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Introduction

A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a building where plants are grown. A greenhouse is a structure with a glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because incoming visible solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by plants, soil, and other things inside the building. Glass is transparent to this radiation. The warmed structures and plants inside the greenhouse re-radiate this energy in the infra-red, to which glass is partly opaque, and that energy is trapped inside the glasshouse. Although there is some heat loss due to conduction, there is a net increase in energy (and therefore temperature) inside the greenhouse. Air warmed by the heat from hot interior surfaces is retained in the building by the roof and wall. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings.

PIC: Greenhouse

the planet's actual blackbody temperature is about -18 or -19 °C about 33°C below the actual surface temperature of about 14 °C or 15 °C The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual temperature . heating. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame Greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a process by which radiative energy leaving a planetary surface is absorbed by some atmospheric gases. The glass greenhouses are filled with equipment like screening installations. which heats both the plants and the ground inside it. This principle is the basis of the auto vent automatic cooling system. and this air is prevented from rising and flowing away.Greenhouses can be divided into glass greenhouses and plastic greenhouses. since the Earth reflects about 30% (or 28%) of the incoming sunlight. it would have an expected blackbody temperature of 5. and first reported quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896. If an ideal thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth. so the temperature there is higher than it would be if direct heating by solar radiation were the only warming mechanism. cooling. first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858. Commercial glass greenhouses are often high tech production facilities for vegetables or flowers. including back down towards the surface. The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824. The glass used for a greenhouse works as a barrier to air flow and its effect is to trap energy within the greenhouse. This can be demonstrated by opening a small window near the roof of a greenhouse: the temperature drops considerably.3 °C. This mechanism is fundamentally different from that of an actual greenhouse. which works by isolating warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. and it is re-radiated in all directions. Plastics mostly used are PEfilm and multiwall sheet in PC or PMMA. and lighting and may be automatically controlled by a computer. called greenhouse gases. They transfer this energy to other components of the atmosphere. However. This transfers energy to the surface and lower atmosphere. This warms the air near the ground.

[9] is believed to be the result of a strengthening of the greenhouse effect mostly due to human-produced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases PIC: Greenhouse effect . Global warming.and the blackbody temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect. a recent warming of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere.

transportation and the gases produced has become a large contributor to global warming. improving education and incomes. The main positive impact that globalization has on the environment are that there is improvements in the use of resources and awareness and that due to globalization research is being conducted that creates greener technology. Due to globalization. According to the Office of National Statistics ‘Greenhouse gas emissions from transport have risen by 47% since 1990’. Globalization has also had a negative impact on the environment through global warming which is due to greenhouse gas emissions which are caused by a growth of industrialization in the developing world and by a heavy reliance on fossil fuels. Globalization has assisted in improving the use of resources and saving the environment by promoting growth through development. The World Bank is an example of this as it has successfully helped Mexico City in the 1990s to reduce the number of unhealthy ozone days. The Department of Climate Change in 2008 discovered that Australian greenhouse gas emissions from cars account for 54% of Australia’s total transport emissions. . which in turn causes about 5% of the globe’s sulfur oxides and 14% of the world’s nitrogen oxide emissions. Carbon release into the atmosphere which has caused global warming has resulted in increases of sea levels as ice sheets and glaciers melt which has an extensive impact on biodiversity and weather systems. The negative impacts are mainly export-orientated destruction on the environment whilst the positive impacts are increase awareness and multinational corporations’ research into eco-friendly technology.6°C since the late 19th century due to humanity’s emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Average global temperatures have risen approximately 0. Due to globalization multinational corporations have been conducting research and creating technology to reduce the impact of humans on the environment often referred to as green technology. About 95% of the world’s traded goods are moved by maritime transport.Globalization Globalization has had a positive impact on the environment to some extent but there are still some crucial negative impacts of globalization in play.

Globalization has also had a negative impact on the environment through global warming and climate change. at.The main negative impact of globalization on the environment is the impact of export-orientated destruction. 11 million acres a year are cut for commercial and property industries. Over-fishing has also occurred around the globe with 9 of the world’s 17 major fishing grounds in decline and 4 of them have been fished out commercially. . destroying Australia’s natural heritage. Over-fishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level and this leads to resource depletion. The overuse of natural resources due to increased demand and also the removal of ecosystems due to population growth have had a large negative impact on the environment. Deforestation is expanding and accelerating into the remaining areas of undisturbed forest. In Indonesia. at enormous profit. another 16 million hectares disappear. with a total 70% of species now being fished close to. or beyond their capacity. About one half of the forests that covered the Earth are gone. A study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN in 2005 found that global stocks of most fish are stretched to their limits. Nearly a quarter of commercial species have already been over-exploited. Deforestation whether it is for an increase in demand or for expansion is causing a loss of biological diversity on the planet. These forests are being rapidly logged. Extensive deforestation has occurred world-wide with the logging industry being fuelled by the need for disposable products. Each year. powerful families allied with the government rulers control large and highly valuable timber concessions. In Australia 90% of native forest wood are exported.

and lifestyle to slow it down. our sea levels are rising. We must alter the way we live or we will suffer staggering consequences. they are all happening right now. Climate Change. much faster than normal.Global warming The overwhelming majority of scientists agree that our globe is undergoing major climate change. Burning fossil fuels pours out greenhouse gases at a life-threatening rate and causing global warming. economics. typhoons and cyclones increasing in ferocity and frequency. Global Warming. We can see from satellite images and research that the ice caps are melting faster. The earth has gone through many natural climatic cycles during its long history. We are experiencing more water shortages and we will see hurricanes. . Greenhouse Effect. The rate of climate change is now so fast we are struggling to adapt our philosophies. and weather patterns are changing. The deserts will expand and the world will ultimately have difficulty growing enough food. The scary part is we are causing changes to happen at an unbelievable rate. They also agree that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising significantly.

if it were to melt entirely there would be no change in sea levels. which keeps the atmosphere warm. However. The edges of the Antarctic Ice Sheet are breaking off and collapsing into the sea. Sea levels are rising 30 times faster now than they were before industrialization and the onset of global warming. The warm atmosphere is very essential for the survival of life on Earth in the following ways: • Precipitation of water. This huge Parts of Antarctica are now covered in grass and there is a massive migration of animals towards the Polar Regions. these migrations extend an average of 6. A hundred years ago they were rising by 1mm a year.Advantage and disadvantage Advantage. These are sources of food. One of the biggest breaks occurred in 2002 when the Larsen B Ice Shelf broke off. The Arctic ice cap is floating. • • Disadvantage: Since the onset of global warming the seas have risen much faster. today they are rising by 3mm a year and indications are that they will rise much quicker in the future. shelter etc. formation of clouds.1km further from the equator each decade. and rainfall etc. Butterflies have extended their territory by some 200km further north in Europe and North America. a land mass. . This effect helps in rapid bio-degradation of dead plants and animals. it isn’t floating and any melting here adds to the sea level as does melting of ice sheets and glaciers in places such as Greenland. life in the biosphere depend on these resources. Antarctica is a continent. The warm atmosphere helps in the growth of vegetation and forest etc. The presence of carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere produces the greenhouse effect.

increased acidity of oceans. thawing of permafrost. Polar bears are starving because they need to venture onto the frozen ice to hunt food. loss of wetland and marshland habitats. threat to mountain environments. The waters of the Hudson Bay for example. The most extensive report into global warming and climate change predicts that up to 40% of animal species could become extinct due to global warming. release of further greenhouse gases.arctic warming. more wildfires. coastal erosion. increased allergens (asthma etc). . loss of ocean conveyor belts etc. insect infestation. decline in bird population. threat to boreal forests. disappearing beaches. damage to tundra regions. erosion. changes to bird migration patterns.In the Arctic the habitat of polar bears and emperor penguins is being threatened. desertification. marine food chain disruption. Mass of ice covered 3250 square kilometers’ and weighed half a trillion tons And others warming are. increased power outages. coral destruction and bleaching. In another 10 or 20 years there may no longer be polar bears in this region and within a hundred years they could be extinct. are now ice free for three weeks more each year than they were 30 years ago. impact on ozone layer.

. Local climate conditions are likely to change depending on the modifications of local rainfall patterns. Increased rainfall may cause more frequent flooding. nitric acid or hydrochloric acid produced from the Nox and Sox substances that is. the number of very hot days is expected to rise in many areas around the globe. Changing patterns of precipitation and temperature may produce new breeding sites for pests.Change in climate Global warming has already occurred and will continue to do so. will all affect human health. Soil moisture is likely to drop affecting crops and the need for irrigation. SO2. thereby causing famines. shifting the range of infectious diseases. High temperatures will reduce work efficiency of human beings. . as well as man. Climate change would likely add stress to major river basins worldwide. industrial use. Heat stress occurs in such conditions and the young. The quality and quantity of drinking water. Tropical rains and hurricanes will be more frequent and stronger. water availability for irrigation. old and poor people are more susceptible to it. Evaporation will increase as climate warms and there will be an increase in average global precipitation. Human beings Along with warmer temperatures and higher humidity. The acid rains are a major environmental problem in different countries throughout the world with massive effects on flora. electricity generation and the health of fish may be significantly affected by changes in precipitation and increased evaporation. Further air pollution. The high temperature may reduce crop production. frost and rain water and precipitates . fauna. changes in food and water supplies resulting from global warming.NO2 etc that are liberated into the atmosphere as components of air polluting agents from various sources mix up with the dew. Acid rains are defined as a phenomenon when chemicals like sulphuric acid. Intense rainfall (extremes) is also predicted.

power plants. fertilizers. Due to deforestation the 40 percent of forests have been lost in the tropics and it is compared to only to 1 percent forests in the temperature region due to environmental human impact.Responsible Pollution is one of the major consequences that have been produced as an impact of man on environment. The use of automobiles. industries. deforestation. pesticides and biocides has been the agent that has produced greatest effect on the environment. global warming and ozone layer depletion. The environmental human impact includes the acid rain. .