You are on page 1of 23

2012 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences

American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences
http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS, http://Get.to/Research

Social Responsibility in Architectural Education
Kimberly Kramer
a

a*

Faculty of Architecture, Chiang Mai University, THAILAND

ARTICLEINFO
Article history: Received April 02, 2012 Received in revised form July 10, 2012 Accepted July 26, 2012 Available online July 28, 2012

A B S T RA C T

Keywords: Education in built environment; Human and social factors.

As designers of the built environment, architects have a tremendous opportunity to make a positive impact on the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. However, in order to be effective agents of change, these designers must understand and appreciate the concept of social responsibility in architecture, and learn to implement it in their own work. This study seeks to determine the current state of social responsibility training in architectural education by examining the curriculum requirements set by a number of national architectural education accrediting boards to determine whether they include training in the precepts of social responsibility in design. Because these curriculum requirements largely determine the topics and concepts that students will be exposed to in the course of their architectural education, improving this aspect of architectural education is an important step toward maximizing the profession’s contribution to the global effort to improve the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. 2012 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences.

1. Introduction 
‘Architectural education should have two basic purposes: to produce competent, creative, critically minded and ethical professional designers/builders; and to produce good world
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

295

citizens who are intellectually mature, ecologically sensitive and socially responsible.’ -International Union of Architects (UIA, 2008) As designers of the built environment, architects have a tremendous opportunity to make a positive impact on the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. However, in order to be effective agents of change, these designers must understand and appreciate the concept of social responsibility in architecture, and learn to implement it in their own work. Including this subject in the standard architecture curriculum is an important step toward this goal. This study seeks to determine the current state of social responsibility training in architectural education. Social responsibility in architecture may be defined in a number of ways. According to Paul Goldberger, an architecture critic for The New Yorker, ‘Social responsibility in architecture is, at least in part, a matter of believing, passionately and absolutely, in the potential of architecture to improve the quality of life.’ (Goldberger, 2002) This study will focus on four particular aspects of socially responsible architectural practice. Sustainability: A considerable amount of attention has been focused recently on sustainable and environmentally responsible design. This is an important aspect of social responsibility in architecture, and while substantial progress has been made in this area, there is still significant room for improvement. Responsibility to consider the needs of communities and the wider public: Architects have a responsibility to consider the needs of local communities and the wider public as project stakeholders and to reconcile the needs of these groups with those of a project’s client, owner and user groups. By understanding and embracing this responsibility, architects have the opportunity, within their professional roles, to become community advocates and agents of positive social change. Ethics: Architects have a duty to understand the ethical implications of their design decisions in regard to social, political, environmental and cultural issues. Understanding these implications empowers architects to make responsible decisions. Civic engagement through public service: Although architects have a unique and useful skill

296

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

set that enables them to serve as important contributors and leaders within society, civic engagement and public service in architecture is still significantly underdeveloped. apply their professional skills to the benefit of society. While these issues certainly overlap in some respects, they also represent four distinct aspects of the socially responsible practice of architecture. These four aspects describe significant ways in which architects help to improve society’s quality of life through responsible practice and educating future architects in these aspects of social responsibility will significantly affect the profession’s ability to take up the moral challenge of addressing the needs of the ‘bottom billion’. By integrating civic engagement and public service into the practice of architecture, architects can

2. Approach 
The curriculum requirements set by architectural education accrediting boards around the world largely determine the topics and concepts that students will be exposed to in the course of their architectural education. This study examines the curriculum requirements set by a number of national architectural education accrediting boards to determine whether they include training in the precepts of social responsibility in design. The countries included in this study are those for which English-language accreditation criteria documentation is readily available.

3. Results 
For each country, the relevant accrediting authority and specific accreditation criteria are identified and examined below. The results are summarized in Table 10, at the end of the section.

3.1 Australia 
The accreditation of architectural academic programmes in Australia is jointly conducted by the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) and the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA). (AACA and RAIA, 2006) According to the Australian Architecture Program Accreditation and Recognition Procedure, published jointly by these organizations, ‘Review of programs is undertaken with close reference to both the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia National Competency Standards in Architecture (NCSA 01) and The Royal Australian
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

297

Institute of Architects Education Policy.

Extracts from these documents jointly form the

Accreditation and Recognition Criteria.’ (AACA and RAIA, 2006) The Accreditation and Recognition Criteria are organized into a list of numbered ‘Performance Criteria.’ Table 1 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility in architecture. Table 1: Australia: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, Extracted from the AACA National Competency Standards (AACA and RAIA, 2006).
Performance Criteria # 06 11 13 21 22 54 86 87 88 145 Text of Performance Criteria The concept is informed by an understanding of the history of architectural thought and traditions of buildings and construction and by relevant current social and environmental concerns The impact of the design concept upon the environment and the community is assessed and heeded Respect for the natural environment and awareness of the issues of sustainability are demonstrated in the conceptual design The interests of building users, the community and other relevant groups are investigated and reconciled with the project brief Human, social, environmental and contextual issues are researched and addressed Interests of building users, the community and other relevant groups are reconfirmed Cultural factors relating to the project are researched and their influence and implications reported Community participation processes are understood and recommendations made Relevant environmental issues relating to the site and its location are identified and reported An understanding of professional ethics as they apply to the practice of architecture is demonstrated and ethical practice observed.

An additional section of the Accreditation and Recognition Criteria includes Performance Criteria extracted from the Royal Australian Institute of Architects’ Education Policy. Table 2 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility. Together, the Performance Criteria outlined in Tables 1 and 2 constitute the required training for Australian architecture students in the precepts of social responsibility in design. These criteria require students to develop a significant awareness and understanding of the environmental impacts of their designs. They also require a high level of awareness and understanding of

298

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

community interests, needs and participation processes, encouraging students to consider the larger social impact of their designs and their responsibility as designers to acknowledge, assess and address these issues and impacts. The criteria glance on the topic of professional ethics, but stop short of encouraging students to understand and embrace the opportunity for civic engagement and public service in architecture. Table 2: Australia: Additional Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, Extracted from RAIA Education Policy (AACA and RAIA, 2006).
Performance Criteria # 2.3.i 2.3.ii 2.3.iv 2.4.1 2.4.iii Text of Performance Criteria Ability to inform action through knowledge of natural systems and built environments An understanding of issues of ecological sustainability and design for reduction of energy use and environmental impact An understanding of passive systems for thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics and their relationship to active systems An ability to inform action through knowledge of society, clients and users An understanding of the social context in which built environments are procured and responsibilities to clients, the public and users

Table 3: Britain: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (RIBA, 2010).
Criteria # GC5 GC5.2 GC5.3 GC6 Text of Criteria The graduate will have an understanding of the relationship between people and buildings, and between buildings and their environment, and the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale The graduate will have an understanding of the impact of buildings on the environment, and the precepts of sustainable design The graduate will have an understanding of the way in which buildings fit into their local context The graduate will have an understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of the architect in society, in particular in preparing briefs that take account of social factors The graduate will have an understanding of the nature of professionalism and the duties and responsibilities of architects to clients, building users, constructors, co-professionals and the wider society The graduate will have an understanding of the potential impact of building projects on existing and proposed communities

GC6.1 GC6.3

*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

299

3.2 Britain 
The accreditation requirements for British architectural education programmes are published as the Criteria for Validation by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (RIBA, 2010) Table 3 lists the Criteria relevant to social responsibility. The RIBA accreditation criteria require students to understand the impacts of their projects on the environment and communities as well as their duties and responsibilities as architects, not just to traditional project stakeholders but to the wider society. However, like the Australian criteria, the RIBA criteria stop short of encouraging students to understand and embrace the opportunity for civic engagement and public service in architecture. While an understanding of the ethical implications of design decisions is not required in the educational portion of the validation criteria, it is discussed in the RIBA Professional Criteria required to sit the Professional Practice Examination in Architecture.

3.3 Canada 
The Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB) assumes accreditation responsibility for University Schools of Architecture in Canada that offer a professional degree in architecture. (CACB, 2011) The accreditation criteria are published as the CACB Conditions and Procedures for Accreditation. (CACB, 2005) For the purposes of accreditation, graduating students must demonstrate awareness, understanding, or ability in a number of ‘Performance Criteria.’ Table 4 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility in architecture. Table 4: Canada: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (CACB, 2005).
Performance Criteria # 13 37 Text of Performance Criteria Environmental Conservation: Understanding of the basic principles of ecology and architects' responsibilities with respect to environmental and resource conservation in architecture and urban design Ethics and Professional Judgment: Awareness of the ethical issues involved in the formation of professional judgments in architecture design and practice

When conducting accreditation reviews, the CACB also requires educational institutions to address the perspectives of each of its constituencies. This includes public members, addressed by the ‘Architecture Education and Society’ requirement:

300

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

‘The programme must demonstrate that it not only equips students with an informed understanding of social and environmental problems but that it also develops their capacity to help address these problems with sound architecture and urban design decisions. Given its particular mission, the APR [Architecture Program Report] may cover such issues as: how students gain an informed understanding of architecture as a social art, including the complex processes carried out by the multiple stakeholders who shape built environments; the emphasis given to generating the knowledge that can mitigate social and environmental problems; how students gain an understanding of the ethical implications of built environment decisions; and how a climate of civic engagement is nurtured, including a commitment to professional and public service.’ (CACB, 2005). The CACB accreditation criteria require students to develop an understanding of environmental responsibility in design, as well as an awareness of the ethical issues involved in design and practice decisions. The Canadian criteria take a strong stance in demanding a focus on civic engagement opportunities and responsibilities for architects. Though implied, architects’ responsibility to consider the needs of the communities and the wider public is not specifically addressed.

3.4 Hong Kong 
Because of its size, Hong Kong takes a different approach to architectural education accreditation than most other countries. Rather than create a standard national set of criteria for accreditation, the Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA), which is responsible for accrediting schools of architecture within Hong Kong, has simply made a list of schools whose architecture programs are accredited. Within Hong Kong, this includes the Master of Architecture program at The University of Hong Kong, and the Master of Architecture program at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. (HKIA, n.d.) The list also specifies overseas accreditation schemes which are recognised as equivalent by the HKIA: the U.S. National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA), the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA), and the People’s Republic of China National Board of Architectural Accreditation (NBAA). (HKIA, n.d.)
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

301

A cursory examination of the two domestic masters programs accredited by the HKIA shows that the University of Hong Kong Master of Architecture programme does not prioritise the topic of social responsibility within their programme, though they do mention that ‘the design thesis is an opportunity for students to conduct research in areas that overlap staff research activities, including architecture’s relationship to the environment, its impact on community, and its potential to enrich culture’. (UHK, 2011) The Chinese University of Hong Kong’s Master of Architecture programme states that among the studios’ aims for its students in terms of professional competence is that ‘the framework and outcomes of the studios should reflect the following aspects: awareness of issues such as sustainability and economy’. However, this is the only mention of topics related to social responsibility in architecture. (CUHK, 2011; CUHK, 2010)

3.5 India 
In India, the Council of Architecture (COA) prescribes the standards of architectural education required for granting recognized qualifications. These standards are published as the Council of Architecture – Minimum Standards of Architectural Education, which supplement the 1983 COA Regulations. (COA, 2008) The Minimum Standards of Education were revised in 2008 to update the original 1983 document, which had no requirements for social responsibility education in architecture curricula. (COA, 2002) Within the Minimum Standards, the curriculum requirements are organized into ‘Subjects for Examination’ in two stages. Table 5 lists the Subjects for Examination relevant to social responsibility. Table 5: India: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (COA, 2008).
Subj. for Examination Stage 1 # 12 Stage 1 # 18 Stage 2 # xv Stage 2 # xvi Stage 2 # xx Text of Subject for Examination Understanding of Climate and its impact on architectural design, fundamentals of climatology and environmental studies Group subjects of specialisation: B. Eco Architecture Sustainability- Principles and methods, Energy conscious design ecological balance conservation of natural resources, Solar passive architecture, Re-cycling Use of energy in buildings, Conserving energy, Solar passive and solar active systems, wind energy, Biomass energy, Re-cycling Environmental factors effecting human habitat such as climate, environmental pollutions, environmental degradation, green cover etc. at the micro and macro scales

302

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

The document also outlines a course of study for an Eco Architecture specialisation track at Stage 2. While it is heartening to see the COA criteria updated to include the subject of environmental responsibility in the standard architecture curriculum (this was lacking in the 1983 document), the criteria still do not mention civic engagement and public service in architecture, or the architect’s responsibility to consider the needs of communities and the wider public in addition to the traditional project stakeholders.

3.6 Korea 
The Korea Architectural Accrediting Board (KAAB) is responsible for accrediting architectural education programs within the Republic of Korea. The criteria for accreditation are published as the KAAB Conditions & Procedures for Professional Degree Programs in Architecture. (KAAB, 2005) The KAAB accreditation conditions require each architectural programme to demonstrate how it addresses a number of different perspectives. Table 6 lists those relevant to social responsibility in architecture. Table 6: Korea: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (KAAB, 2005).
Perspective Registration (2.1.3) Profession (2.1.4) Society (2.1.5) Society (2.1.5) Society (2.1.5) Relevant conditions (for each condition, the following issues must be addressed) Delivering issues of responsibility for the society and ethics Issues in reconciling the conflicts between architects’ obligation to their clients, the society, and private enterprise. The program must promote student understanding in various social, environmental challenges and foster skills dealing with these issues through proper architectural and urban design resolution Importance of ethical implications of built environment determinations Issues in promoting civic engagement through commitment to professional and public service

Additional KAAB accreditation requirements are listed in the Conditions & Procedures as ‘Student Performance Criteria’. responsibility.
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

Table 7 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social

303

Table 7: Korea: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (KAAB, 2005).
Performance Criteria # (2.2.2) 14 (2.2.3) 17 (2.2.5) 41 Text of Performance Criteria Understanding of principles and theories of sustainability in designing and making of architecture and urban design decisions Ability of comprehensive architectural design based on collective pieces of information on natural, environmental factors and limitations with consideration for sustainability Understanding of ethical issues and responsibility as an architectural professional serving client in the context of society as a whole

The KAAB Conditions & Procedures document begins with the same excerpt from the UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education which is quoted at the beginning of this study: ‘Architectural education has two basic purposes: To produce competent, creative, critically minded and ethical professionals and designers/builders; to produce good world citizens who are intellectually mature, ecologically sensitive and socially responsible.’ (KAAB, 2005) This is a strong statement of commitment to social responsibility in architectural education but it is an appropriate one for the KAAB accreditation criteria, which take a serious stance on the issue of social responsibility in architectural education. The KAAB criteria require students to understand and address the issues of sustainability, ethical implications of design decisions, the architect’s responsibility to society as a whole, and civic engagement through professional and public service.

3.7 Malaysia 
Architectural education accreditation in Malaysia is managed by the Board of Architects Malaysia/Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). The Malaysian criteria for accreditation, published in the Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes, are adopted from the 2003 British Criteria for Validation jointly approved by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the Architects Registration Board (ARB). (LAM, 2005 [Appendix A]; RIBA, 2003) The criteria specify that all graduates must ‘have knowledge and ability in architectural design including ecological balance,’ and that they ‘comprehend thoroughly the architects’ roles and responsibilities in society.’ (LAM, 2005) outcomes relevant to social responsibility. The LAM accreditation requirements are further clarified in Appendix A, organized as a list of learning outcomes. Table 8 lists the learning

304

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

Table 8: Malaysia: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (LAM, 2005, [Appendix A]).
Learning Outcome # Part I - 2.1 Part I - 3.1 Part II – 1.1 Part II – 1.2 Part II – 2.2 Part II – 2.3 Part II – 3.1 Part II – 3.3 Text of Learning Outcome Knowledge of the principles of building technologies, environmental design and construction methods, in relation to: human well-being; the welfare of future generations; the natural world; consideration of a sustainable environment An awareness of the influences on the contemporary built environment of individual buildings, the design of cities, past and present societies and wider global issues Knowledge of the social, political, economic and professional context that guides building construction An understanding of briefs and how to critically appraise them to ensure that the design response is appropriate to site and context, and for reasons such as sustainability and budget Knowledge of climatic design and the relationship between climate, built form, construction, life style, energy consumption and human well-being Understanding of building technologies, environmental design and construction methods in relation to: human well-being; the welfare of future generations; the natural world; consideration of a sustainable environment Understanding of the influence on the contemporary built environment of individual buildings, the design of cities, past and present societies and wider global issues Understanding of the inter-relationship between people, buildings and the environment and an understanding of the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale

The LAM accreditation criteria require students to develop an understanding and knowledge of sustainability but the other aspects of social responsibility in design are not addressed by these criteria.

3.8 New Zealand 
New Zealand uses the Australian National Competency Standards in Architecture under license. (McRae, 2011) Please refer to the ‘Australia’ section above for details of accreditation criteria.

3.9 Pakistan 
The Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners’ (PCATP) accreditation criteria, as published in the Accreditation Guide provide only very general, loose guidance in terms of expected educational outcomes. (PCATP, 2008) According to Arif Balgaumi, principal architect
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

305

at a Pakistani architecture firm and honorary treasurer of the Institute of Architects Pakistan, this is because: ‘After remaining in the doldrums for many years, the profession of architecture in Pakistan is showing signs of staging a revival. Unfortunately, decades of neglect and apathy have meant that there has been no significant growth in the quality or capacity of architectural education in Pakistan. The need to establish new institutions of architectural education and to improve the quality of the existing ones has put tremendous pressure on the regulating agencies... to develop and enforce criteria that are realistic and yet provide the impetus to improve the quality of architectural education in the county.’ (Belgaumi, 2008) The only element of the PCATP Accreditation Guide which touches on social responsibility is the following general guideline for External Interaction: ‘The institution should provide the environment, which fosters the personality of the students and provide them opportunities through co-curricular and extracurricular activities and student services. These opportunities are to enable the students to become responsible members of the society and should be readily accessible to the students.’ (PCATP, 2008)

3.10 Singapore 
Singapore’s approach to architectural education accreditation is similar to that taken by Hong Kong. Rather than create a full set of accreditation criteria, the Board of Architects (BOA) has identified two local programmes recognised by BOA for the purpose of registration. These programmes are the Bachelor of Architecture and Master of Architecture programmes at the National University of Singapore. The Board has also identified a list of overseas programmes in architecture with accredited courses recognised for the purposes of professional registration in Singapore. (BOA, 2010) A cursory review of the curriculums of the two accredited domestic programmes shows that in the Bachelor of Architecture programme, all students are required to take courses in Climatic Responsive Architecture and Strategies for Sustainable Architecture. The programme also offers students the choice pursuing a concurrent degree program in Design Technology and Sustainability. (NUS, 2008) The Master of Architecture Programme Information does not specify any particular curriculum requirements related to social responsibility in design. (NUS, n.d.)

306

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

3.11 South Africa 
South Africa’s architectural education programmes are validated by The South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP), according to their Guidelines for the Validation of Courses in Architecture. Rather than provide a specific list of learning outcomes and criteria required for validation, this document references the general criteria for higher education quality assurance in South Africa (as outlined by the Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC)) and provides guidelines based on international architectural accreditation standards: ‘In an international context criteria for validation should at least take account of the UIA/UNESCO Charter for Architectural Education, June 1996. For credibility in the international sphere within which architects from the Republic of South Africa operate (mainly Africa, the Middle East and Europe), broad conformity should also be sought with the RIBA Procedures, Criteria and Policies for the International Validation of Courses, Programs and Examinations in Architecture (February 2001) and the CAA Procedures and Criteria, Qualifications in Architecture Recommended for Recognition by CAA.’ (SACAP, 2007) The referenced validation criteria cover a range of approaches to social responsibility training in architectural education. RIBA validation criteria are examined in the ‘Britain’ section above. Information about CAA and UIA criteria is presented in the ‘Future Directions – International Collaboration’ section below.

3.12 United States 
In the United States, the architectural education accreditation process is administered by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (NAAB, 2009) The 2009 NAAB Conditions for Accreditation require that: ‘students enrolled in the accredited degree program are prepared: to be active, engaged citizens; to be responsive to the needs of a changing world; to acquire the knowledge needed to address pressing environmental, social, and economic challenges through design, conservation and responsible professional practice; to understand the ethical implications of their decisions; to reconcile differences between the architect’s obligation to his/her client and the public; and to nurture a climate of civic engagement, including a commitment to professional and public service and leadership’ (NAAB, 2009)
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

307

Additional NAAB accreditation requirements are published in the Conditions for Accreditation as Student Performance Criteria. Table 9 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility in design. Table 9: United States: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (NAAB, 2009).
Performance Criteria # C Text of Performance Criteria Leadership and Practice: Architects need to manage, advocate, and act legally, ethically and critically for the good of the client, society and the public. Student learning aspirations include: Knowing societal and professional responsibilities; Integrating community service into the practice of architecture Human Behavior: Understanding of the relationship between human behavior, the natural environment and the design of the built environment. Client Role in Architecture: Understanding of the responsibility of the architect to elicit, understand, and reconcile the needs of the client, owner, user groups, and the public and community domains Leadership: Understanding of the techniques and skills architects use to work collaboratively in the building design and construction process and on environmental, social, and aesthetic issues in their communities Legal Responsibilities: Understanding of the architect’s responsibility to the public and the client as determined by registration law, building codes and regulations, professional service contracts, zoning and subdivision ordinances, environmental regulation, and historic preservation and accessibility laws Ethics and Professional Judgment: Understanding of the ethical issues involved in the formation of professional judgment regarding social, political and cultural issues in architectural design and practice Community and Social Responsibility: Understanding of the architect’s responsibility to work in the public interest, to respect historic resources, and to improve the quality of life for local and global neighbors

C.2 C.3

C.6

C.7

C.8

C.9

In preparation for the 2009 update of the Conditions for Accreditation, NAAB convened an International/Global Task Group which created a prioritized list of issues to be considered in developing the 2009 Conditions. This task group identified ‘social responsibility’ as the number one priority. (NAAB, 2008) This focus on the importance of introducing issues of social responsibility in architectural education is apparent in the final Conditions document. While the 2004 NAAB Conditions already showed a strong commitment to issues of social responsibility in architectural education (NAAB, 2004), the 2009 document goes even further. The 2009 NAAB accreditation criteria require that students learn to understand and address the issues of environmental responsibility in design, architects’ responsibilities to communities and the wider

308

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

public, and the ethical implications of design decisions, and that accredited educational institutions nurture a climate of civic engagement, including a commitment to professional and public service and leadership.

3.13 Summary 
Table 10 presents a summary of the country-specific accreditation information presented above. Table 10: Environmental and Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, by Country
Country Australia Britain Canada Hong Kong* India Korea Malaysia New Zealand Pakistan Singapore* South Africa* United States Accreditation Organization AACA/RAIA RIBA CACB HKIA COA KAAB LAM NZIA PCATP BOA SACAP NAAB --------------------------Sustainability Responsibility to Community/ Wider Public Ethics Civic Engagement/ Public Service -----

* Because Hong Kong, Singapore and South Africa do not use a published set of defined accreditation criteria, their requirements are not evaluated in this matrix

4. Conclusion 
The examination of individual country accreditation criteria shows that most countries (8 of the 9 examined in the matrix above) have now embraced environmental responsibility as a required element of architectural education. This is an important issue for all of the world’s inhabitants,
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

309

but may be particularly important for the ‘bottom billions’, who are likely to be disproportionately affected by climate change, resource shortages, and other environmental problems. Adoption of strict standards of environmental responsibility in design is a significant way for the architecture profession to address the current and future challenges faced by the ‘bottom billion’, and it is heartening to see that this aspect of social responsibility is being almost universally acknowledged and embraced. Requirements to teach architecture students about their responsibility to consider the needs of communities and the wider public in design decisions and the ethical implications of design decisions have not been as widely implemented (requirements for each of these aspects of socially responsible design have been adopted by only 5 of the 9 countries examined in the matrix above). However, these aspects of social responsibility in design will also be very important as the profession moves forward to address the needs of the ‘bottom billion’. By understanding and embracing their responsibility to community and public stakeholders, architects become community advocates and agents of positive social change. By understanding the ethical implications of their decisions in regard to social, political, environmental and cultural issues, architects become empowered to make responsible, well-reasoned design and professional decisions. Both of these aspects of well-informed social responsibility will be critical as the profession moves forward to address the challenges faced by the ‘bottom billion’. Requirements to teach students about the importance of civic engagement and public service in architectural practice are lagging even further behind, with adoption by only about 30% of the countries examined in the matrix above (3 of the 9). This is particularly disheartening as this is perhaps the most crucial aspect in the effort to get a new generation of architects involved in the global struggle to address the needs and challenges of the ‘bottom billion’. Architectural education gives its graduates a unique and useful skill set which will allow them to be leading contributors to this effort. However, in order to take full advantage of this tremendous potential, a culture of civic engagement and public service must be created within the academic institutions and the profession to educate, inspire and empower new generations of leaders.

5. Limitations 
It is important to note that this is an examination of the accreditation criteria of only those

310

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

countries for which English-language documentation is readily available. Ideally, it would be expanded to create a more comprehensive picture of the state of social responsibility training in architectural education. It is also important to acknowledge that this is an examination of official accreditation criteria only, and not of the actual content of courses currently being offered within the accredited programs. Individual architecture schools and academic staff may emphasise or de-emphasise aspects of the accreditation criteria within their individual programs, and lack of inclusion of a certain aspect in official accreditation criteria does not necessarily imply that it is not being included as part of the curriculum. However, including these issues as a required part of the standard architecture programme is an important step to formalise the importance of social responsibility within the profession of architecture and to train an active, engaged, well-informed and socially responsible new generation of architects.

6. Future Directions – International Collaboration 
There is another, concurrent trend which will also have a significant effect on the pace and effectiveness of these changes in architectural education. International collaboration in architecture has been increasing (NAAB, 2008), and accreditation authorities have been responding by creating a number of international agreements, accords and organizations intended to promote the international mobility of architects and other design professionals.

6.1 Bilateral and multilateral mutual recognition agreements 
As explained above, the accreditation organizations of some countries such as Singapore and Hong Kong have established the equivalency of other national architectural education accreditation standards to their own in order to ease international mobility for architecture students and professionals. Other countries have also recognized the value of the inverse approach. Korea’s accrediting board (KAAB) has noted that ‘it is also the interest of the KAAB for KAAB accredited degrees to hold comparable accrediting or validating status for accrediting / validating agencies abroad which promote corresponding values’, and South Africa’s SACAP notes that “for credibility in the international sphere within which architects from the Republic of South Africa operate,’ broad conformity should be sought with RIBA and CAA criteria. (KAAB, 2005; SACAP, 2007)
*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

311

Many countries have also gone beyond this unilateral approach to join bilateral or multilateral mutual recognition arrangements, which establish equivalency between national accreditation criteria for the purpose of professional registration. For example, in 2010 the Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA) and the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) signed an agreement establishing the mutual recognition of their accreditation systems of architectural programs. (HKIA, 2011) Many of the countries discussed in this study are also signatories of the multilateral Canberra Accord, which establishes recognition of substantial equivalency between accreditation systems in the architectural education of its signatories. (Canberra Accord, 2008) Such arrangements will likely become even more widespread as international collaboration in architecture increases. As this process continues, it will be important to ensure that these agreements serve to maintain or raise the requirements for training in social responsibility, rather than reducing them to the lowest common denominator.

6.2 Commonwealth Association of Arhitects (CAA) 
Since 1968, the CAA has published a List of academic architectural programmes that it considered to be of a sufficient standard to recommend recognition by national authorities. The List was intended to provide a means of recognition of courses in countries which did not have their own accreditation system. However, the CAA has identified a growing need for mutual recognition of qualifications between countries both within and outside the Commonwealth. The future formal purpose of the List is, therefore, twofold: a) to continue to provide the means of recommending recognition of a course to a national authority in a country which does not have its own validation procedure, and b) to provide a list of qualifications which can be recommended for recognition by all the constituent national authorities. (CAA, 2007) The CAA procedures and criteria are adapted from and compatible with the aims and objectives of architectural education set out in the Charter for Architectural Education created by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of Architects (UIA). (CAA, 2007) UNESCO/UIA Charter, see ‘UNESCO/UIA’ below.) (For more information about the

312

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

Table 11: UNESCO/UIA: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (UNESCO/UIA, 2005).
General Considerations Text of General Considerations That the educators must prepare architects to formulate new solutions for the present and the future as the new era will bring with it grave and complex challenges with respect to social and functional degradation of many human settlements. These challenges may include global urbanisation and the consequent depletion of existing environments, a severe shortage of housing, urban services and social infrastructure, and the increasing exclusion of architects from built environment projects. That it is in the public interest to ensure that architects are able to understand regional characteristics and to give practical expression to the needs, expectations and improvement to the quality of life of individuals, social groups, communities and human settlements That the vision of the future world, cultivated in architecture schools, should include the following goals : a decent quality of life for all the inhabitants of human settlements; a technological application which respects the social, cultural and aesthetic needs of people and is aware of the appropriate use of materials in architecture and their initial and future maintenance costs; an ecologically balanced and sustainable development of the built and natural environment including the rational utilisation of available resources; an architecture which is valued as the property and responsibility of everyone Text of Objectives of Architectural Education That the following special points be considered in the development of the curriculum: Awareness of responsibilities toward human, social, cultural, urban, architectural, and environmental values, as well as architectural heritage; Adequate knowledge of the means of achieving ecologically sustainable design and environmental conservation and rehabilitation; Development of a creative competence in building techniques, founded on a comprehensive understanding of the disciplines and construction methods related to architecture; Adequate knowledge of project financing, project management, cost control and methods of project delivery; Training in research techniques as an inherent part of architectural learning, for both students and teachers Social Studies: Ability to act with knowledge of society, and to work with clients and users that represent society’s needs Environmental Studies: Ability to act with knowledge of natural systems and built environments; Understanding of conservation and waste management issues; Understanding of the life cycle of materials, issues of ecological sustainability, environmental impact, design for reduced use of energy, as well as passive systems and their management; Awareness of the history and practice of landscape architecture, urban design, as well as territorial and national planning and their relationship to local and global demography and resources; Awareness of the management of natural systems taking into account natural disaster risks

#0

#2

#7

Objectives of Arch. Education

#4

# 5.B2

# 5.B3

*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

313

6.3 UNESCO/UIA 
The UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education is the international benchmark for architectural education accreditation, referenced in most international accreditation agreements and accords, as well as some national accreditation criteria. As the standard for architectural education within the international community the Charter is an important medium for advocating social responsibility in architectural education around the world. The 2005 UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education opens with some stirring language on the subject of social responsibility in architecture: ‘There is no doubt that the architect's capacity to solve problems, can greatly contribute to tasks such as community development, self-help programmes, educational facilities, etc., and thus make a significant contribution to the improvement of the quality of life of those who are not accepted as citizens in their full right and who cannot be counted among the architect's usual clients...Beyond all aesthetic, technical and financial aspects of the professional responsibilities, the major concerns, expressed by the Charter, are the social commitment of the profession, i.e. the awareness of the role and responsibility of the architect in his or her respective society, as well as the improvement of the quality of life through sustainable human settlements’. (UNESCO/UIA, 2005) The Charter also sets forth a number of ‘General Considerations’ and ‘Objectives of Architectural Education’ which take a similarly strong stance on the role of social responsibility in the architectural profession. Table 11 lists those most relevant to this discussion of social responsibility in architectural education. The UNESCO/UIA Charter sets forth an inspiring vision of the role of architectural education and the architectural profession in addressing society’s challenges and needs. It provides a suitably ambitious set of criteria to serve as a benchmark for national and international architectural education accreditation criteria, and will hopefully serve to guide the profession toward a future in which all architectural education programmes produce graduates who are inspired and empowered to take an active and effective role in helping society to meet the challenges ahead.

314

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

7. References 
Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) and The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA). (2006). Australian Architecture Program Accreditation and Recognition Procedure (DOC APARP 01). http://www.architecture.com.au/i-cms_file?page=649/APARP01_AACARAIA_FINAL_J ANUARY_2006.pdf. Belgaumi, Arif. (2008). Architectural Education in Pakistan – Road to Excellence. http://adapk.com/architectural-education-in-pakistan/index.html. Board of Architects Singapore (BOA). http://www.boa.gov.sg/education.html. (2010). Educational Qualification.

Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). (2005). 2005 CACB Conditions and Procedures for Accreditation. http://www.cacb-ccca.ca/documents/2005_CACB_Conditions_and_Procedures_for_Accr editation.pdf. Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). (2011). Accreditation. http://www.cacb-ccca.ca/index.cfm?M=1357&Repertoire_No=660386109&Voir=menu. Canberra Accord on Architectural Education. (2008). Recognition of Substantial Equivalency Between Accreditation/Validation Systems in Architectural Education. http://www.canberraaccord.org/Public_Documents/streamfile.aspx?name=Approved_and _signed_Canberra_Accord.pdf. Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). (2010). MArch Study Scheme. CUHK School of Architecture. http://www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/programme/MAProgramInformation.pdf. Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). (2011). MArch Design Studios Overview. CUHK School of Architecture. http://www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/index-MArchstudio.html. Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA). (2007). Qualifications in Architecture Recommended for Recognition by CAA: Procedures and Criteria. Stamford, UK: Commonwealth Association of Architects. http://www.comarchitect.org/pdfs/VALGreenBkProcedures.pdf. Council of Architecture (COA). (2002). Minimum Standards of Architectural Education Regulations, 1983. New Delhi: Council of Architecture. http://www.coa.gov.in/acts/regulation1983.htm. Council of Architecture (COA). (2008). Minimum Standards of Architectural Education, 2008. New Delhi: Council of Architecture. http://www.coa.gov.in/Rev.%20Min.%20Std.pdf. Goldberger, Paul. (2002). ‘Does Architecture Matter? Thoughts on Social Responsibility,

*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

315

Buildings, and the World After September 11th'. Speech delivered at Baltimore AIA, Baltimore, MD on October 8, 2002. http://www.paulgoldberger.com/lectures/14. Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA). (2011). HKIA Circular 16/2011. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Architects. http://www.hkia.net/UserFiles/Image/EDAC/MR_Accreditation_Systems_Arch_Program mes_AACA.pdf. Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA). (No date available [n.d.]). HKIA Accredited/Recognised School Lists. www.hkia.net/en/doc/PA/School_Lists.doc. International Union of Architects (UIA). (2008). UIA and Architectural Education Reflections and Recommendations. Paris: International Union of Architects. http://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/aijedu/reflex_eng.pdf. Korea Architectural Accrediting Board (KAAB). (2005). Conditions & Procedures For Professional Degree Programs in Architecture. Seoul: Korea Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.kaab.or.kr/download/KAAB-2005%20Conditions.pdf. Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). (2005). Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes. http://www.lam.gov.my/accreditation.html. Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). (2005). Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes: Appendix A. http://www.lam.gov.my/accreditation3.html. McRae, Beverley (Chief Executive of the New Zealand Institute of Architects). Personal communication, 13 June 2011. (2011).

National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2004). NAAB Conditions for Accreditation. Washington, DC: The National Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.naab.org/accreditation/2004_Conditions.aspx. National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2008). Report of the International/Global Task Group. http://www.naab.org/documents/streamfile.aspx?name=20080321_International%20Glob al%20Trends%20Report.pdf&path=Public+Documents%5cAccreditation%5c%5cWinter %202008%20Task%20Group%20Reports. National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2009). 2009 Conditions for Accreditation. Washington, DC: The National Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.naab.org/accreditation/2009_Conditions.aspx. National University of Singapore (NUS). (2008). BA (Architecture) Course Information for 2008/9 Cohort Onwards. NUS Department of Architecture. http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/programme/architecture/ba-arch/aki_handbk_0809.pdf. National University of Singapore (NUS). (No date available [n.d.]). Master of Architecture – Programme Information. NUS Department of Architecture.

316

Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine

http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/programme/architecture/m-arch/master_aki_info.html. Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners (PCATP). (2008). Accreditation Guide. Karachi: Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners. http://www.pcatp.org.pk. Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (2003). Criteria for Validation. London: Royal Institute of British Architects. http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBATrust/Education/2007/Validation/CriteriaForVali dation.pdf. Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (2010). RIBA Validation Criteria at part 1 and part 2. London: Royal Institute of British Architects. http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAProfessionalServices/Education/Validation/RIB AValidationCriteriafromSeptember2011Parts1,23.pdf. South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP). (2007). Guidelines for the Validation of Courses in Architecture. Johannesburg: South African Council for the Architectural Profession. http://www.sacapsa.com/sacap/action/media/downloadFile?media_fileid=100. UNESCO/UIA Validation Committee for Architectural Education, in collaboration with the UIA Education Commission. (2005). UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education. Paris: International Union of Architects. http://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/aijedu/chart_ang.pdf. University of Hong Kong (UHK). (2011). Master of Architecture. Architecture. http://fac.arch.hku.hk/index.asp. UHK Faculty of

Kimberly Kramer is a Foreign Lecturer at Chiang Mai University, Thailand. She holds a BA in Architecture and International Relations from Wellesley College, an M.Phil in Environmental Design from Cambridge University, and an M.Arch from the University of Maryland. Her research focuses on vernacular architecture and social responsibility in architecture.

Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines given at the journal’s website. Note: This article was accepted and presented at the 2nd International Conference-Workshop on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICWSAUD) organized by School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from March 3rd -5th, 2012.

*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mail address: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf

317