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AE-11 Spring Design Manual Prepared under the auspices of the SAE Spring Committee Published by: Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. < 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 san ao) Preface It was in 1678 that an English scientist, Robert Hooke, stated that, within certain limits, deflection is proportional toload. His work on flexible members is still the basis for spring design today. The wide use of springs to store and release energy can easily be observed by looking at the tools, appliances, and vehicles, that we use in our daily lives. While there are several basic types of spring forms, the variations within each ‘category are endless. The processes which are used to manufacture these items may also vary, further ‘compounding and enlarging the subject. In 1943, at the behest of the U.S. Ordinance Department, the first spring manual was published under the itle “Manual on Design and Application of Helical Springs for Ordinance.” The manual found wide distribution, and revised editions were issued in 1945, 1958, 1962, 1973, 1980, and 1989. In 1944 the manual “Design and Application of Leaf Springs” was published with revised editions being issued in 1962, 1970, and 1982. The manual “Design and Manufacture of Torsion Bar Springs” was first published in 1947 and revisions were made in 1966 and 1981. The manual “Design and Manufacture of Coned Disk Springs and Spring Washers” was first published in 1950 with revisions in 1955 and 1989. The newest manual “Incorporating Pneumatic Springsin Vehicle Suspension Designs” was published in 1989. The publication of this manual on pneumatic springs, along with all the recent revisions to the other manuals, reflect the addition of new technologies and industry practices for automotive applications. ‘The incorporation ofthese five manuals into one volume represents the most comprehensive reference work available today. The Spring Committee wishes to note that these manuals should not be regarded as a compilation of design or manufacturing specifications; instead, they should be considered as reference ‘works which contain essential information which may be helpful to the engineer and designer on a broad range of topics — material selection, tolerances, end configurations, fatigue life, load and tress calculations, and processing information. All of the manuals employ SI Units in accordance with SAE 916, “Rules For Use of SI (Metric) Units.” ‘The Spring Committee recognizes the generous measure of time, effort, and dedication which the respective Subcommittees put forth in the preparation of these manuals for publication, EH. Judd Table of Contents (Part 1 ‘Design and Application of Leaf Springs SAE HS 788 Part 2 Design and Application of Helical and Spiral Springs} SAE HS 795 Pant 3 Design and Manufacture of Torsion Bar Springs SAE HS 796 Part 4 Incorporating Pneumatic Springs in Vehicle Suspension Designs SAE HS 1576 Part 5 Design and Manufacture of Coned Disk Springs (Belleville Springs) and Spring Washers! ‘SAE HS 1582