A TERM PAPER ON

“KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT”

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Lovely Institute of Technology (POLY)

SUBMITTED TO:Mr. JATINDER VEER SINGH

SUBMITTED BY:NASREEN SULTANA 11001676 A17 JE003

A TERM PAPER ON

“PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL”

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Lovely Institute of Technology (POLY)

SUBMITTED TO:Mr. JATINDER VEER SINGH

SUBMITTED BY:OM PRAKASH YADAV 11003723 A13 JE003

CONTENTS  DEFINATION OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  NEED OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL  METHODS OF PERMANCE APPRAISAL INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION METHOD MULTIPLE-PERSON EVALUATION METHOD  FINDINGS  CONCLUSION  LIMITATION OF STUDY  RECOMMENDATION  REFERENCE

“PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL”
DEFINATION OF THE TERM: Afford and Beatty: - “performance appraisal is the evaluation or appraisal of the relative worth to the company of man’s services on his job.” Performance appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee, organization and society all benefits.

Need of Performance Appraisal
A central reason for the utilization of performance appraisals (PAs) is performance improvement. Other fundamental reasons include “as a basis for employment decisions (e.g. promotions, terminations, transfers), to aid with communication, to establish personal objectives for training” programs, for transmission of objective feedback for personal development, “as a means of documentation to aid in keeping track of decisions and legal requirements” and in wage and salary administration. Additionally, PAs can aid in the formulation of job criteria and selection of individuals “who are best suited to perform the required organizational tasks”. A PA can be part of guiding and monitoring employee career development. PAs can also be used to aid in work motivation through the use of reward systems.

METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
The performance appraisal methods may be classified into three categories, as shown in Figure.

I.

INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION METHODS.
Under the evaluation method of merit rating, employees are evaluated one at a time without comparing them other employees in the organization.

1. ESSAY EVOLUTION: Essay evaluation is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employees that often occur in the better structured. 2. CRITICAL INCIDENT: This method is useful for peers to maintain logs on each employee and its behavior. 3. CHECK LISTS: Another simple type of individual evaluation method is checklist. A checklist represents, in its simplest form, a set of objectives or descriptive statements about the employee and his behavior.  SAMPLE QUESTIONS FOR CHECHLIST METHOD  If the employee really interested in the task assigned? Yes No  Is he represented by his colleagues? Yes No  Does he respect his superiors? Yes No  Does he make mistakes frequently? yes No

4. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE: Under this method, a printed for, as shown below, is used to evaluate the performance of an employee. A variety of traits may be used in these types of rating devices, the most common being the quality of work. The rating scales can also be adapting by including traits that the company considers important for effectiveness on the job. A model of a graphic rating scale is given below. 5. BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALES This method represents the latest invitation in performance appraisal. It is a combination of the rating scale and critical incident techniques of employee performance evaluation. The critical incident serve as anchor statements in a scale & the rating form usually form usually contains six to eight specially defined performance dimensions . 6. FORCED CHOICE METHOD In the forced choice method, the rather is forced to select statements which are readymade. 7. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES The MBO process seems to ne most useful with managerial personal and employees who have a fairly wide range of flexibility and self control in their jobs.  Program involves 6 steps:  Set organization’s goals  Performance reviews  Provide feedback  Define expected results  Set departmental goals  Discuss departmental goals

TYPICAL GRAPHIC RATING SCALE

II. MULTIPLE-PERSON EVOLUTION METHODS
In this section, let us discuss some techniques of evaluating one employee In comparison to another. Three such frequently used methods in organizations are ranking, period comparison and forced distribution. 1. RANKING METHOD. In Ranking Method superior ranks his or her subordinates in the order of their merit, starting from the best to the worst.

2. PAIRED COMPARISON METHOD: Under this method the appraiser compares each employee with every other employee, one at a time. 3. FORCE CHOICE ITEMS The favorable qualities earn a plus credit and the unfavorable once earn the reverse.

Table2 4. FORCESD DISTRIBUTION METHOD: The forced distribution method operators under an assumption that employee performance level conforms to a normal statistical distribution 5. FIELD REVIEW METHOD. In this method, a trained skilled representative of the HR department goes into the field and assists line supervisors with rating of their respective subordinates. Based on this information, the expert prepares report, which is sent to the supervisor for

review, change, approval and discussion with the employee who is being rated. The ratings are done on standardized forms.

FINDINGS
1. It was observed that, annual performance appraisal is undertaken by the superior for measuring the performance of employees and suggesting for improvement in the performance if any.

CONCLUSION
* These methods are effective for the manager to improve the skill level of employee and can utilize their time and competencies well. * The performance appraisal system can identify the training and development needs, so the management helps to employee by giving training and other strategies through these methods.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
* The study is limited for the managers and employee. And the remaining information was taken from Human Resource Department. Further, there is some technical analysis, we dropped here.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. To enhance the performance level, the company should support the employee and there should be more of involvement of employee in decision making for motivating. 2. Promotion is an important on-monitory technique of motivation so the company must use this motivation technique efficiently by reducing the consistency period to 2-3 years and consider the factors like experience, skill, intelligence etc. 3. The performance appraisal should be conduct quarterly.

REFERENCES
Books:1. “Personal and Human Resource Management.” P. Subba Rao. 2. Essential of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. P. Subba Rao 3. “Human Resource Management” Research-based approach, up-to-date Coverage, Case studies. – Mirza.S .Saiyadain. Websites:1. http://www.performance-management.us/ 2. http://www.ajhp.org/cgi/content/abstract 3. http://www.wikipedia.org 4. http://www.india-now.org 5. http://www.google.com

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