M.G.Morshad , Additional Chief Manager / Elec Mtce
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd.

Electric motor is an electromechanical energy-converting device. It converts electrical energy to mechanical kinetic energy and mechanical device (machine) - pump, fan, conveyor, crane etc coupled to the electric motor, translates this energy to final work. Normally machine requires constant speed for doing the assigned work and therefore electric motor of constant speed, mainly induction motor is preferred for rotating the machine. But there are some applications, where machines demand variable speed for better performance of the system. In such application variable speed motor is required for driving the machine. DC motor is always considered as most suitable for variable speed application. It is because of its field orientation configuration (armature is kept at right angle to the field with the help of commutator), which allows controlling of torque and flux independently. But higher cost and restriction in application have made DC motor unsuitable for most of the industries. As an alternative, various methods for controlling the speed of industry friendly induction motor have been developed. Out of those, V/f method, which is also known as scalar control, has got the wide popularity in industries though its performance is not as good as DC motor. To obtain the performance similar to DC motor, field orientation in induction motor has been tried since seventies. With the advent of modern technology it became possible only in early nineties. This new method is known as vector control. Direct Torque Control or DTC is a simplest form of vector control with fasted dynamic response. It has got the attention of all modern industries for its simplicity, adoptability, and high dynamic response. Considering the future prospect of this new

technology, an effort is being made through this article to describe the basic principle of DTC, which might help to select the right drive for DTC application.

Fundamentals of induction motor-When three phase voltages are applied to the stator of induction motor a rotating magnetic field of constant amplitude is produced in air gap - which rotates at (120 x f) /P RPM (synchronous speed). Flux of rotating magnetic field cuts stationary stator winding as well as rotor bars simultaneously. As an effect, back emf in stator (which opposes the applied

fan blower etc where T α N 2. 4) Varying stator frequency. which allows the motor to draw high current. 2) Varying stator voltage 3) Varying slip. This method of speed control is known as V/f control.proportional to the relative speed between rotating field and rotor are induced. Alternatively DTC has got the capability to deliver fast dynamic response and accurate control. variation of operating voltage in accordance with the applied frequency for maintaining V/f = constant. variable frequency method has so far been popular in industry because of it ability to change the motor speed widely in a stepless manner. back emf will be high which demands higher voltage to operate the motor. back emf will be less. crane. It is achieved through field orientation by knowing electromagnetic state of the motor. Since motor torque is proportional to (V) 2. Because of such inconvenience.1) Changing pole. The attraction between stator and rotor poles created by the respective magnetic fields causes development of electromagnetic torque and rotor starts rotating in the direction of stator magnetic field just below the synchronous speed. hoist etc. For constant torque load like conveyor. current starts flowing through the bars and a magnetic field is produced in rotor. voltage and frequency are varied simultaneously for keeping the motor flux constant. Concept of field orientationThe force of attraction between stator and rotor magnetic poles creates the required electromagnetic torque in electrical motor and the torque is defined by the following relation . Out of those. During operation at lower speed (frequency less than 50 Hz). makes the motor to deliver low torque at lower speed. since induced back emf (E = K Φ f) of the motor gets changed with the variation of stator frequency. voltage boost is needed at lower speed. Speed variation in induction motor Speed of induction motor can be varied by . But simple variation of frequency cannot give the desire result.voltage) and rotor voltage . But poor dynamic response in v/f method makes it unsuitable for accurate control. Therefore this method is mainly suitable for controlling the speed of variable torque load like centrifugal pump. Similarly at higher speed (frequency greater than 50 Hz). Since rotor bars are short circuited.

Once the field orientation is achieved. Mathematical modeling of induction motor With the help of Clarke and Park transforms. Being a singly excited machine similar decoupling of torque and flux is not directly possible in induction motor.-- Rotor magnetic field axis N σ = Torque angle S Stator magnetic field axis N S T = (Stator magnetic field strength) X (Rotor magnetic field strength) X Sinσ. Or alternately it can be said that maximum torque can be produced if stator magnetic field is kept perpendicular to rotor magnetic field. The model can estimate the stator current along the direction of two-reference axis D and Q as shown in the fig. It is possible only if motor parameters are estimated with respect to the two-reference axis (Q and D axis) and field orientation similar to separately excited DC motor is achieved electronically. This condition is known as field orientation. where σ is the angle between stator and rotor magnetic field axis known as torque angle. In a separately excited DC motor. It shows from the relation that for obtaining maximum torque. . three-phase induction motor can be modeled in an arbitrary two-axis (D & Q axis) rotating reference frame. σ (Torque angle) must be 900. Motor parameters along the two-reference axis can be estimated by mathematical modeling of induction motor. it is maintained by keeping armature axis at right angle to the field axis with the help of commutator. torque in DC motor is easily controlled by varying the armature current and by keeping the magnetizing current constant.

flux component of stator current component along D axis (Is cosσ).torque component of stator current along Q axis (Is sinσ) and maintaining motor flux within hysteresis band . Therefore simplified equivalent circuit of induction motor can be drown as follows-- Now by producing stator field perpendicular to the rotor field . can be achieved in induction motor for decoupling of torque and flux similar to DC motor Field orientation in induction motor In induction motor three-phase windings of stator are placed 1200-space angle. S4. S5 and S6. S3.Q axis Axis of stator magnetic field I sinσ S σ D axis / Axis of rotor magnetic field S N I cosσ N When stator current component along D axis (Is cosσ) maintains the motor flux. component along the Q axis (Is sinσ) maintains the torque of the motor. Therefore entire winding can be divided in six sections i. . S2. S1.e.

Semiconductor devices act like switches and converts DC bus voltage to AC by operating three semiconductors switches sequentially.Axis of phase Y S2 S3 B" R Y" S1 Axis of phase R B S6 R" Y S4 S5 Axis of phase B A voltage source inverter consists of six semiconductor devices (IGBT / Thyristors) connected across the DC bus. Positive (+) DC BUS Voltage Source Inverter Negative (-) Y R Motor winding Now if a voltage source inverter is connected to induction motor. six-voltage vector in six sectors and two zero voltage vector can be produced by operating eight combinations of three switches (1 for + side switch close and 0 for . B .side switch close) of inverter as shown in fig.

04 and 0.300 V5 101 111 & 000 S6 / 300 . Knowing the rotor position (magnetic field) if stator voltage vectors are chosen to apply perpendicularly. high torque ripple might lead to unstable operation. .60 Voltage vector V1 Position of voltage vector 110 S2 / 60 -120 V2 010 S3 / 120-180 V3 011 S4 / 180 .240 V4 001 S5 / 240 . It has to be done much faster than the rotor time constant. Thereby it is achieved through Digital Signal Processing (DSP).1s. which is much faster than microprocessor. otherwise. which is usually between 0.Switch combination 100 Sector/ Angle S1 / 0 . The processing speed of microprocessor is not sufficient for carrying out such operation.360 V6 V7 & V8 Zero Voltage Rotor time constant is larger than the stator one. since rotor flux changes slowly compared to the stator flux and therefore rotor flux can be assumed constant. But for such operation motor parameters like rotor position. then required field orientation can be achieved. flux and speed need to be calculated very accurately and based on those calculated values stator voltage vectors are to be applied.

1. It consists of estimator. Estimator – It calculates the instant torque & flux components of stator current (Is sinσ & Is cosσ) from the operating motor current. 3. selection table and Voltage Source Inverter. The function of torque and flux comparator is to receive the error (Reference – Instant) signal of torque & flux current component and compare it with the hysteresis band of the motor and then send signal to the switching table of the inverter. . 2.DTC control schematic: Simplified control diagram of stator flux based DTC is shown in the figure below. the torque (Is sinσ ) and flux (Is cosσ) components of stator current must be within the hysteresis band of the motor. Torque & flux comparator – To avoid saturation of core due to over fluxing (V/f ratio higher than rated) which causes over heating of motor. comparator. Reference torque (T) & flux (ψ) – It is the maximum capability of the motor to deliver torque and flux component of stator current which is estimated by the design parameters and idle running of the motor.

The torque and flux profile in all the six segments of any motor is determined considering probable condition as shown in the following figure and then based on those conditions a voltage vector selection table II (switching table) is prepared for controlling the operation of inverter.4. . Switching table .

voltage vectors V2 .above reference (+1). V0 & V6 are to be applied with respect to the torque demand . stator flux becomes higher than required (Φ =0). Continuous adjustment of torque with respect to the reference makes motor torque pulsating in nature as shown in the following figure. For decreasing stator flux voltage vectors V3. reference (0) and below reference (-1). reference (0) and below reference (1). V0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7 WHEN Φ =1 V2 V6 V3 V1 V4 V2 V5 V3 V6 V4 V1 V5 S1 V7 S2 V0 S3 V7 S4 V0 S5 V7 S6 V0 WHEN Φ =0 V3 V5 V4 V6 V5 V1 V6 V2 V1 V3 V2 V4 . Operation When motor runs at higher speed. Voltage source inverter. For increasing stator flux in S1 sector. V7 & V5 are to be applied with respect to the torque demand . stator flux becomes lower than required (Φ =1). Similarly when motor runs at lower speed.above reference (+1).A three phase voltage source inverter is configured as shown below with IGBT for carrying out switching operation as per the switching table. But due to high processing speed of DSP (25 microseconds per cycle) such torque ripples are not seen in practical application.5.

S4. In such cases motor has to be cooled by independent fan. With rotor position feed back. S5. S3. S6) Measure . crane hoist etc. . Therefore it is suitable for speed variation of constant torque load like conveyor belt. maximum torque at zero speed is also possible to achieve. S2.motor current (R & Y phases) & DC voltage and estimate Actual speed Is set speed > actual speed? NO Increase frequency YES Reduce frequency Actual torque Actual flux Compare reference torque (τ) with actual 0 = Reference +1 = Low -1 = High Compare actual flux (Φ) within hysteresis band 0 = Low 1 = High Commutate IGBT as per the following look up table APPLICATION Because of field orientation control DTC can achieve rated torque at lowest speed without increasing motor current beyond full load.SIMPLIFIED CONTROL LOGIC FOR DTC Find section of operation (S1.

Dynamic response is slow (because of PWM).industry might afford to achieve that goal by installing DTC in place of conventional variable speed drives. Researches are still going on to improve its performance further and in near future it will replace all types of conventional variable speed drive including DC motor. Dynamic response is very fast Most suitable for the application of accurate and precious control. . Torque pulsation is observed due to continuous adjustment of torque. Mainly suitable for the application of variable torque load. Does not generate current harmonic (due to absence of PWM). Motor needs to be derated CONCLUSIONDTC is the latest development in the field of VSD technology. Shaft torque is smooth.PERFORMANCE SUMMARIES V/f control-• • • • • Motor torque is speed dependent Voltage boost is needed for obtaining high torque at lower speed. When cost reduction is considered as the index of growth . Motor always consumes optimum power due to field orientation. Generates current harmonic (due to PWM). Special winding insulation is required for withstanding voltage spike generated by IGBT during switching • Separate motor cooling fan is needed if motor is operated continuously at lower speed. Accurate and precious control cannot be achieved due to slow dynamic response. • • • DTC -• • • • • • • • Motor torque is load dependent Control is simple and without PWM.

Bose -.Morshad Qr No 139/D Type II.Department of Electronics and Information Technology . The Direct Control of Induction Motors.B.ts2@nlcindia. Member.IEEE Press. Neyveli Tamil Nadu Cell: 09487154163 Email: energymanager.Kyo-Beum Lee.Antoni Arias Pujol 5. Bose. Ick Choy.K.Bimal K. IEEE.Thesis .Kawamura and K.REFERENCES 1. Member. 1996. Student Member.Morshad Additional Chief Manager Electrical Maintenance I Thermal Power Station II Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd Dist Cuddalore. I. Block 7 NLC Township Neyveli . Joong-Ho Song. IEEE Department of Electrical Engineering The University of Tennessee. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motors . Life .University of Glamorgan. Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives .. Knoxville USA 6. Tamil nadu 607803 Cell: 09487154163 Email: mollamorshad@gmail. Sensorless Control of AC Drives IEEE Press. 3. IEEE 4. . 2. and Ji-Yoon M. 1997.G. . Ludtke. A. Torque Ripple Reduction in DTC of Induction Motor Driven by Three-Level Inverter With Low Switching Frequency . IEEE. High Performance Control of Induction Motor Drives . Matsuse M.Rajashekara. K.

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