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Ankit Kamal Anurag Kamal

ABSTRACT

To meet the power demands of the country, it is required to set up new projects, time to time so that demand and generation gap may be narrowed but most important is to full utilization of existing capacity. This may be possible only by increasing the reliability, availability and maintainability of power generation units and by operating the units at its full capacity. This vocational training report is concerned with the overall operation of the plant, machines used in the plant, water treatment in the plant and thermodynamic cycles used in the NTPC, Auraiya Gas Power Plant.

CONTENT
 INTRODUCTION TO NTPC  TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY OF NTPC  INTRODUCTION OF NTPC, AURAIYA GAS POWER STATION  COMBINED CYCLE AND COMBINED CYCLE PLANT  AIR COMPRESSOR AND COMBUTION CHAMBER  FUELS  TURBINES AND GAS TURBINE LAYOUT OF NTPC,AURIAYA  BOILERS AND WASTE HEAT RECONERY BOILERS  BOILER ECONOMISER AND WASTE HEAT RECOVERY  WATER TREATMENT PLANT AND STORAGE  STEAM TURBINE  PASSOUT OR EXTRACTION TURBINES  CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS AND DEAERATOR  COOLING SYSTEM  WATER SOURCES  CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PLANT  ELECTRICAL AND SWITCHYARD DEPARTMENT  DIFFERENT TYPE OF EQUIPMENT USED IN SUB STATIONS

 CONCLUSION THE COMPANY NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India. A public sector company. Domestic Banks. Based on 1998 data . At present.5% is held by FIIs. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. . with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. carried out by data monitor UK. NTPC is 6th largest in terms of thermal power generation and the second most efficient in terms of capacity utilization amongst the thermal utilities in the world. Within a span of 30 years. it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10. Government of India holds 89. Public and others.

685 MW). . NTPC‟s share on 31 march 2006 in the total installed capacity of the country was 19. IN INDIAN POWER SECTOR NTPC‟s core business is engineering. With its experience and expertise in the power sector.NTPC Ltd. As on date the installed capacity of NTPC is 24.954 MW through its 14 coal based (20.955 MW) and 3 joint venture projects (314 MW). construction and operation of power generating plant and also providing consultancy to power utilities in India and abroad.68% of the total power generation of the country during 2005-06. This joint venture company operates the captive power plants of Durgapur(120 MW). Rourkela(120 MW) and Bhilai(74 MW). NTPC acquired 50% equity of the SAIL Power Supply Corporation Ltd.51% and it contributed 27. 7 gas based (3. NTPC has set new bench marks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operation. It is providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. (SPSCL).

600 1. INSTALLED CAPACITY AN OVERVIEW Projects No.000 2.000 .954 NTPC OWNED COAL 14 GAS/LIQ FUEL 07 TOTAL 21 OWNED BY JVCS COAL 3 GRAND TOTAL 24 *Captive Power Plant under JV with SAIL PROJECT PROFILE Coal Stations Coal Based Singrauli Korba Ramagundam Farakka Vindhyachal Rihand Kahalgaon NTCPP Talcher Kaniha Unchahar Talcher Thermal Simhadri State Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh Andhra Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh Commissioned Capacity(MW) 2. of Projects Commissioned Capacity(MW) 20.600 2.260 2.100 2.640 314* 24.NTPC is extending consultancy services to various organizations in the power business.685 3.000 840 840 3.955 24.000 840 460 1.

966 Anta Rajasthan Auraiya Uttar Pradesh Kawas Gujarat Dadri Uttar Pradesh Jhanor-Gandhar Gujarat Kayamkulam Kerala Faridabad Haryana Total (Gas) .Tanda Badarpur Total (Coal) Uttar Pradesh Delhi 440 705 20. Fuel Stations Gas Based State Commissioned Capacity(MW) 413 663 645 817 648 350 430 3.685 Gas/Liq.

1ST and 2WHRB.19 MW : 109. It is 60 km from Kanpur. The plant has 4 Gas Turbines (GT) and 2 Steam Turbines (ST) with 4 Waste Heat Recovery Boilers (WHRB). Though the plant is normally operated on combined cycle but it may be operated on open cycle mode in case of any problem in WHRB.3 MW .3 MW : 331. Auraiya of Uttar Pradesh.19 MW : 109.68 MW : 2 X 111. Their capacities are as follows:MODULE I: Gas Turbine Capacity Steam Turbine Capacity Total Module I Capacity MODULE II: Gas Turbine Capacity Steam Turbine Capacity : 2 X 111. The plant is basically divided in two modules and each module has 2 GT. The plant is situated in Distt. on main railway track.Introduction of gas power station ntpc(Auraiya) Auraiya gas power station is a gas based combined cycle power plant of NTPC.

19 MW GT # 2 111.3 = 331.3 = 331.36 MW ST # 2 109.19 MW GT # 4 111.68 MW MODULE #2 2 X 111.3 MW 663.68 MW STATION CAPACITY ST # 1 109.Total Module II Capacity : 331.19 MW GT .19 + 109.Gas Turbine ST – Steam Turbine WHRB – Waste Heat Recovery Boiler .36 MW THE BASIC DIAGRAM OF ARRANGEMENT OF UNITS IN AURAIYA GAS POWER PLANT MODULE #1 2 X 111.3 MW WHRB #1 WHRB #2 WHRB #3 WHRB #4 GT # 1 111.68 MW TOTAL PLANT CAPACITY: 663.19 + 109.19 MW GT # 3 111.

The turbine is mechanically coupled to a generator. transferring energy to the rotating turbine blades. which produces electricity.Combined CYCLE Combined Cycle is a term used when a power producing engines or plant employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. Combined Cycle Plants The combined-cycle unit combines the Rankine (steam turbine) and Brayton (gas turbine) thermodynamic cycles by using heat recovery boilers to capture the energy in gas turbine exhaust gases for steam production to supply a steam turbine as shown in the “Combined Cycle Cogeneration Unit”. Fossil fuel-fired (central) power plants use either steam or combustion turbines to provide the mechanical power to electrical generators. . The remaining heat from combustion is generally wasted. Combining two or more “cycles” such as the Brayton cycle and Rankine Cycle results in improved overall efficiency. Process steam can be also provided for industrial purposes. Pressurized high temperature steam or gas expands through various stages of turbines. Heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 30%).

Combined cycle operation of ntpc. Auraiya .

9:1 COMBUSTION CHAMBER In the combustion chamber the high pressure and temperature air burns the fuel and hot gases are generated. compresses it and then delivers the same under the high pressure to a storage vessel.  It reduces cost of compressor. 4 are used in GT and 1 is used in emergency GT.Air compressor An air compressor.  It reduces the leakage cost considerably. The air compressor sucks air from the atmosphere. is a machine to compress the air and to raise its pressure. Compressor pressure ratio: . Advantages of using multistage compressor are as follows  It improves the volumetric efficiency for the given pressure ratio. The compressor used in AUGPS is a 19 stage series compressor. as the name indicates. . There are total 5 compressors in the plant. These hot gases are used for further work. From the storage vessel it may be conveyed by the pipeline to the place where the supply of compressed air is required. therefore a compressor must be driven by some prime mover. Since the compression of the air requires some work to be done on it.6.

FUELS Mainly two fuels are used in this gas power plant which are listed below  Natural gas  Naphtha The Natural gas is supplied by GAIL.  If a gas turbine is running at full load then it consumes 20 KL Naphtha fuel in one hour. The two pumps work and the third is auxiliary. . There are three transfer pumps for loading fuel from tankers. Dibiyapur and is taken directly From the pipeline which goes from Hazira to Jagdishpur. There are twelve unloading pipes. Kanpur and Mathura. The other fuel is supplied by IOC. thus twelve trucks con be unloaded at a time. STORAGE CAPACITY FOR NAPHTHA There are two tanks for storing Naphtha fuel each having a capacity of 1500 KL.

Auraiya Gas Power Plant. of which 4 are Gas turbines and remaining 2 are Steam turbines. propellers. GAS TURBINE Generally known as “gas turbine engines”. Turbines are classified as Hydraulic or Water turbines. electric generator or propeller. gas turbine is a type of internal combustion engine capable of generating either power or propulsive force by forcing a high temperature gas flow to turn a turbine (centrifugal impeller). This mechanical energy is then transferred through a drive shaft to operate a machine. compressor. The basic element in a turbine is a wheel or rotor with paddles. Today turbine powered generators produce most of the world‟s electrical energy. MSC provides maintenance service for gas turbine used at power plants. blades or buckets arranged on its circumference in such a fashion that the moving fluid exerts a tangential force that turns the wheel and imparts energy to it. . Jet engines are the familiar type of gas turbine. steam or gas into mechanical energy. Steam turbines and Gas turbines.TURBINES INTRODUCTION:Turbines are a rotary engine that converts the energy of a moving stream of water. There are total 6 turbines in NTPC.

. AURAIYA Jet engines are a familiar type of gas turbine.MSC provides maintenance services for gas turbines used at power plants. Among the reasons gas turbines compare favorably to diesel engines (another type of internal combustion engine) are the ease with which nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbons can be controlled and their relatively smaller size (when comparing engines with the same output). Gas turbines are well suited for use in generating electricity due to their combustion of small size and high output.GAS TURBINE LAYOUT OF NTPC.

including the Higashi-Niigata Thermal Power Station.temperature steam. As a means of increasing the thermal efficiency of gas turbines themselves. passing the gases through a heat recovery steam generator to produce high. In thermal power plants using gas turbines. . This technology takes advantage of the high temperature of the exhaust gases produced by gas turbines. and recently some power plants. gas turbines are recently being employed as power sources for pumps used in emergency situations such as natural disasters.In addition to traditional power generation applications. This level of efficiency is among the world‟s best. have surpassed 50% thermal efficiency. This steam is then routed through a steam turbine to generate additional electricity. The approach yields a greater thermal efficiency than is possible with a gas turbine alone. due to their short start-up times and for water jet propulsion systems (used in high-speed ships). manufacturers are beginning to build turbines with high inlet temperatures. there is a trend towards the use of combined cycle power generation systems.

Waste heat boilers may be horizontal or vertical shell boilers or water tube boilers.Among the gas turbines manufactured by Takasago Machinery Works. Are turbines with inlet temperatures in excess of 1. a boiler. also among the world‟s best. The prime requirement is that the waste gases must contain sufficient usable heat to produce steam or hot water at the condition required. and these will normally incorporate a waste heat boiler. The D type gas turbines which are being used in NTPC. incinerators. All boilers consist of a separate compartment where the water can be evaporated into steam.H. NTPC. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. gas turbines and diesel exhausts. Some boilers may be dealt with by maintaining gas-exit at a predetermined level to prevent dew point being reached and others by soot blowing. Japan having turbines inlet temperatures of 1139°C. Auraiya Gas Power Plant has 4 WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILERS. an economizer and a steam drum. there is a string interest in small combined heat and power (CHP) stations. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY BOILERS (WHRB):A WHRB consists of a super heater. They could be designed to suit individual applications ranging through gases from furnaces. BOILER Boiler is a device for heating water or generating steam above atmospheric pressure.500°C.I. Currently. All the 4 boilers are NON FIRED and WATER TUBE BOILERS. Auraiya are supplied by M. .

the boiler does not need to provide as much additional heating to produce the steam requirements of a facility or process. thereby using less fuel and reducing the fuel expenses. which enters at a much lower temperature than saturated steam. again. recuperators/regenerators. extract some of the heat they contain. Because the boiler feed-water is now at a higher temperature that it would have been without a boiler economizer. Boiler economizers recover the “waste heat” from the boiler‟s hot stack gas and transfer this waste heat to the boiler‟s feed-water.BOILER ECINOMIZER:A boiler economizer is a device that reduces the overall fuel requirements a boiler requires which results in reduced fuel costs as well as fewer emissions – since the boiler operates at a much higher efficiency. Most industrial waste heat streams are liquid. Waste heat recovery methods used with industrial process heating operations intercept the waste gases before they leave the process. gaseous or a combination of the two and have temperatures from slightly above ambient to over 2000°F. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY:Many industrial processes generate large amount of waste energy that simply pass out of plant stacks and into the atmosphere or are otherwise lost. and recycle that heat back to the process. and waste heat boilers. Heat is transferred. . back to the boiler feed-water. Common methods of recovering heat include direct heat recovery to the process. Boiler economizers also help improve a boiler‟s efficiency by extracting heat from the flue gases discharged from the final super heater section of a radiant/reheat unit or the evaporation bank of a non-reheat boiler.

The DM water being very pure is highly corrosive. Since this make up requires pure water this quality water is obtained by a Demineralised (DM) water treatment plant. These salts have to be removed from the water. For this. If hardness is present in makeup water to the boiler. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. the salts not only form deposits on the tube surfaces but also lead to overheating in those localities resulting in tube failures. . anion and mixed bed exchangers. Therefore these have to be completely removed for use as boiler make up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. The impurities in water input to this plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts imparting hardness to the water.WATER TREATMENT PLANT & STORAGE Since steam is taken out continuously and returned to the boiler. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. this is done using DM water treatment plant which gives the purest form of water. This generally consists of cation. However some storage is essential as DM plant may be down for maintenance. losses due to blow downs and leakages have to be made up for maintaining designed boiler water quantity by means of the level gauges provided on the boiler drum. continuous make up water is added to the boiler water system. such as PVC. For this purpose a storage tank is installed from which continuously DM water is drawn for boiler make up. The final water from this process consists generally of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical combination of pure water. once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption.

STEAM TURBINE Steam turbines are a type of external combustion engine capable of generating power or propulsive force by forcing high temperature steam generated outside the engine to turn a turbine (centrifugal impeller).000 megawatts by . Steam turbines have a long history and it is said that a Greek mathematician first described a body that would rotate under steam power some 2. steam turbines are lighter and capable of producing higher output. Compared to the steam reciprocating engines (engines that generate rotational power by forcing pistons to move back and forth). The first ship powered by steam turbine was the product of the Industrial revolution in Europe. Recently steam turbines have gained use in power plants and there are large numbers of nuclear plants that generate output in excess of 1.000 years ago.

powering massive steam turbines with high temperature steam generated by a nuclear reactor. The high pressure steam from the boiler enters the HP stage of turbine where it expands and the pressure is reduced to such a value that is required for processing work. In these types of turbines steam is exhausted at different stages and used in heating the steam water for the boiler or processing work. . The exhaust steam from the processing plant and the low pressure turbine steam is condensed in the condenser and pumped back to the boiler. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd is using 3D design technology to shape rotor blades. stage. PASS OUT OR EXTRACTION TURBINES:- The steam turbines that are used in NTPC. In order to increase the efficiency of steam turbines. A part of this low pressure steam leaving the high pressure stage is supplied to the processing work while the remaining steam expands further in the L. Auraiya are Pass out OR Extraction turbines. Takasago Machinery Works.P. developing and manufacturing larger rotor blades and designing methods to prevent the loss of steam throughput.

There are total four deareators in the NTPC. There are some gases like CO2 if present in water they can create rusting or can choke the tubes.CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS These pumps are used to pump water to the deaerator from where the water goes to boiler feed pump. WORKING OF WHRB:The feed water enters into steam drum through boiler economizer from where it goes into boiler and converted into steam. . This is done because HRB is a water tube boiler and the tubes containing water have very small diameter. DEAERATOR The deareators are used to deaerate the water before feeding it into BFP. This steam further goes to super heater and at the output superheated steam at the temperature of 530 C is gained. This superheated steam is used to drive steam turbine to generate electricity as in the cycle. So these gases are removed in the deaerator. Auraiya one each for every WHRB.

low pressure turbine when the steam condenses. Low turbine backpressures are achieved when the steam condensate temperatures are lower. The „waste‟ heat removed by the cooling system during the steam condensation step must ultimately be transferred to the surrounding environment. Designing and operating a cooling system that can consistently and continually remove the heat of condensation at those low temperatures is essential. the cooling system should be considered the integral part of power generation process that can have a major influence on the overall power plant performance and availability. Wet cooling systems use water to absorb heat via indirect contact with steam in a condenser. Having a high unit heat capacity. relatively inexpensive and reusable up to a point. a combined cycle plant requires only about one-third the amount of cooling needed by a conventional steam electric plant of equivalent capacity. The heated water is either discharged to a large surface water body such as lake or river (once through cooling) or passed through a cooling tower and recycled back to the condenser (recirculated cooling). water has been the traditional transfer medium of choice because it has been readily available. . In the most common 2-on-1 arrangement. A very important step in this power generation process is the condensation of exhaust steam from the final. Many of the plants built during the last decade are based on the combined cycle process of power generation. the rapid decrease from vapor-to-liquid specific volume creates a vacuum at the turbine outlet (monitored as turbine backpressure) that increases power generation efficiency. electricity is produced by two combustion turbine generators with the hot exhaust gas from these turbines used to produce steam in a heat recovery steam generator for a single steam driven turbine generator. Therefore. Since the combustion turbines produce roughly two third of the overall electrical power and have no steam condensation step.COOLING SYSTEM The majority of the electricity generated is produced by steam driven turbine generators.

once-through cooling was the favored approach. The wet cooling towers have a hot water distribution system that showers or sprays water evenly over a lattice work of closely set horizontal salts or bars called fill or packing. wet cooling systems have been a de facto component of the power production process. Initially. However in the early 1970‟s.WET COOLING:Since the advent of steam-electric generation. The large size of the source water guarantees cold cooling water temperatures with almost no daily variation and usually very modest seasonal variation. The fill thoroughly mixes the falling water with air moving through . new steam electric generation began using recirculated cooling.

Cold water is then collected in concrete basin at the bottom of the tower where it is pumped back to the condenser. Outside air enters the towers via fans in the form of horizontal slats in the side of the towers. . The now hot. which cools the water. The intimate mix between air and water enhances heat and mass transfer (evaporation). moist air leaves the tower at the top. The slates usually slope downward to keep t water in.the fill the water splashes down from one fill to the next by gravity.

WATER SOURCES .

 REMOTE SYSTEM:This system is frequently used. .CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PLANT There are three of controlling systems available in the plant and they are as follows: LOCAL CONTROL:In it the control commands are given to the machine from that place where machine is located. In the central computerized control room. If one set is shut down for maintenance then commands are given by second set.  SWITCHYARD CONTROL:In it all controlling commands are given from switchgear room. there are two set of controlling devices. In it all controlling commands are given from central computerized control room. This system is rarely used.

frequency and waveform is exported/ imported as per requirements. and safely with required quality at all times. 3. M. 4. the 220 KV output from the generator transformer is fed to either of two bus bars through relays and circuit breakers and these are connected to various feeders through various equipments. protection and network automation are integral parts of the modern energy management system and national economy. MV and LV distribution systems and connected electrical loads. frequency and specified waveform at lowest cost and minimum environmental degradation. 2 lines of 220 KV to GAIL.P. 50 HZ. HV transmission network. 2. . one of 220 KV and other of 440KV. There are total 10 lines going out of NTPC. 5. instantly. substations. 2 lines of 220 KV to Maingaon. The energy form is supplied to various consumers located in vast geographical area. After step up. 2 lines of 440 KV to Agra. The service continuity and high quality of power supply have become very important. The switchgear. Their descriptions are as follows:1. scientifically and technologically advanced SUBSTATION is required. Dibiyapur. Sub-station is the load control centre of the thermal plant where power at rated voltage. Auraiya has two switchyards. 2 lines of 220 KV to Railway. For fulfilling the foresaid purpose. automatically. There are two bus bars and one transfer bus for supplying electricity. AC interconnected system has several conventional and non-conventional power plants. 2 lines of 220 KV to Agra.ELECTRICAL AND SWITCHYARD DEPARTMENT Electrical energy management system ensures supply of energy to every consumer at all times at rated voltage. The modern 3-ph. The substation at NTPC. Auraiya for supplying electricity. a state of the art.

INDICATING AND METERING INSTRUMENTS:Ammeters. which make a visible break in the circuit such as isolators. To guard against mistakes. should do this.DIFFERENT TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS USED IN SUB-STATIONS:BUS-BARS:Bus bar is term used for main bar of conductor carrying an electric current to which may be made. watt meters. LIGHTENING ARRESTORS:These are equipments designed to protect insulators of power lines and electrical installations from lightening surges by diverting the surge to earth and instantly restoring the circuit insulation to its normal strength with respect to earth. These are mainly convenient means of connecting switches and other equipments into various arrangements. it is necessary that apparatus. There are two bus bars and one transfer bus for supplying electricity. ISOLATORS:One of the cardinal measures for ensuring full safety in carrying out work on equipment in electrical installations is to disconnect reliably the unit or the section on which the work is to be done from all other live parts of the installation. . KWH meter and KVA meters are installed in sub-station to watch over the currents flowing in the circuit and voltages and power loads. Both bus bars are used continuously and transfer bus is used in case of many repairing or maintenance. voltmeters.

The pressure and gas flow required for arc extinction is obtained by piston action. CB is equipped with a strip coil directly attached to relay or other means to operate in abnormal conditions such as over power etc. it will result in short circuit in the installation i. In the event of fault on one bus the other bus can be used. RELAYS:Relay is a device by means of which an electrical circuit (trip or alarm circuit) is controlled (closed) by change in the other circuit. continuity of supply and permits periodic maintenance without total shut down. In double pressure type SF6 CB the gas from high-pressure system is released to into low-pressure system over the arc during the arc quenching process. CIRCUIT BREAKERS:Circuit breakers are mechanical devices designed to close or open contact or electrical circuit under normal conditions. In sulphur puffer type SF6 CB is filled with SF6 gas at single pressure (4to6kgf/cm2). In NTPC. Relays are automatic. . why isolators are used only for disconnecting parts after de-energizing them by opening their respective circuits by use of their circuit breakers. DUPLICATE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT:The duplicate bus bar system provides additional flexibility. in that it will not only damage the isolator or the equipment surrounding it but will also cause the flashover between the phase in other words. Auraiya Gas power plant SF6 CB is used. The open arc in these is very dangerous.e.Isolators do not have arc control devices therefore cannot be used to interrupt currents at which the arc will be drawn across the contacts. The function of relay in power supply system is to recognize a start out and to initiate the operation of CB or other devices to isolate the defective elements with minimum disturbance to the normal power supply system.

Efforts are being made to convert atomic and nuclear energy directly into electric power with the help of magneto-hydrodynamic generator and other equipments. The depleting resources of oil.CONCLUSION Thus this vocational training report deals with overall operation of the NTPC plant in Auraiya. but lot of work is yet to be done. . These sources of energy are going to attain the nerve centre of the future power plants. gas and coal (the conventional fuels) along with atmospheric pollution problems have drawn the attention of the scientists and engineers all over the world to find out other sources for the generation of electric power. Though atomic and nuclear power plants have been developed on conventional lines. Also the report has a view of some parts used in plant.

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