INTRODUCTION Page turning is an important ancillary process of reading. This mechanical process,

however, is a source of great challenge and inconvenience to many people, including musicians, people with disabilities, and avid readers. We are working on such a device to solve this problem. The page turner can be placed directly on a piano, music stand, exercise equipment, or on the bed for convenient hands-free reading.

It is primarily intended for persons who have lost the use of their arms and who therefore requires the almost constant presence of an attendant to turn the pages of their reading matter. Turning a page of a book by hand appears to be a simple operation but when carefully analyzed, it is actually somewhat complicated. The first move is picking up the page with fingers and separating it from the others. Following this the arm carries the page to the left side and the hand performs a smoothing out operation. If the pages have a tendency to spring back the hand holds them down while the book is being read. To produce these motions mechanically for persons who are physically disabled, the size,weight and simplicity of the mechanical device are of special importance.




Earlier inventions relate to a page turning device for mechanically turning a page of a book or of any other collection of leaves fastened together along a hinge line, which device comprises holding means for holding the book, movable seizing means for seizing the page to be turned and for lifting it at least in part with respect to the subjacent page, a transparent plate overlying the surface of the open book and rotatably suspended from the device, which plate comprises a sector-shaped cutout, the trailing boundary edge of which can move between the lifted page and the subjacent page during rotation, and take the lifted page along and turn it completely upon further rotation of the disc, as known from a publication of the "Stichting Technische Voorlichting ten behoeve van Lichamelijk Gehandicapten," published in the periodical "Instelling en Management" II, (1970) no. 8, page 3.

This known page turning device had a seizing means a sharply pointed arm pushing up the page to be turned so that at least part thereof is lifted with respect to the subjacent page, after which the transparent plate, as described above, takes the page along and turns it completely. When a page is lifted in this way it often happens that not only the page in question, but the subjacent page is pushed up and lifted, so that the rotating disc will turn two pages instead of one page.

The invention aimed at avoiding these drawbacks by applying as seizing means a suction mouth having an intake, which, seen in the page-lifting position, is so positioned that the plane of its open end enclosed an acute angle with the part of the page remote from the hinge line. As a result of the inclined position of the suction mouth intake with respect to the page to be turned, the part of the page remote from the hinge line of the pages is lifted in an S-form. In case the subjacent page tends to follow the first page in adopting the S-form, these pages will inevitably slide relatively to each other so that the second page becomes detached from the first and subsequently falls back. This effect is improved, because the air that flows to the suction mouth also flows between the two pages, even if the outer edges of the first and the second page are or become spaced the slightest distance apart, so that a better separation of the two pages is affected. After the suction mouth has lifted the page, the 2

transparent plate is rotated and moves with its, seen in the direction of rotation, trailing boundary edge under the lifted page and turns it completely upon further rotation. The transparent plate, which may be manufactured from

polymethylmethacrylate, could be driven by a motor through reduction gearing. The way in which the device is electrically energized and its circuitry for instance, the way in which the movement of the plate is controlled, will not be further discussed, since this can be devised by the skilled designer and furthermore does not constitute part of the invention.

An MIT inventor recently built a device that matches the futuristic requirements of George Jetson with the technological know-how of Leonardo da Vinci. Ernesto Blanco designed a page turner that automatically turns the pages of a book without the reader lifting a finger. The device was created at the request of musicians, who don't always have a free hand for turning the pages of their music while they're playing. But it could also prove useful for people with multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or other medical conditions. The high-tech gadget offers an improvement on a very low-tech medium: printed books. "The technology I'm using here was available to Leonardo da Vinci in 1490; we're 500 years behind in inventing this," said Adjunct Professor Ernesto Blanco of mechanical engineering, who invented his first page turner in response to a request from his iolinplaying niece, his second in response to a pianist friend, and the third for an exhibit at MIT's List Visual Arts Center. He's currently working on a fourth. The device utilizes a mechanical arm with a small spool of sticky tape that lifts each page and turns it. The musician or reader can operate it with the push of a button, or set a timer. Professor Blanco built the prototypes himself using molded plastic and circuitry; only the small motor and the batteries were off-the-shelf items.


He built the first one about 23 years ago. Professor Blanco teaches engineering design courses at MIT and uses the page turner as a case study on the design process. Part of its beauty is that it has an inexpensive design using basic mechanics, but demanded ingenuity to come up with a workable solution. For instance, in this case suction wouldn't work as the mechanism for lifting pages, because paper is porous. And sticky tape, which works well now, proved difficult at first; once it stuck to the paper, the page wouldn't fall off. Professor Blanco finally realized the paper would fall off when the tape was rolled, and thus hit upon the answer: a spool of sticky tape that rolls a bit and strips off easily.


CONCLUSION FROM LITERATURE REVIEW Though the previous inventions of page turning devices have their own advantages and disadvantages. One way of doing this is by replacing the electronic device by providing some air suction mechanism to hold the page but that may again damage the page while turning. The electronic page turning devices have the disadvantage of high price. In developing countries like India where cost is the main factor page turning devices have to be made inexpensive. There is also a need of proper adhesive which will be able to stick the link to the page and also detach from the page after one page is turn.3. Making this mechanism simple in construction and compact in size would make it possible to be used as and when needed. This drawback caused problems in the proper functioning of the device and often caused damage of the book. their design were very complicated and size was quite large. Hence utilizing low cost mechanism containing mechanical linkages would be a suitable alternative as they require very little maintenance and cost much less. 5 .

The pages of the book will not be damaged. The device will be switch operated.4. The mechanism can be actuated using foot. OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT WORK This project work intends to develop a page turning device to turn the pages of any book. 6 . The mechanism will be able to pick the page of a book and turn it . The mechanism will use a motor to drive the crank of the mechanism.

KINEMATICS FUNDAMENTALS KINEMATIC CHAIN: An assemblage of links and joints. DEGREE OF FREEDOM: Of a mechanism. In case.5. A redundant chain does not allow any motion of a link relative to the other. MECHANISM: A kinematic chain in which at least one link has been grounded. or attached. 7 . it is a non-kinematic chain. to the frame of reference (which itself may be in motion). interconnected in a way to provide a controlled output motion in response to a supplied input motion.the number of inputs which need to be provided in order to create a predictable output. Of a body: the number of independent coordinates required to define its position. TOGGLE: The toggle positions are determined by the colinearity of two of the moving links. the motion of a link results in indefinite motions of other links. MACHINE: A combination of resistant bodies arranged to compel the mechanical forces of nature to do work accompanied by determinate motions.

TRANSMISSION ANGLE: It is the angle between the output link and the coupler. ii) Number synthesis. ANALYSIS: to determine the motion characteristics of a given mechanism. SYNTHESIS: to design or create a mechanism to give a certain motion. iii) Dimensional synthesis. FUNCTION GENERATION: correlation of an input motion with an output motion in a mechanism. It is usually taken as the absolute value of the acute angle of the pair of angles at the intersection of the two links. 8 . PATH GENERATION: control of a point in a plane such that it follows some prescribed path. MOTION GENERATION: the control of a line in a plane such that it assumes some prescribed set of sequential positions MECHANISM SYNTHESIS: It includes i) Type Synthesis.

Analytical Methods – this approach is suitable for automatic computation.TYPE SYNTHESIS: Type synthesis refers to the definition of the proper type of mechanism best suited to the problem and is a form of qualitative synthesis. DIMENSIONALSYNTHESIS: It is the determination of the proportions(lengths) of the links necessary to accomplish the desired motions TYPES OF DIMENSIONAL SYNTHESIS: Graphical Methods – provide the designer with a quick straightforward method but parameters cannot easily be manipulated to create new solutions. Once a mechanism is molded and coded for computer. Graphical method Analytical method using MATLAB 9 . NUMBER SYNTHESIS: It is the determination of the number and order of links and joints necessary to produce motion of a particular DOF. parameters are easily manipulated to create new designs.

The mechanism has to generate the specific path. 5. It should be simple of operation. The three points which are necessary for the coupler to pass through are taken. The input will be from a motor and switch which will operate to form a single coupler curve of the coupler. 10 . 4. Characteristics of the mechanism: 1. 6. A MATLAB code is written for the three position synthesis. of independently adjustable parameters that define the mechanism. Three points which are necessary for the coupler to pass through to achieve the desired function are defined. of points equal to the no. The above nine inputs are calculated from these three points and these inputs are fed into the MATLAB program. The path of the coupler is defined. 2. This type of synthesis requires nine inputs: Three positions of the crank. three corresponding positions of the point on the coupler and their distances from any standard frame of reference.6.1 PRECISION POINT METHODS This method is used to find out a solution that will pass through the desired points. For a fourbar linkage the required parameters are nine. We will use three position analysis to find out the dimensions of the linkages that will follow our desired path. based on the problem. The description of the function of the mechanism indicated that a 2D planar symmetrical four bar mechanism would be suitable. The mechanism should be light. By using the MATLAB code the exact configuration and link lengths of our mechanism are obtained. Should be of standard size. METHODOLOGY CONCEPTS AND ANALYSIS The main aim of the project is to synthesize and analyze a linkage mechanism which will be able to lift a page and turn it and come back to the same position before the next operation without damaging the book. This method is limited for matching a no. 3. Mechanism should be simple in construction.

It minimizes an objective function that can be defined in many ways. This type of synthesis requires nine inputs: three positions of crank. By this method a mechanism can be synthesized in which a specified point on the coupler will follow any desired curve. COUPLER CURVE EQUATION METHOD This is a solution to the path generation problem. three corresponding positions of the point on the coupler and their distances from any standard frame of reference. Three points were chosen which are very important for the coupler of the mechanism to pass through. The path of the coupler was defined . whose solution was readily available. MATLAB was then used to generate and run the code to obtain the dimensions of the mechanism. At the end of this process the exact configuration and the link lengths of the mechanism were obtained. 6.3. This code was verified with a standard problem.6. based on the problem statement. These inputs were readily got from the chosen precision points. This project uses analytical linkage synthesis methods which is the three position synthesis to determine the dimensions of the mechanism. a general MATLAB code to solve any three position synthesis method was written. The necessary inputs were fed into this code to obtain the exact lengths of the mechanism. Secondly. The whole three position was then written into a MATLAB code.2. 11 . such as least square deviation between the calculated and the desired coupler point positions. OPTIMIZATION METHODS It is an iterative optimization procedure.

Ѳ2. that is r1. α2. Ѳ3) and three positions of the coupler point E given by three values of r and α.1.α3 are known. ψ respectively.7. γ and h. 12 . 7. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS METHOD Analytical synthesis methods are used to determine the dimensions of the mechanism.r2. THREE POSITION METHOD A four link mechanism ABCD with coupler point E is shown in the figure below. A MATLAB code has been written to find the dimensions of a.r3 and α1. c. e and f along with the locations of the pivots A and D given by g. Three positions of the input link (Ѳ1.

1) Where K= e2 –a2 – g2 Since the above equations are non linear. c. δ is obtained. b.4) where µ = ag The above equation is solved for unknown by proper substitution and the values of a . g . g. f are obtained as calculated from simple mathematical equations. f. Thus we have the values of a.The basic equation used to find the link lengths are: The vector equation used for the loop OABE is given by Seo =Seb + Sba +Sao . C. a = la + µma (4.1) g sinγ + a sinθ + e sinβ – r sinα = 0 (2. 13 . B. D have been located and the dimensions a.3) k = lk + µmk (4. ψ.(1) Decomposing the vector along x and y axis we get g cosγ + a cosθ + e cosβ – r cos α =0 (2. e. Similarly the equation is repeated for the loop ODCE and the values of h. c. ψ are obtained. d.1) g = lg + µmg (4. From these values the points A. f. k is obtained. γ. the following substitution has been made in order to solve the equations. The whole procedure is repeated for the loop ODCE and the values of h. c.2) Eliminating ‘e’ from both the equations 2ar cos(θ-α) + 2gr cos(α-γ) + k = r2 +2ag cos(θ-γ) (3. e.

one end of which will be attached to the coupler BP and the other end will be on the right hand side of the book.5 mm. So the curve generated on the coupler will be same as that on the book and this is how the page will be turned. e= 168mm. b= 399 mm. f= 294 mm. A link is attached perpendicular to the plane of the fourbar linkage. c= 50. 14 .The dimensions of the links obtained are: a=110 mm. d= 452 mm.

1 STEPPER DC MOTOR: A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. you can control the pulses that are sent and control the positioning and speed. A stepper motor can be a good choice whenever controlled movement is required.8. Stepper DC motor 2. medical equipment. TYPES OF DC MOTORS AND SWITCHES AND THEIR SELECTION 1. The rotor of the motor produces torque from the interaction between the magnetic field in the stator and rotor. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. hard disk drives. Because of the inherent advantages listed previously. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. fax machines. 15 . Pancake DC motor 8. Some of these include printers. automotive and many more. The strength of the magnetic fields is proportional to the amount of current sent to the stator and the number of turns in the windings. Since the shaft of the motor moves only the number of degrees that it was designed for when each pulse is delivered. speed. Brushed DC motor 4. They can be used to advantage in applications where we need to control rotation angle. Brushless DC motor 3. position and synchronism. high end office equipment. The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied. plotters. The motors rotation has several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. stepper motors have found their place in many different applications.

16 . This is what makes the rotor feel like it is clicking from one position to the next as you rotate the rotor by hand with no power applied. The number of degrees the rotor will turn when a pulse of electricity is delivered to the motor can be calculated by dividing the number of degrees in one revolution of the shaft (360°) by the number of poles (north and south) in the rotor. the residual magnetism in the rotor magnets will cause the rotor to detent or align one set of its magnetic poles with the magnetic poles of one of the stator magnets. This means that the rotor will have 24 possible detent positions.1. Diagram that shows the position of the six-pole rotor and eight-pole stator of a typical stepper motor. When no power is applied to the motor.Figure below shows a typical cross-sectional view of the rotor and stator of a stepper motor. it will have enough magnetic force to keep the shaft from moving to the next position. When the rotor is in a detent position. In this stepper motor 360° is divided by 24 to get 15°. Another way to say this is that the rotor will move precisely 15° for each pulse of electricity that the motor receives. The rotor will require 24 pulses of electricity to move the 24 steps to make one complete revolution. From this diagram you can see that the stator (stationary winding) has eight poles. Figure 8. and the rotor has six poles (three complete magnets).

17 . The following paragraphs will explain each component in greater detail.2. 7. 5. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor. Excellent response to starting/ stopping/reversing. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to the shaft. 8. Not easy to operate at extremely high speeds. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized) 3. 4.Requires a controller. 2. and are readily available in all sizes and shapes. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3 – 5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next. 2. rotor. 3. 6. Therefore the life of the motor is simply dependant on the life of the bearing. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Brushed DC (BDC) motors are inexpensive. 8. easy to drive. 4. The construction of a simple BDC motor is shown in figure below. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses.ADVANTAGES: 1. making the motor simpler and less costly to control. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control. Resonances can occur if not properly controlled.High initial cost. All BDC motors are made of the same basic components: a stator. BRUSHED DC MOTOR: Brushed DC motors are widely used in applications ranging from toys to push-button adjustable car seats. brushes and a commutator.

is made up of one or more windings.Figure Simple two pole brushed DC motor STATOR The stator generates a stationary magnetic field that surrounds the rotor. also called the armature. When these windings are energized they produce a magnetic field. causing the rotor to turn. This field is generated by either permanent magnets or electromagnetic windings. The different types of BDC motors are distinguished by the construction of the stator or the way the electromagnetic windings are connected to the power source. As the motor turns. the windings are constantly being energized in a different 18 . ROTOR The rotor. The magnetic poles of this rotor field will be attracted to the opposite poles generated by the stator.

Speed / torque is moderately flat. Higher rotor inertia which limits the dynamic characteristics 5. Operates in extreme environments due to lack of electronics DISADVANTAGES: 1. BRUSHES AND COMMUTATOR Unlike other electric motor types (i.e. therefore.. Periodic brush replacement maintenance is required 2. Instead. brushless DC. No controller is required for fixed speeds 6. Poor heat dissipation due to internal rotor construction 4. ADVANTAGES: 1. carbon brushes slide over the commutator. called a commutator. the commutation of the windings of a BDC motor is done mechanically. It is important to note that the brushes and commutator are the parts of a BDC motor that are most prone to wear because they are sliding past each other. Low cost of construction 4. Replaceable brushes for extended life 3. BDC motors do not require a controller to switch current in the motor windings.sequence so that the magnetic poles generated by the rotor do not overrun the poles generated in the stator. The segments are attached to different rotor windings. A segmented copper sleeve. Lower speed range due to mechanical limitations on the brushes 6. resides on the axle of a BDC motor. At higher speeds brush friction increases. coming in contact with different segments of the commutator. Brush arcing will generate noise causing EMI 19 . As the motor turns. AC induction). a dynamic magnetic field is generated inside the motor when a voltage is applied across the brushes of the motor. causing reduced torque 3. Two wire control 2. Simple and inexpensive control 5. This switching of the field in the rotor windings is called commutation.

The D. brushless. However. The stator windings are similar to those in a polyphase ac motor. When the functions of commutator and brushes were implemented by solid-state switches.C. Figure Disassembled view of a brushless DC motor 20 . known as the permanent magnet synchronous motor. These motors are now known as brushless dc motors.C.8.C. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR: Conventional dc motors are highly efficient and their characteristics make them suitable for use as servomotors. permanent magnet brushless motors. and the rotor is composed of one or more permanent magnets.3. Brushless dc motors are different from ac synchronous motors in that the former incorporates some means to detect the rotor position (or magnetic poles) to produce signals to control the electronic switches as shown in figure. maintenance-free motors were realised. motors have received considerable attention throughout the industrial world since the early 1970’s. Computer disc drives and small fans are exclusively D. The most common position/pole sensor is the Hall element. their only drawback is that they need a commutator and brushes which are subject to wear and require maintenance. Brushless D. The figure illustrates the structure of a typical three-phase brushless dc motor.C. However their use is still very limited as we approach 1990’s. The construction of modern brushless motors is very similar to the ac motor. servo world is slowly and methodically on an application by application basis being painfully converted to permanent magnet D. but some motors use optical sensors.

8. Complicated motor speed controls. the main source of motor losses are I2R or copper losses. High torque low speed gearless designs possible. 7. 6. Zero torque under shorted conditions. Extremely high speed operation possible. Construction is somewhat complex with multiple fields and delicate magnets. DISADVANTAGES: 1. 2. Capable of operation over wide temperature range. Most motor drivers brake DC brushless motors by applying reverse current. 4. in which almost as much power is expended to stop the motor as was required to start it moving. Rugged. Losses at high speed: If we consider average to low speed motors with antifriction bearings. Motor operation requires the purchase of a complicated electronic motor driver.ADVANTAGES: 1. Permanent magnets not used to produce torque. 5. 9. 2. Operates without any mechanical brush/cummutator parts. 5. 21 . Majority of losses contained in stator for ease of cooling. 6. 4. High initial cost. Require advanced electronic speed controllers to run. 10. Relatively simple drive topology required. Can be used as motor or generator. simple machine. 3. 3. 7.

The printed armature (originally formed on a printed circuit board) in a printed armature motor is made from punched copper sheets that are laminated together using advanced composites to form a thin rigid disc. They are highlighted by low shrinkage and low exotherm. The brushes run directly on the armature surface making the whole design very compact. 22 . in that it does not have a separate ring commutator. such as ServoDisc. The printed armature has a unique construction. in the brushed motor world. arranged in a circle.8. in a flower and petal shape. This design is commonly known the pancake motor because of its extremely flat profile. The windings are typically stabilized by being impregnated with electrical epoxy potting systems.4. although the technology has had many brand names since its inception. The unique advantage of ironless DC motors is that there is no cogging (vibration caused by attraction between the iron and the magnets) and parasitic eddy currents cannot form in the rotor as it is totally ironless. facing the rotor and forming an axial air gap. These are filled epoxies that have moderate mixed viscosity and a long gel time. PANCAKE DC MOTOR: A rather unusual motor design the pancake/printed armature motor has the windings shaped as a disc running between arrays of high-flux magnets. and are typically UL 1446 recognized as a potting compound for use up to 180°C. This can greatly improve efficiency. An alternative manufacturing method is to use wound copper wire laid flat with a central conventional commutator.

Use of pancake motor in wheelchairs: What separates the pancake motor from conventional axial motor is its slotless disc armature. The unique advantages that the slotless pancake motor technology has brought include:   Very long operating life Absolutely zero cogging for ultra smooth velocity & torque even at slow speeds       Low armature mass for high accelerations and decelerations Low inductance for almost instantaneous torque Very high peak torques for rapid accelerations Flat motor profile for extremely compact size Stamped winding technology for very high reliability and low cost Low Electrical Noise 23 . In addition to performance advantages. This difference enables pancake motors to deliver a level of performance which is not attainable with conventional ironcore motor designs used by most traditional power wheelchairs in today's market. humanoid robotic systems. power scooters. such as power wheelchairs.but variable-speed controllers must use a higher switching rate (>40 kHz) or direct current because of the decreased electromagnetic induction. pancake motors have a unique flat & compact shape that is best fit for motorized wheel applications. industrial automation and medical devices. Due to the variety of constructions now available the technology is used in applications from high temperature military to low cost pump and basic servo applications. Pancake motors are still widely used in high-performance servo-controlled systems.

Lowest power consumption: less than 4Amps at speed of 4MPH at level 3.makes the mechanism simple. Two-motor combined output power: 400W/24V or 600W/36V with the same set of motors 4.Figure: Use of pancake motor in modern wheelchairs for physically challenged people Benefits obtained by using pancake motor in our page turning mechanism: 1. neat and light 2. Super integrated motorized wheel drive -. State of art wheelchair joystick controller 24 .

5. COMPARISON OF TYPES OF MOTORS AVAILABLE & SELECTION: Type Advantages Disadvantages Typical Application Typical Drive Stepper DC Precision positioning High torque High initial cost Positioning Requires a in and drives printers floppy DC holding controller Brushless DC Long lifespan High initial cost Hard drives DC a CD/DVD players electric vehicles low maintenance Requires High efficiency controller Brushed DC Simple control speed Maintenance (brushes) Steel Paper mills Direct DC or PWM Medium lifespan making Costly machines commutator and Treadmill brushes exercisers automotive accessories Pancake DC Compact Simple control design Medium cost Office Equip Direct DC or PWM speed Medium lifespan Fans/Pumps 25 .8.



MATERIALS UNDER CONSIDERATION 1. Some alloys are cast. Wood 9.g. 9. The surface can be "anodised".1. Mild steel 3. but protects itself very effectively with a thin oxide layer.1 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS Aluminium is a lightweight. with Si. Mg. reasonably cheap metal widely used for packaging and transport. The material should be cheap and corrosion resistive. e.1. Magnesium alloys 5.e it should be lighter and it should be able to transmit the motion without getting deformed. others are used for wrought products. It has only been widely available and used for the last 60 years. Aluminium alloys 2. MATERIAL FOR THE LINKS The material for the link should have high strength to weight ratio.  Raw aluminium has low strength and high ductility (ideal for foil).9. Cu. i. to resist corrosion and to give decorative effects. Design strengths:      High strength-to-weight ratio High stiffness-to-weight ratio High electrical and thermal conductivity Easy to shape Easy to recycle 28 . Alloy steel 4. Strength is increased by alloying. Zn.  Aluminium is quite reactive. and heat treatment.

Design weaknesses:  Difficult to arc weld Typical Products       Aircraft Bicycles Car engines "Space frame" car bodies Drinks cans Window frames 9. Modern steels and ferrous alloys have mostly been developed since the Industrial Revolution.2%C.2. They are cheap.1-0. Design strengths:      High strength-to-weight ratio High stiffness-to-weight ratio Good strength with high toughness High stiffness Very cheap 29 .1. strong steels used for construction. and cover a wide range of alloys based on iron and carbon. and must be protected by painting.  All steels have a high density and a high Young's modulus. The strength of iron-carbon alloys.  Mild steel rusts easily. The strength of mild steel is improved by cold working. It is inherently very tough. galvanising or other coatings. has been exploited for thousands of years (since the "Iron Age").  Mild steel contains 0. particularly after heat treatment. MILD STEEL  Steels are the most important engineering materials. transport and packaging.

0%). buildings.   Easy to shape Easy to weld Easy to recycle Design weaknesses:   High density Poor electrical and thermal conductivity Typical Products       Large structures .1. oil rigs Car body panels. The strength of iron-carbon alloys. particularly after heat treatment. covering a range of carbon contents (0. trains Machine tools Pressure vessels Food packaging Nails 9. ALLOY STEEL  Steels are the most important engineering materials. driveshafts. pressure vessels. has been exploited for thousands of years (since the "Iron Age"). but are more expensive. The medium to high carbon content steels respond well to heat treatment (such as "quenching and tempering") to give very high strength and good toughness for gears. tools.bridges. depending on the amount of additional alloying elements.11. 30 .3.  Alloy steels are mostly fairly cheap. Heat-treated high alloy steels give very high strengths. Modern steels and ferrous alloys have mostly been developed since the Industrial Revolution. and cover a wide range of alloys based on iron and carbon.  Alloy steels containing other elements as well as carbon are classified into low alloy and high alloy.

 Alloy carbon steels rust easily. All steels have a high density and a high Young's modulus. shafts Cutting tools Pressure vessels Hand tools (spanners.oil rigs Bicycles Railway track Bearings. working and heat treatment. hammers etc) 31 . and must be protected by painting or other coatings. gears. The strength and toughness of alloy steels can be varied enormously by alloying. Design strengths:       High strength with good toughness High stiffness Mostly very cheap Quite easy to shape Easy to weld Easy to recycle Design weaknesses:   High density Poor electrical and thermal conductivity Typical Products        High integrity structures .

 Magnesium is a reactive metal. with good stiffness and strength relative to their weight.usually cast Chemically reactive Poor corrosion resistance Typical Products   Motorcycle and car wheels Automotive castings 32 . Most alloys are cast.4. MAGNESIUM ALLOYS  Magnesium alloys are the lowest density metals. which burns intensely.1. as it has poor formability. It has a low melting point.  Pure magnesium is alloyed to improve its strength. It therefore requires careful handling during casting.9. Design Issues Design strengths:    Low density High stiffness-to-weight ratio High strength-to-weight ratio Design weaknesses:    Difficult to shape .

WOOD Wood is our most important raw material.5. It is important not only because it is used for literally hundred of products.9. but also it is a renewable natural source. Design strength   Very cheap Low density Design weaknesses   Low stiffness to weight ratio Low strength to weight ratio 33 .1.


ωc be the angular velocities of the links AB.10. -aωasinθ-bωbsinβ+cωcsinφ=0 aωacosθ+bωbcosβ-cωccosφ=0 solving these two equations we obtain ωc. VELOCITY ANALYSIS OF THE MECHANISM E Let ωa.ωb. Differentiating the displacement equation we obtain the governing equations for the velocity. ωb (1) (2) ωc=(awasin(β-Ѳ))/(csin(β-φ)) ωb=-(aωasin(θ-φ))/(bsin(θ-β)) (3) (4) 35 . BC and CD respectively.

Ru=Ueiφ Vu=jUωceiφ (7) (8) FOR LINK 3 As the link 2 and link 4 the coupler link is not a straight link. Vector of point A with respect to O2 and vector to an arbitrary point P on the coupler. For this the coupler link the position vector at a point on it is given as the summation of two vectors. The position vector of point S given by Rs.The equations concerned to the link 4 are as shown here. Rs =Sejθ Vs =jSωaejθ (5) (6) FOR LINK 4 Finding velocity at a point on link 4 is perfectly similar to the link 2. So in the velocity vector the real part is X-component of velocity at that point. Rp=Ra+Rpα Rs=aejθ+Pejβ Vs=(-aωasinθ-Pωbsinβ)+j(Pωbcosβ+aωacosθ) (9) (10) (11) 36 .FOR LINK 2 Let S be the distance to an arbitrary point on link 2 from O2 and θ is the crank angle.The imaginary part is the Y-component of velocity at that point. Differentiating Rs we get the velocity vector of that point. The equation goes as shown below. Differentiating this vector we get the velocity vector. It is bent to some angle at a distance b from the point A.

v/ω =(0.52 rad/s.1*4)/5=0. Torque required to turn the page T =F.5 mm)50mm Vu = 603 mm/s enter the distance of an arbitrary point on coupler from A along the link (<450 mm) 250mm vp = 408. ωao =5 rad/s.04 watts.Rq=Rα + Rbα +Rqb Rq=aejθ+bejβ+qejφ Vp=jαωaejθ+jbωbejβ+jQωbejφ (12) (13) (14) Vp =(aωasinθ-bωbsinβ-Qωbsinφ)+j(Qωbcosφ+bωbcosβ+aωacosθ) (15) OUTPUT OF VELOCITY ANALYSIS: (At Crank velocity= 5rad/s) enter the crank angle(in degrees) 30 enter the distance of an arbitrary point on the crank from O2(<a=110 mm) 100mm Vs = 500 mm/s enter the distance of an arbitrary point on output link from O4(<c=50. 37 .9 mm/s Angular velocity of the coupler ωbc =vbc/bc ωbc =607/398 =1.08N-m Power required = (2*π*N*T)/60 =(2*π*5*0.08)/60 =0.

c. Thickness:3mm Rs. PAGE FLIP LITE AUTOMATIC PAGE TURNER Rs.5m.11.350 Rs. 9.Rs. COST Links Length:1.250 Rs.10 Rs. 7.25 Rs. APPROXIMATE COST ESTIMATION FOR THE MECHANISM: PARTS 1. motor Electronic brass push button starter switch Cost of 50X30cm GI sheet of 2mm thickness Threads and fastners Page Turning link Adhesive to turn the page Wooden Base : 2cm thickness and 50cm long Book holder / book stand Rs.300 TOTAL COST ---------------------------------------------------. PAGE FLIP CICADA PAGE TURNER Rs. Some of the prices of page turners available are: 1. 5.15000 3. BI-FT1 FOOT PAGE TURNER Rs.3000 2. 8. 3.30 Rs.30 Rs. 4. 2. 6.40 Pancake d.40 Rs. Width: 15mm.5000 38 .1075 This is quite cheaper than other available page turner devices in market.

 Following this the velocity analysis of the mechanism is done and the velocities are obtained.  From the velocity. which can be made as crank. CONCLUSIONS  A general MATLAB code has been generated to find the dimensions of any mechanism for three position method.  This MATLAB code has been tested and verified.  There will be at least one mechanism which will undergo full rotation.12.  A working prototype is made which shows that there are no toggle positions in the mechanism. the torque and power are obtained to rotate the mechanism. Which is lesser than the market price. 39 .  The dimensions obtained shows that it is a Grashoff’s linkage.  Approximate cost of the mechanism is 1075 rs.

springer.Sandur. Tata McGraw Hill. www.patentstorm.com 7. 3. Arthur G.softintegration. 2nd edition.13.Mechanism Design-Analysis and synthesis Vol I and II.org 4.com 40 . REFERENCES 1. Norton.wikipedia.mechanism101.George N. www.com 6. www.Erdman. www.1999 2. www.com 5. Design of Mechinery. Robert L.

Y1=C1\D1. phi=phi*pi/180. 1. 1. Mk=Y1(3). delta1= 30. 1]. gama=gama*pi/180. Ma=Y1(1). delta1=delta1*pi/180. a3=a3*pi/180. La=X1(1). 1].007. A1=[2*r1*cos(theta1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-gama) 2*r2*cos(theta2-a2) 2*r2*cos(a2-gama) 2*r3*cos(theta3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-gama) B1=[r1^2. Lg=X1(2). 2*cos(theta2-gama). gama = 24. 1. a1=a1*pi/180. theta3 =2. r2=356 . a1= 36.%input(‘theta2=’) . 1. B=La*Mg+Lg*Ma-1. 41 . 2*cos(theta3-gama)]. A=Ma*Mg.APPENDIX This section contains all the MATLAB codes used.%input(‘theta1=’). X1=A1\B1.408. Lk=X1(3). a3= 45. Mg=Y1(2). Three Position Method clear clc theta1 = 2.r3^2].%input('theta3=') r1 = 396.76. a2= 40. r3 =338.r2^2. phi= 25. C1=[2*r1*cos(theta1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-gama) 2*r2*cos(theta2-a2) 2*r2*cos(a2-gama) 2*r3*cos(theta3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-gama) D1=[2*cos(theta1-gama). theta2 = 2. 1. a2=a2*pi/180.

2*r3*cos(delta3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-phi) 1]. A2=[2*r1*cos(delta1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-phi) 1. lamda2=roots([A2 B2 C2]). Ma2=Y2(1).r3^2]. b=sqrt((e^2+f^2-(2*e*f*cos(delta1-beta1)))). D2=[2*cos(delta1-phi). d=sqrt((g^2+h^2-(2*g*h*cos(gama-phi)))). e=sqrt(k+a^2+g^2). Mk2=Y2(3). C2=La2*Lg2. c=sqrt(k2+f^2+h^2). beta2= acos((r2*cos(a2)-g*cos(gama)-a*cos(theta2))/e). beta1= acos((r1*cos(a1)-g*cos(gama)-a*cos(theta1))/e). B2=La2*Mg2+Lg2*Ma2-1. 2*cos(delta2-phi). Mg2=Y2(2). delta3=delta1+beta3-beta1. lamda=roots([A B C]). delta2=delta1+beta2-beta1. Lg2=X2(2). 2*r2*cos(delta2-a2) 2*r2*cos(a2-phi) 1. Y2=C2\D2. X2=A2\B2. C2=[2*r1*cos(delta1-a1) 2*r1*cos(a1-phi) 1. B2=[r1^2. k=Lk+(Mk*lamda(i)). g=Lg+ (Mg*lamda(i)). k2=Lk2+(Mk2*lamda2(i)). La2=X2(1). for i=1:2 a=La+(Ma*lamda(i)). 2*r2*cos(delta2-a2) 2*r2*cos(a2-phi) 1. Lk2=X2(3). mat=[]. for i=1:2 f=La2+(Ma2*lamda2(i)). 2*r3*cos(delta3-a3) 2*r3*cos(a3-phi) 1].r2^2.C=La*Lg. beta3= acos((r3*cos(a3)-g*cos(gama)-a*cos(theta3))/e). h=Lg2+(Mg2*lamda2(i)). A2=Ma2*Mg2. 42 . 2*cos(delta3-phi)].

TRANS=acos((b^2+c^2-a^2-d^2+(2*a*d*cos(thta)))/(2*b*c)). %thickness in cm% omgA=10. %converting into radians % phi1=2*atan((-B+sqrt(B^2-4*A*C))/(2*A)) . theta=input('enter the crank angle(in degrees)'). c=50. link makes with ground % phi2=2*atan((-B-sqrt(B^2-4*A*C))/(2*A)) . %angular velocity of crank% alpA=5 . l=(a^2+b^2-c^2+d^2)/2 . TRANS=TRANS*180/pi. A=k-a*(d-c)*cos(theta)-c*d . end thta=0:15:360. %input a b c d theta % k=(a^2-b^2+c^2+d^2)/2 . coupler link makes with the grounds % %angle that output % angle that 43 . b=399 . B=-2*a*c*sin(theta) . if mu1<mu2 mu=mu1. E=2*a*b*sin(theta) . if mu>90 mu=180-mu. theta=theta*pi/180. end mu=mu*180/pi. VELOCITY ANALYSIS clc a=110 . d=452 . F=l-a*(d-b)*cos(theta)-b*d .a b c d e f]. mu2=(acos(((b^2)+(c^2)-((d+a)^2))/(2*b*c))). end end mat mu1=acos(((b^2)+(c^2)-((d-a)^2))/(2*b*c)). f=168 .5 . beta2 =2*atan((-E+sqrt(E^2-4*D*F))/(2*D)) . t=5 . maxi=max(TRANS). C=k-a*(d+c)*cos(theta)+c*d . 2. mini=min(TRANS).mat=[mat. else mu=mu2. thta=thta*pi/180. D=l-a*(d+b)*cos(theta)+b*d . g=294 .

vp2=sqrt(vpx2^2+vpy2^2) % thetavp2=atan(vpy2/vpx2) 44 . vpx2=-(a*omgA*sin(theta))-(p*omgB2*sin(beta2)). % thetaVs is the angle at which velocity makes with the horizontal % thetaVs= (thetaVs*180)/pi. % output link. Vs=sqrt(Vsx^2+Vsy^2) % velocity at a point @ S distance from O2% thetaVs = atan(Vsy/Vsx). thetaVu= (thetaVu*180/pi). Vuy= u*omgC*cos(phi1) .%angular velocity of the coupler % omgC2=-(a*omgA*sin(beta2-theta))/(c*sin(phi2-beta2)). vpy= (a*omgA*cos(theta))+(p*omgB*cos(beta1)) .5 mm)' ). Vsy=s*omgA*cos(theta). % velocity at a point at u distance from O4% thetaVu2=atan(Vuy2/Vux2) . u is the distance from O4 to any point on output link % u= input(' enter the distance of an arbitrary point on output link from O4(<c=50. Vuy2=u*omgC2*cos(phi2) . vp=sqrt(vpx^2+vpy^2) thetavp=atan(vpy/vpx).beta1= 2*atan((-E-sqrt(E^2-4*D*F))/(2*D)) . thetavp=(thetavp*180)/pi . % coupler link. thetaVu2= (thetaVu2*180/pi) . % crank link. % angular velocity of the output link % omgB=-(a*omgA*sin(phi1-theta))/(b*sin(phi1-beta1)) . vpy2= (a*omgA*cos(theta))+(p*omgB2*cos(beta2)). omgC= -(a*omgA*sin(beta1-theta))/(c*sin(phi1-beta1)) . Vux= -(u*omgC*sin(phi1)) . Vu=sqrt(Vux^2+Vuy^2) % velocity a point @ u distance from O4% thetaVu=atan(Vuy/Vux) .S is the distance from O2 to any point on the crank % s= input('enter the distance of an arbitrary point on the crank from O2(<a=110 mm)' ) . % point of intersection of link2 and link3 is A % if p<=b vpx=-(a*omgA*sin(theta))-(p*omgB*sin(beta1)) . p is distance from A to any point on coupler % p= input ( 'enter the distance of an arbitrary point on coupler from A along the link (<450 mm)' ). Vux2=-(u*omgC2*sin(phi2)) . omgB2=-(a*omgA*sin(phi2-theta))/(b*sin(phi2-beta2)). Vu2=sqrt(Vux2^2+Vuy2^2) . Vsx=-(s*omgA*sin(theta)) .

vqx2=-(a*omgA*sin(theta))-(b*omgB2*sin(beta2))(q*omgB2*sin((pi+44*pi/180)+beta2)). else q=b-p. thetavq= (thetavq*180/pi). q is distance from B to any point on the outside part of the coupler % vqx=-(a*omgA*sin(theta))-(b*omgB*sin(beta1))(q*omgB*sin((pi+44*pi/180)+beta1)). vq2=sqrt(vqx2^2+vqy2^2) % thetavq2=atan(vqy2/vqx2) % thetavq2=(thetavq2*180/pi) end 45 . % 44 is the angle between the link 3 b/w and its outer part% vqy=(a*omgA*cos(theta))+(p*omgB*cos(beta1))+(q*omgB*cos((pi+(44*pi/18 0)+beta1))). %coupler link.% thetavp2= (thetavp2*180)/pi. vq=sqrt(vqx^2+vqy^2) thetavq=atan(vqy/vqx) . % 134 is the angle between the link 3 b/w and its outer part % vqy2=(a*omgA*cos(theta))+(p*omgB2*cos(beta2))+(q*omgB2*cos((pi+(44*pi /180)+beta2))).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful