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Al-Risalah ibn Abdi Zayd al-Qayrawani

2.5. Ghusl and menstruation 2.5a. When ghusl is done after menstruation A woman does ghusl immediately she sees the white liquid (qassa) which comes at the end of menstruation, or when she notices dryness, even if she notices this after a day or two days or only an hour. [As the blood of menstruation is mentioned as one of the causes which oblige ghusl, he goes on to clarify the sign which indicates that it has ended and that the womb is free of it. He mentioned that it has two signs: a white liquid and dryness. When the menstruating women sees one of the two signs, then her purity is clear and she is adjudged to be pure from that moment and does not wait for the second sign. There is no minimum length of menstruation. Its minimum amount is one spurt. There is no maximum amount of it, but has a maximum in time, which is fifteen days.] [Khalil: Its maximum for someone who is having a first period is half a month (i.e. 15 days. If it stops before that and then she remains pure for half a month and then blood comes, it is a new menstruation.) as half a month is the minimum of purity (which is fifteen days and there is no limit to its maximum). [And the maximum length of menstruation for someone with normal periods (even if she has only had one period) is fifteen days. There are three days of using precaution (i.e. above and beyond) her normal maximum. (i.e. if she normally menstruates five days and then menstruates after that and it does not stop after the full five days, she adds three days to it. If it does not stop after that, it is false menstruation. But if her normal period is 15 days, she does not use precaution at all.) This is as long as it does not exceed half a month. (If it is 14, she uses one, and if 13, she uses 2.) Then she is pure (to fast, prayer and have intercourse even if the blood is flowing, because it is false menstruation and not menstruation.)] 2.5b. Resumed Bleeding If bleeding starts again or if she sees any yellowish discharge, she must stop doing the prayer and then when the bleeding stops again she should do ghusl and start the prayer once more. [ If she sees the sign of purity and the judgement is that she is pure immediately, from the moment she sees purity, and then the blood resumes again or there is a yellowish discharge which does not have the colour of blood, she stops praying and reckons that she is still menstruating that day and considers all of it to be the same period. It is one period since it has come before complete purity. Or it may stop before the end of her normal period or extend after its normal length and before looking for purity or before it was complete. When the bleeding comes after complete purity or when it ended after her normal peiod and the days of looking for the end, then it is not menstruation, but abnormal bleeding, When it stops again, then she again does a ghusl and prays, and does not wait to see whether more blood comes again. This question is involves the woman whose purity is interpersed with bleeding to add the days together.] [Khalil: The one who has bleeding patches has a ghusl whenever the blood stops in the patched days unless she thinks that the blood will return before the time she is in finishes. In such a case she is not commanded to do ghusl. She fasts (if it stops at fajr or before) and prays and has intercourse after ghusl according to the known position as opposed to the author of the Irshad who says that

intercourse is not permitted. She can pray in all the days of menstruation when the period comes to her at night and then stops before Fajr. So she might not miss a prayer or a fast.] 2.5c. Legal Consideration of Such Gaps When this situation occurs, it is considered as one menstrual period when reckoning the period of 'idda (after divorce or being widowed) or the period of istibra (after the death of a husband). [The intermittent blood is considered as the same period of bleeding in repsect of 'idda and istibra' and so the days of blood are added together until they reach that at which its judgement normally ends or other than. If it exceeds that it is abnormal bleeding.] 2.5d. Consideration of a Long gap If there is a considerable interval between the two periods of bleeding, such as eight or ten days, then the second one is considered a new menstrual period. ] If there is not a long gap between the two periods of bleeding, it is considered as one menstrual period for the purposes of 'idda and istibra', but if there is a long interval between them but less than the time of purity, which is eight or ten, even though the accepted interval is 15 days, then the second is a new menstruation, i.e. the beginning of a new one which is counted for purposes of 'idda and istibra'.] 2.5e. Abnormal Bleeding If menstrual bleeding continues longer than fifteen days, it is considered as istihada and the woman should perform a ghusl, fast, pray and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her. [ This means if the bleeding continues for her, then she waits for fifteen days from its beginning because the maximum of menstruation in respect of her is fifteen days. Then she is judged to have abnormal bleeding whether the two periods of bleeding are distinct or not. She has a ghusl and prays and fasts. Her husband can come to her. We mentions that which has a beginning to distinguish it from that which has no beginning because there are certain points regarding that because it is either what is normal for her varies or it does not. If it is not different and the blood continues more for her than it normally does, she looks for purity for three days as long as they do not exceed fifteen days. If it varies, she then looks for purity when it is longer than its norm.] 2.6. Lochia 2.6a. Minimum of Lochia If the bleeding after childbirth (nifas) stops soon after the birth, a woman should do ghusl straightaway and start doing the prayer. [ If shortly after childbirth a woman sees the sign which indicates that it is ended with white discharge and dryness, then she washes and prays. "Soon after birth" has no minimum limit in relation to time and it has a minimum in relation to what emerges, which is one gush.] 2.6b. Maximum of Lochia However, if bleeding continues longer than sixty days, then she does ghusl anyway, the bleeding is considered as istihada, and she does the prayer and fasts and her husband can have sexual intercourse with her. [ If the bleeding continues, she waits for sixty days, which it the maximum of its extent. If it stops after sixty, the matter is clear. If she continues to bleed after sixty, it is abnormal bleeding and she has a ghusl, prays and fasts and her husband can come to her.]

Qurrat al-Hayni
2.1- THE MENSTRUAL PERIODS The menstrual period consists of an uncontrolled flow of blood proper to a woman who is nine years old at least and fewer than seventy. There are three categories of women: -A woman who is experiencing it for the first time -A woman who is used to having it -A pregnant woman 2.1.1- A woman experiencing her period for the first time As for this category, the bleeding does not last more than fifteen days. In case it does, it is no longer a menstrual period but a disorder. Therefore the woman can purify, perform her prayers or fast accordingly and have sexual intercourses again. If the flow resumes after an interruption of less than fifteen days, the woman must add up the number of days the bleeding has lasted, if it exceeds fifteen days it is no longer a period but a disorder. Therefore, the woman can purify, performs her prayers or fast and could have sexual intercourses again. During the interruption of the bleeding, she must also purify, observe the practices and could commerce. But if the interruption has lasted just fifteen days then, it is a menstrual period (and not a disorder), for a woman is normally in a state of purity for at least fifteen days. Any state of purity, which lasts less, can be taken for a disorder but if it lasts at least fifteen days any new bleeding is the result of a menstruation. 2.1.2- A woman used to having Menstrual periods If the bleeding lasts longer than usual the woman must wait three more days before she washes, performs her prayers, fasts and commerces again. The three day-wait is valid only if the duration of the bleeding does not exceed fifteen (15) days. If the menstrual periods usually lasts thirteen (13) days, the woman must wait two more days at most. If the menstrual period usually lasts fourteen (14) days, the woman must wait one more day at most. If the menstrual period usually lasts fifteen (15) days, the woman must not wait, even though the flow has not stopped because it consists then of a disorder. 2.1.3- the pregnant woman The bleeding is uncommon to a pregnant woman. Should it happen, it would scarcely occur before the first two months of the pregnancy. Between the second and the sixth month, the bleeding should not exceed twenty (20) days, if it does, the woman must wash, perform her prayers, fast and can have sexual relations again. If the bleeding resumes after an interruption of less than fifteen days, the woman must count the days it has lasted. If they are more than twenty days, it consists of a disorder. And the woman can then wash, perform her prayers fast and have sexual relations. Between the sixth month and the term of the pregnancy, the bleeding should not last more than thirty (30) days. If it does, it then consists of a disorder. Therefore, the woman must purify, do her prayers, fast and can have sexual relations again. If the flow resumes after an interruption of less than fifteen (15) days, the woman must count the days the bleeding has lasted. If they are more than thirty (30) days, it is a disorder. She must then wash, do her prayers, fast and possibly have sexual relations. She must purify during the interruption and observe her practices. 2.1.4- Ways of knowing the interruption of a Menstrual period 1. If there is no stain of new blood on the piece of cloth or cotton introduced into the vagina for a certain time, even if the cloth or the cotton is wet. 2. If there is some white liquid which looks like sperm.

The woman who usually notices the flow of the white liquid signaling the interruption of the menstrual period must immediately purify without waiting for the sex organ to be dry. The woman who usually notices the flow of the white liquid after the dryness of the sex organ must immediately purify even if the inverse phenomenon occurs (white liquid before the dryness). But if the sex organ is dry before (white liquid), she must wait for the flow of the white liquid. If it appears, she must purify, if not, she will have to wait until the end of the prayer time (muqtaar; ideal period of time one must perform the prayer). Thereafter, she must purify and do her prayers whether it has appeared or not. If it flows after she has already purified, she is not obliged to wash again since she has waited until the term of the prayer time. But if she purifies without waiting till the end of the muqtaar, she will have to repeat both her ablution and her prayer if the liquid appears. The woman who does not usually notice any flow of a white liquid after the dryness of her sex organ must purify as soon as the sex organ is dry. The woman who is experiencing the menstrual period for the first time and who is not able to tell for certain how it does stop must purify as soon as she notices either the flow of the white liquid or the dryness of her sex organ. A woman must not observe her prayers during her period and she does not have to make up for them either. A woman must not observe the fasting during her period but she will have to make up for the missed days. She must not do the circumambulation around the Kaaba. She must not have sexual intercourses. She must not be divorced. She must not observe the lihtikaaf (a spiritual retreat for contemplation and prayer). No one must either flirt with her or attempt to derive pleasure from the area of her body between her navel and her knees. She must not go into a mosque. She must not touch the Holy Qur'an except when she is learning it or teaching it. Likewise, there is no objection to her reciting it when she is neither teaching nor learning it. Apart from that, she must not pass her hand on the pages of The Book, only after she has purified, following the stop of the bleeding. As long as she has not purified after the bleeding she is not permitted at all to either read it or touch it, in any way whatsoever. A woman who is actually having her period must at every prescribed period of a prayer check whether the flow has stopped or not. If the bleeding stops after the sunnah prayer (supererogatory) of Fadjr, the woman must perform the obligatory Fadjr prayer if she has got enough time to purify and do at least one raaka before sunrise, if she does not have enough time the prayer is no longer an obligation. If the bleeding stops whereas the woman has got enough time to purify and do five (5) raakas as before sunset, she must perform both the noon prayer Zuhr and the afternoon one Assr. But, if she has got time to perform only four (4) raakas or less after she has purified, only the afternoon prayer is due. If the bleeding stops whereas the woman has got enough time to purify and do four (4) raakas before the Fadjr prayers both the evening prayer Maghreb and the night ones Ishaa are due. But, after her purification, if she bas time to perform only three (3) raakas or less, only the Ishaa prayers are due. Besides, a woman must necessarily be able to tell the exact time of the beginning of her period. If the bleeding starts when the woman has got time to perform only one raaka in a state of purity before sunrise, the Fadjr prayers are not due. If the bleeding starts when the woman has got time to perform five (5) raakas in a state of purity before sunset, neither the Zuhr prayer nor the Assr one are due. But if she has time to perform only four (4) raakas or less therefore only the Zuhr prayer is due. If the bleeding starts when the woman has got time to perform four (4) raakas in a state of purity before the Fadjr prayers, neither the evening prayer Maghreb nor the night ones Ishaa are due. But if she has time to perform only three (3) raakas or less therefore only the Maghreb prayer is due. In a period of fasting, a woman in her period must check, before Fadjr prayers, whether the bleeding has stopped or not.

If it has stopped before Fadjr she must observe the fasting. If it has stopped right at Fadjr she must also observe the fasting. If it has stopped after Fadjr she must not observe the fasting. If she does not know for sure whether it has stopped before or after Fadjr, she must not fast that day but she will have to make up for it later. . 2.2-THE BLEEDING RESULTING FROM DELIVERY A delivery is accompanied with bleeding. The bleeding can occur at the same time or after it, but never before. Should there be any flow of blood before the delivery and however little that blood is, it consists of a menstrual period. The bleeding after delivery never exceeds sixty (60) days. If it does, it consists of a disorder. Therefore, the woman must purify, do her prayers fast and can have sexual intercourses. If the bleeding resumes after an interruption of less than fifteen (15) days, the woman must count the number of days it has taken. If it exceeds sixty (60) days, it consists of a disorder. Therefore she must wash, perform her prayers, fast and could have sexual relations. If the bleeding resumes after an interruption of fifteen (15) days, it is neither caused by the delivery nor by a disorder but it consists of a monthly cycle. Both the woman who is having her bleeding following a delivery and the one who is in her monthly period face the same interdicts, have the same obligations and perform the same deeds. It is meritorious for both of them -after their purification- to introduce a scented piece of cloth or cotton into their vaginas three (3) times repeatedly so as to eliminate any smell of the blood or wetness. That is not an obligation but simply a meritorious practice. After a delivery, it is also meritorious for a woman to abstain from having sexual intercourses for forty (40) days after she has purified. That is not an obligation but simply a meritorious practice. It is recommended to a pregnant woman not to work a lot, not to carry heavy loads, not to stretch up to reach high things, not to take any bitter foods or drinks. When she is less than six months pregnant, she must not take any purgative. But when she is (six months pregnant) she can take a light one. When she is not four months pregnant she must not take any quinine. But when she is (four months pregnant) she can take some at the rate of one tablet a day until the delivery. It is recommended to a pregnant woman to limit her sexual relations particularly at the second, the third, the fifth, and the ninth months. During those periods the sexual intercourses are harmful to her whether she feels it or not.

Risalah al-Akhdari
*SECTION 2.9: MENSTRUATION*
Women are grouped into three categories as far as menstruation is concerned: 1. First time beginners. 2. Regularly menstruating women. 3. Pregnant women. The maximum length of menstruation for a first time beginner is 15 days. For the regularly menstruating woman it is her normal period. If however, the blood continues to come she adds three days at a time for as long as it does not exceed 15 days. For the pregnant woman the maximum is fifteen days when she is over three months pregnant. After six months of pregnancy it becomes twenty days. If the bleeding stops at intervals she puts the days together until she completes her normal period.10 It is not permissible for a menstruating woman to perform Salaat, fast, do Tawaaf, touch the Quran or enter the Masjid. She must however, make up for the fasting but not the Salaat. Her recitation of the Quran is permissible. Her husband however, is not allowed to touch her private parts or anything between her navel and her knees until she has had Ghusl.

*SECTION 2.10: LOCHIA (POSTNATAL BLEEDING)*


Postnatal bleeding is the same as menstruation as far as the things it prohibits are concerned. Its maximum duration is sixty days. If however, the bleeding happens to stop even on the day of delivery she should perform Ghusl and observe her Salaats. In case the bleeding starts again and fifteen days or more have passed then the second is menstrual blood. If it is less