Chapter

Table

of

Contents

Page no.

1.

Introduction

6

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Statement of Problem Objectives of Research Scope Hypotheses Research Methodology

2. 3. 4. 5.

Transfer to Third Party Act of Insolvency Outside India Party of Privy to Transfer for benefit of Creditors Transfer for benefit for creditors void as against Official Receiver or Assignee

11 14 15 16

6. 7.

Conclusion Bibiliography

17 18

5|Page

the possession of property of a debtor is seized up for the benefit of the body of creditors. they may be adjudged as an insolvent. shall be vested in the official Assignee. While Presidency Towns Insolvency Act. Provincial Insolvency 6|Page . 1920 are two major enactments that deal with personal insolvency and have parallel provisions and their substantial content is also similar but the two differ in respect of their territorial jurisdiction. for its realization and distributed among the body of creditors. One of the important effect of vesting is that the insolvent cannot deal with his property. The High Court of Calcutta. all the properties of the insolvent. One is Presidency Towns Insolvency Act. 1920 and it is applicable to all parts of India except the three above towns. 1909. Madras and Bombay. Kolkata. and the District Courts has the jurisdiction to try the Insolvency proceedings under this Act. No buyer from the insolvent can get a good title. wherein on the alleged ‚act of insolvency‛ committed by the debtor. wherever situated. This Act is applicable to three Presidency Towns namely – Calcutta. 1909 applies in Presidency towns namely.INTRODUCTION There are two statutes which govern the laws of insolvency in India. Mumbai and Chennai. generally by an officer appointed for the purpose by the Court The Presidency Towns Insolvency Act. The second Act is Provincial Insolvency Act. Instituting Insolvency proceedings may be very effective way of instilling a healthy fear in the minds of dishonest debtors that if they do not pay the debt. Madras and Bombay has the jurisdiction to try the Insolvency proceedings under this Act. 1909 and Provisional Insolvency Act. On the passing of an order of insolvency. Insolvency is a proceeding.

7|Page . duties. under this or any other enactment for the time being in force. appointments. the powers of Courts to adjudicate a person as insolvent. 1920 exhaustively lays down as to what are the acts of insolvency. powers and functions of Official Assignee and other insolvency related procedural matters. administration and distribution of the property of the insolvent.Act. control over the person and property of insolvent. The Presidency Towns Insolvency Act. in the States or elsewhere. in the States or elsewhere. (d) If. with intent to defeat or delay his creditors. realization of the insolvent property.-(i) he departs or remains out of the States. discharge of insolvent. (ii) he departs from his dwelling-house or usual place of business or otherwise absents himself. Properties which would be available for payment of debts. which would. These two Acts are applicable to individuals as well as to sole proprietorships and partnership firms. conditions in which composition and schemes of arrangement are approved by the Court. he makes a transfer of his property or of any part thereof with intent to defeat or delay his creditors. 1909 and Provincial Insolvency Act. he makes a transfer of all or substantially all his property to a third person for the benefit of his creditors generally. 1920 applies to all provinces of India. he makes any transfer of his property or of any part thereof. consequences of an order of adjudication. (b) If. submissions of proposal for composition in satisfaction of debts or for scheme of arrangement of the affairs of the insolvent. restriction on the jurisdiction of the Court annulment of adjudication proceedings. (c) If. be void as a fraudulent preference if he were adjudged an insolvent. in the States or elsewhere. A debtor is supposed to have committed an act of insolvency in the following cases: (a) If.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1. (e) If any of his property has been sold or attached for a period of not less than twenty-one days in execution of the decree of any Court for the payment of money. (g) If he gives notice to any of his creditors that he has suspended.(iii) he secludes himself so as to deprive his creditors of the means of communicating with him. (f) If he petitions to be adjudged an insolvent. Whether transfer to third person residing outside India could be termed as act of insolvency. he will be considered insolvent if he refuses to discharge his liabilities in spite of having assets more than his liabilities. The main criteria for a person to be adjudged insolvent is that he should suspend or refuse payment . or that he is about to suspend. Whether the transfer to for the benefit of creditors could be termed as act of insolvency. payment of his debts. (h) If he is imprisoned in execution of the decree of any Court for the payment of money For example – If an individual has assets worth Rupees 50 crores and liabilities worth Rupees 5 crores. 2. 8|Page .

SCOPE The researcher has limited the scope of the project to Insolvency Laws in India and England. To understand the concept of act on insolvency and transfer to third party. HYPOTHESES The researcher before commencing the researcher assumed: 9|Page .OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH The researcher while commencing the research had certain objectives to be accomplished: 1.

to creditor for his benefit is not ant of insolvency. transfer to third party i. The sources from where the data has been collected are secondary sources. RESEARCH METHODOLODY The research methodology used for the project is the non-empirical type of research. 10 | P a g e .e. That.1.

A transfer fir the benefit of creditors generally though is not expressly mentioned in the prior acts. In this section ‚living person‛ includes a company or an association or a body or an individual(s) whether incorporated or not. The expression ‚transfer of property‛ has been defined under section 5 of the Transfer of Property Act as meaning as an act by which a living person conveys property. A debtor generally commits an act of insolvency if in India or. to one or more other living persons or himself. or to himself and one or more other living persons: and ‚to transfer property‛ is to perform such act. elsewhere.TRANSFER TO THIRD PARTY The expression ‚transfer of property‚ has been defined in section 2(f) as including a transfer of an interest in property and creation of any charge upon the property.1 In order that a transfer for the benefit of creditors may be an act of insolvency. but nothing herein contained shall affect any law. and not a particular class of creditors. 738 11 | P a g e . the reason being that the transferor thereby deprived himself from the power of carrying on his trade.D. but is considered and treated as an act of insolvency. and endeavored to put his property into a course of distribution among his creditors different from that which would take place under the insolvency law and without the safeguards which the law provides. 728. it is necessary that the transfer must be for the benefit of all the creditors. A transfer by a debtor for the benefit of trade creditors only is not an act of insolvency under clause (a) though it may amount to fraudulent 1 Re Spackman (1890) 24 Q. association or bodies of individuals. he makes a transfer of all or substantially all of his property to a third person for the benefit of his creditor generally. In present or in future.B. for the time being in force for the transfer of property to or by companies.

such a transfer has always been deemed in itself to have that effect.transfer under clause (b) or a fraudulent preference under clause (c) of the section. 329 Karsandas v.Seetharathnam. The acts mentioned in Section 6 are either voluntary acts of insolvency or involuntary acts of insolvency.6 A mere declaration of trust by debtor. P.2 A composition deed whereby the debtor transfers his property to trustees for the benefit of such of his creditors as may sign it within a specified period to a transfer for the benefit of his creditors generally and as such an act of insolvency.5 And further the transfer must be to a ‚third person‛ where the debtor had transferred all the textile goods in his place of business . Section 6 of the Provincial Insolvency Act sets out the conduct or acts of the debtor which may be regarded as acts of insolvency. Lalchand. (1893) 1 Q. or a mere agreement by him that his property shall be dealt with for the benefit of the 2 3 Re Philips (1900) 2 Q. AIR 1966 SC 918 5 Re Hughes. for the benefit of creditors to a third person. (1920) 26 Bom. The involuntary acts are of a kind by which a creditor is able to compel a debtor to disclose his insolvent condition even if the insolvent is careful enough not to commit a voluntary act of insolvency. which constituted his only asset.4 For a transfer for benefit of creditors to constitute acts of insolvency there must be an operative transfer of all or substantially all the debtor’s property so as to put it out of his power to deal with it. S. 476 4 Yenumulla Malludora v.B. 3 For a transfer under this clause to constitute as act of insolvency it is not necessary to prove an intent to defeat or delay creditors as it is in clause (b). The point of time has to be decided on evidence. a debtor did commit an act of insolvency. 1980 Legal Survey 1 12 | P a g e .B. One such act is that the insolvent has been imprisoned in execution of a decree and another is that his property has been sold in execution of a decree of any court for payment of money. 595 6 Krishna Kumar Singhvi v. Madanlal. But it does not purport to state at which point of time an act of insolvency shall be deemed to be committed.

it cannot be said that under such transfer .creditors7 pr a mere letter by the debtor to a third person authorizing him to realize his property and holds the proceeds for the benefit of his creditors8. AIR 1969 AP 318 13 | P a g e . (1924) 1 K. Provision for paying off creditors by the transferee is introduced evidently with the intention of safeguarding the interest of a transferee and by such a provision it cannot be said that the transferee has declared himself to be atrustee or that the transferor has settled a trust in his favour.D. 9 Pydimarri Venkateshwarlu v. that the creditor gets certain rights under the transfer which he will be in a position to enforce as against the creditors.B. Even if the word ‘Transfer’ is taken in its wider sense. Pydimarri Jalamma. the riding condition is that such a transfer should be for the benefit of the creditors generally. An out and out sale in favour of a third person by debtor is not a transfer for the benefit of creditors. 728 Lipton v. even though such transfer is for the benefit of creditors and even though such transfer is for the benefit of creditors and the transferee retains the consideration for that purpose.9 Where a debtor sold his bungalow for the payment of his debts. Even if the transfer makes a provision that the transferee will withhold amounts for the purposes of paying off the creditors which would enable them to claim the amount from the transferee direct. it is necessary even though the strict rules of law of trust are not applied.B. then due to financial crisis and inability to recover full dues the debtor transferred an actionable claim for a lesser amount did not constitute an act of insolvency. Bell. The word ‘benefit’ has a significance of its own and for a creditor to be a beneficiary under a transfer. (1890) 24 Q. the creditor will have any right to proceed as against the transferee. is not such a transfer as is contemplated by this section and does not constitute an act of insolvency.10 7 8 Re Spackman.

is not an act of insolvency. however the debtor must be domiciled in India. and the transfer must be intended to operate according to the law of India. show that a transfer of his property by a debtor for the benefit of his creditors executed outside India may be an act of insolvency. In abovementioned case. A transfer executed by a foreigner who has never been in this country and has himself personally done no act within the jurisdiction of the insolvency courts in India.ACT OF INSOLVENCY COMMITTED OUTSIDE INDIA The words ‘ or elsewhere’ coupled with the words ‘or remains out of India’ in clause (d)(i). that an act of insolvency may be committed abroad. though he may have traded through his agent in this country and may have contracted debts and acquired property in this country. in other words. 14 | P a g e .

do not press their rights but accept a portion of their just dues and do not interfere with the carrying on the debtor’s business. who have heard a statement by a the debtor about his inability to pay debts. 15 | P a g e . as a rule. but he may do so if his assent has been procured by misrepresentation of his assets by the debtor.PARTY OR PRIVY TO TRANSFER FOR BENEFITS OF CREDITORS A creditor who has assented to a transfer for the benefit of creditor cannot. take advantage of it as an act of insolvency. they are not stopped from relying on the act of insolvency for adjudicating the debtor as insolvent. or if the transfer is fraudulent as against him for instance on the ground of a secret preference given to another creditor. Where creditors.

and effect will be given to it if insolvency does not ensue within three months from the date of transfer. it cannot be attached in execution of a decree against him. the trustees of the deed will continues to hold the property for the benefit of his creditors. for the benefit of the creditors generally is not not void in itself. though the decree-holder was not a party to the deed. A transfer. and the debtor being divested of all the interest in the property. If the debtor is not adjudged insolvent within that period. 16 | P a g e . however. the transfer is void as against the Official Assignee or Receiver whether the adjudication was on the petition of the creditor or of the debtor and the trustees of the deed must hand over the property to the Official Assignee or Receiver or the case maybe.TRANSFER FOR BENEFIT OF CREDITORS VOID AS AGAINST OFFICIAL ASSIGNEE OR RECEIVER If a debtor transfers all or substantially all of his property for the benefit of his creditors generally and is adjudicated as insolvent within three months after the date of transfer.

it can said that the act of insolvency i. 17 | P a g e .CONCLUSION Thus. this provision has been also interpreted and utilized accordingly by English courts. The provision is of great importance as it is an open-ended terminological use by the draftsmen so as to cover almost all key areas for which this particular provision has been enacted. The interpretation changes from facts and circumstances.e Transfer to third party is not limited upto the bare-text as enshrined in the provision.

jsalaw.com/ResearchPapers/Comparative%20note%20on%20bankruptcy%20laws%20%20US%20%20India.pdf  http://bankruptcy.nishithdesai. ‘Law of Insolvency {Bankruptcy}’. (Delhi: Delhi Law House) WEBSITES http://www.org/doc/397284/?type=print 18 | P a g e .S.com/articles/corin.legalservicesindia.com/Admin/uplodedfiles/PublicationFiles/PostPetition%20Financing%20Article.com/2006/10/articles/business-bankruptcyissues/doing-business-with-a-customer-in-bankruptcy-what-you-need-toknow/  http://www.in/2011/04/insolvency-very-briefly.html  http://indiankanoon.pdf  http://www. ‘Law of Insolvency’.blogspot. (Hyderabad: Asia Law House) 2007  Bharihoke Neera and Talwar Neera.cooley.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Justice Narayan. P.htm  http://commonlaw-sandeep.

merinews. http://www.shtml 19 | P a g e .com/article/insolvency-proceedings-rules-and-legalcases/15860222.

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