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Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations
THE EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
Industrial revolution - smaller jobs, more specialization and less responsibility for the final product Early 1900’s - product inspection introduced -Fredrick Winslow Taylor 1924 - statistical control charts - W. Shewhart of Bell Laboratories 1930, - acceptance sampling - H.F. Dodge & H.G. Roming of Bell Labs. 1950’s - quality assurance, statistical quality control methods introduced to the Japanese - W. Edwards Deming - “cost of quality” concepts - Joseph Juran- “total quality control” including product design and materials Armand Feigenbaum 1960’s-“zero defects” emphasize employee performance-P. Crosby 1970’s - quality assurance methods throughout the entire process
DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY
Performance - characteristics of the product or service Aesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, taste Special features - extra characteristics Conformance - customer’s expectations Safety - risk of injury or harm Reliability - consistency of performance Durability - useful life of the product or service Perception - reputation
Service after the sale - handling of complaints, customer satisfaction
EXAMPLES OF QUALITY DIMENSIONS
(Product) Automobile Everything works, fit & finish Ride, handling, grade of materials used Interior design, soft touch Gauge/control placement Cellular phone, CD player Antilock brakes, airbags
(Service) Auto Repair All work done, at agreed price Friendliness, courtesy, Competency, quickness Clean work/waiting area Location, call when ready Computer diagnostics Separate waiting area
Aesthetics Special features Convenience High tech Safety
Infrequency of breakdowns Useful life in miles, resistance to
Work done correctly, ready when promised Work holds up over time Award-winning service Department Handling of complaints
Durability Perceived Quality Service after Sale
rust & corrosion Top-rated car Handling of complaints and/or requests for information
QUALITY AWARD AND CERTIFICATIONS:
• Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award • Deming Award • European Quality Award • Australian Quality Award • Confederation Of Indian Industries Award • ISO 9000 Certification • ISO 14000 Certifications
MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD
• The award is designed to promote the following: 1. An awareness of quality. 2. Understanding the requirements of quality. 3. Sharing of information on successful strategies and derived from implementation.
• The award presented to companies in three categories: 1.manufacturing 2. service 3. small business • The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is the centerpiece of the Baldrige National Quality Program. This award, which since 1988 has been presented annually by the President to recognize performance excellence, focuses on an organization's overall performance management system. It does not certify product or service quality. • Evaluation is done on a 1000-point system categorised under seven parts as given below:
• Leadership(95): The leadership category examine how senior leader of an organization address value and performance expectation as well
as their focus on customer and other stake holder, empowerment ,innovation ,learning and organzational direction.
• Information And Analysis :(75) The information and analysis category examines an organization’s performance measurement system and how it analyses performance data and information.
• Strategic Planning:(60) The strategic planning category examines an organization’s strategy development process,including how it develops strategic objectives ,action plans and human resource plan. • Human Resource Development And Management : (150) The human resource focus category examines how an organization enables to develop and utilise their full potential, aligned with the organization’s objectives. • Process Management:(140) The process management category examines key aspects of an organization’s process management, including customer-focused
design, product and service delivery, support & supplier process involving all work units.
• Business Results:( 180) The business result category examines organization’s performance and improvement in key business areas-customer satisfaction ,product & service performance etc.
• customer and market focus:(300) The customer and market focus category examines how an organization determines requirements, expectations and preferences of customers and markets. THE BALDRIGE AWARD MODEL:
Few companies that got Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award are Listed below Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Kansas City,MO, 2009 Southcentral Foundation, Anchorage, AK, 2011 DEMING AWARD: • The best known prize, with the longest history, is the deming prize award by japanese union of scientists and engineers(JUSE)to individuals and companies with out standing TQM. • The deming prize was instituted in december 1950. • There are 3 categories of deming prizes: 1. The deming prize awarded to individuals 2. The deming prize awarded to compaines,and
3.The deming factory price • Some of the tangible and intangible effects reported by companies that have been awarded deming prizes are: TANGIBLE EFFECTS a) increased market share. b) Increased sales volume c) Increased production volume d) Improved quality e) Fewer complaint INTANGIBLE EFFECTS: • Increased awareness management. and everyone’s involvement in
• Better communication-horizontally and vertically. • Improved quality of work. • Improved human relations. • More confidence in new –product development. In india,1998 Deming Award is awarded to one of our company named Sundaram Clayton Ltd
EUROPEAN QUALITY AWARD:
• The European Quality Award was first presented in Europe in 1992 to honour the most successful exponent of Total Quality Management (TQM).
• To receive the Award, an applicant must demonstrate that its approach to TQM has contributed significantly over the past few years to satisfying the expectations of customers, employees and others with an interest in the company. • The European Quality Award is not a standard but a competitive award like the previous ones. • It is a single annual award presented to the most successful TQM practices in western Europe. • European Quality Award model:
Few companies that got European Quality Award are listed below:
1997 SGS-Thomson 1998 TNT UK 1999 Yellow Pages 2000 Nokia
THE AUSTRALIAN QUALITY AWARD:
• Is called the Australian Business Excellence Award,it is instituted by Australian Quality Council.
• The 7 point framework is 1. leadership and innovation 2. stratergy and planning process 3. data information and knowledge 4. people 5. customer and market focus 6. process,product and services 7. business results • Some principles of Australian Business Excellence Model: 1. Clear direction allows organizational alignment and focus on the achievement of goals 2. Continual improvement and innovation depend on continual learning. 3. All people work in a system ,outcomes are improved when people work on a system. 4. Effective use of facts ,data and knowledge leads to improved decisions. 5. All systems and process exhibit predictability and performance. variability, which impacts
Few companies that won Australian quality award are:
TNT Express 2004 - MIS Innovation Awards, Winner of the Premier Award plus winner of Enterprise Solutions Award, Supply Chain Excellence Award, Off the All Award and finalist in Communications and Networking Award, Customer Service Award and E-business Award. 1991 - Baxter Australia wins Australian Quality Award and Baxter Quality Award.
CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN INDUSTRIES AWARD: • The award is based on a comprehensive model focusing organization’s practices and performance. on
• The award was establish to promote awareness of business excellence as an increasingly important element in competitiveness. • The award also increases the understanding of the elements critical for excellence. • Criteria For Business Excellence: 1. Leadership 2. Policy & Strategy 3. People Management
4 .Resources 5. Process 6. Customer Results 7. People Results 8. Society Results 9 .Key Performance Results
ISO 9000 STANDARDS:
• International quality certification program guided by the International Standards Organization (ISO) – Any firm that passes an ISO standards audit will be certified. – U. S. participates in the development of these standards: – American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – American Society for Quality (ASQ) – Professional organizations
• A certification program in environmental management • It describe the requirements for registration of the organization’s EMS. • The basic approach to EMS begins with the environmental policy, which is followed by planning, implementation and operation, checking and management review.
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: • There are many methods for quality improvement. These cover product improvement, process improvement and people based improvement.
• In the following list are methods of quality management and techniques that incorporate and drive quality improvement: • ISO 9004:2008 — guidelines for performance improvement. • ISO 15504-4: 2005 — information technology — process assessment — Part 4: Guidance on use for process improvement and process capability determination. • QFD — quality function deployment, also known as the house of quality approach.
• Kaizen — 改善, Japanese for change for the better; the common English term is continuous improvement. • Six Sigma — 6σ, Six Sigma combines established methods such as statistical process control, design of experiments and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in an overall framework. • PDCA — plan, do, check, act cycle for quality control purposes. (Six Sigma's DMAIC method (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) may be viewed as a particular implementation of this.) • Quality circle — a group (people oriented) approach to improvement. • Taguchi methods — statistical oriented methods including quality robustness, quality loss function, and target specifications. • The Toyota Production System — reworked in the west into lean manufacturing. • Zero Defect Program — created by NEC Corporation of Japan, based upon statistical process control and one of the inputs for the inventors of Six Sigma. Kansei Engineering — an approach that focuses on capturing customer emotional feedback about products to drive improvement.
• TQM — total quality management is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. First promoted in Japan with the Deming prize which was adopted and adapted in USA as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and in Europe as the European
Foundation for Quality Management award (each with their own variations). • TRIZ — meaning "theory of inventive problem solving" • BPR — business process reengineering, a management approach aiming at 'clean slate' improvements (That is, ignoring existing practices). • OQM — Object-oriented Quality Management, a model for quality management.