g. P4 or P3 instead of P5). These recommendations also apply to those roads that are used by pedal cyclists, and other nonmotorised traffic. Table 3.2 gives the associated requirements, which for classes P1 to P6 apply to the whole of the used surface, that is the footpath, if present, as well as the road surface. For class P7, it is essential that the bright parts of the luminaire are visible from the next nearest luminaire location, and preferably beyond, to provide effective visual guidance. Table 3.1 Lighting classes for different road types in urban areas DESCRIPTION OF ROAD High prestige roads Heavy night-time use by pedestrians or pedal cyclists Moderate night-time use by pedal cyclists or pedestrians Minor night-time use by pedal cyclists or pedestrians solely associated with adjacent properties Minor night-time use by pedal cyclists or pedestrians solely associated with adjacent properties Important to preserve village or architectural character of environment Very minor night-time use by pedal cyclists or pedestrians solely associated with adjacent properties Important to preserve village or architectural character of environment Roads where only visual guidance provided by the direct light from the luminaires is required Table 3.2 Lighting requirements for urban traffic HORIZONTAL ILLUMINANCE (lx) LIGHTING CLASS on whole of used surface Maintained AVERAGE P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 20 10 7,5 5 3 1,5 MINIMUM 7,5 3 1,5 1 0,6 0,2 Not applicable MINIMUM 5 2 1,5 1 0,75 0,5 SEMICYLINDRICAL ILLUMINANCE (lx) P7 P6 LIGHTING CLASS P1 P2 P3 P4
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3.2 Methods of Calculation and Measurement (a) Semicylindrical Illuminance The semicylindrical illuminance at a point should be calculated from the formula or a mathematically equivalent formula:
E sc =
I (C, γ ) ⋅ (1 + cos α sc ) ⋅ cos 2 ε ⋅ sin ε ⋅ Φ ⋅ MF π ⋅ (H − 15) ,
Esc is the maintained semicylindrical illuminance at the point in lux; l(C.,γ) is the intensity in cd/klm in the direction of the calculation point; αsc is the angle between the vertical plane containing the intensity vector and the vertical plane at right-angles to the flat surface of the semicylinder, as shown in Fig.3.1; γ is the vertical photometric angle; ε is the angle of incidence of the light to the normal to the horizontal plane, at the point; H is the mounting height in m of the luminaire; Φ is the initial luminous flux in klm of the lamp or lamps in the luminaire; MF is the product of the lamp flux maintenance factor and the luminaire maintenance factor.
Luminaire ε Vertical plane at right-angles to flat surface of semicylinder
Flat surface of semicylinder I(C,γ) Calculation point
Fig 3.1 Angles used in the calculation of semicylindrical illuminance. Semicylindrical illuminance can be directly measured by means of special cells connected to an illuminance meter. The lowest point of illuminance will probably be beneath the luminaire but there a person will be for only a very brief period of time in a mobile situation. When calculating minimum values another nearby point can be selected, e.g. 0,5 m from point below luminaire. (b) Luminaire Glare Restriction Formula In residential and pedestrian areas the sensation of discomfort glare to a pedestrian or slow moving cycle or vehicle driver is likely to be caused by the brightness of an individual
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luminaire near to the direct line of sight of the observer. This would be particularly applicable in those areas where lower mounting heights and post top mounted luminaires are used. For different mounting heights, various relationships between L and A are therefore recommended in this guide, e.g. for a mounting height of up to 4,5 m for a mounting height of 4,5 m to 6 m for a mounting height of above 6 m - L·A0,5 should not exceed 4 000 - L·A0,5 should not exceed 5 500 - L·A0,5 should not exceed 7 000.
Here L equals the luminaire’s greatest (average) luminance (in cd/m ) in the direction between 85° and 90° from the downward vertical and A the light emitting surface area of the luminaire (in m2) in the direction 90° from the downward vertical. All surfaces are included in the area provided that no parts of the light source are visible either directly or as unbroken images. In cases of very non-uniform luminances over the luminous area of a luminaire the procedure described in CIE 31 – 1976 “Glare and uniformity in road lighting installations“ should be followed i.e. those parts of the bright area absorbed at the relevant angle showing less than 1/100 of the maximum luminance under the same angle can be neglected. (c) Modelling The pleasantness and acceptance of an installation will in most cases be judged on the "naturalness" of the appearance of people (see figure 3.2). This is a measure of the modelling of their features. They should have neither excessive nor inadequate contrast both of which can distort the appearance of people and architectural features in the environment. Studies have shown that the ratio between the vertical (EV) and the semi-cylindrical (ESC) illuminances will give good guidance regarding modelling. It is recommended therefore that EV / ESC should be between 0,8 and 1,3
This aspect of lighting design can be incorporated into the overall design concept of special pedestrian areas where, for aesthetic reasons, the appearance of the users and the furniture in the area must receive special consideration. 3.3 Comparison of Light Sources As selection of appropriate light sources plays an extremely important part in the design of urban area lighting the operating characteristics of a number of types of lamps are given in table 3.3. The data given are typical for a range of sizes and types of lamps but can vary with size, manufacturer and in some cases, burning position. Sizes are limited to those most commonly used for urban area lighting.
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Fig 3.2 Illustration of the effects of light direction on visibility and modelling of people’s faces.
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3.4 Terminology As some words and expressions in the English language can be differently interpreted between countries and language groups an explanation of the usage of certain terms in this guide are given below. (i) Street, Road In many publications a street is described as a road which has become partly or wholly defined by buildings along one or both frontages. A road is defined as any public way for the purposes of vehicular traffic. Fowler states that "any prepared surface along which vehicles may pass can be referred to …. as a road" and a street is "a comparatively wide (area) between two lines of houses or shops". In this guide the following usage’s have therefore been adopted for clarity Street Road Sidewalk - the whole area between building or property lines incorporating the footway and the paved area for vehicular traffic. - the paved area for vehicular traffic only. - the boundaries of the street between the road and the property lines.
(ii) Average and Maintained Lighting Values As there is some confusion regarding usage of the above terms the following explanations of the usage in this document are given: Average is the mean value of a number of calculated or measured values received in predetermined points in an installation. The calculation and measurement as far as measuring and calculation points are concerned should be carried out in accordance with specifications given in CIE 30.2 – 1982. Maintained values are the values used in the calculation based on a) b) the lamp lumen depreciation at the planned time of replacement, plus the luminaire dirt depreciation. The lamp lumen depreciation factor can be obtained from any lamp manufacturer which will give details of the light output of the lamp from original switch-on until some point in time usually beyond any economical replacement time. This factor may, with some types of lamps, vary according to its burning position. A designer will select a specific time to replace lamps according to the mortality and lumen depreciation rate and the relevant costs of labour and material. The light output of the lamps at that time should be used in all calculations. The luminaire dirt depreciation factor will depend on the locality and atmosphere of the urban area in which the equipment is to be installed plus the frequency of cleaning which will be carried out during the life of the equipment. Individual measurements on site can give guidance to designers. Two methods of determining dirt depreciation factors (maintenance factors) are given. (a) For typical american closed type luminaires
METHOD SELECT THE APPROPRIATE CURVE IN FIGURE 3.3 IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TYPE OF AMBIENT AS DESCRIBED BY THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES: VERY CLEAN No nearby smoke or dust generating activities and a low ambient contaminant level. Light traffic. Generally limited to residential or rural areas. The ambient particulate level is no more than 150 µg m-3. CLEAN No nearby smoke or dust generating activities. Moderate to heavy traffic. The ambient particulate level is no more than 300 µg m-3. MODERATE Moderate smoke or dust generating activities nearby. The ambient particulate level is no more than 600 µg m-3. DIRTY Smoke or dust plumes generated by nearby activities may occasionally envelope the luminaires. VERY DIRTY As above but the luminaires are commonly enveloped by smoke or dust plumes. 28
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Fig. 3.3: Luminaire depreciation factors. NOTE: The above is derived from reference 2.18 in the Bibliography. (b) For IP rated luminaires as per BS 4533 Table 3.4 Luminaire dirt depreciation factors IP rating of luminaire Environment 12 Clean IP2X Average Dirty Clean IP5X Average Dirty Clean IP6X Average Dirty 0,90 0,62 0,53 0,92 0,90 0,89 0,93 0,92 0,91 Light output ratio Burning period, months 18 0,82 0,58 0,48 0,91 0,88 0,87 0,92 0,91 0,90 24 0,79 0,56 0,45 0,90 0,86 0,84 0,91 0,89 0,88 30 0,78 0,53 0,42 0,89 0,84 0,80 0,90 0,88 0,86 36 0,75 0,52 0,41 0,88 0,82 0,76 0,89 0,87 0,83
The amount of dirt accumulation depends on both the IP rating (i.e. the protection classification) of the luminaire and the environment in which the luminaire is installed. Table 3.4 gives detailes of the relative dirt depreciation factors for stated ratings and environmental aspects. The table is based on the following environmental conditions: a) b) Clean: No smoke-generating or dust-generating activities nearby. Moderate traffic. The ambient particulate level does not exceed 300 µg/m3 (rural areas); Average: Moderate smoke-generating or dust-generating activities nearby. Heavier traffic. The ambient particulate level does not exceed 600 µg/m3 (residential and light industry areas); Dirty: Smoke or dust plumes generated by activities nearby could occasionally envelop the luminaire (heavy industrial areas).
The maintained value is therefore the product of the lamp lumen depreciation factor and the luminaire dirt depreciation factor.
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4. BIBLIOGRAPHY In the compilation of these recommendations, reference has been made to many published works and data offered by members. In addition there is additional data which will add to the information given in this publication, both generally and as applied to specific installations. The interested reader should obtain copies of these publications and acquaint himself with some of the very varied applications and contributions which well designed lighting can make to the outdoor environment. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Light and Crime The Lighting Industry Federation and Association of Public Lighting Engineers Public Lighting - The Case Against Cuts. London, 1976. Correlation Between Street Lighting and Crime. Compiled by Education and Public Welfare Division, the Library of Congress, Washington DC, April 1965. Carr, S. City Signs and Lights. A policy study prepared for the Boston Redevelopment Authority and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, June 1973. Collins, Supt PA. Police and Lighting and its Impact on Crime Prevention. APLE Conference Eastbourne, UK, October 1967. Marinier, J-C. L’Eclairage Public Reduit le Nombre des Agressions. LUX 123 - Juin 1983. Page R A, Moss M K. Environmental Influences on Aggression: The Effects of Darkness and Proximity of Victim. Journal of Applied Psychology 6 1976. Ridd N B E. Lighting as an Aid to Policing. IPLE Lighting Journal March 1984. Tien J M. Lighting’s Impact in Crime. Lighting Design and Application December 1979. Tien, O’Donnel, Barnett & Mirchandani. Street Lighting Projects. Washington DC National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Series A Number 21 January 1979. Wright, Thomas, Pelletier and Dickinson. Study to Determine the Impact of Street Lighting on Street Crime. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, Phase 1, Final Report. Flemming R. Lighting Design A Major Factor on Crime and Fear. Lighting Journal March 1989. Painter K. Lighting and Crime Prevention. The Edmonton Project. Middlesex Polytechnic 1988. Painter K. Lighting and Crime Prevention for Community Safety: The Tower Hamlets Study. First Report, Middlesex Polytechnic 1989. Lloyd R. and Wilson D. Inner City Street Lighting and its Effect upon Crime. Paper presented at ILE Conference, Bournemouth, 1989. The Institution of Lighting Engineers. Lighting and crime, UK, 1994. Switch on (Urbis Lighting), Increased Night-time Visibility Deters Crime. February/Mach issue 1996. Painter K. Value for Money: Street Lighting and Crime Reduction ILE Lighting Journal 63/6 p. 24. 1998. Urban Area Lighting Australian Standard 1158 SAA Public Lighting Code Part 2 - Lighting of Minor Streets, 1971. BSS 5489 Code of Practice for Road Lighting Part 3, Lighting of Subsidiary Roads, (Group B), 1977. Design Council. Street Scene, Great Britain, 1976. Circular on Road Lighting issued by the Ministry of Public Works, Denmark 26 September 1979 The Illuminating Engineering Society. IES Lighting Guide: The Outdoor Environment, 1975. South African Bureau of Standards Code 098 Part 2: The Lighting of Certain Specific Areas of Streets and Highways. BS 5489, new draft. Code of Practice for Lighting of Traffic Routes: Part 2
1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17
2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7
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2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44
Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) Regulations. No 670. England and Wales 1989. Boyce P R. Human Factors in Lighting. New York, Macmillan 1981. Caminada, J F. and van Bommel, W J M. New Lighting Considerations for Residential Areas. ILR 1980/3. Clark. Night Lights. Building Services November 1980. De Jaeger W G. Residential Yards. IV. World Transportation Engineering Conference, Mexico, 1977. Edison Electric Institute. EEI Street Lighting Manual, 3rd Edition, Washington DC, 1985. Feder A. Main Street Mall Columbia, USA. ILR 1980/3. Fischer D. Pedestrian Areas. ILR 1978/1. Fischer D. Beleuchtungsstärken, Leuchtdichten und Farben in Arbeitsräumen. Lichttechnik 24 p. 411-415 1972. Haeger F, Stockmar A. Ein Berechnungsverfahren zur Ermittlung der halbzylindrischen Beleuchtungsstärke. Lichtforschung 4 1982. Hendriks J H. Openbare verlichting in de bebouwde kom. (Urban public lighting) Electrotechniek 56 p. 917-920 1978. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. IESNA Lighting Handbook, 1984 Reference Volume, New York, 1984. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. IESNA Lighting Handbook, 1981 Application Volume, New York. 1981. IESNA Roadway Lighting Committee. American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting- J. Illuminating Engineering Society, April 1983, p.146. IESNA Roadway Lighting Committee. Practice for Lighting Parking Structures. 1984. Janoff M S, Freedman M, Koth B. Fixed Illumination for Pedestrian Protection. Washington DC, Federal Highway Administration, 1975. Krochmann J, Ye G. Über die Messung der zylindrischen Beleuchtungsstärke. Lichtforschung 2 1980. Lauger E. Cycle Paths in Odense, Denmark. ILR 1980/3. Monzer L. Pardubice's Historical Centre. ILR 1980/3. NNI. Veiligheidsvoorschriften voor laagspanningsinstallaties (Safety requirements in low voltage installations). NEN 1010, Rijswijk, NNI 1971. NSVV. Het lichtniveau van de openbare verlichting in de bebouwde kom (The lighting levels for public lighting in built-up areas). Electrotechniek 55 p. 90-91 1977. Padmos P. Public Lighting for Cycle Paths. Roth G. Pedestrian Areas in Stuttgart. ILR 1980/3. Schreuder A. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas: requirements for lighting of residential yards. IV. World Transportation Engineering Conference, Mexico 1977. Schreuder D A. Die Beleuchtung in der Straße als Wohnviertel. Amsterdam NSVV 1978. Schreuder D A. Public and Vehicle Lighting in residential Areas. Harrogate CIBS 1979. Schreuder D A. The Integrated Residential Area or Woonerf. ILR 1980/3. Schreuder D A, Tan T H. Public preference for woonerf lighting. Schelzke E, Schmidt K. Straßenbeleuchtung. Licht 1983/5. Steck B. Residential Areas and Pedestrian Zones. ILR 1980/3. Steck B. Beleuchtung von Wohngebieten. Licht 1982/3. Tan T H. Openbare verlichting buiten de bebouwde kom (Rural public lighting). Electrotechniek 56 p. 921-926 1978. Van Bommel W J M, Caminada J F. Considerations for the Lighting of Residential Areas for Non-Motorised Traffic. CIBS National Lighting Conference Warwick 1982. Tan T H. Appraisals of the lighting of residential streets. Report to the NSVV (unpublished). Van Bommel W J M. Beleuchtung von Wohngebieten. Licht 1982/85 Van Bommel W J M. Trends in Lighting Criteria for External Lighting. CIBS Lighting Conference Warwick 1982. Van Bommel W J M, Van Dyk J P M. Security Lighting for Domestic Exteriors. IES Conference St Louis 1984.
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2.45 2.46 2.47
2.48 2.49 2.50 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54
Wyszecki G and Stiles W S. Colour Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (2nd ed.). Wiley Interscience New York, 1982. Yates R S. Street Lighting - Let’s be Practical. Paper presented at AMEU Conference Durban 1981. Guide pour la conception de l'éclairage public en milieu urbain. Centre d'études des transports urbains. Ministère de l'Urbanisme et du Logement et Ministère des Transports, France 1981. Forschungsgesellschaft für das Straßenwesen. Richtlinie für Beleuchtung in Anlagen für Fußgängerverkehr. Cologne 1977. South African National Committee on Illumination. Guide for Exterior Security Lighting. 1985. Institution of Public Lighting Engineers Technical Report No 12, Lighting of Pedestrian Crossings. Institution of Public Lighting Engineers. Technical Report No 13 Guide for Lighting of Pedestrian Subways. Yates R S. Urban Lighting - for the Man in the Street. SANCI Congress 1986. 14. Rombauts P. Some Lighting Design Considerations of Residential Areas with regard to the Semicylindrical Illuminance. Vreije Universiteit, Brussels, 1987. Simons R H, Hargroves R A, Pollard N E, Simpson M D. Lighting Criteria for Residential Roads and Areas. Proc. CIE XXI. Session Venice 1987.
NOTE Many countries with Lighting Societies or Institutions have published recommendations on various aspects in this publication and it is recommended that these works also be consulted. 3. CIE Publications cited in this publication:
CIE 30.2-1982 Calculation and Measurement of Luminance and Illuminance in Road Lighting, 2nd ed. CIE 31-1976 Glare and Uniformity in Road Lighting Installations. CIE 32-1977 Lighting in Situations Requiring Special Treatment (in Road Lighting). CIE 88-1990 Guide for the Lighting of Road Tunnels and Underpasses. CIE 93-1992 Road Lighting as an Accident Countermeasure. CIE 94-1993 Guide for Floodlighting. CIE 115-1995 Recommendations for the Lighting of Roads for Motorised and Pedestrian Traffic.