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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Artif Life Robotics (2006) 10:141148 ISAROB 2006


DOI 10.1007/s10015-005-0370-8
Samy F.M. Assal
1
Keigo Watanabe Kiyotaka Izumi
Intelligent control for avoiding the joint limits of redundant
planar manipulators
Received: May 25, 2005 / Accepted: November 30, 2005
S.F.M. Assal K. Watanabe (*) K. Izumi
Department of Advanced Systems Control Engineering, Graduate
School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjomachi,
Saga 840-8502, Japan
Tel. +81-952-28-8602; Fax +81-952-28-8587
e-mail: watanabe@me.saga-u.ac.jp
Permanent address:
1
Department of Production and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engi-
neering, Tanta University, Egypt.
Abstract This article presents an intelligent control system
for a redundant manipulator to avoid physical limits such as
joint angle limits and joint velocity limits. In this method, a
back-propagation neural network (NN) is introduced for
the kinematic inversion of the manipulator. Since this
inverse kinematics has an innite number of joint angle
vectors, a fuzzy-neuro system is constructed to provide an
approximate value for that vector. This vector is fed into the
NN as a hint input vector in order to guide the output of the
NN within the self-motion. Simulations and a comparative
study are made based on a four-link redundant manipulator
to prove the efcacy of the proposed control system.
Key words Fuzzy-neuro system Inverse kinematics Joint
limits Neural networks Redundant manipulators
1 Introduction
Redundant manipulators are dexterous and versatile yet
complex. They possess extra degrees of freedom, resulting
in multiple solutions of the joint angles for a given end-
effector task. The choice of the optimal solution among all
possible solutions to achieve a second subtask is the main
concern in studying such manipulators. Singularity and ob-
stacles avoidance, keeping the joints within their limits, and
torque optimization are some utilizations of redundancy as
a second subtask, while the end-effector motion is the rst.
Since physical limits intrinsically exist in manipulators,
avoiding those limits while performing a given task becomes
one of the most important problems to be solved by redun-
dancy; otherwise signicant tracking errors will occur.
The utilization of redundancy for avoiding the joint lim-
its by using the pseudoinverse technique has been widely
used. The general solution by this technique is obtained as
a minimum norm solution together with a homogeneous
solution, which is referred to as self-motion. The gradient
projection method (GPM)
1
was used to avoid the joint lim-
its, where the gradient of a performance criterion was
projected on to the null space to obtain self-motion. An
efcient gradient projection optimization scheme which
does not require the computation of the generalized inverse
of the Jacobian was presented for manipulators with mul-
tiple degrees of redundancy,
2
and a weighted least-norm
solution to avoid the joint limits was proposed.
3
The scheme
automatically chooses the appropriate magnitude of self-
motion throughout the workspace, and also minimizes un-
necessary self-motion. Also, the constrained kinematic
redundancy problem was formulated into a quadratic pro-
gramming (QP) form. Compact QP and compact-inverse
QP methods were applied to resolve the kinematic redun-
dancy with joint rate bounds, joint angle limits, and joint
torque constraints.
4
An improvement of this method was
developed to enhance the computational efciency.
5
The fuzzy logic (FL) approach has been developed for
this problem at the kinematic as well as the dynamic level.
An FL method for avoiding the joint limits and obstacles
was developed.
6
It was based on the choice of the appropri-
ate joint angles using linguistic rules. At the dynamic level,
an FL-based method for minimizing the manipulator power
was proposed.
7
Neural networks (NN) have received great
attention in the robotics eld. A memory NN was used to
solve the optimization problem concerning the inverse of
the direct geometric model of a redundant manipulator
subject to some constraints.
8
A back-propagation NN was
presented for the inverse kinematics to solve the joint limits
problem by guiding the output of this NN using a fuzzy NN
system.
9
A dual NN was proposed
10
for online redundancy
resolution of the manipulator in which the joint limits and
the joint velocity limits, as well as the drift-free criterion,
were incorporated into the method.
142
Since the classical method (i.e., GPM) for avoiding the
joint limits does not guarantee a minimization of a certain
performance criterion for each individual joint, particularly
when the number of degrees of redundancy becomes less
than the number of critical axes for a given task, a novel
intelligent control system is proposed here for a redundant
manipulator to avoid the joint limits. It relies on exploiting
the NN as an advanced nonlinear controller to solve the
kinematic inversion of that manipulator by relating the dif-
ferential change of the end-effector position and orienta-
tion vector and that of the joint angle vector. It then
presents a new concept for guiding the output of this NN
within self-motion by feeding an additional hint input vec-
tor, which is an approximate value vector for the required
joint angle vector for the next step, to the NN. This feeding
process has a convergence property for the NN learning,
since the NN converges rapidly to the required joint angle
vector that is close to the hint vector. In addition, it solves
the redundancy resolution problem since the hint values are
the values that can achieve the joint limits avoidance. To
solve an inverse kinematic problem by using an NN, the
concept of guiding the output of the NN is presented in
Sect. 2 by using a hint generator provided by a fuzzy-neuro
system. The construction of each module of the proposed
system, with an illustration of the cooperation concept be-
tween the joints, is elaborated in Sect. 3. In Sect. 4, simula-
tions are conducted on a four-link redundant manipulator
to obtain the joint angle proles and the successive congu-
rations of the manipulator, and a comparative study is also
presented. The conclusion is given in Sect. 5.
2 System outlines
2.1 Hint generator
Trajectory tracking while avoiding the joint angle limits of
an n-serial link redundant manipulator (as the one shown in
Fig. 1) is investigated in this paper. Figure 1 represents two
possible congurations for the manipulator of the innite
number of possible congurations to reach the same end-
effector position. A coordinate frame (X
k
, Y
k
) for k 0,
1, . . . , n 1 is assigned to the joint of each link of the n-
serial link redundant manipulator according to Denavit
Hatenberg notation. The joint variable q
k
, which is rotating
about the Z
k1
-axis, is the angle between the X
k1
-axis and
the X
k
-axis. Figure 2 shows an outline of the proposed intel-
ligent control system for the manipulator. The NN pre-
sented here works in inverse kinematics to map the
differential change of the end-effector Cartesian vector
p p
d
p
m
and that of the joint angle vector q
n
,
where p
d
is the desired end-effector position and orientation
vector, while p is the actual one.
The fuzzy-neuro system works as a hint generator. A hint
is an approximate solution of the inverse kinematic prob-
lem. Specically, this system generates an approximate vec-
tor q
h
[q
h1
. . . q
hk
. . . q
hn
]
T
of the joint angle vector q
[q
1
. . . q
k
. . . q
n
]
T
of the manipulator for the next step. All
elements of q
h
are within the values required for the avoid-
ance of joint angle limits. They are fed into the NN, which
works on the inverse kinematic problem as a second input
vector rather than as a training example. Since the inverse
kinematics of redundant manipulators has an innite num-
ber of solutions, the hints generated from the fuzzy-neuro
system are fed into the NN to limit the search space, and to
accelerate and improve the quality of the solution. Namely,
the inverse kinematics solution by the NN converges rapidly
to the required joint angle vector q that is very close to q
h
among all possible vectors to achieve the desired end-
effector position at each time-step along the given trajec-
tory. Since there is no reference output of the NN, the
output q is mapped to make a measurable error space, and
then the error e is back-propagated through the transpose
of the Jacobian J to update the NN weights, as proven in
subsection 3.2.
Two input vectors are presented to the fuzzy-neuro sys-
tem to generate the hint vector, namely s
r
[s
r1
. . . s
rk
. . . s
rn
]

n
and v
r
[v
r1
. . . v
rk
. . . v
rn
]
n
, where s
rk
is the relative
0
Y
1
q
0
X
2
X
1
Y
1
X
2
q
3
q
3
X
3
Y
4
q
2
Y
End point
Manipulator
configuration 1
Start point
Trajectory
[ ]
T
d d d
y x p
Manipulator
configuration 2
Fig. 1. Two possible congurations of a 4-link serial redundant ma-
nipulator reaching the same end-effector position
Manipulator
(FK)
p
+
e
d
p
r
v
p
~

Neural
Network
Fuzzy-neuro
system
h
q
+
1
z

) (t q
1
H

r
s
2
H
+

1
z

) 1 (t q
) 1 ( + t q q
p

) (J
Jacobian
T
J
Fig. 2. The intelligent control system
143
position of joint k to its limits, and v
rk
is the absolute relative
velocity of joint k to its maximum velocity limit. s
rk
and v
rk
are used as crisp inputs to the k-th model of the fuzzy-neuro
system to generate the hint value q
hk
. s
rk
can be calculated
from the current value of the joint angle, q
k
(t), of the ma-
nipulator. The universe of discourse of s
rk
is divided into
three partitions, which are far (F), close (C), and very close
(VC). So by using this input, we can determine whether
each joint is far from, close to, or very close to its limits.
Since almost all robotic manipulators have velocity limits in
addition to the joint limits, the relative velocity of each joint
to its maximum limit must be taken into consideration. v
rk
can be calculated from the current and previous values of
each joint angle of the manipulator, q
k
(t) and q
k
(t 1). The
universe of discourse of v
rk
is divided into three partitions,
which are low (L), medium (M), and high (H). So by using
the second input, we can determine whether each joint is
moving with low, medium, or high velocity compared to its
maximum velocity limit. Whether the joint is moving to-
wards or away from its limits is another important factor.
All those requirements can be modeled as described below.
The relative position of joint k, s
rk
, is given as
s
q t q
q q
q t q
q q
q t q
rk
k km
k km
k km
k km
k km

( )

( )

( )
max
max
if
otherwise
(1)
in which
q
q q
km
k k

+
max min
2
, where q
k max
is the maximum
angle limit of joint k, and q
k min
is the minimum one.
The velocity of joint k, v
k
, is given as
v
q t q t
t
q t q t
t
q t q
k
k k
k k
k km

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )
1
1

if
otherwise
(2)
where t denotes the sampling width. Note that the joint k
moves towards the limits if v
k
0; otherwise it moves away
from the limits.
The absolute relative velocity, v
rk
, is given as
v
v
v
rk
k
k

max
(3)
where v
k max
is the maximum velocity limit of joint k.
The general concept of constructing the fuzzy rules for
each joint angle is to generate an approximate value for
each joint angle from the current and previous ones for the
next step according to the situation of s
rk
, v
k
, and v
rk
as
follows:
q t q t c q t q t
hk k k k
+ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 (4)
where c is a constant. This can take any real number, for
example, c 0 to stop the motion of the axis, 0 < c < 1 for
motion with deceleration, c 1 for motion with constant
velocity, and c > 1 for motion with acceleration. Rearrang-
ing Eq. 4, we obtain
q t q t c q t q t
hk k k k
+ ( ) ( ) + ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 (5)
The rst term of Eq. 5 represents the part related to the rst
input s
rk
to the fuzzy-neuro system, while the second term
represents the part related to the second input v
rk
.
Note that H
1
, shown in Fig. 2, denotes the relation
between s
r
and q(t), where s
rk
and q
k
(t) are related according
to Eq. 1, while H
2
denotes the relation between v
r
and (q(t)
q(t 1)), where v
rk
and (q
k
(t) q
k
(t 1)) are related
according to Eqs. 2 and 3.
2.2 Illustrative example
As a nonunique problem that has many solutions for one
input, this example is introduced to illustrate the concept of
guiding the output of an NN by feeding the hint values for
the solution to the NN as an additional input vector rather
than the training data.
Consider the equation
z x y +
2 2
(6)
The inverse problem of this equation has many solutions,
i.e., many pairs (x, y) for a certain value of z. Therefore, in
constructing an NN to generate this solution, two input
vectors will be presented. The rst vector is i
1
[z]
T
while
the second is i
2
[x y]
T
, which are considered to be the hints
in the training mode.
A three-layered resilient back-propagation NN
11
with 45
neurons in each hidden layer was constructed as shown in
Fig. 3, where the input vector is i [i
T
1
i
T
2
]
T
[z x
h
y
h
]
T
and the
output vector is o [x y]
T
in the testing mode. Two cases,
where each has the same value for z in its input vector but
different values for both x
h
and y
h
, were obtained as follows:
Case 1.
i o
[ ]

[ ]
31 25 5 2 5 2031 2 0727 . . .
T T
Case 2.
i o
[ ]

[ ]
31 25 5 2 5 1696 2 1231 . . .
T T
Concisely, for the same input and different hints, the NN
responds with appropriate outputs in the sequel.
Neural
Network
Neural
Network
x
y
z x
y
Neural
Network
Neural
Network x
h
y
h
z x
y
a b
Fig. 3. The inputoutput relations of the NN modes. a Training mode.
b Testing mode
144
3 Control system modules
3.1 Fuzzy-neuro system
The integration of neural networks and fuzzy logic results in
a combined approach which provides a powerful approxi-
mate reasoning framework. It has both learning and gener-
alization abilities. Therefore the fuzzy-neuro system is a
candidate as a hint generator in the proposed system. A
rst-order Sugeno fuzzy model is used to construct the k-th
model of this system, as shown in Fig. 4, where k 1, . . . , n.
Here, and denote the sum and the multiplications of the
inputs, respectively. The construction is described below.
Input layer. Two input variables are presented to the
model, namely s
rk
and v
rk
.
Fuzzication layer. The outputs of this layer are the mem-
bership values of the antecedent part. Three Gaussian
membership functions are assigned for each input in their
universe of discourse (s
rk
[0, 1], v
rk
[0, 1]) as follows:

1
1
2
1
2
2
i rk
rk i
i
s
s r
( )
( )
|
.

`
}

exp
(7)

2
2
2
2
2
2
j rk
rk j
j
v
v r
( )

( )
|
.

`
}

exp
(8)
where r
1i
and
1i
are the center and width parameters, re-
spectively, of the membership function of s
rk
, i 1, . . . , 3,
while r
2j
and
2j
, respectively, are those of v
rk
, j 1, . . . , 3.
Rule layer. Nine rules are constructed for this model. In
this layer, the T-norm of the antecedent part is computed.
The algebraic product is considered for that norm; there-
fore the output of this layer is the ring strength of every
rule as

lk i rk j rk
s v ( ) ( )
1 2
(9)
where [(i 1) 3 + j]. There are two outputs from each
neuron in this layer. The rst is multiplied by a crisp func-
tion in the consequent part, F
k
, and then summed in the
next layer, while the other is just summed and then inverted
in the next layer.
We now discuss the aspects of constructing the conse-
quent part. If joint k is going toward the limits (v
k
0) then
we have to penalize it, but if it is going away from its limits
(v
k
< 0) then there is no need to penalize it. Moreover, if
there is a critical axis, the situation will be different. Note
that the critical axis is the axis which is forced to work very
close to its limit but still move toward it to achieve a given
task. In this case, the cooperation concept between links
must be incorporated. That is, stop the motion on the criti-
cal axis at its limits at the expense of more compensation
from the most relaxed axis, where the most relaxed axis is
the axis that is far from its limits and still moving away
from it. To distinguish between the situations of the axes, all
the axes are ranked at each time-step according to their
situations of s
rk
, v
k
, and v
rk
within 24 nonintersected
categories, and then sorted from the most critical axis to the
most relaxed one. Thus, we can summarize the rules as
follows:
if v
k
0
F
l l l l k rk rk
a s b v c + +
elseif v
k
< 0
if joint k is the relaxed axis and a critical axis exists
F
l l l l l k rk rk
a s f b v c + +

else
F
l l l l k rk rk
a s b v c + +

end
end
where a

, b

, and c

are called the penality parameters, while

, b

, and c

are called the reward parameters, and f

is the
cooperation parameter. Note that the cooperation param-
eter is multiplied to the second term of the right-hand side
of the equation that is dedicated to the most relaxed axis,
because this term represents the previous rate of change of
the joint angle. This is used if and only if there is a critical
axis to prevent unnecessary self-motion.
Defuzzication layer. The defuzzication layer consists of
two neurons; the rst neuron, which is denoted by , sums
all incoming signals from the rule layer multiplied by the
crisp functions, F
k
, as follows:
O
k k k
j i
l l l



F
1
3
1
3
(10)

11

13

12

23

22

21

rk
s
rk
v
hk
q
Output
layer

Input
layer
Fuzzification
layer
Rule
layer
Defuzzification
layer
Fig. 4. The k-th model of the fuzzy-neuro system
145
The second neuron, which is denoted by 1/, inverts the
summing of all incoming signals from the rule layer as
follows:
O
k
k
j i
l
l



1
1
3
1
3

(11)
Output layer. The output layer multiplies the two signal
outputs of the defuzzication layer as follows:
q
hk
k k
j i
k
j i

l l
l
F
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
(12)
Thus, the output vector of the whole system is q
h
[q
h1
q
h2
. . . q
hn
]
T
. Let the reference output of the training data be
q*
h
; so the error vector at iteration l is e
1
q*
h
q
h
, and the
least-squares cost of the output error is E
1

1
2
Tr {e
1
e
T
1
},
where Tr{} is the trace operator. The learning algorithm for
updating the consequent parameters by using the back-
propagation algorithm is given as

l l
l
l l
E
+ ( ) ( )

1
1
(13)
where

represents any of the consequent parameters,


namely a

, b

, c

, b

, c

, and f

, is the learning rate, and

( )
E
1
are subjected to the logical rules given below.
Gradient calculations
if v
k
0

E
a
A s
E
b
A v
E
c
A
k rk
k k g s
n
k rk
k k g s
n
k
k k g s
n
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
l
l
,
,
,

elseif v
k
< 0

E
a
A s
E
c
A
k rk
k g s
k
k g s
1
1

l
l
if joint k is the relaxed axis and a critical axis exists


E
f
A v
E
b
A v
k rk
k rk
1
1
1
l
l

else

E
b
A v
k rk
k g s k h
m
1
2

l ,
end
end

E
b
E
b
E
b
1 1
1
1
2

l l l
where the gs are the joint numbers that are going away
from their limits at each time-step, and h
m
is the most re-
laxed joint number in the case of the existance of a critical
axis. Also note that
A q q A A b A A f
k hk hk k k k k k k
j i

|
.
`
}



* , ,
l l l l

1
3
1
3
3.2 Back-propagation neural network
Because of its ability to realize a complex nonlinear input
output relation, a back-propagation NN with two hidden
layers, as shown in Fig. 5, is used for the inverse kinematic
problem. It has been reported
12
that with the increase in the
input layer size, an NN with two hidden layers enables the
learning process to be more successful because of its ability
to extract the local and global features from the input space
by the rst and second hidden layers, respectively.
Two input vectors are presented to that NN. The rst is
considered for the differential change in the Cartesian vari-
able vector p [x y]
T
, while the second is considered for
the hint values q
h
[q
h1
q
h2
. . . q
hn
]
T
, where q
hi
q
hi

q
i
for i 1, . . . , n. The output vector is considered for the
differential change in the joint variable q [q
1
q
2
. . . q
n
]
T
. The forward calculation through the NN to
compute the output based on the matrix calculus approach
is described below.
Letting z
1
represent the input vector z
1
[1 p
T
q
T
h
]
T
, the
outputs of the rst and second hidden layers and of the
Input
Hint
Output
Hidden
Layer 1
Hidden
Layer 2
Output
Layer
+1 +1 +1
.
.
.
.
.
.

Fig. 5. The architecture of the NN


146
output layer are
z z
2 1

( )
j U
T
(14)
z z
3 2

( )
j V
T
(15)
q
( )
j W
T
z
3
(16)
with
z z z z
2 2 3 3
1 1
[ ]

[ ]
;
T
T
T
T
(17)
Here, j() is the hyperbolic tangent activation function vec-
tor whose element x
e
x
( )
+

2
1
1
2
. U, V, and W consist
of weights and thresholds matrices for the rst and second
hidden layers and the output layer, respectively, which are
given by
U U U
T T
T

[ ] 0

(18)
V V V
T T
T

[ ] 0

(19)
W W W
T T
T

[ ] 0

(20)
where
U V W
U V W
l l m
m l l l l m
0
1
0
1
0
1
1 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2




, ,
, ,

in which l
1
, l
2
, and m
2
are the numbers of the rst and second
hidden units and the output units, respectively, and m
1
is the
number of input units.
Since the reference output (i.e., the desired differential
change in the joint variable) is not known at the output
layer, the output vector must be mapped to make a measur-
able error space, which is the differential change in the
Cartesian variable. Thus, the output vector q is mapped
through the Jacobian matrix J to p, where p Jq.
Letting p represent the desirable reference differential
change in the Cartesian variable vector, the error at itera-
tion l can be calculated as e(l) p p(l), and the least-
squares cost of the error is considered as
E l l l
T
( ) ( ) ( )
{
1
2
Tr e e (21)
Assuming a linear activation function at the output layer,
the cost function can be rewritten as
E l JW l JW l
T T
T
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )

1
2
3 3
Tr p p z z
(22)
The updating algorithm of weights, according to the gener-
alized delta rule,
12
is given by
W l W l W l
E l
W l
+ ( ) ( ) + ( )
( )
( )
1 1
(23)
where is the momentum factor, is the learning rate, and
E(l)/W(l) can be calculated as
( )
( )
( )
E l
W l
l
T
z
3 3
d
(24)
Here, d
3
(l) J
T
e(l) is the m
2
1 local gradient vector of the
output layer, while the local ones of the second and rst
layers are as the original algorithm.
4 Simulation results
Simulations have been performed for a four-link planar
manipulator. Each link has a length of 1m, and it is assumed
that the manipulator has the joint limits q
min
[10 80
100 40]
T
and q
max
[90 40 15 80]
T
. Simulation results
are presented to show the performance of the proposed
position control system for a redundant manipulator to
track a given trajectory while avoiding the joint limits. Only
the end-effector position is considered in this simulation,
which permits two degrees of redundancy to achieve the
joint limits avoidance. As shown in Fig. 6, the required
trajectory is an inclined straight-line trajectory with an incli-
nation angle of 80 with the X-axis. To reach the maximum
height along this trajectory, three joints of the manipulator
are forced to work very close to their limits, which are q
2
, q
3
,
and q
4
. So the number of critical axes is more than the
number of degrees of redundancy. The manipulator starts
the trajectory at point (3.5, 0) m with an initial conguration
of q(0) [41 49 32 48]
T
, and ends it at the maximum
travel point (3.64, 0.79) m.
To get the simulation results, the fuzzy-neuro system is
rst trained off-line by the back-propagation algorithm, as
described in subsection 3.2, with a learning rate 0.01, and
then the trained fuzzy-neuro system is used in the overall
control system. The training data presented to that system
are extracted from the nonviolated results of tracking some
trajectories by using the GPM. The NN, which is con-
structed as a two hidden-layer NN with 30 neurons each, is
trained online a each time-step by presenting the hint values
q
h
in addition to p. Thus the NN converges rapidly to the
required q that is very close to q
h
. The terminating criterion
at each time-step is taken as the trajectory tracking error |e
i
|
0
Y
1
q
0
X
2
X
1
Y
1
X
max 2
q
max 3
q
3
X
3
Y
min 4
q
2
Y
End point The final
configuration
Start point
Trajectory
Fig. 6. The nal conguration
147
10
5
for i 1, . . . , m. The sampling width t is taken as
0.075s. The initial values for the weights are selected as
random values on [1, 1]. The learning rate and the mo-
mentum factor are chosen to be 0.1 and 0.9, respectively,
for the best results.
Figure 7 shows the simulation results; Fig. 7a and b rep-
resent the successive manipulator congurations through-
out the desired trajectory and the joint angle proles,
respectively. The results demonstrate the efcacy of the
proposed control system in tracking the trajectory while
avoiding the joint limits. This performance is due to the
ability gained by the NN to follow the hint generated from
the fuzzy-neuro system. Both joint 2 and joint 3 stop their
motions at their limits, while joints 1 and 4 change their
rates as a kind of cooperation to achieve the task until joint
4 reaches its limit at the end of the trajectory. Neither a
violation nor an abrupt change appears in the joint angle
proles, as shown in the results of the GPM (Fig. 8), which
veries the good performance of the proposed control sys-
tem. Figure 8 shows the results of the GPM for the same
trajectory and the same initial manipulator conguration in
which joint 2 violates its maximum limit and abrupt changes
occur at the end of the trajectory.
5 Conclusion
The problem of tracking a given trajectory while avoiding
the joint limits of a redundant manipulator has been ad-
dressed by an intelligent control system. The concept of the
cooperative hint between the joints provided by a fuzzy-
neuro system was introduced to achieve a given task. The
results veried the good performance of the proposed
method, which can be regarded as a general NN-based re-
dundancy resolution because it can be applied to many
other problems, such as collision avoidance,
13
fault toler-
ance, and drift-free redundancy.
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-0.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
-0.5
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
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Time [s]
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[
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e
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0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
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e
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[
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e
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]
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q
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