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VECTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF HARMONIC MOTIONS

The motion sustained by the sinusoidal excitation is called the steady -state vibration or the steady-state response. Hence the steady-state response must be at the excitation frequency regardless of the initial conditions or the natural frequency of the system. It will be shown in Chap. 2 that the steady-state response is described by the particular integral and the transient motion by the complementary function of the differential equation of the system.

Resonance occurs when the excitation frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. No energy input is needed to maintain the vibrations of an undamped system at its natural frequency. Thus, any energy input will be used to build up the amplitude of the vibration, and the amplitude at resonance of an undamped system will increase without limit. where k2 is a constant. When the acceleration of a particle with rectilinear motion is always proportional to its displacement from a fixed point on the path and is directed towards the fixed point, the particle is said to have simple harmonic motion. It can be shown that the solution of Eq. (1-7) has the form of a sine and a cosine function with circular frequency equal to ω. It is convenient to represent a harmonic motion by means of a rotating vector X of constant magnitude X at a constant angular velocity ω. In Fig. 1-7, the displacement of P from the center O along the x axis (a) Vectorial representation

PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB

Dr. Ir. Abdul Hamid M.Eng. GETARAN MEKANIS

1

In complex variables. To avoid confusion. where the symbol Im denotes the imaginary part of Xejωt. the rotating vector X is represented by the equation: X = X cos ωt + jX sin ωt = Xeωt (1-9) where X is the length of the vector or its magnitude and j = v (-1) is called the imaginary unit. is OP = x(t)=X cosωt. Abdul Hamid M. and the phase angle is called the argument or amplitude. the projection of X on the y axis is OQ= y(t) = Xsin ωt. Similarly. GETARAN MEKANIS 2 . velocity. The differentiation of a harmonic function can be carried out in its vectorial form. Its representation by means of a rotating vector is only a convenience. acceleration. it can be expressed as x(t) = Re[Xejωt]. the length of a vector is called the absolute value or modulus. The use of complex functions and complex numbers greatly simplifies the mathematical manipulations of this type of equations. here the symbol Re denotes the real part of the function Xeiait. Ir. the function y(t) = Xsin ωt can be expressed as y(t} = Im[Xelωt!]. Similarly.(b) Harmonic motions FIG. or force. Naming the x axis as the "real" axis and the y axis as the "imaginary" one.Eng. In reality. This enables the exponential function ejωtto be used in equations involving harmonic functions. This is the projection of the rotating vector X on the diameter along the x axis. If a harmonic function is given as x(t) = X cos ωt. whether they are displacement. all physical quantities. The length of the vector in this discussion is the amplitude of the harmonic motion. The differentiation of a vector X is PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. must be real quantities. Harmonic motions represented by rotating vector. It should be remembered that a harmonic motion is a reciprocating motion. we shall use magnitude to denote the length of the vector. 1-7.

11) These relations are identical to those shown in Eqs.Eng. each differentiation also advances a vector by 90°. (1-4) to (1-6). Since the multiplication of a vector by |j| is equivalent to advancing it by a phase angle of 90°. each differentiation is equivalent to the multiplication of the vector by jω. each differentiation changes the magnitude by a factor of ωt. Since X is the magnitude of the vector X. the relations between the displacement and its velocity and acceleration are …………(1.10) Thus.………(1. PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. If a given harmonic displacement is x(t) = X cos ωt . Abdul Hamid M. velocity. and acceleration by rotating vectors is illustrated in Fig. GETARAN MEKANIS 3 . ω is real. 1-8. The representation of displacement. Ir. and |j| = 1.

Eng. It is convenient to assign arbitrarily ωt =0 as a datum of measurement of phase angles.Since the given displacement x(t) is a cosine function. The addition operation can readily be extended to include the subtraction operation. The resultant vector X has a magnitude X = ( X 1 + X 2 cos α ) 2 + ( X 2 sin α ) 2 And a phase angle β = tan −1 sin α X 1 + X 2 cos α with respect to X1. Since both X1 and X2 are rotating with the same angular velocity ωt. Ir. GETARAN MEKANIS 4 . are added graphically as shown in Fig.12) The quantity X2 = X2ejωt is a complex number and is called the complex amplitude or phasor of the vector X2. their vector sum is PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. the sum of the harmonic motions is Re[X] = X cos(ωt + α). Similarly. Using the same functions x: = X1 cos ωt and X2 = X2 cos(ωt+ α). X= Xejωt in Fig. Note that the vector X2 can be expressed as ………(1. Abdul Hamid M. 1-9(b) is the phasor of the vector X. the velocity and acceleration must be along the real axis. l-9(a). Hence the real parts of the respective vectors give the physical quantities at the given time t. The vectors X1 and X2 representing the motions Xl cos ωt and X2 cos(ωt + α). Harmonic functions can be added algebraically by means of vector addition. Harmonic functions can be added graphically be means of vector addition. or along the real axis. Since the original motions are given along the real axis. respectively. The vector X 1 . only the relative phase angle of the vectors is of interest. and their sum X are plotted in this manner in Fig. 1-9(b).X2.

the multiplication operation can be generalized to include the division operation.Eng. their sum is In representing harmonic motions by rotating vectors. GETARAN MEKANIS 5 .14) AB = (phase of A) + (phase of B)……. Abdul Hamid M. Equation (1-13) indicates that where A = 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 a +a ……(1.(1.Since the given harmonic motions are along the real axis.13) and B = b + b are the magnitudes of the numbers and α =tan-1 a2/a1 and β = tan-1 b2/bl are their phase angles. For example. the product of the complex numbers A and B is ………. Ir.. it is often necessary to determine the product of complex numbers. (1-15) Obviously. PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. The product can be found by expressing the complex numbers in the exponential form.

Hence the weight is divided by 386 in order to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq. where g=32. (1-16). the mass m is assumed to have the proper units. In other words. In the derivation of equations. We assume that the gravitational acceleration is constant unless otherwise stated. GETARAN MEKANIS 6 ./sec2. the two systems of units will co-exist for some years. If a mass is given in pounds. 1. Hence one pound-mass lbm exerts one pound-force lb. lbm or weight. (1-16).2)(12) = 386 in. The student and the practicing engineer will need to know both systems. The gravitational acceleration is (32.Example 2-1. The in. Newton's law of motion may be expressed as Force = (mass)(acceleration)…… (1-16) Dimensional homogeneity of the equation is obtained when the force is in pounds Ity. the mass in slugs. 1 lbm weighs one pound on a spring scale. A body falling under the influence of gravitation has an acceleration of g ft/sec2. under the gravitational pull of the earth.Eng. it must be divided by g to obtain dimensional homogeneity in Eq.2 is the gravitational acceleration. PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. Ir. and the acceleration in ft/sec2. This is the English ft-lbpsec system in which the mass has the unit of Ibf-sec2/ft. Abdul Hamid M.Manipulation of Complex Numbers The last two examples indicate that the multiplication of a vector by j advances the vector –clockwise by a phase angle of 900 and a division by j retards it by 900. We shall briefly discuss the English units and then the SI units in some detail in this section.6 Units Since there will be a change from the English engineering (customary) to the International System of Units (SI).-lbf-sec system is generally used in the study of vibrations.

" The kilogram kg is the unit of mass. the kilogram. It is defined in terms of the frequency of atomic resonators. (2) derived units.Eng. Abdul Hamid M. The base units are regarded as dimensionally independent. It is defined in terms of the wave-length of a krypton-85 lamp as "the length equal to 1 650 763. "The second is the duration of 9 192631 770 PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. The second s is the unit of time.73 wave-lengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom. SI consists of (1) seven well-defined base units. France. Those of interest in this study are the meter.The International System of Units (SI) is the modernized version of the metric system. Ir. GETARAN MEKANIS 7 . and the second. The meter m is the unit of length. kept in a vault at Sevres. called the International Standard. and (3) supplementary units. The standard is a cylinder of platinum-indium.

Examples of derived and supplementary units are shown in Tables l-2(a) and (&).Eng. . For uniformity in the use of SI units. ." (2) The type used for symbols is illustrated in Table 1-2. GETARAN MEKANIS 8 . such as N • m shown in Table 1-2. we have ". the recommendations* are: (1) In numbers. Examples of conversion from the English to the SI units are given in Table 1-4. in defining the meter above. Abdul Hamid M. If the symbol is derived from a proper name. The common prefixes for multiples and submultiples of SI units are shown in Table 1-3. .periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. . a period (dot) is used only to separate the integral part of numbers from the decimal part. The result of a computation cannot have any more significant numbers than that in the original data. The dot may be omitted if PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr. The symbols are not followed by a period. equal to 1 650 763. Several derived units are given special names and symbols. Note that a common error in conversion is to become ensnared in too many decimal places. (3) The product of units is denoted by a dot. Numbers are divided into groups of three to facilitate reading. The lower case roman type is generally used. respectively. Ir. For example.73 wave-lengths . capital roman type is used for the first letter."* The derived units are formed from the base units according to the algebraic relations linking the corresponding quantities. The supplementary units form a third class of SI units.

such as in mm.. such as Nm but not mN. velocity in Table 1-2 can be expressed as m/s...there is no risk of confusion with another unit symbol. (5) The prefix symbols illustrated in Table 1-3 are used without spacing between the prefix symbol and the unit symbol. Disini j = − .8e Jawab. acceleration may be expressed as m/s2 or m • s-2 but not m/s/s. —. PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr.(1) didpt : 1 x = A cos( ω +α) t y = A sin( ω +α) t yg bila disubstitusikan ke pers.(1-18)...5. s( t ) ( t ) = cos θ + j sin θ .Dlm bentuk bilangan komplek adalah: x = A0 e jωt . Ir.5.. Gamb.vektor A dpt ditulis: A =x + jy .Eng. The solidus must not be repeated on the same line unless ambiguity is avoided by parentheses.7 Bentuk Exponential Dari Gamb. For example.(1-17).. or a negative power. GETARAN MEKANIS 9 .2-2 Hitunglah amplitudo maksimum j (ωt +π ) 6 dari gabungan antara dua vektor yaitu 6e j (ωt +π ) 2 dan.(13) Contoh. 1..(1-19).. (4) The division of units may be indicated by a solidus (/).(10) didpt: Dari hubungan : e jθ A = A{co ω +α + j sin ω +α } ..dari pers. Compound prefixes formed by the use of two or more SI prefixes are not used. a horizontal line. For example. Abdul Hamid M. e disini A0 = A jα disebut amplitudo komplek .maka A = A ej (ω t + α ) = A ejα e jω t = A0 e jω t .. or m • s..

2 .Hitunglah: jπ / 6 jπ / 2 5e + 7e 2-3.(13) bahwa bagian riel: x = A cos( ω +α) dan bagian imaginer: t y =A s ( in ω+ ) t α Dari ωt=0.Ambil t=0. (a) 1+jJl (e) 3/(V3-j) (b) -2 (I) (V3+j)(3 (c) 3/(V3-j) (g) (d) 5j (h) PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB Dr.Eng.dan besar sudut α: Tanα=10/6.sehingga ωt=0.93 y = 6 sin π / 2 + 8 sin π / 6 = 6 + 8 sin 30 0 = 10 Resultante: R= 10 2 + 6.maka 0 α = 55 013 ' = 55 13 360 0 × 2π = 0. 1-18 Express the following complex numbers in the exponential form Ae'°.93 2 =12 .Tunjukkanlah bahwa komplek 5+j2 adalah bentuk dari Aej 2-2.Dan kalau diambil komponen datar dan tegak lurus yaitudari pers.2e j (ω t + 0. GETARAN MEKANIS 10 .0s. Ir.maka x = 6 cos π / 2 + 8 cos π / 6 = 8 cos 30 0 = 6.maka α=π/2 dan α=π/6. Sketch the motion described by each of the following equations: (a) x = 5e~2rsin(10irt + 7r/4) (b) x = 5<T2'sinC for 0<rsl. Abdul Hamid M.962 − rad Gabungan dari dua vektor tsb : j (ω t + π / 2 ) j (ω t + π / 6 ) 6e + 8e = 12.443.962) θ Soal-soal latihan 2: 2-1.93=1.

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