READING MATERIAL 3D Theory was developed by Dr.William James Reddin to explain the origins and manifestations of Managerial and Organizational Effectiveness1; the theory explains how a manager and an organization are effective. Effectiveness is: the degree to which a manager (or organization) gets the results expected of the person in that position. Managerial effectiveness is defined in terms of the product and not input. It is what the manager achieves, not what the manager does. The essence of 3D Theory consists in two basic elements in managerial conduct that are: The task at hand - Task Orientation Relationships with other people - Relationship Orientation TASK ORIENTATION (TO): This is the degree to which a manager directs his own efforts and those of their subordinates, broken down into the following actions: starting, organizing, planning, controlling and directing. RELATIONSHIPS ORIENTATION (RO): The degree to which a manager forms relationships with people in the workplace, broken down into the following activities: listening, trusting, concern for the feelings of others and motivating. The use of a combination of these two orientations produces four basic behavioral styles, or four different types of influence.





In this diagram, TO is the x-axis, on a range from 0 to 4, while the RO is on the y-axis with the same scale. A value of 0 on both axes would mean not oriented to tasks or to relationships; 4 is the highest score obtainable, so scores less than 2 are below average for managers and scores above 2 are above average. Neither of these basic styles is more effective than another; any of them can be effective in certain situations. Effectiveness is derived from acting in accordance with the requirements of the situation; that is, to be effective you have to be more oriented to reality than to “should do” models. This way, each basic style can be less effective or more effective,

Dr. WJ Reddin, Managerial Effectiveness, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970

thus bringing about the eight different managerial styles that are used appropriately or inappropriately, depending on the situation.
BASIC STYLE Integrated + TO +RO Dedicated + TO – RO Developer – TO + RO Separated TO RO LESS EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL STYLE Compromiser Autocratic Missionary Deserter MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGERIAL STYLE Executive Benevolent Autocrat Developer Bureaucrat














Effectiveness cannot be explained through style differences, as it consists of responding appropriately to the requirements of a situation, and so the third dimension is EFFECTIVENESS. One of the contributions 3D Theory makes is to give this term a clear definition. Managerial effectiveness is measured by the degree to which a manager achieves the position’s objectives. The Basic Style is given by the scores obtained in TO and RO. The Basic Style Orientation is given by the quadrant within the Basic Style obtained with the score. For example: A score of 2.5 in TO and of 1.5 in RO gives us a Basic Oriented Style DEDICATED / RELATED (D/R)


On the following pages, you will find a list of the characteristics of the basic styles; then we provide a space for each basic style along with the indicators and characteristics of the more and less effective managerial styles. You can refer to them as you learn to differentiate between them. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BASIC STYLES
1. Method of interaction 2. Method of communication 3. Communication direction 4. Time perspective 5. Identifies with: 6. Emphasis on system. 7. Judges subordinates 8. Judges boss 9. Committee activity 10. Works well in: 11. Does not work well in: 12.Oriented to employee 13. Reaction to mistakes 14. Reaction to conflict 15. Reaction to tension 16. Positive source of control 17. Negative source of control 18 Characteristic problem of subordinates 19. Punishments used 20. Under-values 21. Main weakness Corrects Writes Little in any direction Past Organization Has a procedural system Who follows the rules? Intelligence Clarifies, drives and channels Administration, accounting, statistics and design Not routine Security More controls Avoids Withdraws and quotes rules Logical Argument Lack of recognition Loss of authority Need brings about innovation Slave to the rules

Accepts Conversation Upwards; from the subordinates Indifferent Subordinates Supports the social system Who can understand people? Inspired affection Supports, harmonizes guides and advises Handling of professionals; training coordination Not routine Cooperation Disregards Advocates Becomes dependant and depressed Praise Rejection Lack of direction People lose interest Need for organization and technology Sentimentality

Dominates Verbal orders Downwards; to the subordinates Immediate Superior and technology Follows the technological system Who produces? Power Initiates, evaluates and directs Direction of production and sale Little personal contact Performance Punish Suppresses Dominates and exploits Reward Punishment Lack of information Loses position Subordinates’ expectations Fights/argues unnecessarily

Joins Meetings In both directions Future Colleagues Integrates the sociotechnical system Who wants to be part of the team? Teamwork Sets standards, checks and motivates Supervision of interacting managers Great deal of routine Commitment Learn Uses Avoids making decisions Ideals Compromiser Lack of independence Loss of self-esteem Need for independent action Doesn’t use participation properly

22. Personal insecurities 23. Insecurities about others

Emotionality, softness and dependent Deviates from the system, Irrationality

Rejection by others Conflict

Loss of power Low productivity

Lack of participation Dissatisfaction.

THE SEPARATED MANAGER: Low orientation to both task and relationships INDICATORS Cautious, careful, conservative, orderly Prefers things in writing, procedures, dates, facts Looks for established principles Exact, precise correct, perfectionist Constant, aware, patient Calm, tranquil, modest, discreet The SEPARATED manager is oriented towards procedures, methods, and systems. Often found in Finance, accounting, Human Resources, data processing, research and development and in control departments.

DESERTER: Is essentially a SEPARATED manager and uses low orientation to tasks and relationships in situations in which such behavior is inappropriate, and therefore less effective. Perceived as uninvolved, passive and negative. INDICATORS Works according to what the rules say; minimal productivity; abandons Avoids being seen as complicated; shuns responsibility and commitment Gives few useful opinions or suggestions Lacks creativity, originality, narrow-minded Puts obstacles against others; makes things more difficult Resists change; non-cooperative; uncommunicative CHARACTERISTICS Doesn’t show much interest in having good relations. Doesn’t always show interest in his subordinates, or in his work Thinks creativity, change and innovation are often over-emphasized Could give more useful information to others Not terribly concerned by mistakes and generally does little to correct or reduce them.

BUREAUCRAT: Is a SEPARATED manager, who uses low orientation to tasks and to relationships in a situation in which such behavior is appropriate and is therefore more effective. Appears to be basically interested in the rules and procedures per se, and as someone who wants to control the situation and uses these to do so. INDICATORS Follows orders, rules and procedures Reliable, worthy of trust Keeps a system and the company going Efficient, with an eye for detail Rational, logical, self-controlled Impartial, fair, equitable CHARACTERISTICS Thinks formal meetings are the perfect way to produce new ideas. Plans with fine attention to detail Introduces change formally and follows any set procedure to the letter Prefers to communicate with others in writing Responds to disagreements and conflict by referring to the rules and procedures. Thinks things work better when subordinated understand and carry out the activities mentioned in their job descriptions.

THE RELATED MANAGER: High relationshiporientation and low task- orientation. INDICATORS People come first Emphasizes personal development Informal, calm, goes unnoticed Long conversations Considerate, friendly, docile Creates an atmosphere of security The RELATED manager is basically oriented to others. Effective managers with a RELATED basic style can be found in Human Resources, training, research, and sometimes directing large administrative offices. Identifies with his/her subordinates and through them satisfies his/her own needs. Uses friendship and understanding to influence others. Is generally aware of his/her own attitudes and presuppositions about him/herself, about others and about groups. Pays a lot of attention to other people’s opinions. The RELATED manager is more sensitive to the demands of the human being than to technical demands. . CHARACTERISTICS Treats subordinates with consideration, nicely Lets subordinates set their own objectives, according to their needs, and accepts them even if somewhat unsatisfactory Tolerates deviation when putting plans into action even though it could cause discontent Communicates with others in such a way as to stay on good terms with them on other matters At the first sign of conflict, tries to calm the situation. Thinks that if an error is made, it should be corrected in a way that no one will be bothered. In order to be accepted, will avoid taking any sort of unpleasant decision. CHARACTERISTICS Has excellent relationships with subordinates, characterized by trust and mutual respect. Looks for good new ideas and motivates others to be as creative as they can. When assigned planning responsibilities, involves others. Prepares all affected by change by talking with them in good time If conflict arises, always helps those involved to find grounds for agreement Thinks most mistakes occur for a good reason and that it is always better to look for the reason than to focus on the error itself. Avoids conflict Pleasant, nice, warm Looks to be accepted, dependant Facilitates things Avoids initiating action, passive, does not direct. Not concerned with results, standards, controls Keeps communication channels open, good listener Develops talent in others, instructs Understand others, provides support Works well with others, is cooperative Others trust him, and in others. INDICATORS INDICATORS

MISSIONARY: Is a RELATED manager with high orientation to relationships and low task-orientation in a situation in which such behavior is inappropriate and therefore is less effective. Seen as being mainly interested in harmony and in being appreciated.

DEVELOPER: is a RELATED manager with high orientation to relationships and low task-orientation, in which such behavior is appropriate and therefore more effective. Seen as someone who tends to trust people implicitly and is concerned about individually developing those who work for him.

The DEDICATED MANAGER: Highly task oriented; low relationship orientation INDICATORS Decisive, aggressive, self-confident Active, pushy, initiator Sets individual tasks, responsibilities and standards Secure, independent, ambitious Uses rewards, punishments, controls The task comes first INDICATORS Criticizes, threatens Makes all the decisions Demands obedience; suppresses conflict Wants immediate action and results Communicated downwards only; acts without consulting anyone Feared, unpopular CHARACTERISTICS Directs his subordinates’ work and avoids deviations from the plans Sees planning as a one-man task Thinks that a good way to introduce change is to announce it and let people apply it Closely watches plans being implemented More interested in day-to-day than long term productivity Keeps production going through subtle threats INDICATORS Decisive, shows s/he has initiative Energetic worker Finishes things; dedicated to his/her work Evaluates quantities, quality, costs and time Is conscious of costs, profits and sales Gets results CHARACTERISTICS Tells his/her subordinates exactly what is expected of them Comes up with and proposes many good ideas Shows s/he values efficiency and productivity Watches the implementation of his subordinates plans and gives direct guidance when requested Thinks a strong team needs a strong leader who knows what s/he’s doing. Sets high standards for him/herself and others and ensures they are met.

AUTOCRAT: The DEDICATED manager uses high task orientation and low relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is inappropriate and therefore is less effective. Is seen to be someone who mistrusts others; he is unpleasant and is only interested in getting the immediate task completed.

BENEVOLENT AUTOCRAT: The DEDICATED manager uses high task orientation and low relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is appropriate and therefore is more effective. Seen as someone who is results oriented, who knows what s/he wants and knows how to get it without causing resentment.


The INTEGRATED manager: Highly task oriented with high relationship orientation INDICATORS Derives authority from the objectives, ideals, goals and policies Integrates the individual into the organization Wants participation and a small difference in power Prefers shared responsibilities and objectives Takes interest in motivational techniques

COMPROMISER: An INTEGRATED manager using high task orientation and high relationship orientation in a situation that requires a high orientation in only one or in none of those areas is therefore less effective. Seen as someone who changes a great deal, is a poor decision maker and who lets the pressures of the situation bear too much influence on him/her, and as someone who avoids or minimizes pressures and immediate problems, rather than optimizing production in the long term. INDICATORS Uses too much participation Yielding, weak Avoids decision-making, though makes acceptable, amorphous decisions Emphasizes the task and the relationships at the wrong time Idealist, ambiguous, mistrusts him/herself CHARACTERISTICS When dealing with subordinates, tries to combine task orientation with relationship orientation, but one generally speaking, suffers. Occasionally comes up with good ideas, but does not always follow them all up. While his objectives are usually clearly defined, they are too soft, to the extent they are not always a good guide. Makes an effort in planning, but the plans do not always work. Likes the idea of teamwork, but often is not capable of putting it into effect.

EXECUTIVE: The INTEGRATED manager who is using high task orientation and high relationship orientation in a situation where such behavior is appropriate and therefore is more effective. Seen as a team manager and as a powerful motivating force who sets high standards and treats everyone somewhat differently. INDICATORS Uses teamwork for decision-making Uses participation properly Encourages commitment to the objectives Stimulates better performance Coordinates others at work. CHARACTERISTICS Sees top management as just another team that should cooperate effectively with the teams further down the hierarchy. Consistently obtains higher productivity from his subordinates Sets clear objectives in a timely manner, together with others, and that are agreed on by all directly involved. Plans represent the best way of thinking of all involved. Communicates possible changes in good time to all who will be affected. Supports and actively promotes the team approach with his people.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful