There is a condition worse than blindness, and that is, seeing something that isn't there.

(Thomas Hardy) Lecture Double Zero

Brief Introduction of England & its Constitution

Origin of England’s name: The name of England was derived from the phrase: ‘land of angles’. In old English the phrase was translated as: “Engla- land”. The ‘angles’ were well known ancient Saxon tribe. The tribe occupied the England during the early middle ages.
Early Middle Ages (=a period that stretched from about 400 to 1000 of our Common Era, or CE).

Constitution of England: England has unwritten constitution---by unwritten constitution means a constitution which is not contained in a single document but consists of many documents. The English constitution deals with the distribution and exercise of the functions of government. Democratic form of government: The House of Common is elected by a majority of the voters. Government in England is therefore nothing more than government by opinion.
Democratic (=self governing)

Parliamentary sovereignty: The expression: ‘parliamentary sovereignty’ means that the King, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons can pass, amend or repeal laws to any extent, and that there are no fundamental laws with which parliament cannot interfere.
Amend (= alter; make changes) Repeal (= cancel; rescind) Extent (=level; degree) Fundamental law (= the organic law that establishes the government principles of a state especially constitutional law)

King of England:

There is monarchy in England. Every legislation is required to be signed by the King; the ministers are his ministers; the law courts are his courts of justice. English monarchy is a limited monarchy in as much as no act of King is lawful unless approved by ministers. Politically speaking, England is a democratic republic wherein king is used as a rubber stamp. King is bound to accept the advice of his cabinet. In social life King occupies dignified position. The prestige of the king is surrounded by the elements of the mystic significance which resides in the long history and hereditary situation. It is said about the late kings that they were feared by their breed and famous by their birth. The crown is the hereditary institution which is regulated by parliament by the rules of succession. The British monarchy though hereditary is really constitutional and is bound by definite limitations and restrictions. Formerly the Ministers advised the King, now the practice is reversed and it is the King who advises his Ministers.
Monarchy (= kingdom) Politically (= in a way that is connected with politics) Republic (= democracy) Dignified (=regal; grand) Prestige (=esteem; regard) Mystic (= magic; supernatural) Significance (= worth) Hereditary (= genetic; inherited) Succession (= chain; series) Constitutional (= as per constitution) Formerly (= previously)

The House of Lords: It consists of about 750 members consisting of (1) hereditary Lords of Parliament known as peers; they are created by letter of paten or writ of summons; (2) non hereditary Lords of parliament; (3) life lords, including 6 Lords of Appeal in ordinary. As regard legislation, the House of Lords is, in legal theory, co equal in all respects with the House of Commons, but, in-fact its authority is politically very inferior. Its consent is in law as necessary as that of the House of Commons to every act of legislation, but it does not often withhold that consent when the House of Commons speaks emphatically and with the apparent concurrence of the nation on any matter. Its legislative function has been well summed up as a function of cautious revision. It can wisely stand fast against the commons only when there is some doubt as to the will of the people. Bills relating to taxation are never introduced in the House of Lords, but always originate with the Commons.
Hereditary (= inherited)

Letter of patent (= a document granting some right or privilege) Writ of summons (= a writ by which under the Judicature Acts of 1873-1875, all actions were commenced) Withhold (= refuse to give) Emphatically (= forcefully) Apparent (= obvious; clear) Concurrence (= agreement; harmony) Summed up (= concluded) Cautious (= careful) Revision (= correction; change) Originate (= initiate; start off)

The House of Commons: The House of Commons consists of 615 members, representing 595 constituencies in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The House is chiefly composed of country gentlemen, members of the learned professions, successful merchants and manufacturers and the representatives of the labor classes.
Constituency (= electorate; population) Merchants (= traders)

Some quotes about British Empire
(1) We seem...... to have conquered and peopled half the world in a fit of absence of mind.
[- Sir John Seeley, "The Expansion of England" (1883)] ……. (= the sentence is lengthy and not important to mention) Conquered (= occupied; subjugated) Peopled (= colonized) Fit of (= in shape of)

(2) The reason why the sun never sets on The British Empire is because God doesn't trust the British in the dark. - Anon
Trust (= reliance) Dark (=dim; shady)

(3) The paradox of the British: the weak who wangled the earth and were cursed for it and by it. (- Felipe Fernandez Armesto)
Paradox (=illogicality) Wangle (= to get something by a clever plan) Cursed (= objected; blamed)

(4) "I think I can save the British Empire from anything—except the British." (- Winston Churchill)

(5) The British Empire is no more, but in a curious way, English Common Law and the structure of our institutions and those of the United States and the Western World maintain and expand many of its philosophies. - Tony O'Reilly

Curious (= probing; inquiring; inquisitive) Common law (= judge made law) Philosophies (= view points) (6) English constitution is the product of history. (7) English constitution is not made but has grown with the passage of time.

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