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A starter motor has to convert a very large amount of energy in a very short time.

Motors rated at several kW are in common use. The overall efficiency of the motor is low. For example, at cranking speed:

Input power to a motor (W = VI) (about 2000W) Output power from the motor can be calculated: P = (2NT) / 60 (about 1100W)

Where , V = 10 V (terminal voltage), I = 200 A (current), n =1500 rev/min, T =7 Nm (torque), Therefore, efficiency

(Pout/Pin) 1100/2000 = 55%

A large saving in battery power would be possible if this efficiency were increased. Discuss how to improve the efficiency of the starting system. Would it be cost effective?

The starting system is the heart of the electrical system in car, begins with battery. The main point or the key is inserted into the ignition switch, then turned to the start position. Amount of current then pass through the neutral safety switch to a starter relay which pass the high current to flow through the battery cables to the starter motor. Then, starter motor cranks the engine to move the piston downward create a suction that will draw a fuel mixture into cylinder. If the compression in the engine is high enough and all happen at the right time, the engine will start. Efficiency of starting system is important to get the vehicle running. Two considerations are considered when designing a starting system. It is the location of the starter and position of the battery. Location of the starter is usually at the bottom near the battery. There are two other factors to be considered which is the location of the starter on the engine is normally pre-fixed but the position of the battery must be determined. It is design to locate near the battery to reduce the resistance with a greater cross-section. Besides that, it can minimize the input power. It has been known that voltage of the output car is 12V. To determine the rated output of a starter motor on a test bench, a battery of maximum capacity for the starter having a 20% drop in capacity at 253 K is connected to the starter with a cable of lmQ resistance. These criteria enable the starter to operate even under the most adverse conditions. The output of the starter can now be measured under typical operating conditions. The rated power of the motor corresponds to the power drawn from the battery less copper losses (due to the resistance of the circuit), iron losses (due to eddy currents being induced in the iron parts of the motor) and friction losses. An equivalent circuit for a starter and battery is represented in Fig. 15.4. This indicates how the starter output is very much dependent on line resistance and battery internal resistance. The lower the values of these two resistances, the higher is the output from the starter.

Besides that, the ouput power can be increase by maximize the RPM of the starter motor. Choosing a starter motor can show the data of torque, speed, power and current consumption of the starter motor. Full voltage of starter motor can produce easier voltage flicker, mechanical stress due to gear reduction starter motor or belt drive system can create when cranking. If the RPM is assume about 2000 rev/min, T =7Nm, I = 200A : P = 2NT/60 = 2 x x 2000 x 7 /60 = 1466W The output power can be increase if the RPM is maximize in starter motor by choosing the right starter motor. So the efficiency that will get is : Pout/Pin = 1100/1466 = 75% Same with the torque of the output power, the torque can be increase also by choosing the right starter motor from the characterictic data of the starter motor. Another suggestions to improve the efficiency of starting system is voltage regulator. Is is works with two other devices to ensure that the car maintains the power necessary in order to operates its electrical components. It is battery and alternator. The voltage regulator of a car could be one of two types. The grounded voltage regulator regulates the amount of negative ground that goes into the rotor, while the grounded field voltage regulator controls the amount of positive ground that goes into the rotor. Both actions change the amount of direct current created by the alternator, which increases or decreases the amount of current provided to the battery as necessary to keep the amount of current within safe levels.

Starting limit temperature is the important part that must be consider in starting system. In order to increase the efficiency of the starting system must be consider cold starting system. When a cold engine starts, some of the fuel injected by the main injectors condenses on the cold

intake port, or the cylinder walls. Less fuel stays mixed with the air, which weakens the mixture. To overcome this and ensure a rapid start, an extra supply of fuel must be provided. In some cases, during engine cranking, extra injection pulses in each revolution can provide the extra fuel. It depends on engine temperature, and there is a time limit to prevent flooding. The cranking period is followed by an after-start enrichment. Over about 30 seconds, this slowly reduces to normal warm-up. The engine then responds steadily, immediately after releasing the starter. More air comes from an auxiliary air valve or bypass air control valve. This bypasses the throttle valve, to raise the engines idle speed when it is cold, and during warm-up.