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Counselors help students in the transition from high school to college and assist re-entry and late-entry students

in adjusting to the academic environment. The counselors aid students in clarifying goals and setting realistic objectives, as well as helping students with specific personal issues. Definitions of 'vocational guidance' the process of assisting a student to choose, prepare for, and enter an occupation for which he or she shows aptitude

Educational Guidance, the helping of persons to do better in their studies and to select courses and schools that will be fitted to their tastes and abilities. Closely related is vocational guidance, the helping of persons to find the right kind of work. Persons who give educational guidance are usually called counselors. Many schools employ trained full-time counselors. Their work often includes helping with students' emotional problems. In many schools the principal or one or more selected teachers serve as part-time counselors. Home-room teachers often play a main part in a school's guidance program. In colleges and universities, professors (called faculty advisors) and deans of students act as counselors. A counselor tries to help each student to understand himself better and make the most of his talents. The counselor first learns about his family background, the school subjects he likes or dislikes, and his interest in athletics or other activities. He studies the student's school record and may give him aptitude and other special tests. In working with the failing student, the counselor may advise on how to improve study habits. Counselors provide information on college or graduate school entrance requirements and scholarships, and may also give vocational guidance. mental hygiene-That branch of hygiene dealing with the preservation of mental and emotional health. mental hygiene, the science of promoting mental health and preventing mental illness through the application of psychiatry and psychology. A more commonly used term today is mental health. In 1908, the modern mental hygiene movement took root as a result of public reaction to Clifford Beers's autobiography, A Mind That Found Itself, which described his experiences in institutions for the insane. Beers adopted the name "mental hygiene" (suggested by Adolf Meyer) to describe his ideas, and founded the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene (1908) and the National Committee for Mental Hygiene (1909), the group which organized the National Association for Mental Health in 1950. Each of these groups sought to improve the quality of care for the mentally ill, to prevent mental illness where possible, and to ensure that accurate information regarding mental health was widely available. The National Institute of Mental Health has been responsible, since 1949, for the major portion of U.S. research in mental illness. The mental hygiene movement has accomplished, among other advances, wide reforms in institutional care, the establishment of child-guidance clinics, and public education concerning mental hygiene. Science of maintaining mental health and preventing disorders to help people function at their full mental potential. It includes all measures taken to promote and preserve mental health: rehabilitation of the mentally disturbed, prevention of mental illness, and aid in coping in a

stressful world. Community mental health acknowledges the relation between mental health, population pressures, and social unrest. It also deals with social problems, from drug addiction to suicide prevention. Treatment of the mentally ill through the ages has ranged from neglect, ill treatment, and isolation to active treatment and integration into the community, often in response to crusading reformers. Prevention of mental illness includes prenatal care, child-abuse awareness programs, and counseling for crime victims. Treatment includes psychotherapy, drug therapy, and support groups. One of the most important efforts is public education to combat the stigma still attached to mental illness and encourage those affected to seek treatment. Child Guidance Clinic Telephone - 786-7841 School Based Support Services for Children and Families The Child Guidance Clinic provides clinical service to students, families and schools in the Winnipeg School Division and various independent schools in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We are comprised of four geographical units, including Central, Inner City, North and South that provide services in the area of Clinical Reading, Communication Disorders (Speech Language Pathology and Audiology), School Psychology and School Social Work. PIONEERS OF COUNSELING
Frank Parsons (1854-1908) is known as the Father of Vocational Guidance. Although he was educated as an engineer at Cornell University, he wrote several books on social reform movements and articles related to women's suffrage, taxation, and education for all. Additionally, he taught history, math, and French in public schools, worked as a railroad engineer, and passed the state bar examination for lawyers in Massachusetts in 1881. His university occupations included teaching at Boston University School of Law and at Kansas State Agricultural College (See Kansas State University), and serving as dean of the extension division of Ruskin College in Trenton, Missouri. However, Parsons is best known for his interests in helping individuals make occupational and career choices (Zunker, 2002).

In 1901, Mrs. Quincy Agassiz Shaw, a philanthropist, established the Civic Service House in Boston as an effort to provide educational opportunities for immigrants and young persons seeking work. Later in 1905, Parsons became director of one of the Civic Service House programs called the Breadwinner's Institute (Zunker, 2002). Afterwards, Parsons organized the Bureau of Vocational Guidance. Nine months later, Parsons used the Bureau to train young men to be counselors and managers for YMCA's schools, colleges, and businesses. A few years later, the School Committee of Boston created the first counselor certification program, and eventually the program was adopted by Harvard University as the first college-based counselor education program (Schmidt 2003). Also, the superintendent of Boston schools designated 100 elementary and secondary teachers to become vocational counselors, this became known as the Boston Plan. Within a few years, school systems across the country followed suit.

On May 1, 1908, Parsons presented a lecture that had tremendous impact on the career guidance movement, by presenting a report that described systematic guidance procedures used to counsel 80 men and women who used the bureau for help. Shortly later, he died on September 26, 1908, and his major work, Choosing a Vocation, was published in May 1909. Parsons developed a framework to help individuals decide on a career. This framework contained a three part formulation.
1. First, a clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, limitations, and other qualities 2. Second, a knowledge of the requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensations, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work 3. Third, true reasoning of the relations of these two groups of facts (Parsons, 1909, p. 5, as cited in Zunker, 2002)

According to Parsons, ideal career choices are based on matching personal traits (aptitude, abilities, resources, personality) with job factors (wages, environment, etc) to produce the best conditions of vocational success. Parson's framework later became the basis of the contemporary trait/factor theory of career development. Jesse Davis (born November 9, 1965) is an American jazz saxophonist. Davis began as a student in Ellis Marsalis's New Orleans Center for Creative Arts.[1] After graduating, Jesse Davis embarked on a productive jazz career, recording 8 albums on the Concord Jazz label, alongside collaborations with such artists as Jack McDuff and Illinois Jacquet. Davis has studied music at Northeastern Illinois University,[1] and in 1989 he received a "Most Outstanding Musician award" from Down Beat magazine.[2] Clifford Whittingham Beers (1876 1943) was the founder of the American mental hygiene movement. Beers was born in New Haven, Connecticut to Ida and Robert Beers on March 30, 1876. He was one of five children, all of whom would suffer from psychological distress and would die in mental institutions, including Beers himself (see "Clifford W. Beers, Advocate for the Insane"). He graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale in 1897. In 1900 he was first confined to a private mental institution for depression and paranoia. He would later be confined to another private hospital as well as a state institution. During these periods he experienced and witnessed serious maltreatment at the hands of the staff. After the publication of A Mind That Found Itself (1908), an autobiographical account of his hospitalization and the abuses he suffered during, he gained the support of the medical profession and others in the work to reform the treatment of the mentally ill. In 1909 Beers founded the "National Committee for Mental Hygiene", now named Mental Health America, in order to continue the reform for the treatment of the mentally ill. He also started the Clifford Beers Clinic in New Haven in 1913, the first outpatient mental health clinic in the United States. He was a leader in the field until his retirement in 1939.

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 February 4, 1987) was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association in 1956. The person-centered approach, his own unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains such as psychotherapy and counseling (client-centered therapy), education (student-centered learning), organizations, and other group settings. For his professional work he was bestowed the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology by the APA in 1972. Towards the end of his life Carl Rogers was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with national intergroup conflict in South Africa and Northern Ireland.[1] In an empirical study by Haggbloom et al. (2002) using six criteria such as citations and recognition, Rogers was found to be the sixth most eminent psychologist of the 20th century and second, among clinicians, only to Sigmund Freud.[2]