Universal Basic Education and SocioEconomic Development in Nigeria: An Evaluation on MDGs

Okere, Ifeanyi A.
Since the introduction of the Universal Basic Education Program in Nigeria, alongside the signing of the Millennium Declaration in 2000, Nigerian socio-economic development has not reached its expected destination. Despite such programs, the fortunes of education continue to decline. This research takes a look at this situation and calls for an evaluation of government policies as it concerns education.

11/1/2012

CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Background to the study: The Education Sector, which most governments both developed and underdeveloped have sought over time to ensure its continual development as this sector contributes largely to the future of any nationstate. Policy makers have over the years reflected on the issue of education development and derived plethora blueprint to this. This is because the educational sector of any nation-state focuses on children who are the leaders of tomorrow. As indicated above countries have developed strategies and policies to see the development of this sector as it contributes to the general human capital of the country. Within this purview, the dwindling fortunes of the Nigerian educational sector have made it imperative for development strategies to be initiated so as to ensure the improvement of the Nigerian Educational Sector. Furthermore, educational reforms are not new to the Nigerian Public sector as successive governments have introduced different programs which they deem necessary to improve the fortunes of the Nigerian Educational sector. In Nigeria, three main patterns of educational reforms have emerged, namely: Access reforms, Quality Reforms, and Equity reforms. Specifically, these reforms seek to increase marginally access to education, the quality of education at all level of educational institution in Nigeria and finally to ensure fairness to all gender and social make-up of the Nigerian society in terms of education. Over the years the failure of different reforms to yield the desired results in the educational sector became a burning issue on the lips of the public. The clarion call was therefore made to scale-up the reforms for the educational Sector of Nigeria. In response to this call, the administration of Olusegun Obasanjo introduced the Universal Basic Education Program as a response to the challenges of education reforms in Nigeria. Apart from the UBE program introduced by Obasanjo, there was the International Millennium Declaration (the MDGs) which among other development issues focused on education improvement in developing countries. Particularly, Goal Two (2) of the MDGs which is to Achieve Universal Primary Education have its target as to ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary education. Therefore, with the MDGs on track and the new Nigerian democratically elected government under Olusegun Obasanjo, efforts to scale up educational reforms translated to the Universal Basic Education with the Universal Basic Education Board (UBEC) to see to this. According to the National Demographic survey 2010, the state of infrastructure in Nigerian schools and capacity of teachers in these schools, were to blamed for the decline in government owned schools. Against the foregoing background, the government of Obasanjo felt that if education goals were not realized then progress in other sectors like health, agriculture and the general economic development would remain unrealizable. The led the Federal Government to launch the Universal Basic Education Programme on the 30th of September, 1999 in Sokoto. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) became more effective with the UBE Act of 2004 which provided for a “….disbursement of 2% Federal Intervention Grants from the Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF)” towards the implementation of the desires targets to achieving an improved standard of basic education in Nigeria. How far the education fortunes have improved in Nigeria as a result of the Universal Basic Education Program and the MDGs is yet to be examined herein lays the thrust of this research.

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1.2 Statement of the Problem: Development, be it in whatever sector, has always been the concern and the aim of government. More so, within the parlance of economics and developmental studies, sustainable development has become the major issues as over the years policies have been made to reflect this. Development is wholesome because it encompasses every segment of the state. Education forms the bedrock of socio-economic development because it concerns itself with the development of humans which is a veritable tool in achieving development. The Universal Basic Education program of the Nigerian has therefore concerned itself to improving the level of basic education in Nigeria. On the other hand, The Millennium Development Goal 2 which focuses on education is another internationally motivated program aimed at development vis-à-vis education in Nigeria. The questions here which the research asks are:  Is there any correlation between the MDG and Socio-economic in Nigeria?  What is the effect of MDGs on UBE?

Hypothesis of the research based on the research questions are: 1. There has been improvement on the social economic development of Nigeria since MDGs and UBE programs. or 2. There has not been any improvement on Nigeria’s social economic development since the MDGs and UBE programs. 1.3 Objective of the Study: The research aims to 1. Find out the correlation between the MDGs, UBE and social economic development in Nigeria. 2. Uncovering the nitty-gritty which surrounds the development quagmires in Nigeria as education seems to be at low ebb despite the implementation of programs such as the MDGs and the UBE. 3. Furthermore, the objective of this research is to ascertain the level of social and economic development which can be traceable to the UBE and the MDGs programs in place in Anambra State. 1.4 Significance of the Study: Like any research conducted, this research has as its primary significance as to contribute to the paucity of literature which exists on the evaluation of government programs. By concluding this research, it could serve as a clarion call for policy makers to understand the need to take an evaluation of different education programs. These programs which have over the years not added significantly to social and economic development in Anambra in particular and Nigeria in general. Also, via this research, other States can also evaluate the UBE program in their States and allude to its contributions towards development.

1.5 Scope of Study: 2

This research has as its geographic scope Anambra State. The Universal Basic Education program which is a federal initiative has been implemented in all States of the federation and the FCT. Therefore, the research examines the UBE and level of its implementation alongside the MDGs within the Anambra State educational system. Also the research in terms of time scope aims at evaluating the socio-economic development of Anambra since the 2000 period till date.

1.6 Limitation of Study: The research was limited by the paucity of literature which exists on the evaluation of government polices as it concerns the MDGs and the UBE. Also, the State Universal Basic Education Commission was not able to provide sufficient documented evidence as to the effects of its programs on the Anambra educational sector.

References 1. Fafuwa, B.: (1979), History of Education in Nigeria, George Allen & Unwin Publishers, London. 2. UBE Report 2003, A publication of the Universal Basic Education Commission. 3. National Demographic Survey, 2010; A publication of the National Bureau of Statistics.

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CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Historical Background of the Topic: The educational sector in Nigeria has witness a number of reforms aimed at improving its condition. Reforms over the years have been in form of policies, programs and other implementation strategies. Some scholars believe that these changes in educational policy in Nigeria are a product of confusion (Ayeni, 2000). However, the Nigeria government since the 1950s -which laid a solid foundation for the post-independence Nigeria educational policies -demonstrated a strong commitment to educational reforms in Nigeria. Particularly the Macpherson Constitution of 1950 gave the Regional Governments certain rights to initiate educational reforms which led the Obafemi Awolowo-led Western Region to introduce his concept of educational reform there. With this he introduced a free, universal and Compulsory Primary Education (UPE) in 1955 (Taiwo, 1980). In the same vein other regions within Nigeria as at this time introduced similar reforms aimed at improving the standard of education in Nigeria within the area of enrolment, teacher-student ratio and infrastructures for schools. One silent issue which some scholars have underscored is the fact that these “regional-based” educational policies brought about disparities in the level of education as well as socio-economic development across the country. In a bid to check the differences within the regions the Federal Government introduced the Universal Primary Education (UPE). To this scholars have considered the reasons for the failure of the UPE program and have identified certain lapses. Among such were: inability to ascertain the number of people who would benefit from the program, failure to ascertain the number of teachers, schools building and the total amount of month which would make the implementation of the program successful. (Itedjere, 1997).The UPE program was re-christened in 2000 under the leadership of President Olusegun Obansanjo. Mainly it was the general commitment of Olusegun Obasanjo to education improvement in Nigeria that led to the decision. Introduced in 1999, the objectives of Universal Basic Education program are as follows:     Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to vigorous promotion. Provision of free, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of schooling age. Reduce drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal schooling system (through improved relevance, quality and efficiency) Catering for the learning needs of young persons who for one reason or another, have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to the provision and promotion of basic education. Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills, as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning. (UBE Report, 2003).

Accordingly, the UBE was Nigeria’s response to the international call for the eradication of illiteracy by 2015, as reports had indicated that Nigeria as at 1996 had 21 million children of school age with only 14.1 million of those children enrolled in schools (Alabi, 2005). The program is thus intended to provide free, compulsory and qualitative education at primary and junior secondary schools and other target groups. With a sense of authority, anyone can thus posit that the Education for All (EFA) goals and the UBE are goals targeted to 4

address the problems of education in Nigeria. Within the scope of the UBE, it covers nine years of basic education indeed including pre-primary and adult education, formal and non-formal. The failure of the UPE to yield the desired results had been identified as due to the absence of seriousminded planning and implementation on the part of the Nigerian government. The UBE thus, had to involve high level planning and collaboration. Furthermore the silent issues like teachers training, the teacher-pupil ratio (which was pegged at 1:20) and the marginal increase in the number of pupils over the years called for detailed planning in order to achieve the education reform objectives of the UBE. Within the area of collaboration, the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC) which has the statutory role of coordinating the scheme has partnered with a number of institutions which included international partners like the United Nations and its time bound Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Feelers from developed countries indicates that Low Income Countries (LICs) have a better shot at achieving economical development if since a significant portion of their resources are channeled towards pro-poor policies and developmental strategies(Garry&Cleaveland,1999). Sequel to this, during a “High-Level” summit held in New York, 189 world leaders met and set ambitious agenda which resulted to the signing the Millennium Declaration at the 2000 United Nations Millennium Summit. Contained in the Millennium Declaration was a set of “time bound” targets –eight (8) in numbers –which would ultimately aim at ensuring economic development and eradicate poverty by 2015. According to the United Nations, the seven (7) out of the eight goals were identified as key areas which militated against the achievement of development for these countries, while the eight goal indicates the importance of “Global Partnership” in achieving sustainable development in the world. The goals of the MDGs which are concerned with education in Nigeria is goal two (2) aims “to achieve universal primary education” and has as its target to “ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.” Accordingly, the indicators used to ascertain if this goal has been achieved are: (i) Net enrolment ratio in primary education (UNESCO) (ii) Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (UNESCO) (iii) Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds (UNESCO) Meanwhile the MDGs goal three (3) is “to promote gender equality and empower women.” As target for MDGs 4, is to “eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015.” Since the introduction of the Universal Basic Education program accompanied with the targets of the MDGs, the question is has the fortunes of education changed significantly in Nigeria. Since the introduction of the UBE program, the Anambra State government has constantly ensured the dwindling fortunes of education in the State his reduced to a barest minimum. In lieu of this, the Governor Peter Obi administration in November 2011 handed back “over 700 hundred schools to Christian missions within the State” (Anambra Ministry of Education, 2011). The targeted school for this research is one of these schools. The current enrolment rate, the number of schools in the area and the general level of education improvement are the concern of this research.

2.2 Theoretical Framework 5

The research adopts the Structural Functionalism theoretical framework. This theory tried to explain and understand society in the light of social systems which is believed to be a means to fill the collective social needs of society. The proponents of structural functionalism theory base their assumptions on the fact that for social life to survive (in this case maintain development) there are a number of activities that need to be carried out. To them society is made up of groups and structures and institutions which share a common norm and culture which the sustainability of the society depends on. Structural Functionalism does much to explain why certain aspects of society continues as they always have, despite some phenomena being clearly less beneficial for society as a whole However Structural functionalism falls short in explaining why certain aspects of society continue as they always have. Also Structural functionalism falls short in explaining opposition to social institutions and social structure by those being oppressed 2.3 Current Literature Review: The essence of research is to provide to the already existing body of knowledge on the subject matter, consequently, no research can boast of extensively unknotting the nitty-gritty within the area researched. The reason why a review of existing literature is imperative in any research work is to provide a general literature background which exists on the topic and pointing to relevant lacunas which the said research aims to cover. Literature Review on Education Education is a pre-requisite for development. Mostly as education concerns human capacity building which goes a long way in determining the path which each society would toll. Within Nigeria and outside the country, a lot has been said about and written on education. One of such comprehensive books written by a Nigerian Author is The History of Education in Nigeria by the late Professor Babs Fafunwa. Within this book, he examined the antecedent of Education in Nigeria, identifying key challenges which the Nigerian education system has been bedeviled with. Other authors like Tahir (1998) examined education in Nigeria from the challenge of enrollment specifically in the Northern part of Nigeria –where there exists serious enrolment issues. To fecundate the sectorial differences in education in Nigeria (enrollment and other wise), the National Commission of Mass Literacy in its 2010 Digest indicated “…since the introduction of programs aimed at improving development in Nigeria, the South East has improved in education as the literacy rate is on the rise.” Within this, literacy rate in Nigeria was measured with “alphanumeric standards” as coined by the National Demographic Survey (2010). Within the South East, Oranu (2005) examined education from the male point of view as he identified the important role of male child education vis-à-vis the social structure of Igboland. On the main, different aspects of education has been considered in Nigeria, as certain challenges and solutions to these challenges have been proffered by myriad scholars.

Literature Review on Universal Basic Education The idea of reforming the educational sector in Nigeria is age long. From the early days colonialism up to the post-independence period in Nigeria. Scholars like Omolewa, (2008) posit that the crisis in the educational sector began with the governments all out implementation of the 6-3-3-4 educational system. According to him, the 1950s British educational system of 8-6-2-3 and 6-5-2-3 were discarded for this new system wherein effective planning and needs assessment was not carried out. 6

Adesina (1980) identified the absence of planning within the Nigerian education sector and came up with the definition as a process of applying scientific and rational procedures to the process of educational growth and development to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of educational system. Lapses within planning for educational reforms had marred numerous pro-educational policies, for example the Universal Primary Education (UPE) had in its calculated plan for 2.3million children against the 3million that actual showed up for the program which was a 30 percent underestimation (Akpa, 1988). Despite these lapses the Federal Government of Nigeria had continued with different reform programs. Ismaila (1998) contends that 1975-1983 period witnessed the launching of numerous educational programs in Nigeria. Among such was the change in attitude by the Federal Government in funding the educational sector. With the 1979 Constitution, States and Local Government had direct control of over primary schools. This gave the States the free hand to attempt some educational reforms which included the returning of schools to the missionaries. Possibly the reason could be that the free Universal Primary Education policy of the Federal Government of Nigeria could not be sustained as the revenue to sustain it became militating factor. The contention that educational reform have been embarked on by developed, developing and less developed nations of the world is not new. Bello (2007) highlighted some of the major reasons for educational reforms to include: having education to include the relevant need of the people within the country, equip students with the relevant knowledge to change their private and professional lives, make education accessible to more people and pay more attention to science and technology. Understanding the importance of these reforms the Nigerian National Assembly passed the National Education Reform Act (Federal Ministry of Education [FME], 2007). This act consists of four (4) parts which had been underscored for promotion of education in Nigeria. Part 1 deals with preliminary issues, Part 2 contains the provision of 13 major chapters dealing with Basic and Secondary Education Commission, Tertiary education Board and other relevant education bodies in Nigeria including JAMB and WAEC. Part 3 deals with administrative provisions and Part 4 deals with final provisions. Also researches have indicated major changes of these reforms in Nigeria. Bas Fafuwa (1974) and Obioma and Ajagun (2006) outline specific changes like the first nine-year basic education eliminates disconnection between the primary and secondary school thereby ensuring continued curriculum. These researches have also indicated that with such reforms there is the need to take secondary school education beyond the level of the General Secondary School Education (GSE) and the need to incorporate Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) (UNESCO, 2005). A study by Jegede and Owolabi (2003) revealed the gap between policy and implementation in Nigeria, but during a presentation the Executive Secretary of the Universal Basic Education Commission, Dr Ahmed M. Mohammed posits the Federal Government of Nigerian has embarked on numerous schemes to ensure successful implantation of the educational reforms. Among such was the UBE Act of 2004. Among the provisions of this Act was that apart from the States and Local Government providing free Primary and Junior secondary education, parents who defaulted by not sending their wards or children to benefit from the UBE program would be liable to imprisonment and a fine. (UBEC, 2011).

Literature Review on the Development Development has always been a burning issue on the lips of academicians and public policy analyst. Economist identified a marginal difference between economic development and growth as the latter has a 7

significant impact on the population in terms of standard of living and general wellbeing (Anyanwu 1998). Also, within the sphere of development, there exist different approaches to attain development. Among such is the multilateralism approach which programs like the MDGs falls under. Here scholars like Jeffery Sachs and Bill Mender focus on a systematic relations between developed countries and developing ones. Wherein, the developed countries via grants, aids and pro-poor programs can assist the developing countries to attain development. Against this background, other scholars like William Easterly of the New York University, differs in approach to development. In his book White Man’s Burden, (which took the same title as Rudyard Kipling’s book)William Easterly argues that the self-acclaimed role played by developed nations in assisting developing ones has not yielded the much needed benefit. More so, since there is no free meal in international political economy relations, developed countries grant aids, loans and sponsor programs for their own benefit and not for the developing country. Proponents of this approach to development, believes the down-top system would be most sufficient for countries to achieve development.

Literature Review on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Global partnership for sustainable socio-economic development has always been the concern of the United Nations and other relevant international bodies. Faced with the disparities within different continents, there had to be calls and efforts towards achieving a closer margin between countries. The MDGs thus could be seen to be a general blue print developed by the world leaders on means to scale-up development efforts all over the world. According to Culpeper (2010), the importance of the MDGs is seen by reviewing the NorthSouth relations. Another angle to MDGs is if actually it is beneficial to the developing countries. Some scholars have viewed it with skeptism and believe the MDGs came from reactions to structural adjustment programmes which have dominated the continent for two decades. (Moss, 2010). Again a closer look at the MDGs could reveal the fact that these goals are actually set by developed countries for developing ones. Against this background, anti-neo imperialism scholars posit the MDGs has to do with development targets set by developed countries, using their development standards and yard sticks for developing countries which are not well positioned to achieve these goals. Initiatives to achieving the MDGs was the ensuring that developing countries continue to access international grants aimed at providing capital for implementation of the programs to ensure development. Apart from international grants, the United Nations and other International Development Partners (IDP) have been able to provide technical support for developing countries in capacity building in their bid to achieving the MDGs. Particularly, according to Jeffery Sachs, the Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on the MDGs, the United Nations commitment to the MDGs for developing countries could be reflected in the Millennium Village Projects (MVPs), ESSPIN-UN partnership, WaterAid partnership and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) partnership with different countries spread across Africa, Latin America and Asia. (UN World Report, 2010) Within the area of education partnership, United Nations had partnered with the Nigerian government to support the Universal Basic Education program alongside with the Federal Ministry of Education. The Sectors department under the Office of the Senior Special Assistant to the Nigerian President on MDGs had conducted a needs assessment and a Baseline facility inventory survey with the support of relevant agencies in Nigeria like the National Bureau of Statistic and the National Population Commission. Within this survey, it was recorded the various lapses (geo-graphical representation) within the education sector in Nigeria. 8

Identified were the number of schools within each State, the level of infrastructure available in these schools and the enrollment rate per region. (See MDGs Countdown Strategy Report, 2010) Another area the Universal Basic Education program has been supported by the MDGs is the area of teachers training and recruitment. The Federal Teachers’ Scheme and the in-service training by the National Teachers’ Institute have begun to address the urgent need to improve the quality of teaching. The disparities within regions are slowly eroding (MDGs Report, 2010). The MDGs has also been able to introduce other initiatives that have aided the enrollment procedure in the North Eastern part of Nigeria were this challenge is mostly felt. The Islamic and nomadic education systems introduced to aid the formal education system has succeeded in increase the number of children that can assess education within the region. (Nigeria DHS EdDATA Survey, 2010). On the whole, these efforts and more have significantly affected the level of education and socio-economic development in Nigeria. But there is serious need to evaluate these programs and ascertain if they are truly improving the lives of the average Nigeria. The communities and the local governments may thus be the best means to evaluate them.

Literature Review on Social Economic Development The need to monitor the level of social economic development in Nigeria has been a serious one. Scholars and academics have written extensively on the general level of social economic development in Nigeria. Ake (1976) examined the social economic development in Nigeria from the prism of economic relations which transcends the current century. Within his book, he identified areas like colonialism, neo-colonialism and the capitalist system as the major reasons for the social economic backwardness in Nigeria (particularly) and Africa generally. Other scholars like Nnoli (1988) took a political dimension to the social economic development in Nigeria. Identifying key sectors of the society which have decayed, Nnoli believe a social change can only be recorded when a significant political change is present. Nigeria’s ace author Achebe in his book title “The Trouble with Nigeria” posited the problem of social economic development in Nigeria lies in tribalism, leadership, false image, corruption and social injustice (but to mention a few). He went further to explain these phenomena in the Nigerian light and how they had rob off on the general well being of her people.

2.4 Summary of Chapter and Gap in Literature The chapter examined the historical background of the educational reforms in Nigeria and how it went a long way to influence the research topic. It pointed out certain issues which where relevant this research. Among such were the objectives of the UBE programme. Certain scholarly positions on the UBE and educational reforms in general were also highlighted in the research. Also examine was the scholarly views on the MDGs and how it affects development within countries like Nigeria. Furthermore the research reviewed the goals which were inter-related with the aims of the UBE (Goals 2). Although researches have been conducted on the general introduction of educational reforms in Nigeria and the Universal Basic Education noting much has been said as an evaluation process for this and other pro9

educational reform policies at the State, Local Government and even community level. Most scholarly positions on the UBE are within the purview of the Federal Government perception to it, thereby failing to underscore to what extent these policies and programs have actually contributed to the general socioeconomic development of peoples outside the Federal view –i.e. States and Local Governments. This therefore calls for serious concern as it is important for sustainable national socio-economic development. But a significant amount of these literatures does not examine the extent which these public policies are effective and contributing to the socio-economic development of Nigeria. The research findings would serve as an indicator to all the States as well as the Federal government, the need to constantly review its education policies; thereby jettisoning those ones which are not yielding the desired results.

References 1. Achebe C, (1985). The Trouble with Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension. 2. Adesina, S (1981). Introduction to Educational Planning. Ile-Ife, University of Ile-Ife Press. 3. Alabi, T. “Achieving Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: What Role for Open School” in UBE Forum Nov. 4th 2005, University Press, Ibadan 4. Akpa, G.O.: “Crisis Management in Education: The Case of the 6-3-3-4 and the Challenges for the School Administrator” in Akpa, G.O and Udoh, S.U (eds),(1988). Towards Implementation of the 63-3-4 System of Education in Nigeria, Jos: Tep. Educational Series. 5. Ake, C. (1988). A Political Economy of Africa, Ibadan : Longman. 6. Ayeni, M.A.(2000). Secondary Education: A New Look at the Nigerian Adolescents and young Adults. Abbe Publishers, Port Harcourt. 7. Bello, M.Y. “On the Need for Reforms in the Nigerian Educational Sector”, Daily Triumph November, 2005 8. Culpeper R.: “Development Beyond the MDGs”: A paper prepared for the UNRISD Project on Improving Economies, 2010. 9. Easterly, W.(2005). White Man’s Burden, New York: University Press. 10. Fafuwa B. A, (1974). History of Education In Nigeria, London: George Allen & Unwin.

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11. Gidado, T.(1998). Readings on Distance Education for the Pastoral Nomads of Nigeria, Kaduna: Magnet Publishers. 12. Itedjere, P.O. (1997).History of Education, Osasu Publishers, Benin City. 13. Jegede, P.O and Owolabi, J.A.: Computer Education in Nigerian Secondary Schools: Gaps Between Policy and Practice [Online] Retrived November 1st, 2011. http://www.ncsu.edu/medridian/sum/nigeria/index.html 14. MDGs Countdown Strategy Report 2010. A Publication of the Office of the Senior Special Assistant to the President on MDGs, Abuja in collaboration with the Earth Instituite of Columbia University, New York. 15. National Commission for Mass Literacy Adult and Non-Formal Education. Digest of Statistics on Mass Literacy Delivery in Nigeria 2010 16. Nigerian Health, Education Data Survey 2010. Prepared by the National Population Commission. 17. Obioma, G. and Ajagun, G. A.: “Establishing New Assessment Standards in the Context of Curriculum Change”. A Paper presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of International Association for Education (IAEA) held in Singapore, 2006. 18. Oranu, G. (2005).Boy Child Education in South East Nigeria; Lagos: Datcom Publishers. 19. Omolewa, N. “Education Reforms in Nigeria: Successive Years of Inconsistencies and Confusion”. A paper presented at the Gusau Educational Development Association (GEDA) Interactive Session, January, 2008. Todd, M.: “Are the MDGs Useful for Africa”, in World Bank Studies, 2010

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Chapter Three Research Methodology 3.1 Research Design: The research was designed in a pattern which in such a way that data gathered from the specific research population would go a long way to determine if the fortunes of education in Anambra State has improved. Furthermore, this could be determined by comparing the data derived with that form official sources like the UBE and State Ministry of Education. By cross matching the data, the research can thus determine how and to what level education improvement has been reached in Anambra State. A sample size would be needed to used within the research test the validity of the hypothesis highlighted in Chapter one. The sample size would consist of primary schools in Awka South Local Government Area specifically, head teachers, private school administrators and teachers alike. The aim herein is to ascertain within the school the level of impact the UBE and the MDGs have on the socio-economic development of Nigeria vis-à-vis Anambra State. The research was design to reflect areas where the UBE programs had directly affected schools in the research area. 3.2 Research Population: The research would concern itself specifically with the primary schools (42 primary schools in number) within this local government in Anambra State which will form the population of the research. This would be imperative as the data gathered from the research population would prove sufficient for the research. Furthermore, the people who will constitute the main research population would be school administrators, teachers, pupils (primary) and community leaders.

3.3 Sample Design/ Techniques: The sample size for the research would cut across males and females within the school of different age range who the research assumes would have adequate knowledge of the MDGs/UBE within the school. Thus the sample size would be 200 (Two Hundred) respondents. With seven community clusters, 20 respondents would be drawn from each while the remaining would be for other relevant information gathering institutions. The sample for the research would be drawn from the primary schools in Amawbia, schools administrators in the Local Government Secretariat, UBE office in Anambra and the MDGs Project Support Unit (PSU) within the Anambra State Ministry of Economic Planning. To add more quality to the research, the sample size would also include some of the neighbouring communities. Among such would be Nibo and parts of Awka. Generally, the sum total of the sample size drawn from various groups would make up the 200 number. On the main, the reason for selecting this sample size is to match the needs of the research.

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection: The research would use questionnaire, interviews, documented information as well as observation as data collection tools. Among these the main tool would be the questionnaire and interviews. Specifically, the questionnaires would be generated by the researcher reflecting the major issues as they concern the research 12

and would be administered to the relevant research population. A total of 200 questionnaires would be administered to the sample size population. The response rate would be reviewed and measured appropriately by the researcher. Data would be collected specifically from persons who would have sufficient knowledge of the subject matter and also those who can evaluate such government programs. 3.5 Sources of Data: The research used a combination of primary and secondary source of data. Among the primary sources would include interviews, observations and questionnaires. While secondary sources would consist of library documents, publications and other relevant works to get the required data. Within the gamut of this, the sources of data were evaluated so as to reflect their authenticity and objectivity for the research. 3.6 Method of Data Collection: A combination of survey and library methods were used in the data collected for the research. Data collection was carried out through a personal instrument like the questionnaires, interviews and documents from the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Schools and the State MDGs office. Also the relevant data from the State Ministry of education in Anambra were relevant for the data collection process.

3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument: In the course of the research the data collected via the questionnaires as well as other sources where validated to avoid personal bias of the respondents. This was done by cross-checking the information provided by the respondents. Furthermore, the respondents where persons whom the researcher felt would have sufficient knowledge on the research matter, thus their personal opinion reflected via the questionnaires could have a degree of reliability.

3.8 Administration/Retrieval Instrument: The questionnaire which would form the major source of data for this research would be administered to the research population on a one-to-one basis. Also, interviews would be conducted directly to some members of the research population. This would allow for proper evaluation, monitoring of data for the research. The population would be 200 respondents made up of students, teachers, school administrators, concerned government officials and agencies, community head as the case may be. 3.9 Method of Data Analysis: To be of any use, the data collected will have to be analyzed in a tabular form. According to Nwana (1996), analysis of data refers to those technique whereby the investigator extracts information that was not apparently there before and which would enable or be a summary description of the subject study to be made. The tables use was to reflect the various responses to the questions asked via the questionnaires administer to the research population. The table furthermore allowed for the researcher to deduce vital information from the research. 13

For analysis of the data collected, table and sample percentages were used. This was to enable the data collected represent a significant portion of the issue raised in the research.

3.10 Limitations of the Methodology: The research was limited by the inability of the relevant education authorities to provide adequate and up-todate data on education in Nigeria. Also the un-cooperative attitude meet the researcher met within the UBE State commission compounded the paucity of data (from the relevant authorities) for the research. On the main, other logistic challenges like finance and proper timing was also limited the study. However, the undaunted attitude the researcher adopted in overcoming these challenges to the extent that the findings were to a large extended valid.

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CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANAYLSIS OF DATA Within this chapter the researcher would seek to analyze the data collected from the questionnaires which had been distributed to the respondent and form there arrive at a deduction which would be used to for the research hypothesis. The Chi-Square method was used to interpret the data which was collected via the questionnaires.

4.1 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ACCORDING TO THE RESEACH QUESTION: The aim of this section is to use the data gather to answer the research questions using the table below as well as the Chi-Square formula. Details Number Distributed Teachers/school 80 Administrators Community 60 Leaders/MDGs PSU Students 60 Percentage 40% 30% 30% Number Returned 80 60 60 Percentage 40% 30% 30% 100% Number Lost Nil Nil Nil Percentage Nil Nil Nil

Total 200 100% 200 Table 4. 1 Questionnaire allocation and returned rate.

From the above table, it indicates that 40% representing the 80 questionnaires were distributed to the Teachers and school administrators in the research area while 30%, representing 60 questionnaires were distributed to the State MDGs PSU, Community Leaders and students. In the entire table indicates that there was no wastage in the questionnaires distributed.

Question 1: Table 4. 2 Since the UBE and MDGs program has there been significant improvement in enrollment rate of students in your school? Details Responses Percentages Yes 135 67.5% No 60 30% I don’t know 5 2.5% The above table clearly shows that 67.5% representing 135 respondents believe that enrollment was on the increase while 30% representing 70 respondents don’t believe that there is an improvement and only 2.5% representing 5 respondent could not rate enrollment.

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Question 2: If “Yes” to number 2 question, how would you rate this improvement? Details Responses Percentage High 40 30% Average 20 15% Low 70 52% I don’t know 5 3% Out of the 135 respondents who answered “Yes” to the first question, 30% rated the improvement as high while 15% said this was average. A total of 70 respondents (52%) said that the improvement was low while 3% of the total respondents could not rate the improvement.

Question 3: Has the UBE or MDGs renovated or re-build new class room blocks for your school Table 4.4 Details Reponses Percentage Yes 140 70% No 52 26% I don’t Know 8 4% The above table indicates that 70% of the schools in the research area have been renovated by the UBE and MDGs program. While 52 respondents (representing 26%) believe schools have not been renovated. Also 4% of the total respondents could not ascertain if their schools had been renovated.

Question 5 Has the UBE or MDGs supplied your school with instructional materials in the past year? Table 4.5 Details Responses Percentage Yes 107 53.5% No 66 33% I don’t know 27 13.5% The table shows that 53.5 % of the total respondents have been supplied with UBE/MDGs education materials in the past year, while 33% (representing 66 respondents) have not been supplied. Also 27 respondents who could not answer this question represented 13.5%.

Question 6 Have there been other types of UBE/MDGs program undertaken in your school Table 4.6 Details Respondents Percentage Yes 122 61% No 59 29.5% I don’t know 19 9.5% 16

The table shows that 61% of the respondents have had other programs undertaken in their schools while over 29% of respondents do not have other projects in their schools. Out of the total respondents, 19 (representing 9.5%) could not identify if there has been other UBE/MDGs projects in their schools.

Section B Question 1: How would you rate school enrollment in your community? Table 4.7 Details Respondents Percentage High 86 43% Average 45 22.5% Low 51 25.5% I don’t Know 18 9% The table above represents the idea which the research population has about student enrollment. It could be noted that 43% of the respondents rated high student enrollment within the research area while 22.5% and 25.5% rated this average and low respectively. Also, only 9% of the respondent did not know how to rate enrollment?

Question 2 Have there been any reconstruction of school buildings in your community? Table 4.8 Details Respondents Percentage Yes 130 65% No 70 35% I don’t Know Nil Nil From the table, it could clearly be seen that, 65% of the respondents school building reconstructed in their areas. Also, 35% of the research population believes that they have not seen any school build been reconstructed in their area.

Question 3: Has there been any sensitization of basic school enrollment in your community in the past year? Table 4.9 Details Respondents Percentage Yes 35 17.5% No 147 73.5% I don’t know 18 9%

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The table demonstrates that 17.5% of the respondents believe has been sensitization carried out on basic education enrollment in the community; while, 73.5% of the respondents believe otherwise. Also, 9% of the respondents could not ascertain in there had been sensitization carried out in their community.

Question 4: Has the community put in place measures to ensure increase in student enrollment? Table 4.10 Details Respondents Percentage Yes 134 67% No 56 28% I don’t Know 10 5% The table shows that a significant number of respondents have put in place other means to ensure that children enroll in schools within the community (67% of the total respondents). Also, 28% of the respondents believe that anything has been done at community level to enhance children enrollment; while, 5% of the respondents could not answer the question.

Testing of Hypothesis using Chi-square The hypothesis stated in chapter one would be tested using the Chi-Square. However, in the course of testing this, the following procedures would be observed. Presenting of relevant data Proper testing of data using chi-square Decision rule. Presentation of relevant table The researcher had to use questions 1 and 3 to represent the major data for the research as this would be where the research would focus on. Thus the hypothesis which based on the improvement in Nigeria’s social economic development via programs such as the MDGs and the UBE could be tested with these questions.

Proper Analysis using Chi-Square 18

X2 = (Fo-Fe)2 Fe Where: X2 = Chi-Square Fo = Observed Frequency or Value Fe = Expected Frequency or Value The tabulated Chi-Square (X2) value is obtained by placing the degree of freedom on the vertical axis and confidence level on the horizontal axis and tracing the point of intersection –it would be tested at 99% confidence level or make provision for 5% error. To determine the expected frequency, The formula is = Roll Total X Column total Grand Total i.e First column = 80X 62 = 18.6 200

Contingency Table: Responses Fo Yes 16 No 64 Yes 21 No 39 Yes 25 No 35 Total 200

Fe 24.8 55.2 18.6 41.4. 18.6 41.4

Fo-Fe -8.8 8.8 2.4 -2.4 6.4 -6.4

(Fo-Fe)2 -77.4 77.4 5.76 -5.76 40.96 -40.96

(Fo-Fe)2/Fe -3.1226 3.1226 0.3097 -0.3097 2.2022 -2.2022 X2= 0

From the above Fo = Observed frequency Fe = Expected Frequency To determine X2 tabulated at 0.05% significant level of degree freedom, D.F = (r-1) (c-1) Where R= roll C= Column Decision Rule As indicated, if X2 calculated is less than X2 tabulated, the null hypothesis will be accepted but if otherwise the case is, the alternative hypothesis will be accepted while null will be rejected. However, based on the analysis above X2 calculated = 0, while X2 tabulated = 5.991

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Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted and conclusion made that the MDGs have not improved the socioeconomic development on Nigeria via the Universal Basic Education program.

Decision of the Result. The result from the decision rule shows that the Universal Basic Education and the MDGs need to be evaluated to fit into the current challenges of the present day. Also from the research and data gathered, it has shown that a significant improvement has not been made in certain areas.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary: The whole research tries to indicate that certain challenges within the status quo has made if difficult for government programs such as the Universal basic education program and the international ones like the MDGs have failed to succeed. Using the data gathered from schools and other areas, the research has presented that there is a need for the government to review its program s and policies aimed at social and economic development. Particularly, the present challenges bedeviling the education sector has to be address if the nation would like to achieve sustainable development as human capital development is important in achieving this. However, apart from the lacunas in government circles, there is a lot of work to be done that the State and even local government level, as schools are not equipped with the right kind of instruction materials and the morale of teachers is always low. Thus, this could contribute negatively to the productive nature and the general output of the teachers. The research therefore indicates that the level of confidence in government programs such as the UBE and the MDGs is low and that there is need to evaluate these programs and bring the benefits of these programs to the people.

Conclusion: In concluding this research, it is expected that the Nigerian Government would initiate other processes which would go a long way to ensure that the benefits of these programs in the State as well as well as the rural areas are recorded. Among such might be a proper monitoring of the funds given to the relevant agencies which are charge with the duty of ensuring service delivery to the Nigerian people both in at State and Local Government levels. Also, a proper planning scheme could be developed by the State government rather than each sector or agency developing its own “presumed” plan and implementing it to their best way. This could help in ensuring that these programs fit directly into whatever national plan which the government might have for ensuring national development. Recommendation The research after the data gathered and presented recommends that this could be area for more extensive research on impact evaluation of certain government policies as well and modes for implementation of these policies. The research showed that the UBE and the MDG programs have not yet had the much needed impact within local communities and this impeded the social economic development of the Nigerian education sector (mostly the basic education). Against this background, the research recommends the involvement of community members within the planning process of the government programs as this would in the long run ensure sustainability (mostly when certain programs like the MDGs are time bound). Finally, the research recommends that social economic development planning in Nigeria has to start with proper data gathering as most government agencies could not provide the researcher with sufficient data (which owes largely to their inability to maintain data collected over the years).

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APPENDIX 1 Questionnaires Please supply the appropriate response to the questions asked as this would assist in the conduct of this research. You may wish to note that you are not required to provide your names and that your response would be treated in strict confidence.

SECTION A (To be completed by School Teachers and School Administrators) 1. Since the MDGs and the UBE has there been significant improvement in the enrollment rate of students in your school? Yes No I don’t Know

2. If “yes” to number 2 above, how would you rate this improvement? High Average Low I don’t know 3. Has the UBE or MDGs renovated or re-build new class room blocks for your school? Yes No I don’t know 4. If “Yes” to number 3 above, when last was this done? 5. Has the UBE or MDGs supplied your school with instructional materials (like books and teaching aids) in the past year? Yes No I don’t know 6. Have there been other types of UBE or MDGs projects (like capacity building, teachers training, MDGs toilets and workshops) undertaken for your school recently? Yes No I don’t’ know

SECTION B (To be completed by Community Leaders) 1. How would you rate the enrollment of children in your community? High Average Low I don’t Know 2. Has there been any reconstruction of school buildings in your community recently? Yes No I don’t know 3. Has there been any sensitization on basic education enrollment in your community in the past year? Yes No I don’t know 4. Has the community put other measures in place to increase student enrollment in schools? Yes No I don’t know 5. If “Yes” to number 4, please indicate which other measures were put in place (like community sponsored scholarships and family-sensitization).

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Interview questions for School pupils 1. Has your school supplied with desk and chairs by the Universal Basic Education Commission or the MDGs? 2. Has there been any renovation done in your school recently? 3. Has there been other projects have the MDGs or the UBE done in your school? 4. Which kind of projects were they (like toilets, writing materials and school uniforms)? 5. Do you have enough books for different subjects in your school? 6. Does your Teacher use teaching aids (like pictures charts and instructional materials)? 7. Would you like to come to school every day because of the chairs, books and new buildings that MDGs or UBE gave your school? 8. Does your teacher come to class every day? 9. Does your school give free lunch every day? 10. Have you been given free lunch in school? 11. Do your friends in other classes like coming to school because of the buildings, books, new toilet and lunch provided in your school? 12. Do you tell your friends who leave around your house to come to your school because of the new buildings, books and free lunch? 13. Have you improved in exams because of the teaching aids and new books introduced by UBE in your school?

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