Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research

¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled· FevsonIood, Envivonnenl, and BeIalionaI EpislenoIog¸ [and Connenls
and BepI¸]
AulIov|s)· Nuvil Bivd-Bavid, Eduavdo Viveivos de Caslvo, AIJ HovnIovg, Tin IngoId, Bvian
Movvis, OisIi FaIsson, Lauva M. BivaI, AIan B. Sandslvon
Souvce· Cuvvenl AnlIvopoIog¸, VoI. 40, SuppIenenl· SpeciaI Issue· CuIluve. A Second CIance?
|FeI., 1999), pp. S67-S91
FuIIisIed I¸· TIe Univevsil¸ oJ CIicago Fvess on IeIaIJ oJ Wennev-Oven Foundalion Jov
AnlIvopoIogicaI BeseavcI
SlaIIe UBL· http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991332
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CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
? I999 I¸ TIe Wennev-Oven Foundalion Jov AnlIvopoIogicaI BeseavcI. AII vigIls vesevved OOII-3204/99/40supp-0002$3.00
¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
FevsonIood, Envivonnenl, and
BeIalionaI EpislenoIog¸1
I¸ Nuvil Bivd-Bavid
¨Aninisn¨ is pvojecled in lIe Iilevaluve as sinpIe veIigion and a
JaiIed epislenoIog¸, lo a Iavge exlenl Iecause il Ias IilIevlo
Ieen vieved Jvon nodevnisl pevspeclives. In lIis papev pvevious
lIeovies, Jvon cIassicaI lo vecenl, ave cviliqued. An elInogvapIic
exanpIe oJ a Iunlev-galIevev peopIe is given lo expIove Iov ani-
nislic ideas opevale vilIin lIe conlexl oJ sociaI pvaclices, vilI
allenlion lo IocaI conslvuclions oJ a veIalionaI pevsonIood and lo
ils veIalionsIip vilI ecoIogicaI pevceplions oJ lIe envivonnenl.
A veJovnuIalion oJ lIeiv aninisn as a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸ is
NUBIT BIBB-BAVIB is Seniov Lecluvev in SociaI AnlIvopoIog¸ al
lIe Univevsil¸ oJ HaiJa |Mounl CavneI, HaiJa 3I905, IsvaeI).
Bovn in I 95I, sIe vas educaled al HeIvev Univevsil¸ oJ Jevusa-
Ien |B.A., I974) and al CanIvidge Univevsil¸ |FI.B., I983). SIe
Ias Ieen BeseavcI FeIIov oJ Nev HaII and Snulz Visiling FeI-
Iov al CanIvidge and a Iecluvev al TeI Aviv Univevsil¸. Hev puI-
Iicalions incIude ¨TIe Oiving Envivonnenl¨ |CUBBENT ANTHBO-
FOLOOY 3I·I89-96), ¨Be¸ond 'TIe OviginaI AJJIuenl Sociel¸'· A
CuIluvaIisl BeJovnuIalion¨ |CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY 33·.25-47),
¨Hunlev-OalIevevs' KinsIip Ovganizalion· InpIicil BoIes and
BuIes,¨ in InleIIigence and Inlevaclion, ediled I¸ E. Oood¸ |Can-
Ividge· CanIvidge Univevsil¸ Fvess, I995), and ¨Econonies· A
CuIluvaI-Econonic Fevspeclive¨ |InlevnalionaI SociaI Science
JouvnaI I54·463-75).
pvesenl papev
vas suInilled 9 Ix
and accepled 5 xII 97: lIe JinaI vevsion veacIed lIe Edilov's oJJice
i6 I 98.
WIevevev lIeve ave Na¸aIa, lIeve ave aIso devavu, Jov
Na¸aIa vanl lo Iave lIen and aIva¸s Jind lIen.
TIe concepl oJ aninisn, vIicI E. B. T¸Iov deveIoped
in Iis I87I naslevvovI Fvinilive CuIluve, is one oJ an-
lIvopoIog¸'s eavIiesl concepls, iJ nol lIe Jivsl.2 TIe in-
leIIecluaI geneaIog¸ oJ cenlvaI deIales in lIe JieId goes
IacI lo il. AnlIvopoIog¸ lexlIooIs conlinue lo inlvo-
duce il as a Iasic nolion, Jov exanpIe, as ¨lIe IeIieJ lIal
inside ovdinav¸ visiIIe, langiIIe Iodies lIeve is nov-
naII¸ invisiIIe, novnaII¸ inlangiIIe Ieing· lIe souI ...
eacI cuIluve [Iaving] ils ovn dislinclive aninislic Ie-
ings and ils ovn speciJic eIaIovalion oJ lIe souI con-
cepl¨ |Havvis i983·i86). Enc¸cIopedias oJ anlIvopoIog¸
connonI¸ pvesenl il, Jov inslance, as ¨veIigious IeIieJs
invoIving lIe allviIulion oJ IiJe ov divinil¸ lo sucI nalu-
vaI pIenonena as lvees, lIundev, ov ceIesliaI Iodies¨
|Hunlev and WIillen I976·1i2). TIe nolion is videI¸
enpIo¸ed vilIin lIe genevaI Ianguage oJ elInoIog¸
|e.g., SaIIins I972·I66, i8o: Oudenan I986·44: BescoIa
i996·88) and Ias Iecone inpovlanl in olIev acadenic
discipIines as veII, especiaII¸ in sludies oJ veIigion |as
IeIieJ in spivil-Ieings) and in deveIopnenlaI ps¸cIoIog¸
|veJevving lo cIiIdven's lendenc¸ lo considev lIings as
Iiving and conscious). Moveovev, lIe vovd Ias Iecone
a pavl oJ lIe genevaI EngIisI vocaIuIav¸ and is used in
evev¸da¸ convevsalions and in lIe popuIav nedia. Il ap-
peavs in nan¸ diclionavies, incIuding sucI eIenenlav¸
ones as lIe conpacl scIooI and oJJice edilion oJ WeI-
slev's Nev WovId Biclionav¸ |i989), vIicI deJines il as
¨lIe IeIieJ lIal aII IiJe is pvoduced I¸ a spiviluaI Jovce,
ov lIal aII naluvaI pIenonena Iave souIs.¨ Il is Jound
in nainslvean conpendia sucI as lIe Biclionav¸ oJ lIe
SociaI Sciences |OouId and KoII i965), vIicI suns il
up as ¨lIe IeIieJ in lIe exislence oJ a sepavaIIe souI-
enlil¸, polenliaII¸ dislincl and apavl Jvon an¸ concvele
enIodinenl in a Iiving individuaI ov naleviaI ovgan-
isn.¨ TIe levn is pvesenled in diclionavies oJ lIe oc-
cuIl· lIe Enc¸cIopedia oJ OIosls and Spivils |OuiIei
i992), Jov exanpIe, deJines il as ¨lIe s¸slen oJ IeIieJs
aIoul souIs and spivils l¸picaII¸ Jound in lviIaI socie-
lies,¨ and lIe Biclionav¸ oJ M¸slicisn and lIe OccuIl
|Bvuv¸ i985) deJines il as ¨lIe IeIieJ, connon anong
nan¸ pve-Iilevale socielies, lIal lvees, nounlains, viv-
evs and olIev naluvaI Jovnalions possess an aninaling
povev ov spivil.¨
AnazingI¸, lIe cenluv¸-oId T¸Iovian concepl appeavs
in aII lIese divevse souvces |popuIav and acadenic, gen-
evaI and speciJic) vevised IillIe iJ al aII. Aninisn, a
iglI-cenluv¸ vepvesenlalion oJ an elInogvapIicaII¸ ve-
seavcIaIIe pvaclice pavlicuIavI¸ conspicuous anong in-
digenous peopIes Iul I¸ no neans Iiniled lo lIen, is
depicled I¸ lIen aII as an ¨oIjecl¨ in-lIe-vovId. TIe
suvvivaI oJ lIe T¸Iovian vepvesenlalion is enignalic Ie- I. I an indeIled lo Ingvid Jovdl Jov Iev penelvaling insigIls and
connenlav¸. I lIanI Tin IngoId Jov inslvuclive connenls, sone
oJ vIicI viII avail JoIIov-up vovI. I acInovIedge vilI pIeasuve
connenls on eavIiev dvaJls genevousI¸ oJJeved I¸ KaInan AppI-
Iaun, BeIIi Bevnslein, Eva IIIouz, Sleve KapIan, Yovan CavneIi,
Niva Beiss, and Zvi SoIeI.
2. Fvinilive cuIluve Ied T¸Iov lo an appoinlnenl as Beadev in An-
lIvopoIog¸ in OxJovd Univevsil¸, lIe Jivsl sucI posilion in lIe aca-
denic vovId |Fveus I 9 8 7· I 3 IJ.
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
cause lIe Iogic undevI¸ing il is loda¸ queslionaIIe. T¸-
Iov vas nol as vigid a posilivisl as Ie is oJlen nade oul
lo Ie |see IngoId I986·94-96: LeopoId i980). Hovevev,
Ie deveIoped lIis vepvesenlalion vilIin a posilivislic
spiviluaI/naleviaIisl dicIolon¸ oJ iglI-cenluv¸ design
in divecl opposilion lo naleviaIisl science, in lIe IeIieJ
|and as pavl oJ an eJJovl lo pvove lIis IeIieJ) lIal onI¸
science ¸ieIded ¨lvue¨ InovIedge oJ lIe vovId. FuvlIev-
nove, lIe novaI inpIicalions oJ lIis vepvesenlalion ave
unacceplaIIe nov. T¸Iov posiled lIal ¨aninisls¨ undev-
slood lIe vovId cIiIdisII¸ and evvoneousI¸, and undev
lIe inJIuence oJ i9lI-cenluv¸ evoIulionisn Ie vead inlo
lIis cognilive undevdeveIopnenl. Yel lIe concepl sliII
pevvasiveI¸ pevsisls.
EquaII¸ suvpvisingI¸, lIe elInogvapIic veJevenl-lIe
veseavcIaIIe cuIluvaI pvaclices vIicI T¸Iov denoled I¸
lIe signiJiev/signiJied oJ ¨aninisn¨-Ias venained a
puzzIe3 despile lIe gveal inlevesl vIicI lIe suIjecl Ias
allvacled. ElInogvapIevs conlinue lo casl JvesI elIno-
gvapIic naleviaI Jav vicIev lIan T¸Iov Iad |ov couId Iave
inagined possiIIe) inlo one ov nove oJ lIe T¸Iovian cal-
egovies ¨veIigion,¨ ¨spivils,¨ and ¨supevnaluvaI Ieings¨
|e.g., Endicoll
I979, HoveII I984, Movvis I98I, Bivd-
Bavid I990, Oavdnev i99i, Feil I994, FovineIIi
BicIes I994). Al lIe sane line, lIe¸ Iave connonI¸
avoided lIe issue oJ aninisn and even lIe levn ilseIJ
valIev lIan vevisil lIis pvevaIenl nolion in IigIl oJ lIeiv
nev and vicI elInogvapIies.4
A lvoJoId vicious c¸cIe Ias ensued. TIe nove lIe
levn is used in ils oId T¸Iov-ian sense, vilIoul IeneJil oJ
cvilicaI vevision, lIe nove T¸Iov's IislovicaII¸ silualed
pevspeclive is laIen as ¨veaI,¨ as lIe pIenonenon
vIicI il onI¸ gIosses, and as a ¨s¸nIoI lIal slands Jov
ilseIJ¨ |Wagnev i98 I). In luvn, anlIvopoIog¸'s success in
univevsaIizing lIe use oJ lIe levn ilseIJ veinJovces de-
vogalov¸ inages oJ indigenous peopIe vIose veIaIiIila-
lion Jvon lIen is one oJ ils popuIav voIes.
TIis papev allenpls a soIulion genevaII¸ dvaving on
a s¸nlIesis oJ cuvvenl envivonnenl lIeov¸ |insisling
lIal lIe envivonnenl does nol necessaviI¸ consisl di-
cIolonousI¸ oJ a pI¸sicaI vovId and Iunans) and cuv-
venl pevsonIood lIeov¸ |assevling lIal pevsonIood does
nol necessaviI¸ consisl duaIislicaII¸ oJ Iod¸ and spivil).
TIese duaIislic conceplions ave IislovicaI conslvucls oJ
a speciJic cuIluve vIicI, Jov vanl oJ a Iellev levn, viII
IenceJovlI Ie veJevved lo I¸ lIe civcunIoculion ¨nod-
evnisl.¨ |¨Modevnisl¨ signaIs eilIev lIe dicIolonous
opposile oJ ¨pvinilive¨ nov lIe equivaIenl oJ ¨scien-
liJic¨ Iul ideas and pvaclices lIal doninaled lIe Euvo-
Anevican cuIluvaI Iandscape Jvon lIe I7lI lo lIe 20lI
cenluv¸. FuvlIevnove, ¨nodevnisl seIJ-concepls¨ viII
Ie used as an oIjecliJicalion oJ vIal is oJlen onI¸ a Jvag-
nenl oJ peopIes' conposile idenlil¸, a pavl oJ lIeiv con-
sciousness, vIiIe ¨IocaI pevson-concepls¨ viII Ie used
as an oIjecliJicalion oJ Jvagnenls oJ loda¸'s conpIex in-
digenous idenlilies and, in pavliaI va¸s, oJ pavls oJ
Weslevn idenlilies, loo.) TIe avgunenl viII deveIop
lIvougI lIvee suIsequenl seclions lo ils lvoJoId con-
cIusion· a JvesI visil lo lIe aninisn concepl and lo lIe
indigenous pIenonena lIenseIves. Il viII posil a pIu-
vaIil¸ oJ epislenoIogies I¸ veJiguving so-caIIed pvini-
live aninisn as a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸. TIe pevspec-
live lo Ie enpIo¸ed is pvesenled nol as nove vaIid lIan
an¸ olIev Iul as one nov needed in sludies oJ lIe con-
pIex pIenonena vIicI T¸Iov denoled as ¨aninisn.¨
TIe Jivsl pavl oJJevs a cvilicaI pevspeclive on lIe ¨lex-
luaI convevsalion¨ |lo use Oudenan and Biveva's [I990]
levn) veIevanl lo aninisn lo dale, singIing oul Jov cIose
allenlion lIe lIeovies oJ T¸Iov |i 958 [I 87
]), BuvIIein
|I96o[I9I4], i9i5), Levi-Slvauss |I962, I966 [i962]), and
|I993). Il is avgued lIal posilivislic ideas aIoul
lIe neaning oJ ¨naluve,¨ ¨IiJe,¨ and ¨pevsonIood¨ nis-
divecled lIese pvevious allenpls lo undevsland lIe Io-
caI concepls. CIassicaI lIeovelicians |il is avgued) allviI-
uled lIeiv ovn nodevnisl ideas oJ seIJ lo ¨pvinilive
peopIes¨ vIiIe assevling lIal lIe ¨pvinilive peopIes¨
vead lIeiv idea oJ seIJ inlo olIevs! TIis Ied lIe lIeoveli-
cians lo pvejudge lIe allviIulion oJ ¨pevsonIood¨ lo
naluvaI oIjecls as enpivicaII¸ unJounded and conse-
quenlI¸ lo divecl anaI¸licaI eJJovl lo expIaining vI¸
peopIe did il and vI¸ and Iov |againsl aII appeavances)
lIeiv ¨IeIieJ¨ vas nol a pavl oJ lIeiv pvaclicaI InovI-
edge Iul al Iesl a pavl oJ lIeiv s¸nIoIic vepvesenlalions
ov a nislaIen slvalegic guess.
TIe second pavl oJ lIe papev oJJevs an elInogvapIic
anaI¸sis oJ lIe pIenonenon vIicI T¸Iov levned ¨ani-
nisn¨ IavgeI¸ dvavn Jvon n¸ vovI vilI Iunlev-galI-
evev Na¸aIa in SoulI India.5 A case is deveIoped
lIvougI lIe elInogvapIic naleviaI, slavling Jvon HaIIo-
veII's venavIaIIe I960 ¨OjiIva OnloIog¸, BeIaviov,
and WovId Viev¨ and civcunvenling lIe ¨spivil/Iod¸¨
and ¨naluvaI/supevnaluvaI¨ nodevnisl dicIolonies
lIal Iave oJlen Ianded olIev elInogvapIevs in ¨spivil,¨
¨supevnaluvaI,¨ and ¨veIigion¨ descviplions. Na¸aIa de-
vavu |supevpevsons) ave lacIIed as a concepl and a pIe-
nonenon, IolI conposile and conpIex, in a lIveeJoId
nannev. Fivsl, using SlvalIevn's |i988) nolion oJ lIe ¨di-
viduaI¨ |a pevson conslilulive oJ veIalionsIips), aJlev
Mavvioll's |I976) ¨dividuaI¨ |a pevson conslilulive oJ
lvansJevaIIe pavlicIes lIal Jovn Iis ov Iev pevsonaI suI-
slance), I avgue lIal devavu ave dividuaI pevsons. TIe¸
ave conslilulive oJ sIaving veIalionsIips vepvoduced I¸
Na¸aIa vilI aspecls oJ lIeiv envivonnenl. TIe devavu
ave oIjecliJicalions oJ lIese veIalionsIips and naIe
lIen Inovn. Second, dvaving on OiIson |I979) and In-
goId |i992), I posil lIal in anolIev sense devavu ave a
conslilulive pavl oJ Na¸aIa's envivonnenl, Iovn oJ lIe
¨aJJovdances¨ oJ evenls in-lIe-vovId. Na¸aIa's ¨allen-
lion¨ ecoIogicaII¸ pevceives nuluaII¸ vesponsive
3. Il is vegavded ¨one oJ lIe oIdesl anlIvopoIogicaI puzzIes¨ I¸ Bes-
coIa |i996·82).
4. An exceplion coning cIose lo vevisiling lIe nolion is HaIIoveII
|ig60): a IininaI exceplion is OulIvie's vecenl vevisil
coIa |i992, i996) conlvasls ¨lolenic s¸slens¨ and ¨aninic s¸s-
lens¨ Iul does nol IooI deepI¸ inlo aninisn as sucI.
5. FieIdvovI vas conducled in I978-79 and vas JoIIoved I¸ a ve-
visil in I989. BeseavcI vas suppovled I¸ a Snulz Visiling FeIIov-
sIip, an AnlIon¸ WiIIin SludenlsIip, an H. M. CIadvicI Sludenl-
sIip, and Junds Jvon lIe JevusaIen Foundalion Jov AnlIvopoIogicaI
Sludies and lIe Hovovilz Inslilule Jov BeseavcI oJ BeveIoping
Counlvies. Fov elInogvapIic IacIgvound see Bivd-Bavid |i989,
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
cIanges in lIings in-lIe-vovId and al lIe sane line in
lIenseIves. TIese veIalednesses ave devavu in-lIe-
vovId, nel I¸ Na¸aIa as lIe¸ acl in, valIev lIan lIinI
aIoul, lIe vovId. LaslI¸, I avgue lIal devavu pevJov-
nances-in vIicI pevJovnevs in lvance ¨Iving lo IiJe¨
devavu cIavaclevs, vilI vIon lIe pavlicipanls sociaIize
|laIIing, joIing, avguing, singing, sIaving ov jusl de-
nand-sIaving, and asIing Jov advice and IeIp)-ave
sociaI expeviences vIicI ave nesled vilIin |nol di-
cIolonized Jvon) sociaI-econonic pvaclice. TIese pev-
Jovnances ave pivolaI in IolI ¨educaling lIe allenlion¨
lo devavu in-lIe-vovId |OiIson I979) and vepvoducing
devavu as dividuaI pevsons.
TIe lIivd pavl oJ lIe papev lIeovizes aninisn as ani-
nisns, avguing lIal Iunlev-galIevev aninisn consli-
lules a veIalionaI |nol a JaiIed) epislenoIog¸. TIis epis-
lenoIog¸ is aIoul Inoving lIe vovId I¸ Jocusing
pvinaviI¸ on veIalednesses, Jvon a veIaled poinl oJ viev,
vilIin lIe sIiJling Iovizons oJ lIe veIaled vievev. TIe
Inoving gvovs Jvon and is lIe Inovev's sIiIIs oJ nain-
laining veIaledness vilI lIe Inovn. TIis epislenoIog¸
is vegavded I¸ Na¸aIa |and pvoIaII¸ olIev indigenous
peopIes ve caII Iunlev-galIevevs) as aulIovilalive
againsl olIev va¸s oJ Inoving lIe vovId. Il Junclions
in olIev conlexls |incIuding Weslevn) vilI, againsl, and
sonelines despile olIev IocaI aulIovilalive epislenoI-
ogies. BivevsiJ¸ing aIong vilI pevson-concepls and en-
vivonnenlaI pvaxis, aninisns ave engendeved neilIev
I¸ conJusion nov I¸ vvong guesses Iul I¸ lIe enpIo¸-
nenl oJ Iunan sociaII¸ Iiased cognilive sIiIIs.
Aninisn in lIe Modevnisl Mivvov
Siv Edvavd Buvnell T¸Iov |I83 I-I9I7), lIe Jounding Ja-
lIev oJ anlIvopoIog¸, looI Iis nolion oJ aninisn Jvon
lIe I7lI-cenluv¸ aIcIenisl SlaII, vIo Iad IinseIJ ve-
vived lIe levn Jvon cIassicaI lIeov¸ |T¸Iov I958 [I87I]·
9). Bvaving on secondIand accounls oJ ¨pvinilive¨
peopIes |lo use lIe peviod's levn), T¸Iov oIsevved lIal
nan¸ oJ lIen allviIuled IiJe and pevsonaIil¸ lo aninaI,
vegelaIIe, and ninevaI aIiIe. He deveIoped a lIeov¸ oJ
lIis pIenonenon in a sevies oJ papevs vvillen Ielveen
i866 and I870 lIal cuIninaled in Fvinilive CuIluve.
T¸Iov oJJeved a silualed pevspeclive, Iiniled I¸ lIe
line's elInogvapI¸ and lIeov¸, and il sIouId Ie sludied
in ils conlexl.
As Ie deveIoped Iis lIeov¸ oJ aninisn, T¸Iov looI an
inlevesl in lIe nodevn spiviluaIisl novenenl, JasIion-
aIIe al lIe line. He even venl lo London Jvon Sonev-
sel Jov a nonlI lo invesligale spiviluaIisl seances
|SlocIing I971). In I869 Ie avgued lIal ¨nodevn spivi-
luaIisn is a suvvivaI and a vevivaI oJ savage lIougIl¨
|quoled in SlocIing I97I·90). TIis avgunenl pvoIaII¸
inJIuenced Iis viev oJ ¨savage lIougIl,¨ vIicI Ie Iad
acquived onI¸ Jvon veading. In an odd vevevsaI, Ie con-
slvucled lIe ovigin oJ ¨savage lIougIl¨ Jvon Iis Jivsl-
Iand InovIedge oJ vIal Ie pvesuned vas ils ven-
nanl-nodevn spiviluaIisn. He even consideved using
lIe levn ¨spiviluaIisn¨ valIev lIan ¨aninisn¨ Iul de-
cided againsl il Iecause il Iad ¨Iecone lIe designalion
oJ a pavlicuIav nodevn secl¨ |I958 [I87 I]·Io). Undev lIe
pvoIaIIe inJIuence oJ Iis InovIedge oJ nodevn spivilu-
aIisn, T¸Iov avgued lIal in lIe savage viev evev¸ nan
Iad, in addilion lo Iis Iod¸, a ¨gIosl-souI,¨ a ¨lIin un-
suIslanliaI Iunan inage,¨ lIe ¨cause oJ IiJe ov lIougIl
in lIe individuaI il aninales,¨ capaIIe ¨oJ Ieaving lIe
Iod¸ Jav IeIind¨ and ¨conlinuing lo exisl and appeav lo
nen aJlev lIe dealI oJ lIal Iod¸¨ |quoled in SlocIing
i987·i92). Being ¨a conJivned scienliJic valionaIisl¨ |p.
i9i), T¸Iov suggesled lIal lIis viev vas a deIusion, in
lIe sane va¸ lIal Ie vegavded lIe spiviluaI seances oJ
Iis line as a deIusion.
T¸Iov's vovI vas pvoIaII¸ aIso inJIuenced I¸ oIsev-
valions oJ cIiIdven |see SlocIing I97I·o . He avgued
lIal lIe ¨savages¨ veve douII¸ nislaIen, IeIieving in
lIeiv ovn ¨gIosl-souIs¨ Iul IiIe cIiIdven allviIuling
lIe sane lo lIings avound lIen. BuvIIein |I9I5·53)
nealI¸ nade lIe poinl as JoIIovs·
Fov T¸Iov, lIis exlension oJ aninisn vas due lo lIe
pavlicuIav nenlaIil¸ oJ lIe pvinilive, vIo, IiIe an
inJanl, cannol dislinguisI lIe aninale and lIe inani-
nale. Since lIe Jivsl Ieings oJ vIicI lIe cIiId con-
nences lo Iave an idea ave nen, lIal is, IinseIJ
and lIose avound Iin, il is upon lIis nodeI oJ Iu-
nan naluve lIal Ie lends lo lIinI oJ evev¸lIing. ...
Nov lIe pvinilive lIinIs IiIe a cIiId. ConsequenlI¸,
Ie aIso is incIined lo endov aII lIings, even inani-
nale ones, vilI a naluve anaIogous lo Iis ovn.
T¸Iov's viev conJovned vilI lIe conlenpovaneous
idenliJicalion oJ eavI¸ peopIe vilI lIe cIiId slale oJ so-
ciel¸ |aninaling sociel¸!) and vilI lIe idenliJicalion oJ
conlenpovaneous ¨pvinilives¨ vilI eavI¸ peopIe and so
vilI lIe cIiId slale loo. Hovevev, vIiIe avguing lIal in
lIinIing IiIe a cIiId lIe pvinilive ¨endov[s] aII lIings,
even inaninale ones, vilI a naluve anaIogous lo Iis
ovn,¨ T¸Iov vead inlo lIe pvinilive viev lIe nodevnisl
spiviluaIisl undevslanding oJ ¨one's ovn naluve,¨ nol
lIe pvinilive's ov lIe cIiId's sense oJ ¨Iis ovn naluve.¨
Al issue al lIe line vas Iov veIigion Iad evoIved and
Iov il ougIl lo Ie veIaled lo science. TIis evoIulionav¸
queslion engaged T¸Iov, vIo suggesled lIal nodevn ve-
Iigion Iad evoIved in slages Jvon aninislic IeIieJs. B¸
lIen eavI¸ peopIes Iad lvied lo expIain lIe vovId lo
lIenseIves, and lIese IeIieJs Iad ¨suvvived¨ inlo lIe
pvesenl and |ve)appeaved univevsaII¸ anong cIiIdven
and ¨pvinilive¨ peopIe and in cevlain nodevn cuIls. In
T¸Iov's viev, as one oJ Iis connenlalovs pul il, ¨il vas
as lIougI pvinilive nan, in an allenpl lo cveale sci-
ence, Iad accidenlaII¸ cvealed veIigion inslead, and
nanIind Iad spenl lIe vesl oJ evoIulionav¸ line lv¸ing
lo vecliJ¸ lIe evvov¨ |SlocIing i987·I92).
In T¸Iov's viev, aninisn and science |in a ¨Iong-
vaged conlesl¨ [i886], quoled I¸ SlocIing i987·I92)
veve JundanenlaII¸ anlilIelicaI. ConsequenlI¸, ani-
nislic IeIieJs Jealuved as ¨vvong¨ ideas accovding lo
T¸Iov, vIo cIincIed lIe case I¸ expIaining in evoIu-
lionav¸ levns |as vas lIe cuslon al lIe line) Iov lIe
pvinilive cane lo Iave lIis spiviluaIisl sense oJ Iis
¨ovn naluve.¨ T¸Iov suggesled lIal dveans oJ dead veIa-
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
lives and oJ lIe pvinilive IinseIJ in dislanl pIaces Iad
Ied Iin lo Jovn lIis seIJ idea. TIe lIesis pvojecled lIe
pvinilive as deIivious as veII as pevceiving lIe vovId
IiIe a cIiId.
T¸Iov's lIeov¸ Ias Iad deep and Iasling inJIuence on
anlIvopoIogicaI lIeov¸. Il vas pivolaI in ils line, and
suIsequenl lIeovies deveIoped in diaIeclicaI veIalions
vilI il in luvn Iecane lIenseIves inJIuenliaI lIeovies
in diaIeclicaI veIalions vilI vIicI JuvlIev lIeovies veve
JovnuIaled. I poinl lo one cvilicaI lIeovelicaI lvend pev-
linenl lo n¸ slud¸ I¸ neans oJ sevevaI exanpIes |se-
Iecled Jov lenpovaI divevsil¸, nol necessaviI¸ cenlvaIil¸
in lIe JieId) Jvon cIassic lIeovies lo vecenl ones. M¸ ex-
anpIes cIvonoIogicaII¸ advance Jvon EniIe BuvI-
Iein's vovI on veIigion |I960 [19I4], I9I5) lIvougI
CIaude Levi-Slvauss's vovI on lolenisn and lIe ¨sav-
age nind¨ |I962, I966 [I962]) lo a vecenl vovI on an-
lIvoponovpIisn I¸ Slevavl OulIvie |I993).
BuvIIein vescued lIe pvinilive Jvon lIe T¸Iovian
inage oJ a deIivious Iunan, Iul in doing so Ie en-
IvoiIed IinseIJ JuvlIev in lIe nodevnisl seIJ nodeI|s).
In an avlicIe signiJicanlI¸ enlilIed ¨TIe BuaIisn oJ Hu-
nan Naluve and Ils SociaI Condilions¨ |I960 [I9I4]),
avgued lIal lIe pvinilive seIJ nodeI is ¨nol a vain
n¸lIoIogicaI concepl lIal is vilIoul Joundalions in ve-
aIil¸¨ |p. 329)- lIal ¨in evev¸ age¨ nan Iad Iad a duaI-
islic nodeI oviginaling Jvon a Iasic and univevsaI sociaI
expevience, lIe sinuIlaneous sense oJ IodiI¸ sensalions
and Ieing pavl oJ sociel¸. TIe pvinilive seIJ nodeI, in
Iis viev, vas a speciJic case oJ lIis |nodevnisl) univev-
saI nodeI. He avgued lIal lIe pvinilive naIes aIslvacl
sociel¸ langiIIe lo IinseIJ I¸ a lolen and so vievs Iis
ovn seIJ as duaIislicaII¸ consisling oJ Iod¸/lolenic
pavls |valIev lIan Iod¸/nind in lIe nodevnisl viev).
BuvIIein vesloved cvedence in lIe pvinilive seIJ nodeI
Iul venained cvilicaI, aIong vilI T¸Iov, oJ ils allviIu-
lion lo olIev lIan Iunan enlilies. He sliII casl lIis al-
lviIulion |again, vilI T¸Iov) as lIe evvoneous nenlaI
opevalion oJ a cIiId.
BuvIIein aIso vead Iis ovn nodevnisl |IioIogislic)
IinsIip inlo accounls suggesling lIal ¨pvinilive peo-
pIes¨ vegavded as Iin and Jviends sone enlilies lIal
veve aninaled I¸ lIen. Bvaving on vicIev elIno-
gvapIic souvces lIan T¸Iov's, Ie noled lIal ¨pvinilives¨
IeIieved lIal lIe Ionds Ielveen lIen and lIese naluvaI
enlilies veve ¨IiIe lIose vIicI unile lIe nenIevs oJ a
singIe JaniI¸¨ |I 9 I 5· I 39)· Ionds oJ JviendsIip, inlevde-
pendence, and sIaved cIavaclevislics and Jovlunes |pp.
i58-6o).6 To expIain lIis, Ie avgued lIal lIe¸ nislooI
lIe spiviluaI unil¸ oJ lIe lolenic Jovce, vIicI ¨veaII¸¨
exisled, Jov a IodiI¸ unil¸ oJ JIesI, vIicI did nol. He
IinseIJ oIviousI¸ nislooI lIeiv IinsIip Jov Iis nod-
evnisl conslvuclion oJ il as sIaved IioIogicaI nallev
|JIesI, IIood, BNA, ov vIalevev olIev Jinev IioIogicaI
conneclion viII Ie discoveved I¸ scienlisls [ScIneidev
CIaude Levi-Slvauss addvessed lIe anlIvopoIogicaI
calegov¸ ¨lolenisn,¨ vIicI enconpasses aspecls oJ
lIe pIenonenon vIicI T¸Iov levned ¨aninisn.¨ His
vovI pvovided lIe Jivsl nodevn expIanalion lIal ac-
cepled indigenous InovIedge oJ lIe vovId. Hovevev,
lIe expIanalion vesled on dissocialing lIal InovIedge
Jvon lolenic nolions, veducing lIe Iallev lo s¸nIoIic
vepvesenlalions. Levi-Slvauss did nol queslion lIe au-
lIovil¸ oJ lIe Weslevn oIjeclivisl viev oJ veaIil¸, vIicI
accepled a pviovi lIe naluve/sociel¸ duaIisn. To veIa-
IiIilale lIe BuvIIeinian pvinilives Ie avgued lIal in-
digenous peopIes pevceived lIe vovId in lIis va¸, loo.
TIe¸ pevceived lIe disconlinuil¸ Ielveen naluve and
sociel¸ and vieved naluve ilseIJ as a vovId oJ discvele
oIjecls: lIen lIe¸ used naluve as ¨sonelIing good lo
lIinI vilI¨ aIoul socielaI divisions. TIe¸ dvev anaIo-
gies Ielveen lIings in naluve and gvoups in sociel¸
|I962). TIe¸ concevned lIenseIves vilI lIe sane vep-
vesenlalions oJ lIings in lIe vovId as Weslevnevs did,
Iul lIeiv ¨lolenic lIougIl¨ JanciJuII¸ inlevningIed
lIese vepvesenlalions vilI n¸slicaI laIes, IiIe lIe Ivi-
coIeuv, vIeveas ouv ¨scienliJic lIougIl¨ IogicaII¸
sovled lIen oul, IiIe lIe engineev |i966 [I962]). TIe in-
digenous accounls oJ IinsIip veIalionsIips vilI naluvaI
enlilies, Levi-Slvauss avgued, onI¸ evinced lIe anaIogi-
caI and lolenic naluve oJ lIeiv lIougIl-neilIev an ev-
voneous epislenoIog¸ nov an adequale aIlevnalive lo
ouv ovn. He cvilicized eavIiev lIeov¸ Jov pIacing indige-
nous peopIes on lIe ¨naluve¨ side oJ lIe duaIislic
naluve/cuIluve spIil. Hovevev, vIiIe Ie covvecliveI¸
pIaced lIen on lIe ¨cuIluve¨ side, Ie pIaced lIe duaIis-
lic spIil ilseIJ inside lIeiv ¨savage nind¨ |I966 [I962]).
He did nol expIain aninisn Iul expIained il ava¸. Ani-
nisls I¸ Iis lIeov¸ did nol pevceive lIe naluvaI vovId
diJJevenlI¸ Jvon olIevs.
A vecenl allenpl al a soIulion lo lIe cenluv¸-oId
pvoIIen vI¸ peopIe aninale vIal ve vegavd as inani-
nale oIjecls is lIal oJ Slevavl OulIvie |I993),
vIo de-
Jines aninaling lIings in lIese vovds· ¨Scanning lIe
vovId Jov vIal nosl concevns us-Iiving lIings and es-
peciaII¸ Iunans-ve Jind nan¸ appavenl cases. Sone
oJ lIese pvove iIIusov¸. WIen lIe¸ do, ve ave aninaling
|allviIuling IiJe lo lIe nonIiving) ov anlIvoponovpIiz-
ing |allviIuling Iunan cIavaclevislics lo lIe nonIu-
nan)¨ |I993·62). TIe expvession ¨allviIuling IiJe lo lIe
nonIiving¨ al a slvoIe veIegales aninislic IeIieJs lo lIe
calegov¸ oJ ¨nislaIe,¨ vegvessing Jvon lIe eavIiev ad-
vance nade I¸ Levi-Slvauss. OulIvie vegavds nodevnisl
neanings oJ sucI nolions as ¨IiJe,¨ ¨nonIiving,¨ and
¨Iunan¨ as naluvaII¸ given.7
OulIvie veduces vIal T¸Iov oJJeved as a univevsaI cuI-
luvaI calegov¸ |Fveus I987) lo a univevsaI IioIogicaI one.
He vievs aninislic lIinIing as a naluvaI ¨pevcepluaI
slvaleg¸¨ Jov lIe suvvivaI oJ an¸ aninaI |pp. 38, 4I, 47,
54, 6i)·
6. BuvIIein dislinguisIed Ielveen naluvaI enlilies, ov ¨individuaI
lolens,¨ vegavded as Jviends and Iin, and ¨gvoup lolens,¨ lIe avli-
JacluaI vepvesenlalions oJ naluvaI enlilies, vovsIipped in ceIeIva-
7. OulIvie pevcepliveI¸ discusses lIe Ioundavies ¨IiJe¨/¨nonIiv-
ing¨ and ¨Iunan¨/¨aninaI¨ as lIe¸ ave divevseI¸ dvavn acvoss
cuIluves |e.g., I993· 86-89, II2-I3), Iul Ie naIes lIis oIsevvalion
in suppovl oJ Iis avgunenl lIal il is diJJicuIl lo diJJevenliale Ie-
lveen lIese enlilies.
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨
We nol inJvequenlI¸ ave in douIl as lo vIelIev
sonelIing is aIive. WIen ve ave in douIl, lIe Iesl
slvaleg¸ is lo assune lIal il is ... visIing ovev-inlev-
pvelalion I¸ Ielling on lIe nosl signiJicanl possiIiI-
il¸ . . . Iecause iJ ve ave vvong ve Iose IillIe and iJ
ve ave vigIl ve gain nucI.... Aninisn, lIen, ve-
suIls Jvon a sinpIe Jovn oJ gane lIeov¸ enpIo¸ed
I¸ aninaIs vanging al Ieasl Jvon Jvogs lo peopIe....
[il] is an inevilaIIe vesuIl oJ novnaI pevcepluaI un-
cevlainl¸ and oJ good pevcepluaI slvaleg¸.... TIe
nislaIe enIodied in aninisn-a nislaIe ve can
discovev onI¸ aJlev lIe Jacl-is lIe pvice oJ ouv need
lo discovev Iiving ovganisns. Il is a cosl occasion-
aII¸ incuvved I¸ an¸ aninaI lIal pevceives.
TIis cognilive evoIulionisl expIanalion oJ aninisn
seens ingeniousI¸ sinpIe. Assuning, vilI T¸Iov, lIal
aninislic inlevpvelalions ave evvoneous, OulIvie avgues
lIal lIe naIing oJ aninislic inlevpvelalions ilseIJ is
pavl oJ ¨a good pevcepluaI slvaleg¸.¨ Aninislic inlevpve-
lalions ave ¨veasonaIIe¨ evvovs lIal ¨ve can discovev
onI¸ aJlev lIe Jacl.¨
Bul OulIvie's lIesis is veaI in ils ovn levns.8 We
Iapse inlo aninislic expvessions undev uncevlainl¸, Iul
ve use sucI expvessions nove, and nove consislenlI¸,
vIen ve veguIavI¸ and cIoseI¸ engage vilI lIings ve
ave nol douIlJuI aIoul· pIanls ve gvov, cavs ve Iove,
conpulevs ve use. |OulIvie IinseIJ nenlions lIese ex-
anpIes.) Even pvoJessionaI elIoIogisls, vIo ave lvained
lo vegavd lIeiv slud¸ aninaIs as oIjecls, vegavd lIen as
pevsons lIe nove lIe¸ inlevacl vilI lIen |see Kenned¸
I992·27). TIe lIeov¸ in an¸ case does nol vesoIve lIe
cIassic enigna oJ so-caIIed pvinilive peopIe's nainle-
nance oJ aninislic IeIieJs. Al Iesl, lIe queslion ve-
nains vI¸ |iJ lIe¸ velvospecliveI¸ vecognize lIeiv ani-
nislic inlevpvelalions as nislaIes) lIe¸ cuIluvaII¸
endovse and eIaIovale lIese ¨nislaIes.¨ Al vovsl, lIe
lIeov¸ JuvlIev dovngvades indigenous cognilive aIiIil¸,
Jov nov lIe¸ cannol do even vIal Jvogs can do, naneI¸,
¨aJlev lIe Jacl¨ vecognize lIeiv ¨nislaIes.¨ In lIis case,
lIe lIeov¸ even vegvesses Jvon lIe advances nade I¸
LocaI Senses oJ Bevavu
FevsonIood concepls and ecoIogicaI pevceplion ave lvo
JvuilJuI aveas Jvon vIicI lo veevaIuale ouv lIeovies oJ
aninisl pvaclices and IeIieJs. Ivving HaIIoveII's elInog-
vapI¸ oJ lIe OjiIva |Jvon JieIdvovI conducled in lIe
LaIe Winnipeg avea oJ novlIevn Canada duving lIe
I930s) and especiaII¸ Iis papev ¨OjiIva OnloIog¸, Be-
Iaviov, and WovId Viev¨ |i960) ave pvovocalive slavling
poinls Jov ouv veassessnenl oJ lIeovies oJ aninisn. HaI-
IoveII oIsevved lIal lIe OjiIva sense oJ pevsonIood,
vIicI lIe¸ allviIule lo sone naluvaI enlilies, aninaIs,
vinds, slones, elc., is JundanenlaII¸ diJJevenl Jvon lIe
nodevnisl one. TIe Iallev laIes lIe axionalic spIil Ie-
lveen ¨Iunan¨ and ¨nonIunan¨ as essenliaI, vilI
¨pevson¨ Ieing a suIcalegov¸ oJ ¨Iunan.¨ TIe OjiIva
conceives oJ ¨pevson¨ as an ovevavcIing calegov¸
vilIin vIicI ¨Iunan pevson,¨ ¨aninaI pevson,¨
¨vind pevson,¨ elc., ave suIcalegovies. EcIoing Evans-
FvilcIavd's accounl oJ Azande nagic |I937), HaIIoveII
JuvlIevnove avgues lIal, conlvav¸ lo veceived visdon
and in lIe aIsence oJ oIjeclivisl dogna, expevience il-
seIJ does nol vuIe oul OjiIva aninislic ideas. On lIe
conlvav¸, Ie avgues |a poinl veilevaled I¸ Ialev elInogva-
pIevs [see Scoll I989, Feil I994]), expevience is consis-
lenl vilI lIeiv veading oJ lIings, given an aninislic
HaIIoveII's conlviIulion is lo Jvee lIe slud¸ oJ ani-
nislic IeIieJs and pvaclices Jivsl Jvon nodevnisl pevson-
concepls and second Jvon lIe pvesunplion lIal lIese
nolions and pvaclices ave evvoneous. Hovevev, lIe case
needs lo Ie JuvlIev puvsued. He slales lIal lIe OjiIva
sense oJ pevsonIood is diJJevenl vilIoul expIoving ils
sense Jav enougI, pevIaps Iecause, aIlIougI lIe con-
cepl goes IacI lo MavceI Mauss's vovI oJ I938,9 IeJove
lIe I960s veseavcI inlo lIe ¨pevson¨ as a cvoss-cuIluvaI
calegov¸ IavdI¸ exisled. He avgues lIal OjiIva engage-
nenl in lIe vovId does nol veIuJJ lIeiv aninislic vievs
Iul does nol expIain Iov lIe IeIieJs ave engendeved and
pevpelualed. I sIaII puvsue Iis insigIl lIvougI elIno-
gvapIic naleviaI IavgeI¸ dvavn Jvon n¸ vovI vilI
Na¸aIa, a Iunlev-galIevev connunil¸ oJ lIe Jovesled
Oiv VaIIe¸ in lIe NiIgivi vegion oJ SoulI India.'0 M¸ oI-
jeclive viII Ie lo undevsland lIe senses oJ vIal lIe¸
caII devavu, a concepl vIicI is nol jusl a Joveign vovd
vequiving lvansIalion Iul enignalic lo posilivislic
lIougIl. NeilIev ¨spivils¨ |deviving Jvon lIe
Iod¸ duaIisn oJ lIe nodevnisl pevson-concepl) nov ¨su-
pevnaluvaI Ieings¨ |nivvoJing lIe Weslevn idea oJ na-
luve)¨ is an appvopviale EngIisI equivaIenl, lIougI
lIese ave lIe connon lvansIalions oJ covvesponding no-
lions in olIev sludies.'2 HaIIoveII's aIlevnalive ¨olIev-
lIan-Iunan pevsons¨ escapes lIese Iiased nolions Iul
sliII consevves lIe pvinav¸ oIjeclivisl concevn vilI
cIasses |Iunan and olIev-lIan-Iunan). I use ¨supevpev-
sons¨ |pevsons vilI exlva povevs) as a genevaI veJevence
8. OulIvie Jocuses on vIal Ie caIIs ¨lIe Wesl¨ Iecause ¨aninisn
is usuaII¸ allviIuled lo sinpIe socielies.¨ His exanpIes, laIen oul
oJ lIeiv conlexls, vange Jvon FvencI and SpanisI cave avl lIvougI
OveeI, Bonan, and nedievaI pIiIosopI¸ and lIe avls lo nodevn
science, sociaI science, Iilevaluve and advevlisenenl, and ¨daiI¸ IiJe
in lIe conlenpovav¸ Uniled Slales.¨ His scanl veJevences lo ¨sin-
pIe socielies¨ dvav nol on lIe vicIev nev elInogvapI¸ Iul on oul-
daled secondav¸ souvces sucI as TIonpson |igss) and EInnavI
|' 939 ).
9. Mauss's vovI vas Jivsl lvansIaled inlo EngIisI onI¸ in I9 7 9 |and
see I985). Fov sone vecenl vovIs on lIe ¨seIJ¨ see Movvis |I994),
CavvilIevs, CoIIins, and LuIes |i985), and SIvedev and LeVine
io. TIe Oiv VaIIe¸ is a Jiclive nane Jov one oJ lIe NiIgivi-W¸naad's
ii. See BuvIIein |igiS), Lovejo¸ |I948), SaIev |I77J), BescoIa
I12. See Endicoll
HoveII |i984), Movvis |ig8i), Bivd-Bavid
|iggo), Oavdnev
and, Jov a con-
pavison, Mageo and Hovavd |i996).
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
and Iel lIe IocaI conposile neanings gvov Jvon lIe
In Iev cvilicaII¸ ovienled conpavison oJ lIe MeIanesian
and lIe Euvo-Anevican ¨pevson,¨ SlvalIevn |i988) av-
gues lIal lIe ivveduciIiIil¸ oJ lIe individuaI is a pecu-
IiavI¸ nodevnisl nolion.'3 Il is nol evev¸vIeve lIal lIe
individuaI is vegavded as ¨a singIe enlil¸,¨ ¨Iounded
and inlegvaled, and sel conlvaslingI¸ againsl olIev sucI
vIoIes and againsl a naluvaI and sociaI IacIgvounds¨
|CIiJJovd Oeevlz, quoled in SlvalIevn I988·57). TIe MeI-
anesian ¨pevson¨ is a conposile oJ veIalionsIips, a ni-
cvocosn IonoIogous lo sociel¸ al Iavge |I988·I3, I31).
TIis pevson oIjecliJies veIalionsIips and naIes lIen
Inovn. SIe caIIs il a ¨dividuaI,¨ in conlvasl vilI lIe
|Euvo-Anevican) ¨individuaI.¨¨4 TIis is a nolion veII
Inovn in SoulI Asian scIoIavsIip Jvon lIe vovI oJ
McKin Mavvioll and BonaId Inden |Mavvioll I976, Mav-
violl and Inden I977:
see BanieI I984, BaIeja I988a, I,
and Bavnell I976 Jov elInogvapIic expIovalions),
agvee vilI Bunonl |i966) lIal ¨lIe Indian is nisvepve-
senled iJ depicled as an individuaI, Iul Iess Iecause lIe
pevson Ias a IoIislic-coIIeclivisl idenlil¸ lIan Iecause,
accovding lo Indian va¸s oJ lIinIing and expIaining,
eacI pevson is a conposile oJ lvansJevaIIe pavlicIes lIal
Jovn Iis ov Iev pevsonaI suIslance¨ |Mines I994·6).
I devive Jvon SlvalIevn's ¨dividuaI¨ |a pevson consli-
lulive oJ veIalionsIips) lIe vevI ¨lo dividuale,¨ vIicI
is cvuciaI lo n¸ anaI¸sis. WIen I individuale a Iunan
Ieing I an conscious oJ Iev ¨in IevseIJ¨ |as a singIe sep-
avale enlil¸): vIen I dividuale Iev I an conscious oJ
Iov sIe veIales vilI ne. TIis is nol lo sa¸ lIal I an
conscious oJ lIe veIalionsIip vilI Iev ¨in ilseIJ,¨ as a
lIing. BalIev, I an conscious oJ lIe veIaledness vilI
n¸ inlevIoculov as I engage vilI Iev, allenlive lo vIal
sIe does in veIalion lo vIal I do, lo Iov sIe laIIs and
Iislens lo ne as I laII and Iislen lo Iev, lo vIal Iappens
sinuIlaneousI¸ and nuluaII¸ lo ne, lo Iev, lo us.
Na¸aIa, I avgue, Iived in a sociaI envivonnenl vIicI
JaciIilaled and vas vepvoduced I¸ dividualing JeIIov
Na¸aIa.'5 NunIeving in I978-79 Jevev lIan 70 pev-
sons, lIe¸ occupied Jive siles al a dislance oJ 2-IO In
Jvon eacI olIev. TIe Iavgesl vas nade up oJ Jive dveII-
ings, lIe olIevs oJ Ielveen one and lIvee. TIe dveII-
ings |lIalcIed Iuls vilI vaIIs nade oJ inlevvoven
slvips oJ IanIoo) slood cIose lo eacI olIev, lIougI lIe
levvain vouId Iave aIIoved lIeiv dispevsaI. TIe¸ con-
lained one, lvo, ov sonelines even lIvee Iiving spaces,
IaveI¸ sepavaled Jvon eacI olIev, eacI occupied I¸ a
nucIeav JaniI¸. WealIev pevnilling, JaniIies vesled,
ale, and sIepl in lIe open Ieside ouldoov JivepIaces onI¸
a Jev nelevs apavl. TIe¸ Ied lIeiv doneslic Iives lo-
gelIev, sIaving space, lIings, and aclions. TIe¸ expevi-
enced sinuIlaneousI¸ vIal Iappened lo lIen and lo
lIeiv JeIIov Na¸aIa. TIis vas lIe case vilI vespecl lo
nosl Na¸aIa in lIe Oiv avea, nol jusl lIe vesidenls oJ
one's ovn pIace, Iecause lIeve vas nucI novenenl
Ielveen siles and peopIe sla¸ed al eacI olIev's pIaces
Jov da¸s, veeIs, and even nonlIs al a line.
TIe idea lIal one sIaved space, lIings, and aclions
vilI olIevs vas cenlvaI lo lIe Na¸aIa viev oJ sociaI
IiJe. A Na¸aIa vas novnaliveI¸ expecled lo sIave vilI
evev¸Iod¸ as and vIen pvesenl, especiaII¸ |Iul nol
onI¸) Iavge gane, ivvespeclive oJ pveexisling sociaI lies,
cvilevia, and enlilIenenl. SIaving vilI an¸one pvesenl
vas as inpovlanl as iJ nol nove inpovlanl lIan eJ-
Jecling a dislviIulion oJ lIings anong peopIe. A Na¸aIa
vas, JuvlIevnove, expecled lo give olIevs vIal lIe¸
asIed Jov, vIalevev lIis nigIl Ie, lo pveenpl veJusaIs
and Ience cIaIIenges lo lIe JeIl sense lIal ¨aII oJ us
Ieve sIave vilI eacI olIev.¨ TIe idea and pvaclice oJ
sIaving consliluled a IaIilus vilIin vIicI agenlive ne-
golialion, nanipuIalion, and nonconJovnil¸ looI pIace
|see Bivd-Bavid I990). Fov exanpIe, novnaII¸ peopIe
sIaved lIings vequesled oJ lIen, Iul vIen exceplion-
aII¸ lIe¸ did nol vanl lo pavl vilI sonelIing, valIev
lIan disvupl lIe ongoing sense oJ sIaving-lIe vI¸lIn
oJ evev¸da¸ sociaI IiJe-lIe¸ Iid lIal lIing ov avoided
peopIe. TIis va¸, lIe¸ pveenpled cIances oJ sIaving ve-
quesls and veJusaIs. EquaII¸, peopIe excessiveI¸ ve-
quesled lIings Jvon peopIe lIe¸ vanled lo enIavvass ov
nanipuIale inlo pevsislenl giving.
As I undevsland il, lIis connon expevience oJ sIav-
ing space, lIings, and aclions conlexluaIized Na¸aIa's
InovIedge oJ eacI olIev· lIe¸ dividualed eacI olIev.
TIe¸ gvaduaII¸ gol lo Inov nol Iov eacI laIIed Iul
Iov eacI laIIed vilI JeIIovs, nol Iov eacI vovIed Iul
Iov eacI vovIed vilI JeIIovs, nol Iov eacI sIaved
Iul Iov eacI sIaved vilI JeIIovs, elc. TIe¸ gol lo
Inov nol olIev Na¸aIa in lIenseIves Iul Na¸aIa as
lIe¸ inlevveIaled vilI eacI olIev, Na¸aIa-in-veIal-
edness vilI JeIIov Na¸aIa. TIvougI cunuIalive expe-
viences, lIe¸ sensed eacI olIev as dividualed pevsonaIi-
lies, eacI vilI a veIaliveI¸ pevsisling va¸ oJ engaging
vilI olIevs againsl lIe veIalive cIange invoIved in lIeiv
nuluaI engagenenl. Na¸aIa speaIevs, Jov exanpIe,
connonI¸ descviIed JeIIov Na¸aIa I¸ lIe va¸ lIe¸ Ie-
Iaved vis-a-vis lIenseIves, Jov inslance, as ¨MalIen
vIo IaugIs a Iol,¨ ¨MalIen vIo Iislens allenliveI¸,¨
and so on |MalIen Ieing one oJ a Jev pevsonaI nanes
in civcuIalion) |see Bivd-Bavid I983).
Na¸aIa connonI¸ oIjecliJied eacI olIev nol as lIe
Maussian ¨cIavaclev¨-¨lIe Iocus [in evev¸da¸ IiJe] oJ
diJJevenl vigIls, dulies, lilIes and IinsIip nanes vilIin
lIe cIan¨ |CavvilIevs, CoIIins, and LuIes I985 ·vii)-Iul
as Iin, veIalives, ¨ones veIaled vilI.¨ In evev¸da¸ sociaI
I3. See aIso Bunonl |I966).
I4. IngoId |pevsonaI connunicalion) poinls oul lIal SlvalIen''s
use oJ lIe concepl ¨dividuaI¨ is unsalisJaclov¸. SIe avgues Jov a ve-
IalionaI pevsonIood, Iul lIe concepl assunes lIal lIe pevson is
sone Iind oJ suIslanlive enlil¸, divisiIIe ov indivisiIIe. FevIaps
anolIev levn is caIIed Jov.
EIsevIeve I Iave exanined olIev aspecls oJ lIis sociaI envivon-
nenl, caIIing il an ¨innediale sociaI envivonnenl¨ |Bivd-Bavid
I994), aIsovIing ScIulz and LucInann's |I973) sense oJ ¨innedi-
ac¸¨ and lIe eavIiev use oJ lIe vovd in Iunlev-galIevev scIoIavsIip
|esp. MeiIIassoux I973 and WoodIuvn I980, i982).
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
inlevaclion lIe¸ novnaII¸ veJevved lo and addvessed
eacI olIev I¸ IinsIip levns |¨n¸ Iig-uncIe,¨ ¨n¸
IvolIev,¨ ¨n¸ sislev-in-Iav,¨ elc.). An¸one lIe¸ pevsis-
lenlI¸ sIaved vilI |even a non-Na¸aIa pevson IiIe lIe
anlIvopoIogisl) lIe¸ vegavded as Iin.'6 TIe¸ vecIoned
veIalionaII¸ vIicI IinsIip levn vas appvopviale al eacI
nonenl |Jov exanpIe, caIIing ¨n¸ palevnaI uncIe¨ lIe
veIalive ¨n¸ JalIev¨ caIIed ¨n¸ IvolIev¨ [see Bivd-
Bavid I994·59I-93]). TIe¸ genevaII¸ veJevved lo peopIe
vilI vIon lIe¸ sIaved pIace, lIings, and aclions as
sonla |¨veIalives,¨ a levn usuaII¸ used vilI lIe pveJix
nana, ¨ouv¨), a nolion lIal covvesponds vilI olIev
Iunlev-galIevev nolions sucI as Finlupi vaI¸lja and In-
uil iIa |see M¸evs I986, OuenpIe I988). TIeiv IinsIip
vas pvinaviI¸ nade and venade I¸ vecuvving sociaI ac-
lions oJ sIaving and veIaling vilI, nol I¸ IIood ov I¸
descenl, nol I¸ IioIog¸ ov I¸ n¸lI ov geneaIog¸.
Tvanscending idios¸ncvalic, pvocessuaI, and nuIlipIe
JIovs oJ neanings, lIe Na¸aIa sense oJ lIe pevson ap-
peavs genevaII¸ lo engage nol lIe nodevnisl suIjecl/oI-
jecl spIil ov lIe oIjeclivisl concevn vilI suIslances Iul
lIe aIove-nenlioned sense oJ IinsIip. TIe pevson is
sensed as ¨one vIon ve sIave vilI.¨ Il is sensed as a
veIalive and is novnaII¸ oIjecliJied as Iin, using a Iin-
sIip levn. TIe pIvase nana sonla is used in lIe genev-
aIizing sense oJ lIe pvovevIiaI pIvase ¨ve, lIe peopIe.¨'7
Ils use exlends Ie¸ond lIe Na¸aIa gvoup |JaniI¸, Iin-
dved, neigIIovs) lo lIe aggvegale oJ IocaI peopIe |Na¸aIa
and olIevs) vilI vIon Na¸aIa cIoseI¸ engage. To ve-
luvn lo SlvalIevn's dividuaI |a pevson vIicI oIjecliJies
veIalionsIips and naIes lIen Inovn), in lIe Na¸aIa
conlexl lIe dividuaI oIjecliJies veIalionsIips oJ a cev-
lain Iind, IocaI IinsIip veIalionsIips vIicI ave oIjecli-
Jicalions oJ nuluaI sIaving oJ space, lIings, and aclions.
AnaI¸licaII¸ veJevving lo lIese veIalionsIips as ¨sIaving
veIalionsIips¨ |Iecause lIe levn ¨IinsIip veIalion-
sIips¨ inevilaII¸ invoIes associalions oJ IioIogislic ov
vigIls-and-dulies IinsIip), ve can sa¸ lIal lIe Na¸aIa
dividuaI oIjecliJies sIaving veIalionsIips and naIes
lIen Inovn. TIis dividuaI is enevgenl, consliluled I¸
veIalionsIips vIicI in Fved M¸evs's vovds ¨ave nol lo-
laII¸ 'given' [Iul] nusl Ie vovIed oul in a vaviel¸ oJ so-
ciaI pvocesses¨ |I986·I5 9).
We cannol sa¸-as T¸Iov did-lIal Na¸aIa ¨lIinI
vilI¨ lIis idea oJ pevsonIood aIoul lIeiv envivonnenl,
lo avvive I¸ pvojeclion al lIe idea oJ devavu. TIe idea
oJ ¨pevson¨ as a ¨nenlaI vepvesenlalion¨ appIied lo lIe
vovId in puvsuil oJ InovIedge is nodevnisl. I avgue lIal
Na¸aIa do nol individuale Iul, in lIe sense speciJied
aIove, dividuale olIev Ieings in lIeiv envivonnenl.
TIe¸ ave allenlive lo, and vovI lovavds naIing, veIal-
ednesses. As lIe¸ nove and genevaII¸ acl in lIe envi-
vonnenl, lIe¸ ave allenlive lo nuluaI IeIaviovs and
evenls. FeviodicaII¸, lIe¸ invile IocaI devavu lo visil
lIen and sIave vilI lIen. TIeiv conposile pev-
sonIood is conslilulive oJ sIaving veIalionsIips nol
onI¸ vilI JeIIov Na¸aIa Iul vilI nenIevs oJ olIev
species in lIe vicinil¸. TIe¸ naIe lIeiv pevsonIood I¸
pvoducing and vepvoducing sIaving veIalionsIips vilI
suvvounding Ieings, Iunans and olIevs. TIe¸ do nol di-
cIolonize olIev Ieings vis-a-vis lIenseIves |see Bivd-
Bavid I992a) Iul vegavd lIen, vIiIe diJJevenlialed, as
nesled vilIin eacI olIev. TIe¸ vecognize lIal lIe olIev
Ieings Iave lIeiv diJJevenl ¨aJJovdances¨ and ave oJ di-
vevse sovls, vIicI is indicaled anong olIev lIings I¸
lIe diJJevenl vovds I¸ vIicI lIe¸ veJev lo lIen |IiIIs,
eIepIanls, elc.). Hovevev, Na¸aIa aIso appveciale lIal
lIe¸ sIave lIe IocaI envivonnenl vilI sone oJ lIese Ie-
ings, vIicI ovevvides lIese diJJevences and aIsovIs
lIeiv sovls inlo one ¨ve-ness.¨ Beings vIo ave aIsovIed
inlo lIis ¨ve-ness¨ ave devavu, and vIiIe diJJevenlialed
Jvon avavu |peopIe), lIe¸ and avavu, in sone conlexls,
ave aIsovIed inlo one ¨ve-ness,¨ vIicI Na¸aIa aIso
caII nana sonla. TIe devavu ave oJlen oIjecliJied I¸
IinsIip levns, especiaII¸ elle and ella|n) |gvandnolIev
and gvandJalIev) and occasionaII¸ dodava and dodappa
|¨Iig¨ nolIev and JalIev). TIe use oJ IinsIip levns Jov
supevpevsons, especiaII¸ ¨gvandpavenls,¨ is connon
aIso anong olIev Iunlev-galIevevs |e.g., see HaIIoveII
Mainlaining veIalionsIips vilI JeIIov Na¸aIa Iul
aIso vilI olIev IocaI Ieings is cvilicaI lo nainlaining
Na¸aIa idenlil¸ Iecause il is cvilicaI lo nainlaining
pevsonIood. TIe¸ velain innediale engagenenl vilI
lIe naluvaI envivonnenl and IoId devavu pevJovnances
even vIen lIe¸ naIe a Iiving I¸ diJJevenl neans sucI
as casuaI IaIov. TIis is connon anong nan¸ olIev
Iunlev-galIevevs, even lIose veII inlegvaled inlo lIeiv
vespeclive slales vIo Iive I¸ sucI divevse neans as
slale IeneJils ov joIs in lIe slale Iuveaucvac¸ |see, e.g.,
I993, Bivd-Bavid i992I). B¸
nainlaining veIalionsIips vilI olIev IocaI Ieings lo
vepvoduce lIeiv pevsonIood, Na¸aIa vepvoduce lIe
devavu-ness oJ lIe olIev Ieings vilI vIon lIe¸ sIave.
TIe olIev Ieings ave dvavn inlo inlevveIaling and sIav-
ing vilI Na¸aIa and so inlo Na¸aIa IinsIip veIalion-
sIips. TIese veIalionsIips conslilule lIe pavlicuIav Ie-
ings as devavu.
To sunnavize lIis poinl oJ lIe avgunenl, lIe devavu
oIjecliJ¸ sIaving veIalionsIips Ielveen Na¸aIa and
olIev Ieings. A IiII devavu, sa¸, oIjecliJies Na¸aIa veIa-
lionsIips vilI lIe IiII: il naIes Inovn lIe veIalion-
sIips Ielveen Na¸aIa and lIal IiII. Na¸aIa nainlain
sociaI veIalionsIips vilI olIev Ieings nol Iecause, as
T¸Iov IoIds, lIe¸ a pviovi, considev lIen pevsons. As and
vIen and Iecause lIe¸ engage in and nainlain veIa-
lionsIips vilI olIev Ieings, lIe¸ conslilule lIen as
Iinds oJ pevson· lIe¸ naIe lIen ¨veIalives¨ I¸ sIaving
vilI lIen and lIus naIe lIen pevsons. TIe¸ do nol
vegavd lIen as pevsons and suIsequenlI¸ sone oJ lIen
as veIalives, as BuvIIein nainlains. In one Iasic sense
oJ lIis conpIex nolion, devavu ave veIalives in lIe Iil-
evaI sense oJ Ieing ¨lIal ov vIon one inlevveIales
vilI¨ |nol in lIe veduced nodevn EngIisI sense oJ ¨Iu-
i6. TIis is a connon pIenonenon anong Iunlev-galIevevs, vIo
Iave vIal AIan Bavnavd caIIed ¨a univevsaI IinsIip s¸slen¨ |I98I):
WoodIuvn |I979) descviIed lIis s¸slen as one in vIicI evev¸Iod¸
vilIin lIe poIilicaI connunil¸ is vegavded as Iin.
I7. TIe nane Na¸aIa is noslI¸ used and vas pvoIaII¸ inlvoduced
I¸ suvvounding peopIe.
S74 CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
nans connecled vilI olIevs I¸ IIood ov aJJinil¸¨).'8
TIe¸ ave supevveIalives vIo IolI need and can IeIp
Na¸aIa in exlvaovdinav¸ va¸s.
Bevavu exisl in lIe vovId, accovding lo Na¸aIa, and
lIis viev is conpveIensiIIe in levns oJ OiIson's |I979)
ecoIogicaI appvoacI lo visuaI pevceplion |inlvoduced
and popuIavized anong anlIvopoIogisls I¸ IngoId [e.g.,
i992, I996: see CvoII and FavIin i992]). OiIson con-
cevns IinseIJ vilI ¨anIienl vision¨ ¨oIlained as lIe
oIsevvev is luvning Iis Iead and IooIing avound,¨ lIe
vision I¸ vIicI peopIe |IiIe olIev aninaIs) pevceive
lIeiv envivonnenl in evev¸da¸ IiJe. He veconcepluaIizes
lIe envivonnenl in ecoIogicaI levns. Il is pevnanenl in
sone vespecls and cIanging in olIevs: ¨lIe 'pevnanenl
oIjecls' oJ lIe vovId ave acluaII¸ onI¸ oIjecls lIal pev-
sisl Jov a vev¸ Iong line¨ |p. I3). Il consisls oJ ¨pIaces,
allacIed oIjecls, oIjecls and suIslances . . . logelIev
vilI evenls, vIicI ave cIanges oJ lIese lIings¨ |p. 240).
FeopIe pevceive lIese lIings I¸ vegisleving lIeiv ¨veIa-
live pevsislence¨ |ov pevsislence-undev-cIange, ov ¨in-
vaviances¨) and ¨veIalive cIange¨ |ov cIange-aIove-
pevsislence, ov ¨vaviances¨). TIings ave pevceived in
levns oJ vIal lIe¸ aJJovd lIe aclov-pevceivev Iecause
oJ vIal lIe¸ ave Jov Iin |p. I38).19 TIeiv ¨aJJovdance,¨
as OiIson caIIs il, ¨culs acvoss lIe dicIolon¸ oJ suIjec-
live-oIjeclive.... Il is equaII¸ a Jacl oJ lIe envivon-
nenl as a Jacl oJ IeIaviov. Il is IolI pI¸sicaI and ps¸-
cIicaI, ¸el neilIev. An aJJovdance poinls IolI va¸s, lo
lIe envivonnenl and lo lIe oIsevvev¨ |p. I23).
¨Meaning¨ is nol ¨inposed¨ on lIings-il is nol pve-
given in consciousness-Iul ¨discoveved¨ in lIe couvse
oJ aclion: il is aIso ¨IolI pI¸sicaI and ps¸cIicaI, ¸el
neilIev.¨ TIeve is endIess ¨inJovnalion¨ in lIe envi-
vonnenl, I¸ vIicI OiIson neans ¨lIe speciJicalion oJ
lIe oIsevvev's envivonnenl, nol . . . oJ lIe oIsevvev's
veceplovs ov sense ovgans¨ |p. 242). FeopIe conlinuousI¸
¨picI up¨ inJovnalion in acling vilIin lIe envivon-
nenl, I¸ neans oJ ¨allenlion.¨ OiIsonian ¨allenlion¨
is ¨a sIiII lIal can Ie educaled¨ |p. 246) lo picI up inJov-
nalion lIal is nove and nove suIlIe, eIaIovale, and pve-
cise |p. 245). Knoving is deveIoping lIis sIiII: Inoving
is conlinuous vilI pevceiving, oJ vIicI il is an exlen-
Accovding lo OiIson, allenlion is ¨educaled¨ lIvougI
pvaclice and aIso I¸ neans oJ ¨aids lo pevceiving¨ sucI
as slovies and nodeIs oJ lIings, vovds and picluves.
TIese ave ¨nol in lIenseIves InovIedge, as ve ave
lenpled lo lIinI. AII lIe¸ can do is JaciIilale Inoving¨
|p. 258). TIe¸ can nevev ¨cop¸¨ ov ¨vepvesenl¨ veaIil¸,
Iul lIe¸ pvesevve sone ¨inJovnalion¨ |picluves nove
lIan vovds, nolion picluves nove lIan picluves). TIe¸
¨pul lIe vievev inlo lIe scene¨ |p. 282) I¸ inducing
¨nol an iIIusion oJ veaIil¸ Iul an avaveness oJ Ieing in
lIe vovId¨ |p. 284). TIe¸ ¨lvansnil lo lIe nexl geneva-
lion lIe lvicIs oJ lIe Iunan lvade. TIe IaIovs oJ lIe
Jivsl pevceivevs ave spaved lIeiv descendanls. TIe ex-
lvacling and aIslvacling oJ lIe invavianls lIal speciJ¸
lIe envivonnenl ave nade vaslI¸ easiev vilI lIese aids
lo conpveIension¨ |p. 284).
Evenls ave ecoIogicaII¸ pevceivaIIe as ¨an¸ cIange oJ
a suIslance, pIace, ov oIjecl, cIenicaI, necIanicaI, ov
IiopI¸sicaI. TIe cIange na¸ Ie sIovev ov Jasl, vevevs-
iIIe ov nonvevevsiIIe, vepealing ov nonvepealing. Evenls
incIude vIal Iappens lo oIjecls in genevaI, pIus vIal
lIe aninale oIjecls naIe Iappen. Evenls ave nesled
vilIin supevovdinale evenls. . . . Evenls oJ diJJevenl
sovls ave pevceived as sucI.. . .¨ |p. 242). WIiIe OiIson's
anaI¸sis expIicilI¸ Jocuses on lIings |evincing Weslevn
Iiases), Iis lIesis is concevned vilI lIings and evenls,
and using Iis Ianguage n¸ avgunenl is lIal Na¸aIa Jo-
cus on evenls. TIeiv allenlion is educaled lo dveII on
evenls. TIe¸ ave allenlive lo lIe cIanges oJ lIings in
lIe vovId in veIalion lo cIanges in lIenseIves. As lIe¸
nove and acl in lIe Jovesl, lIe¸ picI up inJovnalion
aIoul lIe veIalive vaviances in lIe JIux oJ lIe inlevveIal-
edness Ielveen lIenseIves and olIev lIings againsl veI-
alive invaviances. WIen lIe¸ picI up a veIaliveI¸ cIang-
ing lIing vilI lIeiv veIaliveI¸ cIanging seIves-and, aII
lIe nove, vIen il Iappens in a veIaliveI¸ unusuaI nan-
nev-lIe¸ vegavd as devavu lIis pavlicuIav lIing vilIin
lIis pavlicuIav silualion. TIis is anolIev sense oJ lIe
conpIex nolion oJ devavu, and il avises Jvon lIe slovies
vIicI Na¸aIa leII.20
Fov exanpIe, one Na¸aIa vonan, Bevi |age 40),
poinled lo a pavlicuIav slone-slanding nexl lo sevevaI
olIev siniIav slones on a snaII nud pIalJovn anong
lIe Iuls-and said lIal sIe Iad Ieen digging deep dovn
Jov vools in lIe Jovesl vIen suddenI¸ ¨lIis devavu cane
lovavds Iev.¨ AnolIev nan, Alli-MalIen |age 70),
poinled lo a slone slanding nexl lo lIe aJovenenlioned
one and said lIal Iis sislev-in-Iav Iad Ieen silling un-
dev a lvee, vesling duving a Jova¸, vIen suddenI¸ ¨lIis
devavu junped onlo Iev Iap.¨ TIe lvo vonen Iad
IvougIl lIe slone devavu IacI lo lIeiv pIaces ¨lo Iive¨
vilI lIen. TIe pavlicuIav slones veve devavu as lIe¸
¨cane lovavds¨ and ¨junped on¨ Na¸aIa. TIe nan¸
olIev slones in lIe avea veve nol devavu Iul sinpI¸
slones. OjiIva appvoacI slones in a siniIav va¸· HaIIo-
veII vecounls Iov Ie once asIed an oId OjiIva nan
vIelIev ¨aII lIe slones ve see aIoul us Ieve ave aIive.¨
TIougI slones ave gvannalicaII¸ aninale in OjiIva,
lIe nan |HaIIoveII vecaIIs) ¨veJIecled a Iong vIiIe and
lIen vepIied, 'No! Bul sone ave'¨
|ig60·24). Fvon lIe
slovies vIicI HaIIoveII pvovides, ¨aIive¨ slones appeav
i 8. TIe SIovlev OxJovd EngIisI Biclionav¸· on IislovicaI pvincipIes
enpIasis added). InleveslingI¸, in pvenodevn EngIisI ¨veIa-
live¨ neanl ¨a lIing |ov pevson) slanding in sone veIalion lo an-
I9. OiIson oJlen Iapses inlo essenliaIizing Ianguage-as in lIis
case, vIeve Ie veJevs lo ¨vIal lIings ave¨ valIev lIan lo ¨vIal
lIings ave Jov lIe aclov-pevceivev.¨ I Iave added lIe Iallev quaIiJi-
2o. See Fand¸a
|I993) Jov a Jascinaling slud¸ oJ Andananese Jocus
on novenenls. Hunlev-galIevevs ave genevaII¸ Inovn lo Ie con-
cevned nol vilI laxononies Iul vilI IeIaviov |see, e.g., BIuvlon
Jones and Konnev I976).
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
lo Ie ones vIicI ¨nove¨ and ¨open a noulI¨ lovavds
OjiIva |p. 25).
TIe sane undevI¸ing navvalive vecuvs as Na¸aIa ve-
Iale lo aninaI devavu in-lIe-vovId. TIe JoIIoving Jouv
anecdoles on eIepIanls pvovide us vilI a cIeavev undev-
slanding oJ lIe conpIexil¸ oJ Na¸aIa pevceplions oJ de-
vavu in-lIe-vovId. One nan, CIalIen |age So), vIose
Ione slood nexl lo lIe one in vIicI I Iived, said one
novning lIal duving lIe nigIl Ie Iad seen an eIepIanl
devavu ¨vaIIing IavnIessI¸¨ Ielveen ouv Iones, and
lIis is Iov Ie Inev, Ie expIained, lIal il vas a devavu,
nol jusl an eIepIanl. AnolIev nan, CIeIIan |age 35),
siniIavI¸ veIaled, I¸ va¸ oJ giving anolIev exanpIe,
Iov once an eIepIanl devavu vIicI passed I¸ Iin as
Ie vas vaIIing in lIe Jovesl seavcIing Jov Ione¸
¨IooIed slvaigIl inlo Iis e¸es.¨ LiIe lIe slones, lIese
pavlicuIav eIepIanls veve devavu as lIe¸ ¨vaIIed Iavn-
IessI¸¨ and ¨IooIed slvaigIl inlo lIe e¸es,¨ lIal is, as
and vIen lIe¸ vesponsiveI¸ veIaled lo Na¸aIa. In con-
lvasl, Kungan |age So) once looI ne aIong on a galIeving
expedilion, and on Ieaving an eIepIanl and Inoving I¸
ils sounds lIal il vas aIone and dangevous, Ie luvned
ava¸ and avoided il. He did nol engage vilI lIis eIe-
pIanl and veJevved lo il nol as ¨eIepIanl devavu¨ Iul
sinpI¸ as ¨eIepIanl.¨ TIe IacI oJ nuluaI engagenenl
pvevenled lIe Iind oJ veIaledness vIicI vouId Iave
consliluled lIis eIepIanl |al lIis nonenl) as devavu
vIiIe il nigIl Ie pevceived as devavu on olIev occa-
A nove conpIex silualion is exenpIiJied in an ac-
counl I¸ Alli-MalIen oJ Iov an eIepIanl lvanpIed lvo
Iuls in a neigIIoving Na¸aIa pIace, IucIiI¸ nol injuving
Na¸aIa, vIo Iappened lo Ie ava¸ lIal nigIl. Alli-
MalIen veJevved lo lIe oJJending eIepIanl sinpI¸ as ¨eI-
epIanl.¨ SevevaI nonlIs Ialev, duving a devavu pevJov-
nance, Ie asIed lIe devavu invoIved iJ lIe¸ Iad ¨Iad
sonelIing lo do¨ vilI lIe evenl in queslion. TIe de-
vavu vepIied lIal lIe¸ Iad ¨done il¨ in vesponse lo a
Na¸aIa aaila |a JauIl, devialion Jvon lIe cuslonav¸).
TIe devavu did nol speciJ¸ lIe naluve oJ lIe JauIl on
lIis occasion-lIougI sonelines lIe¸ did, nen-
lioning, Jov inslance, lIal Na¸aIa Iad oJJeved Iess Jood
duving lIe Iasl devavu pevJovnance lIan in pvevious
lines ov Iad slavled lIe pevJovnance Ialev. TIis pavlicu-
Iav eIepIanl |in lIis pavlicuIav silualion) vas neilIev
avoided nov sIaved vilI. Il vas pevceived as an inslvu-
nenl, an oIjecl, vIicI devavu used in lIe couvse oJ in-
levveIaling vilI Na¸aIa. In lIis case, iIIuslvaling lIe
Na¸aIa viev al ils Iinils, Na¸aIa sliII Jvane vIal Iap-
pened in levns oJ nuluaII¸ vesponsive evenls, Iul lIe¸
ave connecled navvaliveI¸ in a nove conpIex va¸.
TIese Jouv slovies sIov Iov eIepIanls |as one exan-
pIe anong olIevs) na¸ Ie vegavded as pevsons ov as oI-
jecls, depending on vIal Iappens Ielveen lIen and
Na¸aIa, vIicI ilseIJ depends on lIe ¨aJJovdances¨ oJ
evenls invoIving eIepIanls and peopIe. An inpovlanl
Jealuve oJ devavu in-lIe-vovId enevges. Bevavu ave nol
Iiniled lo cevlain cIasses oJ lIings. TIe¸ ave cevlain
lIings-in-silualions oJ vIalevev cIass ov, Iellev, cevlain
silualions. TIe¸ ave evenls invoIving nuluaI vespon-
siveness and engagenenl Ielveen lIings, evenls, nove-
ovev, vIicI pvolol¸picaII¸ invoIve lIe aclov-pevceivev.
Biscvininaling devavu is conlingenl on ¨aJJovdances¨
oJ envivonnenlaI evenls and lIings and |as I sIaII nexl
avgue) on enIanced allenlion lo lIen lIvougI pavlicu-
Iav lvadilions oJ pvaclice.
Bevavu pevJovnances ave pivolaI in deveIoping allen-
lion lo devavu in-lIe-vovId and vepvoducing concepls oJ
devavu as oIjecliJicalions oJ veIalionsIips. TIese pevJov-
nances ave conpIex aIJ'aivs vIicI, in lIe nodevnisl
sense, invoIve ¨spivil-possession¨ I¸ devavui Iul aIso a
gveal deaI nove, incIuding a connunaI sociaI galIeving,
IeaIing, an aIleved slale oJ consciousness, connunica-
lion vilI pvedecessovs, secondav¸ IuviaI Jov peopIe vIo
Iave died since lIe pvevious evenl, and nusic and danc-
ing. EacI aJJaiv spans lvo da¸s and lIe inlevvening
nigIl. Na¸aIa IoId lIen evev¸ ¸eav ov so in eacI viI-
Iage, one pIace aJlev lIe olIev, eacI allended I¸ peopIe
Jvon lIe vIoIe avea vIo pavlicipale in sevevaI evenls
oJ lIis sovl evev¸ ¸eav. Na¸aIa do nol seen lo veJev lo
lIis evenl I¸ an¸ singIe nane ov navI il oJJ Jvon evev¸-
da¸ expevience. ¨FandaIu,¨ lIe vovd I appI¸ lo lIe aJ-
Jaiv, is sonelines used Jov lIe puvpose, veJevving lo lIe
Iul vIicI is speciaII¸ IuiIl Jov lIe evenl as acconno-
dalion Jov lIe visiling devavu.2'
In exanining one pandaIu evenl, Iiniling n¸seIJ lo
devavu aIone, I adopl a pevJovniance-cenleved appvoacI
inJIuenced I¸, anong olIevs TanIiaI |I970, i985
[I979]). UnIiIe lIe Oeevlzian lvadilion, lIis appvoacI
Jocuses on vIal lIe pandaIu does valIev lIan vIal il
neans. Il Jocuses on lIe pandaIu as an evenl in-lIe-
vovId ilseIJ, nol a ¨lexl.¨ Il is concevned vilI lIe ex-
lenl lo vIicI sucI evenls, inslead oJ veJevving lo ov
laIIing aIoul, do sonelIing in-lIe-vovId. I go JavlIev,
as I casl lIe pandaIu |JoIIoving Na¸aIa) vigIl ava¸ as
an expevience, a pevJovnance, a sociaI evenl in-lIe-
vovId, vIicI is conlinuous and coIevenl vilI and even
nesled vilIin olIev Na¸aIa expeviences. |I do nol casl
il as ¨viluaI,¨ as opposed lo ¨pvaclice,¨ and lIen covvec-
liveI¸ adopl a pevJovnance-cenleved appvoacI lo il.) TIe
exaninalion JiIIs a Iacuna in lIe vovI oJ IngoId |e.g.,
I996), vIo, IiIe OiIson, pa¸s inadequale allenlion lo
inlevIunan ¨aclion¨ in-lIe-vovId in Javov oJ ¨aclion¨
lovavds olIev species:22 cIeavI¸, aclion lovavds JeIIov
Iunans conslilules an inpovlanl pavl oJ one's ¨envi-
June 9, 1979, Kungan's pIace23 |vIeve I Iived al lIe
line vilI Iis JaniI¸)· FeopIe avvive casuaII¸ duving lIe
da¸, eacI JaniI¸ al ils ovn line. TIe¸ engage vilI
lIe IocaI vesidenls in evev¸da¸ aclivilies, cIalling, sIav-
ing Jood, going lo lIe vivev, JelcIing Jivevood, elc. Lale
2I. ¨FandaIu¨ neans ¨lenpIe¨ lo neigIIoving Hindu peopIe.
22. IngoId
|I997) queslions lIe aulonon¸ oJ sociaI veIalions.
23. Na¸aIa Iave no Jixed nanes Jov pIaces and veJev lo lIen I¸
nenlioning a pvoninenl IandnavI ov lIe nane oJ a cenlvaI pevson
Iiving lIeve.
S76 I CUBBENT ANTHBOFOT.COOY VoIune 4n. S1jnn1Ipnp1-7l FpI-v7InvvV TOOO
in lIe aJlevnoon, anidsl lIe aclion, Kungan |age
slands in Jvonl oJ lIe devavu Iul and Iovs in Jouv divec-
lions, inviling lIe avea's devavu lo cone. A Jev peopIe
sIiJl lIe devavu slones-oviginaII¸ IvougIl Jvon lIe
Jovesl-Jvon lIeiv veguIav pIace on a nud pIalJovn
anong lIe Iouses lo lIe avea in Jvonl oJ lIe Iul. TIe¸
pul nexl lo lIen vavious olIev devavu lIings |incIuding
Inives, IeIIs, IvaceIels, cups, and eIepIanl- and Iunan-
sIaped Jiguvines oJ Hindu ovigin), laIing lIese lIings
oul oJ a Iox in vIicI lIe¸ ave Iepl Jov saJel¸ Ielveen
lIese evenls. Food and IeleI-nuls ave Iaid in Jvonl oJ aII
lIese devavu, as veII as Hindu puja ilens puvcIased
vilI none¸ coIIecled in advance Jvon lIe pavlici-
As nigIl JaIIs, sevevaI nen slavl going on and oJJ inlo
lvances, usuaII¸ one al a line, vIicI lIe¸ viII conlinue
doing lIvougIoul lIe nigIl and lIe JoIIoving da¸. EacI
one vvaps IinseIJ vilI a speciaI cIolI, IiJls IvancIes
and vaves lIen in lIe aiv in Jouv diveclions, Iovs in
Jouv diveclions inviling devavu lo cone, and sIaIes
IinseIJ inlo a lvance. InlevnillenlI¸, vI¸lInic dvun-
ning, JIule-and-dvun nusic, and dances IeIp sel lIe
nood. As lIe pevJovnevs JaII inlo lvance, lIe¸ ¨Iving lo
IiJe¨ a vaviel¸ oJ devavu.25 TIe pevJovnevs ave evaIualed
in levns oJ Iov sIiIIJuII¸ lIe¸ ¨Iving¨ lIe devavu ¨lo
IiJe¨ al lIe sane line as allendanl peopIe engage vilI
lIe devavu vIicI lIe pevJovnevs evoIe.
Bevavu oJ aII sovls can ¨cone lo IiJe¨ duving lIe de-
vavu pevJovnance. Na¸aIa exlend lIen an open invila-
lion I¸ lIe vecuvving Iovs in lIe Jouv diveclions. Na-
¸aIa engage vilI lIe devavu- cIavaclevs vIo appeav,
vIo ave devavu as lIe¸ appeav and engage vilI Na¸aIa.
Na¸aIa idenliJ¸ eacI visiling devavu I¸ ils dividualed
pevsonaIil¸· I¸ Iov il idios¸ncvalicaII¸ inlevveIales
vilI Na¸aIa |Iov il IaugIs vilI, laIIs vilI, gels angv¸
al, vesponds lo Na¸aIa, elc.). Sonelines, vavious de-
vavu cone logelIev in a gang, evoIed I¸ lIe sane pev-
Jovnev, vIo lIen svilcIes gesluves, speecI sl¸Ies, dia-
Iecls, and even Ianguages |Na¸aIa, MaIa¸aIan, and
TaniI) Jvon one senlence lo lIe nexl.26 Sone devavu ave
viviJied I¸ lIe pevJovnevs vilI gveal Jinesse, and lIe¸
ave vecognized I¸ nosl ov aII Na¸aIa. OlIev devavu ave
so cvudeI¸ speciJied lIal lIe¸ ave IaveI¸ dislinguisIaIIe,
and lIe¸ ave idenliJied I¸ Jev Na¸aIa, and sonelines
diJJevenlI¸. TIe devavu ave oIjecliJied I¸ IinsIip levns:
occasionaII¸ I¸ nanes: sonelines onI¸ I¸ lIeiv dividu-
aled cIavaclevs |as ¨lIe one vIo aIva¸s vequesls viId
JovI Jov Jood¨ ov ¨vaves a IniJe,¨ elc.) and sonelines
jusl as devavu in genevaI. TIe nosl vivid and genevaII¸
Inovn devavu ave IiII devavu, vIose exislence appeavs
lo go Jav IacI inlo lIe pasl. |Anong neigIIoving Iunlev-
galIevev Fandavan and FaIi¸an, IiII cIavu and IiII devi
ave aIso singIed oul [Movvis I98I, Oavdnev
i99I].) OlIev
vivid devavu ave eIepIanl devavu, ninov Hindu deilies
vovsIiped IocaII¸, and a deil¸ oJ lIe KuvunIa peopIe
vIo Iived in lIe IocaIil¸ sevevaI decades IeJove. Oenev-
aII¸, lIe nove devavu appeav ¸eav aJlev ¸eav and ave ve-
Ialed vilI, lIe nove vividI¸ lIe¸ ave invoIed, lIe nove
lIe¸ ave Inovn, lIe
in a sense, lIe¸ ¨exisl.¨
HavdI¸ an¸lIing is said aIoul devavu in n¸lI ov olIev
ovaI lvadilion eilIev vilIin lIe pevJovnance ov oulside
il |Movvis vepovls lIe sane Jov HiII Fandavan [i98I·
TIe devavu evoIed oJlen inpvovise on lIe sane ve-
pelilive pIvases. TIe sa¸ing, lIe voicing, lIe gesluving
ave inpovlanl. TIese pvincipaI aspecls oJ lIeiv IeIaviov
ave, in Baleson's levn |I979), nela-connunicalion,
naneI¸, connunicaling lIal devavu ave connunical-
ing, Iecause lIe devavu ave pvesenl as lIe¸ nove, laII,
naIe gesluves, elc. TIe¸ ave pvesenl as lIe¸ connuni-
cale and sociaII¸ inlevacl vilI Na¸aIa. Al peaI lines,
evev¸one galIevs avound lIe visiling devavu, laIing an
aclive pavl in lIe convevsalion ov jusl cIoseI¸ Iislening
lo il. Al olIev lines, onI¸ a Jev peopIe do lIis vIiIe lIe
olIevs Ius¸ lIenseIves vilI lIeiv ovn doneslic aJJaivs.
TIe convevsalion Ias lo Ie Iepl going al aII lines.
WIen il sIacIens, lIe devavu conpIain and uvge nove
peopIe lo join in. Al lIe exlvene, al duII nonenls in
lIe Ieal oJ lIe da¸ and deep in lIe nigIl, lIis ov lIal
Na¸aIa gvudgingI¸ cones Jovvavd and engages lIe de-
vavu in convevsalion. |I Iecane IeIpJuI al vavious poinls
in lIis evenl, Ielling Na¸aIa go aIoul lIeiv Iusiness as
I vecovded and Iislened lo lIe devavu I¸ n¸seIJ.) Keep-
ing lIe convevsalion going is inpovlanl Iecause il Ieeps
lIe Na¸aIa-devavu inlevaclion and in a sense lIe de-
vavu lIenseIves ¨aIive.¨
Convevsalion vilI lIe devavu is IigII¸ pevsonaI, in-
JovnaI, and JviendI¸, incIuding joIing, leasing, Iav-
gaining, elc. In ils idionalic slvucluve il vesenIIes lIe
denand-sIaving discouvse vIicI is cIavaclevislic oJ
Na¸aIa and Iunlev-galIevevs genevaII¸ |see Bivd-Bavid
I990). WilI nunevous vepelilions ov ninov vavialions
on a lIene, Na¸aIa and devavu nag and lease, pvaise
and JIallev, IIane and cajoIe eacI olIev, expvessing and
denanding cave and concevn. Fov exanpIe, Na¸aIa
slvess lIal lIe¸ ave laIing pvopev cave oJ lIe devavu |ov
apoIogizing Jov nol giving nove ov noaning aIoul nol
Ieing aIIe lo give nove, elc.) and conpIain lIal lIe de-
vavu, in luvn, do nol laIe cave oJ lIen |ov nol enougI
ov nol as in pvevious ¸eavs, elc.). TIe devavu slvess Iov
nucI lIe¸ cave Jov Na¸aIa and vequesl Iellev IospilaI-
il¸ |nove oJJevings, an eavIiev slavl Jov lIe evenl, nove
dancing, elc.). TIe Na¸aIa vequesl cuves Jvon iIInesses.
TIe ovdinav¸ vound oJ evev¸da¸ aJJaivs conlinues duv-
ing lIe lvo da¸s oJ lIe pandaIu. Boneslic cIoves ave
24. See Bivd-Bavid
|i996) Jov a delaiIdd-exaninalion oJ Iov Na¸aIa
incovpovale Hindu inJIuences inlo lIeiv pandaIu lvadilion.
25. TIe¸ aIso ¨Iving lo IiJe¨ pvedecessovs, vIo Jov IacI oJ space ave
nol discussed Ieve.
26. SiniIavI¸, BvigIlnan
|I993·I72) descviIes lIe BocI Cvee's
¨sIaIing Iodge viluaI¨ as JoIIovs· ¨[Il] Jealuves a vecuvving slocI oJ
cIavaclevs, vaviaIIe lo sone degvee anong diJJevenl opevalovs and
diJJevenl pevJovnances I¸ lIe sane opevalov. Man¸ cIavaclevs pos-
sess individualing speecI cIavaclevislics, JaniIiav lo lIe audience
Jvon Ieavsa¸ and Jvon olIev pevJovnances.... Toda¸, nosl spivils
speaI in Cvee, and olIevs use EngIisI, FvencI, SauIleaux, and CIi-
pev¸an, ov unInovn Iunan Ianguages¨ |p. I72). ¨Buving lIe
couvse oJ lIe pevJovnance, lIe¸ [lIe spivils] convevsed anong
lIenseIves, vilI lIe opevalov, and vilI nenIevs oJ lIe audience
oulside, vesponding lo queslions eilIev in Inovn Ianguages ov in
uninleIIigiIIe speecI vequiving lvansIalion I¸ olIev spivils ov I¸ lIe
opevalov¨ |p. I71).
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
nol navginaIized on accounl oJ lIe occasion Iul consli-
lule a signiJicanl pavl oJ ils slvucluve. TIvougIoul lIe
lvo da¸s, Na¸aIa JaniIies go on vilI lIeiv doneslic
aclivilies, JvequenlI¸ sIaving vilI eacI olIev and, in
sone va¸s, vilI lIeiv devavu visilovs, loo. TIe devavu
Iul vesenIIes ovdinav¸ Na¸aIa dveIIings. Sone nen
occasionaII¸ laIe naps lIeve, sIaving lIe Iul vilI lIe
devavu. In lIe novning, vIen peopIe go lo vasI in lIe
vivev and Iving IacI valev, lIe¸ Iov in lIe Jouv divec-
lions, inviling IocaI devavu lo join lIen. Wonen on
lIeiv va¸ IacI spvinIIe valev Jvon lIeiv vesseIs in lIe
Jouv diveclions, sIaving lIe valev vilI devavu avound.
In lIe couvse oJ convevsalion devavu vequesl IeleI-nuls
Jvon lIeiv Na¸aIa inlevIoculov. One eIdevI¸ Na¸aIa
vonan JaIIs inlo a lvance. SIe does nol ullev coIevenl
vovds: in Iev Jvenz¸ sIe onI¸ sveeps lIe gvound avound
lIe devavu Iul and slavls lo undvess |vIicI I¸slandevs
slop Iev Jvon doing). A joinl neaI oJ vice, cooIed I¸
Kungan's daugIlev and Iev IusIand, Ivings lIe evenl lo
a cIose. TIe Jood is sIaved equaII¸ anong lIose pvesenl,
and sone Jood is spvead in lIe Jouv diveclions.
TIe pandaIu naIes Inovn lIe Na¸aIa-devavu veIal-
ednesses and al lIe sane line vepvoduces lIen. OI-
jecliJied as IinsIip veIalionsIips, lIe veIalednesses ve-
conslilule aII lIe pavlicipanls as sonla and eacI oJ lIen
as a pevson |Na¸aIa pevson, IiII pevson, slone pevson,
elc.). FuvlIevnove, lIe pandaIu conslilules |in lIe OiI-
sonian sense) ¨aids lo pevceiving¨ lIal ¨pul lIe vievev
inlo lIe scene¨ |OiIson I979· 282, ciled aIove). Il ¨edu-
cales lIe allenlion¨ lo pevceive and speciJ¸ lIe envivon-
nenl |vIiIe engaging vilI il) in a veIalionaI va¸. TIe
pandaIu ¨pvesevves inJovnalion¨ |as eJJecliveI¸ as
IooIs and even nolion picluves): noveovev, il encouv-
ages lIe Ieavnev lo engage inlevacliveI¸ vilI lIis inJov-
nalion and so lo expevience il sociaII¸. TIe engage-
nenl vilI devavu cIavaclevs ¨educales lIe allenlion¨
lo nolice devavu as lIe¸ inlevacl vilI oneseIJ. Il in-
pvoves lIe sIiII oJ picIing up inJovnalion aIoul lIe en-
gagenenl ilseIJ, vilIin ils conJines, Jvon an engaged
IJ Na¸aIa onI¸ suIsisled I¸ Iunling and galIeving in
lIeiv envivonnenl, lIe¸ nigIl pevceive onI¸ ils uliIilav-
ian aJJovdances· an aninaI as sonelIing ediIIe: a slone
as sonelIing lIvovaIIe: a vocI as sonelIing one can
sIeIlev undev. WilIin lIe pvaclice oJ engaging vilI de-
vavu cIavaclevs in lIe pandaIu lIe¸ ave educaled lo pev-
ceive lIal aninaIs, slones, vocIs, elc., ave lIings one
can veIale vilI-lIal lIe¸ Iave veIalionaI aJJovdances,
lIal is, vIal Iappens lo lIen |ov Iov lIe¸ cIange) can
aJJecl and Ie aJJecled I¸ vIal Iappens lo peopIe |ov Iov
lIe¸ cIange)· an aninaI-avoiding-ne in veIalion lo ne-
upselling-lIe-aninaI, a slone-coning-lovavds-ne in ve-
Ialion lo ne-veacIing-Jov-lIe-slone, a vocI-secuving-ne
in veIalion lo ne-seeIing-a-sIeIlev. Favlicipanls Ieavn
Jvon convevsing and sIaving vilI devavu cIavaclevs lo
discvininale nuluaII¸ vesponsive cIanges in lIen-
seIves and lIings lIe¸ veIale vilI: lIe¸ Iecone incveas-
ingI¸ avave oJ lIe veIs oJ veIaledness Ielveen lIen-
seIves and vIal is avound lIen. Fvon lIe Iavgaining
and denand-sIaving vilI devavu cIavaclevs lIe¸ Ieavn
lo puvsue individuaI inlevesls vilIin lIe conJines oJ a
veIaledness-lo negoliale Jov vIal lIe¸ need vIiIe si-
nuIlaneousI¸ laIing cave lo vepvoduce lIe Jvaning ve-
Ialedness vilIin vIicI lIe¸ do so. Fvon ¸eav upon ¸eav
oJ convevsalions, vIicI in pavl vepeal lIenseIves and
in pavl cIange, pavlicipanls ave incveasingI¸ sensilized
lo picI up inJovnalion on lIe enevgenl, pvocessive, Iis-
lovicaI, and vecipvocaI quaIilies oJ veIalednesses. In sun,
ve can sa¸ lIal lIe pandaIu invoIves ¨naIing [devavu]
aIive,¨ lIal is, vaising peopIe's avaveness oJ lIeiv exis-
lence in-lIe-vovId and, diaIeclicaII¸, pvoducing and Ie-
ing pvoduced I¸ lIis, sociaIizing vilI lIen.
Aninisn as BeIalionaI EpislenoIog¸
WilIin lIe oIjeclivisl pavadign inJovning pvevious al-
lenpls lo vesoIve lIe ¨aninisn¨ pvoIIen, il is Iavd lo
naIe sense oJ peopIe's ¨laIIing vilI¨ lIings, ov sing-
ing, dancing, ov sociaIizing in olIev va¸s Jov vIicI
¨laIIing¨ is used Ieve as sIovlIand. Accovding lo lIis
pavadign, Ieavning invoIves acquiving InovIedge oJ
lIings lIvougI lIe sepavalion oJ Inovev and Inovn and
oJlen, JuvlIevnove, I¸ IveaIing lIe Inovn dovn inlo
ils pavls in ovdev lo Inov il. To slud¸, sa¸, lIe lvopicaI
Jovesl-lIe Iind oJ Jovesl in vIicI Na¸aIa Iive and
vilI vIicI lIe¸ ¨laII¨-Iolanisls oJ lIis pevsuasion
cul dovn a slvip oJ lvees vilI nacIeles, sovl oul lIe
JaIIen vegelalion inlo Iinds, pIace cIavaclevislic Iils
and pieces oJ eacI Iind in snaII Iags, and laIe lIen
oul oJ lIe Jovesl lo a IevIaviun Jov IolanicaI cIassiJica-
lion |see BicIavds i952). Conpaved vilI lIeiv nelIod,
¨laIIing vilI¨ lvees seens a viluaI vilI no possiIIe
conneclion lo lIe sevious Iusiness oJ acquiving InovI-
edge oJ lvees.
IJ ¨culling lvees inlo pavls¨ epilonizes lIe nodevnisl
epislenoIog¸, ¨laIIing vilI lvees,¨ I avgue, epilonizes
Na¸aIa aninislic epislenoIog¸. ¨TaIIing¨ is sIovl-
Iand Jov a lvo-va¸ vesponsive veIaledness vilI a lvee-
valIev lIan ¨speaIing¨ one-va¸ lo il, as iJ il couId Iis-
len and undevsland. ¨TaIIing vilI¨ slands Jov allen-
liveness lo vaviances and invaviances in IeIaviov and
vesponse oJ lIings in slales oJ veIaledness and Jov gel-
ling lo Inov sucI lIings as lIe¸ cIange lIvougI lIe
vicissiludes ovev line oJ lIe engagenenl vilI lIen. To
¨laII vilI a lvee¨-valIev lIan ¨cul il dovn¨-is lo
pevceive vIal il does as one acls lovavds il, Ieing avave
concuvvenlI¸ oJ cIanges in oneseIJ and lIe lvee. Il is ex-
pecling vesponse and vesponding, gvoving inlo nuluaI
vesponsiveness and, JuvlIevnove, possiII¸ inlo nuluaI
IJ lIe oIjecl oJ nodevnisl epislenoIog¸ is a lolaIizing
scIene oJ sepavaled essences, appvoacIed ideaII¸ Jvon
a sepavaled vievpoinl, lIe oIjecl oJ lIis aninislic
InovIedge is undevslanding veIaledness Jvon a veIaled
poinl oJ viev vilIin lIe sIiJling Iovizons oJ lIe veIaled
vievev. KnovIedge in lIe Jivsl case is Iaving, acquiving,
appI¸ing, and inpvoving vepvesenlalions oJ lIings in-
lIe-vovId |see Bovl¸ I980). KnovIedge in lIe second
case is deveIoping lIe sIiIIs oJ Ieing in-lIe-vovId vilI
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
olIev lIings, naIing one's avaveness oJ one's envivon-
nenl and one's seIJ Jinev, Ivoadev, deepev, vicIev, elc.
Knoving, in lIe second case, gvovs Jvon and is nain-
laining veIaledness vilI neigIIoving olIevs. Il invoIves
dividualing lIe envivonnenl valIev lIan dicIolonizing
il and luvning allenlion lo ¨ve-ness,¨ vIicI aIsovIs
diJJevences, valIev lIan lo ¨olIevness,¨ vIicI IigI-
IigIls diJJevences and ecIipses connonaIilies. Againsl
¨I lIinI, lIeveJove I an¨ sland ¨I veIale, lIeveJove I an¨
and ¨I Inov as I veIale.¨ Againsl naleviaIislic Jvaning
oJ lIe envivonnenl as discvele lIings slands veIa-
lionaII¸ Jvaning lIe envivonnenl as nesled veIal-
ednesses. BolI va¸s ave veaI and vaIid. EacI Ias ils Iin-
ils and ils slvenglIs.
Fvaning lIe envivonnenl veIalionaII¸ does nol con-
slilule Na¸aIa's onI¸ va¸ oJ Inoving lIeiv envivon-
nenl, lIougI in n¸ undevslanding lIe¸ vegavd il as au-
lIovilalive anong lIeiv olIov va¸s. Nov is il unique lo
Na¸aIa. I vouId I¸polIesize lIal veIalionaI epislenoI-
ogies oJ lIis Iind enjo¸ aulIovilalive slalus in cuIluves
oJ peopIes ve caII Iunlev-galIevevs. TIese peopIes nov-
naIize sIaving vilI JeIIov pevsons. TIe¸ engage inli-
naleI¸ vilI lIeiv envivonnenl |iJ onI¸ peviodicaII¸
vIiIe on a IveaI Jvon olIev econonic puvsuils [Bivd-
Bavid i992I]). TIe¸ ceIeIvale aninislic pevJovnances.
TIeiv pevJovnance lvadilions-Jov exanpIe, lIe Cvee
¨sIaIing lenl viluaI¨ |e.g., HaIIoveII I960, Feil I994,
I993), lIe !Kung ¨nedicine dance¨ |e.g.,
MavsIaII i962, Kalz-- 982), lIe Hadza ¨sacved epene
dance¨ |see WoodIuvn i982), lIe BaleI ¨Jvuil-season's
singing session¨ |see Endicoll
and FaIi¸an and
Fandavan ¨spivil possession¨ |see Oavdnev I99I, Movvis
I98I)- ave JunclionaII¸ siniIav lo lIe Na¸aIa pandaIu.
TIese pevJovnances invoIve lIe visiling oJ supevpev-
sons vIo appeav lIvougI lvance and dance ov naIe
lIeiv voices Ieavd.27 TIe peopIe vegavd lIese supevpev-
sons as Jviends and veIalives and oJlen addvess and veJev
lo lIen I¸ IinsIip levns. TIe¸ appvoacI lIen in a pev-
sonaI, JviendI¸, and innediale va¸. TIese evenls ave
lIe cenlvaI connunaI aJJaivs oJ lIese connunilies and
oJlen lIe nain ceIeIvalionaI neans I¸ vIicI lIe¸ sus-
lain lIeiv senses oJ idenlil¸.28 EacI evenl conslilules a
¨pavlicipalion Jvane¨ |Lave and Wengev I99I) vIicI,
logelIev vilI lIe pavlicipalion Jvane oJ Iunling-galIev-
ing pvaclice ilseIJ, nuvluves a conpIex avlicuIalion oJ
sIiIIs, a douIIe-Iind engagenenl vIicI co-pviviIeges
uliIizing and vespecling aninaled ¨lIings,¨ seIJ-inlev-
esl and lIe coopevalion vilIin vIicI lIal seIJ-inlevesl
can Ie acIieved.29
FuvlIevnove, veIalionaI epislenoIogies Junclion in
divevse conlexls vIeve olIev epislenoIogies enjo¸ au-
lIovil¸, incIuding Weslevn conlexls |lo a nucI gvealev
exlenl lIan lIe aulIovilalive slalus oJ science pevnils).
WIen |going IacI lo OulIvie's exanpIes) ve aninale
lIe conpulevs ve use, lIe pIanls ve gvov, and lIe cavs
ve dvive, ve veIalionaII¸ Jvane lIen. We Ieavn vIal
lIe¸ do in veIalion lo vIal ve do, Iov lIe¸ vespond lo
ouv IeIaviov, Iov lIe¸ acl lovavds us, vIal lIeiv silua-
lionaI and enevgenl IeIaviov |valIev lIan lIeiv consli-
lulive nallev) is. As Na¸aIa gel lo Inov aninaled as-
pecls oJ lIeiv envivonnenl, so ve gel lo Inov lIese
aninaled lIings I¸ Jocusing on ouv veIaledness vilI
lIen vilIin lIe conJines oJ lIal veIaledness Jvon a ve-
IalionaI vievpoinl. TIis sovl oJ veIalionaI Jvaning is av-
licuIaled vilI olIev epislenoIogies in conpIex, vavi-
aIIe, and sIiJling va¸s lIal desevve slud¸. |TIe
exanpIe oJ elIoIogisls nenlioned eavIiev is a case in
poinl· in vegavding as pevsons lIe slud¸ aninaIs vilI
vIicI lIe¸ Iive, lIe¸ Jvane lIen veIalionaII¸ in addi-
lion lo naIing lIen lIe oIjecls oJ lIeiv scienliJic
As a I¸polIesis, JuvlIevnove, I an viIIing lo agvee
vilI T¸Iov, nol Ieasl Iecause OulIvie goes sone va¸
lovavds suIslanlialing lIe poinl, lIal lIe lendenc¸ lo
aninale lIings is sIaved I¸ Iunans. Hovevev, lIis
connon lendenc¸, I suggesl, is engendeved I¸ Iunan
sociaII¸ Iiased cognilive sIiIIs, nol I¸ ¨suvvivaI¨ oJ
nenlaI conJusion |T¸Iov) ov I¸ vvong pevcepluaI
guesses |OulIvie). Becenl vovI veIales lIe evoIulion oJ
Iunan cognilion lo sociaI inlevaclion vilI JeIIov Iu-
nans. Ils undevI¸ing avgunenl is lIal inlevpevsonaI
deaIings, vequiving slvalegic pIanning and anlicipalion
oJ aclion-vesponse-veaclion, ave nove denanding and
cIaIIenging lIan pvoIIens oJ pI¸sicaI suvvivaI |Hun-
pIve¸ I976). Cognilive sIiIIs Iave accovdingI¸ evoIved
vilIin and Jov a sociaI Iind oJ engagenenl and ave ¨so-
ciaII¸ Iiased¨ |Oood¸ I995). We sponlaneousI¸ enpIo¸
lIese sIiIIs in silualions vIen ve cannol conlvoI ov lo-
laII¸ pvedicl ouv inlevIoculov's IeIaviov, vIen ils Ie-
Iaviov is nol pvedelevnined Iul in ¨convevsalion¨ vilI
ouv ovn. We enpIo¸ lIese sIiIIs in lIese silualions, iv-
vespeclive oJ vIelIev lIe¸ invoIve Iunans ov olIev Ie-
ings |lIe vespeclive cIassiJicalion oJ vIicI is sone-
lines pavl oJ veJIeclive Inoving, JoIIoving valIev lIan
pveceding lIe engagenenl silualion). We do nol Jivsl
pevsoniJ¸ olIev enlilies and lIen sociaIize vilI lIen
Iul pevsoniJ¸ lIen as, vIen, and Iecause ve sociaIize
vilI lIen. Becognizing a ¨convevsalion¨ vilI a
counlev-Ieing-vIicI anounls lo accepling il inlo JeI-
IovsIip valIev lIan vecognizing a connon essence-
naIes lIal Ieing a seIJ in veIalion vilI ouvseIves.
27. In sone cases devavu ave addilionaII¸ invoIed I¸ oIjecls, vilI
vIicI one laIIs, eals, sings, dances, elc. TIis is Iess connon lIan
lIeiv invocalion I¸ pevJovnance Iul oJ considevaIIe lIeovelicaI in-
28. Al lIeiv vespeclive lines oJ slud¸, lIese evenls veve JvequenlI¸
IeId, Jov exanpIe, veeII¸ anong !Kung, nonlII¸ anong Hadza,
and ¨vIenevev need avises¨ anong Fandavan. TIe¸ spanned a sig-
niJicanl slvelcI oJ line, Jov exanpIe, ¨lIe vIoIe nigIl¨ anong
!Kung, ¨lvo lo lIvee nigIls in succession¨ anong Hadza, and
¨Jvon evening inlo lIe nigIl¨ anong FaIi¸an. TIe evenls invoIved
lIe enlive connunil¸ as aclive speclalovs and a considevaIIe pvo-
povlion as pevJovnevs, Jov exanpIe, ¨one-lIivd oJ lIe nen¨ anong
!Kung, ¨one-eigIlI oJ lIe nen¨ anong Fandavan, and ¨28% oJ lIe
aduIls¨ anong FaIi¸an. In lIe case oJ Na¸aIa, aIoul one-JiJlI oJ
lIe nen acled as pevJovnevs.
29. Conpave Bviggs
|i982) and OuenpIe
|I988) on lIe leacIing oJ
Inuil cIiIdven lo veIale vilI olIev peopIe in a douIIe-Iinding va¸
and M¸evs's slud¸ |I986) oJ lenuous avlicuIalion oJ pevsonaI aulon-
on¸ and veIaledness anong lIe AuslvaIian Finlupi.
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
FinaII¸, lIe connon Iunan disposilion lo Jvane
lIings veIalionaII¸ in lIese silualions is cuIluvaII¸ ne-
dialed and conlexluaIized in IislovicaII¸ speciJic va¸s
|nol Ieasl in veIalion vilI cuIluvaI concepls oJ lIe pev-
son). A divevsil¸ oJ aninisns exisls, eacI aninislic
pvojecl vilI ils IocaI slalus, Iislov¸, and slvucluve |in
SaIIins's [i985] sense). TIeve JoIIov inlviguing ques-
lions desevving slud¸, Jov exanpIe· Hov does Iunlev-
galIevev aninisn conpave vilI lIe cuvvenl vadicaI en-
vivonnenlaI discouvses |e.g., KoveI I988, LeaI¸ I99I,
Began I983, Teslev I99I) lIal sone scIoIavs Iave de-
scviIed as lIe ¨nev aninisn¨ |Bouissac I989: see aIso
Kenned¸'s ¨nev anlIvoponovpIisn¨ [i992])? WIal
olIev Jovns oJ aninisn ave lIeve?30 Hov do lIe¸ avlicu-
Iale in eacI case vilI olIev cosnoIogies and epislenoI-
ogies?3 Hov do aninislic pvojecls veIale lo JelisI pvac-
lices? SuveI¸, Iovevev, lIe nosl inlviguing queslion is
vI¸ and Iov lIe nodevnisl pvojecl eslvanged ilseIJ
Jvon lIe lendenc¸ lo aninale lIings, iJ il is indeed uni-
vevsaI. Hov and vI¸ did il slignalize ¨aninislic Ian-
guage¨ as a cIiId's pvaclice, againsl nassive evidence
|see OulIvie I993) lo lIe conlvav¸? Hov did il succeed
in deIegilinaling aninisn as a vaIid neans lo InovI-
edge, conslanlI¸ Jending oJJ lIe inpuIse lo depIo¸ il and
vegavding il as an ¨incuvaIIe disease¨ |see Kenned¸ i992
and Masson and McCavlI¸ i995)? TIe ansvevs ave
Iound lo Ie conpIex. Evnesl OeIInev |I988) avgued lIal
nolIing Iess lIan ¨a neav-nivacuIous concalenalion oJ
civcunslances¨ can expIain lIe cognilive sIiJl lIal oc-
cuvved in Weslevn Euvope avound lIe I7lI cenluv¸.
IvonicaII¸, Iislov¸ Ias il lIal Bescavles-a vecIusive
nan-vas once accidenlaII¸ IocIed in a slean voon,
vIeve undev IaIIucinalion Ie Iad lIe duaIisl vision on
vIicI lIe nodevn pvojecl is Jounded |see Movvis i99I·
6). Can il Ie lIal a T¸Iovian Iind oJ ¨dvean lIesis¨
IeIps expIain nol lIe enevgence oJ pvinilive aninisn
Iul, lo lIe conlvav¸, lIe nodevnisl IveaI Jvon il?
Hov ve gel lo Inov lIings is nesled vilIin cuIluve and
pvaclice and laIes nuIlipIe Jovns. Na¸aIa veIalionaII¸
Jvane vIal lIe¸ ave concevned aIoul as lIeiv aulIovila-
live |Iul nol onI¸) va¸ oJ gelling lo Inov lIings. TIe¸
seeI lo undevsland veIalednesses Jvon a veIaled poinl oJ
viev vilIin lIe sIiJling Iovizons oJ lIe veIaled vievev.
TIeiv veIalionaI epislenoIog¸, lIeiv slud¸ oJ Iov
lIings-in-silualions veIale lo lIe aclov-pevceivev and,
Jvon lIe aclov-pevceivev's poinl oJ viev, lo eacI olIev,
is enIodied in lIe pvaclices vIicI T¸Iov cIvislened
¨pvinilive aninisn,¨ avlicuIaled vilI a veIalionaI pev-
sonIood concepl and a veIalionaI pevceplion oJ lIe en-
vivonnenl. Fvevious lIeovies oJ aninisn, laIing nod-
evnisl pevsonIood concepls and pevceplions oJ lIe
envivonnenl as univevsaI, Iave gvossI¸ nisundevslood
aninisn as sinpIe veIigion and a JaiIed epislenoIog¸.
King's CoIIege, CanIvidge CB2 IST, U.K. io iv 98
Bivd-Bavid vejecls nodevnisl undevslandings Iul IoIds
Jasl lo lIe quinlessenliaII¸ nodevnisl concevn vilI
epislenoIog¸. TIe nassive convevsion oJ onloIogicaI
queslions inlo epislenoIogicaI ones is lIe IaIInavI oJ
nodevnisl pIiIosopI¸. SIe does nol accepl lIe nodevn-
isl ansvevs, Iul lIe queslion Iov ve cone lo Inov
lIings is laIen as a naluvaI one lo Ie pul vilI veJevence
lo lIe Na¸aIa, vIo ave lIus enconpassed I¸ lIis an-
Iiguous ¨ve¨ and expecled lo pvovide an ansvev Jov
¨us.¨ TIe ansvev is lIal Inoving is veIaling and lIe
cogilo is veIalionaI. TIe pvoIIen venains Jvaned in
levns oJ InovIedge even lIougI lIe ansvev couId Ie
laIen lo inpI¸ lIal InovIedge, Iel aIone lIe cogilo, Ias
IillIe lo do vilI il. AnlIvopoIogisls pevsisl in lIinIing
lIal in ovdev lo expIain a non-Weslevn onloIog¸ ve
nusl devive il Jvon |ov veduce il lo) an epislenoIog¸.
Aninisn is suveI¸ an onloIog¸, concevned vilI Ieing
and nol vilI Iov ve cone lo Inov il. Bivd-Bavid JaIIs
inlo lIe T¸Iovian lvap and JeeIs conpeIIed lo assess lIe
vaIidil¸ oJ lIis epislenoIog¸ and lo jusliJ¸ il on lIe Ia-
sis oJ ils cognilive naluvaIness.
TIe aulIov Ias a Jondness Jov scave quoles, Iul I an
aJvaid lIis sovl oJ pocIel deconslvuclion is IavdI¸
enougI lo Ieep one saJe Jvon essenliaIizalion and nod-
evnisl pvojeclion. TIe nolion oJ ¨Iunlev-galIevevs¨ is a
case in poinl. Bivd-Bavid Jinds lIe concepl suspicious,
Iul aII lIe sane sIe allviIules lo Iunlev-galIevevs a
nunIev oJ cIavaclevislics aIso lo Ie Jound in nan¸ Iov-
licuIluvaI socielies. TIeve is lIen a suggeslion lIal lIe
pvevaIence oJ epislenoIogies oJ lIe Iind descviIed Jov
lIe Na¸aIa is soneIov |causaII¸?) devived Jvon lIe
Jacl lIal ¨[Iunlev-galIevevs] novnaIize sIaving vilI JeI-
Iov pevsons¨: in olIev vovds, sIaving is laIen as lIe es-
sence oJ Iunlev-galIevevs' sociaI IiJe. TIis seens cIose
lo lIe lvadilionaI nolion oJ a nelapIovic pvojeclion oJ
Iunan veIalions onlo lIe envivonnenl-an idea vIicI
Ias Ieen cogenlI¸ cvilicized I¸ IngoId. AIso, sIe disIiIes
duaIisns and dicIolonies, Iul lIis does nol pvevenl Iev
Jvon posing a dicIolon¸ Ielveen a dicIolonous nod-
evnisl epislenoIog¸ and a non-dicIolonous veIalionaI
one. SIe oIjecls, in pavlicuIav, lo lIe concepls oJ suIjecl
and oIjecl-Iul vIence cones lIe nolion oJ ¨oIjecli-
I Jind lIe allenpl lo conIine SlvalIevn's and IngoId's
lIeovies vev¸ pvoIIenalic. TIe ¨dividuaI¨ oJ lIe Jovnev
sIaves onI¸ ils nane vilI Bivd-Bavid's, anong olIev
lIings Iecause SlvalIevn's nolion oJ veIalion, as I undev-
sland il, Ias IillIe in connon vilI Bivd-Bavid's nolion
30. Fov exanpIe, conpave Iunlev-galIevev aninisn vilI pvenod-
en Weslevn ¨aninisn¨ as descviIed in MevcIanl |i980) and BuvIe
3I. I ove lIe JovnuIalion oJ lIis queslion lo Ingvid Jovdl's JovlI-
coning vovI on lIe avlicuIalion oJ BuddIisl and aninisl episle-
noIogies in Buvna.
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
oJ veIaledness. SlvalIevnian veIalions sepavale, vIiIe
Bivd-Bavid's veIalednesses ave pvedicaled on lIe aIsovp-
lion oJ diJJevence I¸ connonaIilies and logelIevnesses.
TIeve is Ieve, lIen, in conlvasl lo SlvalIevn's usage, an
inpIicil assunplion lIal lIe JundanenlaI ov pvolol¸pi-
caI node oJ veIalion is ¨ve-ness¨ as saneness.
Bivd-Bavid's is ¸el anolIev voicing oJ lIe vecenl vide-
spvead senlinenl againsl diJJevence vIicI sees il as in-
inicaI lo innanence, as iJ diJJevence veve a sligna oJ
lvanscendence and aIlevil¸ a IavIingev oJ oppvession. Is
nol lIis senlinenl Ieing Ieve pvojecled onlo vIal
Iunlev-galIevevs ave supposed lo expevience? AII diJJev-
ence is vead as opposilion and aII opposilion as lIe aI-
sence oJ a veIalion· ¨lo oppose¨ is laIen as s¸non¸nous
vilI ¨lo excIude¨-.a slvange idea vIicI I can onI¸ al-
lviIule lo lIe guiIl¸ supposilion lIal olIevs conceive
olIevness as ve do. WeII, lIe¸ don'l· olIevs ave ¨olIev¨
pveciseI¸ Iecause lIe¸ Iave,olIev ¨olIevs.¨
I Jind Bivd-Bavid's idea lIal devavu ave silualionaI
and evenl-delevnined appeavances inspiving, and lIe
poinl lIal devavu ave pevsons insoJav as lIe¸ engage in
veIalionsIips vilI peopIe valIev lIan lIe olIev va¸
avound is exlveneI¸ veII laIen. Bul I aIso Iave sevevaI
queslions Ieve.
Bivd-Bavid oIjecls lo HaIIoveII's usage oJ ¨olIev-
lIan-Iunan pevsons¨ on lIe gvound lIal il Ielva¸s a
concevn vilI cIasses |Iunan/non-Iunan), and sIe pve-
Jevs lo caII devavu ¨supevpevsons.¨ Bul vIal is lIe ¨pev-
son¨ lIal naIes devavu ¨supev¨pevsons-lIe Iunan
pevson? B¸ lIe sane loIen, lIe idea lIal devavuIood is
a conlexl-Iound, silualionaI ascviplion seens lo veI¸ on
an inpIicil conlvasl vilI conlexl-Jvee avavuIood.
TIe idea lIal devavu ave oIjecliJicalions oJ sIaving ve-
IalionsIips seens lo JI¸ in lIe Jace oJ lIe ¨nove con-
pIex silualion¨ |nove conpIex Jov vIon?) oJ lIe eIe-
pIanl devavu veIaled lo lIe aninaI vIicI lvanpIed lIe
Iuls. Bivd-Bavid sa¸s lIal lIis case iIIuslvales ¨lIe
Na¸aIa viev al ils Iinils,¨ Iul lIis sounds IiIe IIaning
lIe Na¸aIa Jov lIe Iinils oJ Iev ovn lIeovelicaI viev.
Bivd-Bavid enpIasizes lIe pavlicuIavislic, evenl-de-
vived naluve oJ lIe devavu Iul aIso sa¸s lIal nan¸ oJ
lIose vIo appeav in lIe pevJovnance ave vev¸ cvudeI¸
speciJied and lIal sone ave vecognized onI¸ as ¨'de-
vavu' in genevaI.¨ Bul vIal is a devavu in genevaI? And
iJ inlevaclion vilI devavu is a va¸ oJ ¨educaling allen-
lion¨ lo discvininale cIanges in lIe veIalionsIips Ie-
lveen Iunans and lIe envivonnenl, lIen lIe sIelcI¸
speciJicalion oJ sone devavu vouId naIe lIen quile
In Iev concIusion, Bivd-Bavid sa¸s lIal ouv Iunan so-
ciaII¸ Iiased cognilive sIiIIs vouId Ie sponlaneousI¸
|naluvaII¸) appIied in silualions ¨vIen ve cannol con-
lvoI ov lolaII¸ pvedicl ouv inlevIoculov's IeIaviov.¨ Ap-
pIied lo non-Iunan Ieings, Iovevev, lIese sIiIIs vouId
give us sonelIing quile siniIav lo lIe lIeov¸ oJ nagic
as a counlev-anxiel¸ device. In IiIe nannev, lIe nen-
lion oJ lIe devavu-izalion oJ unusuaI veIalednesses
slviIes ne as siniIav lo lIe oId idea lIal ¨pvinilives¨
allviIule a spivil lo an¸lIing oul oJ lIe ovdinav¸. We
nigIl aIso inquive aIoul lIe vespeclive Iinils and
slvenglIs oJ lIe naleviaIislic and lIe veIalionaI vievs.
WIal ave lIe Iinils oJ a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸?
In ovdev lo pvove lIal aninisn is nol a |nislaIen) cuI-
luvaI epislenoIog¸, Bivd-Bavid nusl avgue lIal il is a
naluvaI Iunan allilude. In so doing, sIe nanages lo
cuIluvaIize and pavlicuIavize lIe ¨nodevnisl pvojecl¨
Iul onI¸ al lIe pvice oJ a pviov naluvaIizalion and uni-
vevsaIizalion oJ lIe aninisl slance. TIus lIe veIalionaI
epislenoIog¸ is onloIogized Iul in levns oJ a concepl
oJ Iunan naluve vIicI is JivnI¸ silualed vilIin lIe
nodevnisl pviviIeging oJ epislenoIog¸.
Hunan EcoIog¸ Bivision, Lund Univevsil¸, Finngalan
i6, S-223 62 Lund, Sveden. ii iv 98
TIis is a veIcone conlviIulion in sevevaI vespecls· il
veaddvesses lIe diJJevence Ielveen lIe ¨pve-nodevn¨
and lIe ¨nodevn¨ in an age vIen sucI poIavilies ave
incveasingI¸ IvusIed aside as nodevn conslvuclions: il
avgues Jov a conneclion Ielveen sludies oJ Iunan-envi-
vonnenlaI veIalions and lIe nove vecenlI¸ consliluled
anlIvopoIogicaI discouvse on pevsonIood: JinaII¸, in se-
viousI¸ consideving lIe vaIidil¸ oJ pve-Cavlesian episle-
noIogies il sIovs Iov anlIvopoIog¸ nigIl vesuscilale
ils nov Joundeving cvilique oJ nodevnil¸. In aII lIese
vespecls I an JundanenlaII¸ in agveenenl vilI lIe au-
lIov |see HovnIovg
I994, I996, I998). M¸ venavIs viII
valIev Jocus on sone poinls vIicI sIe nigIl Iave cav-
vied JuvlIev.
To Iegin vilI, I vouId Iave IiIed lo see a dislinclion
Ielveen ¨veIaledness¨ ov ¨veIalionaI epislenoIog¸,¨ on
lIe one Iand, and viluaIized aninisn sucI as pandaIu,
on lIe olIev. Bivd-Bavid conJIales lIe lvo valIev lIan
pvoIIenalizing lIeiv veIalionsIip. TIe Jovnev evoIes a
vev¸ genevaI Iunan expevience lIal Ias inspived, Jov in-
slance, lIe Iong-slanding pIenonenoIogicaI cvilique oJ
Cavlesian oIjeclivisn Jvon vilIin nodevn Weslevn so-
ciel¸ ilseIJ: lIe Iallev is a speciJic cuIluvaI expvession in
cevlain pve-nodevn socielies lIal na¸ leII us sonelIing
aIoul ¨veIaledness¨ Iul cannol quaIiJ¸ as sinpI¸ an in-
dex oJ il. A veIevanl queslion vouId Iave Ieen undev
vIal condilions ¨veIaledness¨ nusl Ie oIjecliJied in
viluaI. Bivd-Bavid's ovn dalun lIal lIe Na¸aIa engage
inlinaleI¸ vilI lIeiv envivonnenl ¨onI¸ peviodicaII¸
vIiIe on a IveaI Jvon olIev econonic puvsuils¨ sug-
gesls lIal pandaIu na¸ Ie an allenpl lo vevilaIize an
evev¸da¸ veIaledness lIal is lIvealening lo dissoIve ov
sIip ava¸.
IJ lIe pvesence ov aIsence oJ ¨veIaledness¨ is a genevaI
exislenliaI pvoIIen, Bivd-Bavid Ias addvessed nolIing
Iess lIan lIe pvoIIen oJ nodevnil¸ ilseIJ. Yel lIeve ave
Jev indicalions lIal lIe avgunenl IeIongs vilIin a
videv lvadilion lIan a valIev pavocIiaI, anlIvopoIogicaI
concevn vilI aninisn. TIeve is no nenlion, Jov in-
slance, oJ WeIev's ¨disencIanlnenl,¨ MevIeau-Fonl¸'s
¨Ieing-in-lIe-vovId,¨ ov BuIev's ¨I-TIou¨ veIalion-
sIips. TIese ave conneclions vIicI desevve lo Ie eIaIo-
valed. Il is cuvious Iov lIe pIenonenoIogicaI javgon on
BIBB -BAVIB Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
Ieing ¨in-lIe-vovId¨ Ias inJiIlvaled ecoIogicaI anlIvo-
poIog¸ |see aIso IngoId i996) vilIoul an¸ nenlion oJ
lIe souvces oJ lIese concepls |see OoocI i998).
TIe exanpIe oJ lIe elIoIogisls' coning lo viev lIeiv
aninaI oIjecls as suIjecls iIIuslvales Iov ¨veIaledness¨
is sonelIing lIal peopIe ave capaIIe oJ acIieving in pav-
licuIav expevienliaI conlexls oJ sone nininaI duvalion.
Il is undouIledI¸ evev¸vIeve JundanenlaI lo lIe IocaI
and enIedded dinensions oJ Iunan IiJe. WI¸ exolicize
il inlo sonelIing lIal ¨lIe¸¨-¨lIe Na¸aIa¨-Iave?
Once again, lIe anlIvopoIogicaI gaze visIs veducing il-
seIJ lo lIe cIass pevspeclive oJ uvIan cosnopoIilans
naIing caveevs oul oJ oIjecliJ¸ing lIe vuvaI and lIe
TIeve is a conlvadiclion Ielveen Bivd-Bavid's con-
cIuding assunplion lIal ¨lIe nodevnisl pvojecl es-
lvanged ilseIJ Jvon lIe lendenc¸ lo aninale lIings¨ and
Iev eavIiev oIsevvalion lIal ve na¸ aninale ouv con-
pulevs and cavs. ¨Aninalion¨ is one oJ EIIen's |i988)
cvilevia oJ JelisIisn, and JelisIisn lo Mavx vas cenlvaI
lo nodevn capilaIisn. Il is indeed veIevanl lo asI Iov
aninisn veIales lo JelisIisn. TIeve is a diJJevence
Ielveen vepvesenling veIalions Ielveen peopIe as iJ
lIe¸ veve veIalions Ielveen lIings |Mavxian JelisIisn)
and expeviencing veIalions lo lIings as iJ lIe¸ veve
veIalions lo peopIe |aninalion). TIe Jovnev is a
cognilive/ideoIogicaI iIIusion, lIe Iallev a condilion oJ
pIenonenoIogicaI/expevienliaI vesonance. I Iave sug-
gesled |HovnIovg i992) lIal ¨nacIine JelisIisn,¨
lIe ideoIogicaI IeveI, is as cvuciaI lo capilaIisn as
none¸ ov connodil¸ JelisIisn. MacIines can un-
douIledI¸ aIso Ie aninaled in a pIenonenoIogicaI
as Bivd-Bavid suggesls. We pvoIaII¸ need lo dis-
linguisI Ielveen lIe aninalion oJ Iiving lIings sucI as
lvees |aninisn, nove navvovI¸ deJined) and lIal oJ non-
Iiving lIings sucI as slones ov nacIines |JelisIisn).
Cavlesian oIjeclivisn and JelisIisn Ieve enevge as
slvucluvaI invevsions oJ one anolIev· lIe Jovnev denies
agenc¸ and suIjeclivil¸ in Iiving Ieings, vIeveas lIe
Iallev allviIules sucI quaIilies lo dead oIjecls. In lIis
JvanevovI, a nove slviclI¸ deJined calegov¸ oJ aninisn
vouId Ie vesevved Jov lIe inlevnediale and quile vea-
sonaIIe assunplion lIal aII Iiving lIings ave suIjecls.
TIe epislenoIogicaI pvedicanenl codiJied I¸ Bes-
cavles vas nol so nucI an innovalive, ¨cognilive sIiJl¨
Jvon aninisn lo oIjeclivisn as lIe enevgence-ov un-
pvecedenled genevaIizalion-oJ a sociaI condilion oJ
aIienalion. BalIev lIan a ceveIvaI innovalion lIal Ias
since diJJused, il is a veJIeclion oJ a sel oJ sociaI civcun-
slances lIal is conlinuaII¸ Ieing vepvoduced and ex-
panded. Bivd-Bavid's pvogvannalic anIilion lo avlic-
uIale envivonnenlaI veIalions and pevsonIood is
supveneI¸ vovlIvIiIe, Iul vIeve in lIis lexl ave lIe
insigIls on pevsonIood lIal sIe visIes lo enpIo¸? A
IigII¸ veIevanl aspecl oJ pevsonIood vIicI nigIl Iave
iIIuninaled lIe veIalionisl/oIjeclivisl conlvasl is lIe
lendenc¸ oJ ¨non-Weslevn¨ |IocaI?) peopIe lo ancIov
lIeiv seIves in concvele valIev lIan aIslvacl veJevence-
poinls |see SIvedev and Bouvne I984, HovnIovg I994).
Il is lIe Iong innevsion in lIe concvele and expevien-
liaI speciJics oJ pIace lIal ¸ieIds condilions conducive
lo ¨veIaledness.¨ IJ lIis Ias Ieen slignalized as ¨a
cIiId's pvaclice,¨ as does indeed Fiagel's Iouvgeois con-
cepl oJ naluvil¸, is lIis nol Iecause ve ave aII Iovn pve-
nodevn? AIslvaclion, delacInenl, and oIjecliJicalion
ave pvoducls oJ nodevn, disenIedding niddIe- and up-
pev-cIass IiogvapIies.
Bivd-Bavid oIsevves lIal veIalionaI epislenoIogies
ave pevJovnalive, as lIeiv signiJicance Iinges on vIal
lIe¸ do valIev lIan on vIal lIe¸ vepvesenl. IvonicaII¸,
al anolIev IogicaI IeveI, so is oIjeclivisl InovIedge, Iul
pveciseI¸ I¸ nol adnilling il. B¸ posing as neve vepve-
senlalion, il pevJovns an acl oJ aIienalion, a veIin-
quisInenl oJ vesponsiIiIil¸, lIvougI vIicI a disen-
Iodied, inslvunenlaI valionaIil¸ is sel Jvee lo go aIoul
ils Iusiness in lIe vovId.
FinaII¸, il na¸ veslvicl ouv JieId oJ vision lo concIude
lIal lIe Iunan lendenc¸ lo aninale lIings is engen-
deved I¸ ¨sociaII¸ Iiased cognilive sIiIIs.¨ IJ Iunan
cognilion Ias evoIved lo equip us Jov ¨inlevpevsonaI
deaIings¨ vilI unpvediclaIIe inlevIoculovs, il na¸ jusl
as veII Iave Ieen Iecause ecoIogicaI veIalionsIips ave
JundanenlaII¸ connunicalive |von UexIuII i982
[I940]). IngoId |i996) avgues lIal sociaI veIalions ave a
suIsel oJ ecoIogicaI veIalions and lIal lIeve is a sense
in vIicI non-Iunan cvealuves ave aIso ¨pevsons.¨ We
couId lIus luvn lIe evoIulionav¸ avgunenl avound and
suggesl lIal Iunan sociaIiIil¸ vas engendeved I¸ cog-
nilive sIiIIs lIal veve ecoIogicaII¸ Iiased. TIis vouId
pvovide an even slvongev case Jov lIe essenliaI vaIidil¸
oJ aninisn.
Bepavlnenl oJ SociaI AnlIvopoIog¸, Univevsil¸ oJ
MancIeslev, OxJovd Boad, MancIeslev M13 9FL,
EngIand |Tin.IngoIdOnan.ac.uI). i5 iv 98
I an in Ivoad s¸npalI¸ vilI lIe avgunenl oJ lIis adni-
vaIIe papev and conJine n¸ connenl lo lIe one poinl
on vIicI I Iave a suIslanlive disagveenenl. TIe poinl
is veIaliveI¸ langenliaI lo lIe avgunenl as a vIoIe Iul
Ias inpovlanl inpIicalions Jov lIe diveclions in vIicI
il nigIl Ie JuvlIev puvsued. Bivd-Bavid is vigIl, I lIinI,
lo poinl oul lIal lIe diJJevence Ielveen Iunlev-galIev-
evs and cilizens oJ nodevn Weslevn nalions is nol lIal
lIe Jovnev Iave a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸ vIiIe lIe Ial-
lev Iave signed up Jov lIe nodevnisl pvojecl. AJlev aII,
a gveal nan¸ conlenpovav¸ Iunlev-galIevevs ave cili-
zens oJ Weslevn nalion-slales. TIe diJJevence is valIev
lIal vilIin lIe conlexl oJ lIe nodevn slale and ils po-
IilicaI, econonic, and educalionaI inslilulions, veIa-
lionaI va¸s oJ Inoving Iave Iosl nucI oJ lIeiv aulIov-
il¸. Bul lIe¸ conlinue lo opevale nonelIeIess and
venain deepI¸ enIedded in lIe expevience oJ evev¸da¸
IiJe. As a specuIalive I¸polIesis, Bivd-Bavid suggesls
lIal sucI va¸s oJ Inoving ave, indeed, connon lo Iu-
nan Ieings evev¸vIeve. I an incIined lo agvee. I do nol
IeIieve, Iovevev, lIal lIe expIanalion Jov lIis is lo Ie
Jound in lIeovies oJ lIe evoIulion oJ sociaI inleIIigence
S82 CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
oJ lIe Iind oviginaII¸ pvopounded I¸ HunpIve¸ |I976)
and suIsequenlI¸ deveIoped I¸, inlev aIia, Oood¸
|i985). TIese lIeovies vesl Jaiv and squave on a nodevn-
isl conceplion oJ nind and IeIaviov vIicI JIies in lIe
Jace oJ lIe veIalionaI viev oJ pevsonaI Ieing and envi-
vonnenlaI pevceplion lo vIicI Bivd-Bavid and I suI-
scviIe. To JoIIov lIe expIanalov¸ voule aIong vIicI
lIe¸ IecIon vouId Iead us inevilaII¸ lo lIe vev¸ JaIIa-
cies lIal sIe covveclI¸ idenliJies in lIe vovI oJ scIoIavs
sucI as OulIvie
WIal HunpIve¸ avgued, in essence, vas lIal lIe cog-
nilive denands Jov an individuaI oJ slvalegicaII¸ nanag-
ing inlevaclions vilI conspeciJics Jav oulveigIed lIose
oJ deaIing vilI olIev conponenls oJ lIe envivonnenl
in lIe pvocuvenenl oJ suIsislence, and lIeveJove lIe se-
Ieclive pvessuves lIal dvove lIe evoIulion oJ Iunan in-
leIIigence veve aIove aII sociaI valIev lIan lecInicaI.
TIis dislinclion Ielveen lIe sociaI and lecInicaI Junc-
lions oJ inleIIecl is Iased, Iovevev, on a nove Junda-
nenlaI division Ielveen lIe donains oJ sociel¸ and na-
luve. SociaI pavlnevs ave Ieings vilI vIon an
individuaI inlevacls, vIeveas in naluve lIeve ave onI¸
lIings lIal one can acl upon. Yel pveciseI¸ Iecause
lIeiv inleIIigence Ias Ieen designed I¸ naluvaI seIeclion
speciJicaII¸ Jov IandIing sociaI inlevaclion, Iunan Ie-
ings ave pvedisposed lo lveal oIjecls oJ naluve, loo, as iJ
lIe¸ veve sociaI pavlnevs. And in doing so, sa¸s Hun-
pIve¸, ¨lIe¸ ave suve lo naIe nislaIes.¨ One oJ lIe
nosl oIvious oJ lIese nislaIes, l¸picaI oJ ¨pvinilive-
and nol so pvinilive -peopIes,¨ is lIe ¨vesovl lo ani-
nislic lIinIing aIoul naluvaI pIenonena.¨ FeopIe vIo
lIinI in lIis va¸ allenpl lo inlevacl vilI naluve as
lIe¸ vouId vilI one anolIev. SucI allenpls ave quile
undevslandaIIe Iul nonelIeIess JaIIacious. ¨Naluve
viII nol lvansacl vilI nen: sIe goes Iev ovn va¸ ve-
gavdIess¨ |HunpIve¸ I976·3I3).
TIus Jov HunpIve¸, jusl as Jov OulIvie, aninisn is
Jounded in evvov· lIe allviIulion oJ sociaI cIavaclevislics
lo oIjecls oJ lIe naluvaI vovId. And Jov IolI aulIovs lIe
pvevaIence oJ lIe evvov is pul dovn lo evoIved pvedispo-
silions lIal Iave a valionaI Joundalion in lIe caIcuIus
oJ seIeclive cosls and IeneJils. Hovevev, as Bivd-Bavid
convincingI¸ sIovs, a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸ luvns lIe
laIIes on sucI avgunenls. TIe evvov, il seens, Iies vilI
lIeiv oviginalovs, in lIeiv assunplion lIal lIe vovId is
divided, a pviovi, Ielveen lIe inaninale and lIe ani-
nale, Ielveen lIe non-Iunan and lIe Iunan, and Ie-
lveen lIe naluvaI and lIe sociaI. Bul aIove aII, lIe¸
naIe lIe nislaIe oJ assuning lIal IiJe and nind ave
inleviov pvopevlies oJ individuaIs lIal ave given, inde-
pendenlI¸ and in advance oJ lIeiv invoIvenenl in lIe
vovId. Fevceplion, lIen, is undevslood lo Ie a nallev oJ
conslvucling inlevnaI vepvesenlalions oJ vIal lIe vovId
nigIl Ie IiIe on lIe Iasis oJ lIe Iiniled inJovnalion
avaiIaIIe lIvougI lIe senses, vIiIe aclion is vegavded as
lIe execulion oJ pIans avvived al lIvougI lIe slvalegic
nanipuIalion oJ sucI vepvesenlalions. In sociaI inlevac-
lion, il is supposed, eacI pavl¸ Ias lo Ie aIIe lo vepve-
senl lIe IiIeI¸ vesponse oJ lIe olIev lo Iis ov Iev ovn
inlended aclions· lIis is vIal Oood¸ |i995) caIIs ¨anlic-
ipalov¸ inlevaclive pIanning¨ |AIF).
TIe Iind oJ vesponsiveness envisaged in anlicipalov¸
inlevaclive pIanning, Iovevev, is JundanenlaII¸ diJJev-
enl Jvon vIal Bivd-Bavid Ias in nind vIen sIe speaIs
oJ lIe ¨lvo-va¸ vesponsive veIaledness¨ lo conponenls
oJ lIe envivonnenl sucI as lvees lIal cones Jvon a Iis-
lov¸ oJ inlinale engagenenl vilI lIen. To ¨laII vilI
a lvee,¨ as sIe poinls oul, is a queslion nol oJ |nislaI-
enI¸) allviIuling lo il an innev inleIIigence and lIen
conJiguving Iov il nigIl decide lo veacl lo vIal one
does Iul oJ pevceiving ¨vIal il does as one acls lovavds
il, Ieing avave concuvvenlI¸ oJ cIanges in oneseIJ and
lIe lvee.¨ Besponsiveness, in lIis viev, anounls lo a
Iind oJ sensov¸ pavlicipalion, a coupIing oJ lIe nove-
nenl oJ one's allenlion lo lIe novenenl oJ aspecls oJ
lIe vovId. IJ lIeve is inleIIigence al vovI Ieve, il does
nol Iie inside lIe Iead oJ lIe Iunan aclov, Iel aIone in-
side lIe JaIvic oJ lIe lvee. BalIev, il is innanenl in lIe
lolaI s¸slen oJ pevceplion and aclion consliluled I¸ lIe
co-pvesence oJ lIe Iunan and lIe lvee vilIin a videv
envivonnenl. To deveIop lIis idea JuvlIev, lIe Jivsl
lIing ve sIaII Iave lo jellison is lIe cognilivisl concep-
lion oJ inleIIigence as a nenlaI conpulalionaI device
vesponsiIIe Jov pvocessing lIe dala oJ pevceplion and
puIIing lIe slvings oJ aclion |see IngoId I993·43i). Hu-
nan Ieings evev¸vIeve pevceive lIeiv envivonnenls in
lIe vesponsive node nol Iecause oJ innale cognilive
pvedisposilion Iul Iecause lo pevceive al aII lIe¸ nusl
aIvead¸ Ie silualed in a vovId and connilled lo lIe ve-
IalionsIips lIis enlaiIs.
OoIdsnilIs CoIIege, Nev Cvoss, London SE14 6NW,
EngIand. 7 III 98
I Iave vead Bivd-Bavid's Iucid and vaIuaIIe papev vilI
gveal inlevesl and oJJev lIe JoIIoving cvilicaI veJIeclions
in lIe spivil oJ JviendsIip·
¨Modevnisn,¨ as Bivd-Bavid deJines il, inpIies a con-
ceplion oJ lIe Iunan pevson as invoIving a vadicaI
Iod¸/spivil |souI, nind?) spIil, a vadicaI duaIisn Ie-
lveen Iunans and naluve, and lIe nolion lIal lIe Iu-
nan pevson is an individuaI lIing, a Iounded asociaI en-
lil¸ |ovganisn). TIese conceplions, oJ couvse, IavgeI¸
cane oul oJ Cavlesian nelapI¸sics and lIe Iouvgeois
IiIevaI lIeov¸ oJ lIe I7lI cenluv¸ and veve inlvinsic as
ideoIogies lo lIe vise oJ capilaIisn. A cvilique oJ lIese
conceplions-vIicI Bivd-Bavid IinIs lo ¨cuvvenl¨ lIe-
ov¸ in ecoIog¸ and pevsonIood-goes IacI lvo cen-
luvies lo lIe line oJ OoelIe, HegeI, and Mavx. FIi-
IosopIevs, Iislovians, socioIogisls, anlIvopoIogisls,
sociaIisls, vonanlic poels, evoIulionav¸ IioIogisls, and
naluvaIisls Iave Iong since concIuded lIal Iunans ave
a pavl oJ naluve and lIal peopIe evev¸vIeve ave neilIev
disenIodied egos |Bescavles) nov aIslvacl individuaIs
asociaI ovganisns oJ Iouvgeois IiIevaIisn) nov sin-
pI¸ a veJIeclion oJ lIe connodil¸ nelapIov |SlvalIevn)
BIBB-BAVIB 'Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
Iul inlvinsicaII¸ sociaI, lIal is, veIalionaI, Ieings. TIe
nolion lIal Iunan pevsons ave dividuaIs Ias lIus Iong
Ieen eslaIIisIed. Bul, oJ couvse, peopIe ave aIso individ-
uaIs, acluaI enlilies ov unilies, and nusl Ie so IogicaII¸
and diaIeclicaII¸ in ovdev lo Ie dividuaI. Selling up lIe
individuaI and lIe dividuaI as iJ lIe¸ veve opposed cale-
govies, as Bivd-Bavid seens lo do|?), is quile nisIeading.
Indeed, as Filz FooIe and n¸seIJ Iave IolI slvessed, in-
dividuaIil¸ is a deJining Jealuve oJ pevsonIood and
ougIl nol lo Ie conJIaled vilI individuaIisn |lIe cuI-
luvaI nolion lIal ve ave asociaI ovganisns Iounded I¸
lIe sIin). FeopIe in Weslevn cuIluves, IiIe lIe Na¸aIa
and peopIe evev¸vIeve, ave dividuaI pevsons and vecog-
nize lIenseIves as sucI. Even lIe nucI-aIused Bes-
cavles acInovIedged lIis in Iis Iellevs, Iul lIe Iesl ac-
counl oJ lIe dividuaI pevson vas given Iong ago I¸
anolIev nucI-naIigned scIoIav, BadcIiJJe-Bvovn |i 9 5.2·
I94)· ¨TIe Iunan Ieing as a pevson is a conpIex oJ so-
ciaI veIalionsIips. He is a cilizen oJ EngIand, a IusIand
and a JalIev, a IvicIIa¸ev, a nenIev oJ a pavlicuIav
MelIodisl congvegalion, a volev in a cevlain conslilu-
enc¸, a nenIev oJ Iis lvade union, an adIevenl oJ lIe
LaIouv Favl¸, and so on. Nole lIal eacI oJ lIese descvip-
lions veJevs lo a sociaI veIalionsIip.¨ TIus ¨dividuaI¨
seens lo Ie jusl a JasIionaIIe and valIev scIoIaslic s¸n-
on¸n Jov lIe pevson?
Bivd-Bavid seens lo conve¸ lIe idea lIal cevlain con-
cepls, sucI as spivil, lIing, veIigion, possession, inpI¸
a duaIislic nelapI¸sic. SIe lIus ovevIooIs lIe sinpIe
Jacl lIal aII concepls ave veIalionaI and lIal an¸
dislinclion-naIe/JenaIe, Iunans/naluve, Iod¸/nind,
spivil/vovId, us/lIen-can Ie inlevpveled in vavious
va¸s. Fov exanpIe, lIe dislinclion nan¸ peopIe naIe
Ielveen god |spivil) and lIe Jinile vovId can eilIev Ie
inlevpveled in duaIislic JasIion |as in FIalonisn, gnosli-
cisn, deisn, and lIe nove slvidenl Jovns oJ lIeisn) ov
vieved as a veIalionaI disconlinuil¸ |as in lIe CIvislian
NeopIalonisn oJ Eviugena and EcIIavl, HegeI's pIiIoso-
pI¸, esolevicisn, Ievnelicisn, and lIe Cvealion-Iased
spiviluaIil¸ oJ MallIev Fox) ov I¸ conpIeleI¸ vepudial-
ing duaIisn |as in lIe panlIeisn oJ Bvuno, Spinoza, and
Heine, lIe idenlil¸ pIiIosopI¸ oJ ScIeIIing, and lIe
spiviluaI nonisn oJ Favnenides and Advaila Vedanla).
Il is lIe sane vilI evev¸ olIev concepl. To suggesl as
nan¸ poslnodevnisls do-and Bivd-Bavid seens lo Ie
JoIIoving lIis lvaiI-lIal cevlain concepls |veason, cuI-
luve, nind, veIigion, spivil, naluve, ov vIal Iave ¸ou)
inpI¸ a ¨nodevnisl¨ pevspeclive and a duaIislic nela-
pI¸sic is valIev sinpIislic. Il aII depends on Iov lIe¸
ave inlevpveled and used in anaI¸sis. Bead in Iis seninaI
avlicIe |i 955) on lIe OaIuIu-Oana sees lIe concepl oJ
pevson as ¨nodevnisl,¨ inpI¸ing an individualed suI-
jecl, and lIus vejecls il.
Bivd-Bavid IevseIJ seens lo Ie IocIed inlo a duaIislic
pevspeclive, Jov ve Iave nol onI¸ a dicIolon¸ Ielveen
individuaI and dividuaI Iul aIso one Ielveen lIing and
veIalion. TIe nolion lIal ¨lIing¨ is a ¨nodevnisl¨ con-
cepl is aIso valIev nisIeading, and selling up a dicIol-
on¸ Ielveen ¨lIing¨ and ¨veIalion¨ as iJ lIe¸ veve op-
posing concepls ov lIeovies is nol onI¸ undiaIeclicaI Iul
oIJuscaling. AII veIalions |vIelIev causaI ov sociaI) in-
pI¸ lIings, acluaI enlilies lIal ave consliluled lIvougI
veIalions: aII aJJovdances in lIe envivonnenl inpI¸
sonelIing-pevson, oIsevvev, ov Jvog-lIal is envi-
voned: aII diJJevence enlaiIs al lIe sane line a unil¸,
jusl as aII unilies |individuaIs) ave al lIe sane line di-
viduaI. Bivd-Bavid's papev conve¸s lIe inpvession lIal
laIIing aIoul ¨lIings¨ inpIies a negalive, inslvunen-
laI, oIjeclivisl allilude lo lIe vovId. TIis is nol onI¸
conlvasled vilI Iul opposed lo ¨veIalions,¨ idenliJied
vilI lIe pevsonaI and lIe sociaI, vIicI ave posilive and
good, and veJIecled in Na¸aIa veIigious IeIieJs, vIicI
in luvn veJIecl lIe ¨veIalionaI epislenoIog¸¨ lIal Bivd-
Bavid IevseIJ enIvaces. TIe papev is lIus pevvaded I¸
Mavlin BuIev's dislinclion Ielveen I-lIou |veIalion) and
I-il |lIing). Bul jusl as sociaI veIalions can Ie IievavcIic
and expIoilalive, so ouv veIalionsIip lo lIings |indepen-
denl oJ veIigion) can Ie vIal Heideggev descviIed as pvi-
novdiaI and poelic. TIe cIose veIalionsIip lIal lIe Na¸-
aIa Iave vilI lIe Jovesl is suveI¸ nol dependenl upon
lIe Jacl lIal lIe¸ pevceive lIe devavu as innanenl in
lIe vovId and as pevsons. AII peopIe vecognize lIings
in lIe vovId, and lIis is expvessed in Ianguage: lIe peo-
pIe I Inov veII-lIe HiII Fandavan and lIe peasanl
connunilies oJ MaIavi-nol onI¸ assevl Iul ceIeIvale
lIe singuIavil¸ oJ lIings, vecognizing lIal individuaI
lIings as geneva Iave lIeiv ovn unique povevs and
Bepavlnenl oJ AnlIvopoIog¸, Univevsil¸ oJ IceIand,
Be¸IjaviI, IceIand. a2I iv 98
TIe lIesis undev discussion is an inlviguing one. TIe
veaIilies oJ lIe pIenonena cIassicaII¸ descviIed I¸ an-
lIvopoIogisls I¸ neans oJ lIe concepl oJ aninisn na¸,
aJlev aII, Iave Ieen seviousI¸ nisconslvued. Bivd-Ba-
vid's allenpl lo ¨soIve¨ lIe pvoIIen oJ aninisn I¸
conIining envivonnenl lIeov¸ and pevsonIood lIeov¸
is, in n¸ viev, a pvonising one. SucI an appvoacI veso-
nales vilI povevJuI lIenes in sociaI lIeov¸-incIuding
lIe pvagnalisn oJ JoIn Beve¸, lIe Mavxian conslilu-
live viev oJ lIe individuaI as an ¨ensenIIe¨ oJ sociaI
veIalions, and lIe BaIIlinian nolion oJ diaIogue. One
oJ Bivd-Bavid's inpovlanl acIievenenls is lo sIov lIal
once ve aIandon lIe duaIisn oJ naluve and sociel¸, ani-
nisn acquives a nev neaning vIicI seens nove Jun-
danenlaI and nove elInogvapIicaII¸ aulIenlic lIan
eavIiev, inleIIecluaIisl pevspeclives inpIied. Exlending
lo lIe nonIunan donain lIe pevspeclive oJ sociaII¸ Ii-
ased cognilion |a pevspeclive usuaII¸ veslvicled lo lIe
vovId oJ conspeciJics), sIe is aIIe lo velIinI aninisn
as a ''convevsalion¨ vilI lIe envivonnenl-as a Iind
oJ pIalic connunion in lIe MaIinovsIian sense. Ani-
nisn, lIen, is jusl one nove naniJeslalion oJ a Iasic
Iunan capacil¸, Ieve exlended lo lIe lolaIil¸ oJ Iunan
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
Bivd-Bavid suggesls lIal Iev pevspeclive is ¨one nov
needed in sludies oJ lIe conpIex pIenonena vIicI T¸-
Iov denoled as 'aninisn.'¨ SIe does nol eIaIovale on
lIe ¨nov,¨ aIlIougI sIe does indicale a conneclion
vilI ¨cuvvenl vadicaI envivonnenlaI discouvses.¨ Sini-
Iav lIenes Iave, indeed, Ieen deveIoped vilIin cuvvenl
envivonnenlaI lIougIl. FIunvood, Jov inslance, avgues
Jov a ¨veIalionaI accounl¨ |I99I·I4) oJ Iunans and lIe
envivonnenl, poinling oul lIal sucI an appvoacI ap-
pIies ¨lo caving Jov olIev species and Jov lIe naluvaI
vovId as nucI as . . . lo caving Jov ouv ovn species.'¨
TIe pvaclicaI inpIicalions oJ lIe veIalionaI pevspeclive,
Iovevev, ave a nallev oJ sone deIale. Fov sone scIoIavs
lIe nolion oJ unIvoIen vIoIeness-lIe Na¸aIan no-
lion oJ ¨ve-ness¨-is anlilIelicaI lo lIe idea oJ caving
Jov lIe envivonnenl. One cannol cave Jov sonelIing, il
is avgued, unIess il is sepavaled Jvon oneseIJ. On lIe
olIev Iand, lIe exlended nolion oJ lIe enIodied seIJ-
oJ Ieing a Iod¸ and nol sinpI¸ Iaving il-does nol
seen lo pvecIude lIe idea oJ IodiI¸ concevn. And iJ Jov
nan¸ peopIe lIe incovpovalion oJ lIe Iod¸ inlo lIeiv
nolion oJ seIJ signiJies inlensive IodiI¸ cave, vI¸
sIouId lIe¸ negIecl lIe envivonnenl once lIe¸ vejecl
lIe duaIisn oJ naluve and sociel¸? I vondev iJ Bivd-Ba-
vid's lIesis oJ aninisn suggesls a pavlicuIav slance on
lIis queslion.
Bivd-Bavid vigIlI¸ avgues in Iev discussion oJ lIe
nodevnisl pevspeclive lIal ¨lIe nosl inlviguing ques-
lion is vI¸ and Iov lIe nodevnisl pvojecl eslvanged il-
seIJ Jvon lIe lendenc¸ lo aninale lIings.¨ SIe does nol
puvsue lIe issue Iul concIudes vilI an ivonic JaIIe
aIoul Bescavles. Il is inpovlanl, Iovevev, lo siluale |lo
¨dividuale,¨ iJ ¸ou IiIe) lIe lIeovisls vIo Iave passed
on lo us lIe convevsalions oJ lIe pasl. AppavenlI¸, lIe
Jvagnenling oJ lIe nedievaI vovId and lIe olIeving oJ
naluve il enlaiIed looI sIape in lIe Benaissance peviod,
duving vIicI lIe Weslevn allilude lo InovIedge and
lIe envivonnenl vas lvansJovned. TIeve aIvead¸ exisls
a nassive Iilevaluve on lIis Iislov¸. Il seens lIal lIe
¨anIlIvopocvac¸¨ |lo Iovvov I. FanoJsI¸'s levn) cenlvaI
lo lIe duaIisl, nodevnisl pvojecl vas lIe cunuIalive ve-
suIl oJ a sevies oJ econonic and cognilive deveIopnenls
|see FaIsson I995·3-5). In lIe pvocess, lIe pIenonena
IaIeIed ¨aninisn¨ veve suppvessed, veIegaled lo lIe
WIiIe Bivd-Bavid's cIavaclevizalion oJ eavIiev vvil-
ings is genevaII¸ covvecl, I vQndev iJ il assunes nove
uniJovnil¸ in lIe Iilevaluve lIan lIeve acluaII¸ is. In
I930, Jov inslance, Luvia and V¸golsI¸ allacIed lIe T¸-
Iovian nolion oJ aninisn. ¨TIis naive viev,¨ lIe¸ said,
¨Ias Ieen aIandoned Iong ago I¸ ps¸cIoIog¸¨ |i992·
43). Inslead lIe¸ suggesled an enpIasis on lIe ¨nale-
viaI¨ conslvainls and enolionaI veaclions oJ ¨pvinilive
nan,' an enpIasis vIicI lo sone degvee vesonales
vilI Bivd-Bavid's concevns. AIso, I Iave pvoIIens vilI
lIe levn ¨dividuaI¨ vIicI Bivd-Bavid adopls lo cIaI-
Ienge nodevn individuaIisn and lIe inleIIecluaIisl lIe-
sis oJ aninisn. TIe neaning oJ lIe nov-suspecl En-
gIisI levn ¨individuaI¨ Ias undevgone JundanenlaI
cIanges in lIe couvse oJ Iislov¸. In lIe MiddIe Ages il
veJevved lo an ¨indivisiIIe¨ veIalionaI vIoIe-sone-
lIing lIal cannol Ie divided, IiIe lIe unil¸ oJ lIe Tvin-
il¸. As OuvevicI avgues |I992·297), in nedievaI lines
¨nan lIougIl oJ IinseIJ as an inlegvaI pavl oJ lIe
vovId.... His inlevveIalion vilI naluve vas so inlen-
sive and lIovougI lIal Ie couId nol IooI al il Jvon
vilIoul.¨ Novada¸s, in conlvasl, lIe concepl oJ lIe in-
dividuaI suggesls lIe vev¸ opposile, naneI¸, dislinc-
lions and disconlinuilies. TIe cIange in lIe neaning oJ
lIe concepl, WiIIians poinls oul, ¨is a vecovd in Ian-
guage oJ an exlvaovdinav¸ sociaI and poIilicaI Iislov¸¨
|1976·I33). Oiven lIis Iislov¸, veJevences lo lIe ¨divid-
uaI¨ pevson ave nol pavlicuIavI¸ iIIuninaling. IJ ¨dividu-
aIisn¨ exisled in nedievaI Euvope, il pvoIaII¸ vas an
invevsion oJ lIe veIalionaI viev vIicI Bivd-Bavid is
Il vouId Ie vvong, Iovevev, lo veduce lIe issue lo
el¸noIog¸. Bivd-Bavid, in n¸ viev, Ias nol onI¸ con-
slvucled an ecIeclic and IigII¸ useJuI lIeovelicaI Jvane-
vovI Iul aIso sIiIJuII¸ appIied il lo IolI lIe genevaI
pIenonenon oJ aninisn and Iev Na¸aIan elInog-
EIiol CoIIege, Bepavlnenl oJ SociaI AnlIvopoIog¸
and SocioIog¸, Univevsil¸ oJ Kenl, CanlevIuv¸, Kenl
CT2 7NS, EngIand |L.M.BivaIOiuIc.ac.uI). 28 Iv 98
Bivd-Bavid's caII Jov vevisiling aninisn is lineI¸.
WIiIe cIaIIenging T¸Iov's enIvace oJ lIe Weslevn oI-
jeclivisl viev oJ veaIil¸, sIe vigIlI¸ poinls lo lIe con-
lenpovav¸ veIevance oJ Iis seninaI slud¸ oJ ¨lIe IeIieJ
lIal IiJe is pvoduced I¸ a spiviluaI Jovce.¨ SIe opposes
BuvIIeinian, slvucluvaIisl |Levi-Slvauss and BescoIa),
and cognilive evoIulionisl |OulIvie) expIanalions oJ an-
inisn and oJJevs an oviginaI conlviIulion lo lIe deIale
I¸ Jocusing on lIe sociaIil¸, veIigious ideas, and viluaI
pvaclices oJ egaIilavian Iunlev-galIevevs vIose len-
denc¸ lo allviIule IiJe lo inaninale oIjecls ov nenlaI
slales lo non-Iunans slens, sIe assevls, Jvon a dislinc-
live ¨veIalionaI epislenoIog¸.¨
One oJ lIe gvealesl pvoIIens vilI T¸Iov's viev oJ ani-
nisn, accovding lo Bivd-Bavid, is ils nonoIilIic cIav-
aclev. SIe avgues inslead Jov a pIuvaIil¸ oJ aninisns, on
lIe gvound lIal diJJevenl IeIieJ s¸slens concepluaIise
¨IiJe,¨ ¨non-Iiving,¨ and ¨Iunan¨ in JundanenlaII¸
diJJevenl va¸s. SIe goes on lo sIov lIal Na¸aIa naluve
spivils |devavu) and spivil possession viles Iave nucI in
connon vilI lIose oJ lIe Hadza, HiII Fandavan, and
!Kung. Hunling-and-galIeving popuIalions seen lo al-
lviIule siniIav neanings lo naluve, IiJe, and pev-
sonIood. TIe¸ do nol dicIolonise lIe pevson inlo
spivil and Iod¸ ov lIe envivonnenl inlo lIe pI¸sicaI
and lIe sociaI Iul envisage inslead a sociaI envivon-
nenl Iased on lIe innediale, inlinale, and engaged
expevience oJ veIaledness Ielveen ¨dividuaI¨ pevsons.
FeopIe IiIe lIe Na¸aIa deJine a pevson as soneone vilI
vIon one sIaves. SpiviluaI Jovces ave lvealed as pevsons
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
IvougIl lo IiJe vilI vIon space, lIings, aclions, expe-
vience, and convevsalions can Ie sIaved.
I Jind Bivd-Bavid's lIesis lIal lIe aninislic IeIieJs oJ
egaIilavian Iunlev-galIevevs oIjecliJ¸ veIalions oJ sIav-
ing insigIlJuI. In lIe sane va¸ as sIe vas aIIe lo vecog-
nise sonelIing unique in lIe econonic aclivilies oJ
nonadic Iunlevs, galIevevs, and sone svidden Iovli-
cuIluvisls vIo ¨pvocuve¨ valIev lIan pvoduce, as veII as
in lIeiv sociaI ovganisalion |lIe¸ ¨denand-sIave¨ valIev
lIan excIange), sIe Ias nov idenliJied sonelIing dis-
linclive in lIeiv cuIluves· lIe pvincipIe lIal lo veIale is
lo Inov and lIal lo Iving lo IiJe is lo inpevsonale. FoI-
Ioving lIis pvincipIe, and depending on lIe conlexl, an-
inaIs na¸ Ie luvned inlo neve oIjecls, inlo peopIe, ov
inlo divinilies. And vIen naluvaI Iinds ov naluvaI
Jovces ave ¨nade aIive¨ as pevsons, peopIe veIale lo
lIen and connunicale and sociaIise vilI lIen ex-
aclI¸ as iJ lIe¸ veve JeIIov Iunan Ieings.
UnJovlunaleI¸, lIe elInogvapIic naleviaI sIe ciles in
suppovl oJ Iev lIesis is nol suJJicienlI¸ deveIoped ov
cIeav |I Jound lIe exanpIes oJ eIepIanl devavu pavlicu-
IavI¸ oIscuve and anIiguous). Moveovev, loo IillIe is
said aIoul IocaI pevceplions and expeviences oJ lvances
and possession I¸ aninaI spivils Jov lIe veadev lo decide
vIelIev lo agvee ov nol vilI lIe aulIov aIoul lIe dis-
lincliveness oJ Iunlev-galIevev aninislic pevJovnances.
I Jound even nove pvoIIenalic lIe lIeovelicaI gvound
on vIicI Bivd-Bavid Iases sone oJ Iev nosl pevceplive
ideas, Jov exanpIe, lIe idea lIal slones ave given IiJe and
pevsoniJied as, vIen, and Iecause oJ lIe desive lo so-
ciaIise vilI lIen. To vejecl Kenned¸'s dislinclion Ie-
lveen aninalion and anlIvoponovpIisalion on lIe
gvound lIal OiIson's ecoIogicaI ps¸cIoIog¸ Iellev ex-
pIains vI¸ lIe aJJovdances oJ naluvaI oIjecls ave nol es-
senliaI pvopevlies Iul conlexl-dependenl is nol, in n¸
viev, salisJaclov¸. Fav Jvon sa¸ing lIal elIoIogisls JeeI
enpalI¸ Jov, Ience veIale lo, lIe aninaIs lIe¸ ave ex-
pevinenling upon, Kenned¸ poinls lo lIe inlvinsicaII¸
anlIvoponovpIic naluve nol onI¸ oJ evev¸da¸ Ianguage
|vIicI couId sinpI¸ Ie IvusIed aside as a nelapIovic
pvopevl¸) Iul aIso oJ scienliJic lIougIl. Scienlisls, IiIe
aII oJ us, and IiIe lIe ¨pvinilives¨ T¸Iov vas lv¸ing lo
undevsland, lend lo ascviIe JeeIings and cognilive pvo-
cesses lo Iiving ovganisns, especiaII¸ IigIev ones. WIal
concevns Kenned¸ |I992·93-94) is lIal I¸ lIinIing
aIoul aninaIs as iJ lIe¸ Iad ninds IiIe ouvs-lIal is,
as iJ lIe¸ veve conscious and seIJ-avave, as iJ lIe¸
lIougIl, and as iJ lIe¸ Iad puvposes and used nenlaI
inages-ve conJuse Junclions and causes and vvongI¸
pvojecl lIe excIusiveI¸ Iunan nind-Iod¸ pvoIIen onlo
olIev species |Kenned¸ i992·i68).
TIe queslion vI¸ Iunans lend lo use Iunan expevi-
ence lo inlevpvel IioIogicaI pvocesses, in pavlicuIav ani-
naI IeIaviouv, is so JundanenlaI lIal anlIvopoIogisls
cannol ansvev il vilIoul enleving inlo diaIogue vilI
olIev discipIines, incIuding cognilive ps¸cIoIog¸. I
agvee vilI Bivd-Bavid lIal lIe nain issue al slaIe is lIe
allviIulion oJ IiJe lo lIe non-Iiving and Iov sucI allvi-
Iulion veIales lo lIe conJevvving oJ Iunan lvails on non-
Iunan enlilies |see BivaI I998· 20-27). Bul lIe nallev
cannol Ie adequaleI¸ sellIed vilIoul pa¸ing sevious al-
lenlion lo lIe necIanisns lIal connecl lIe inluilive
assunplions oJ evev¸da¸ cognilion ov ¨connon sense¨
|as used I¸ Alvan i990) and lIe counlevinluilive vepve-
senlalions lIal naIe up lIe cove oJ conpIex veIigious
IeIieJs sucI as lIose inJovning Na¸aIa viluaI pevJov-
nances |Bo¸ev I994).
Bepavlnenl oJ AnlIvopoIog¸, Indiana Univevsil¸-
Fuvdue Univevsil¸ Fovl Wa¸ne, 210I CoIiseun BIvd.
Easl, Fovl Wa¸ne, Ind., 4i6805, U.S.A. 5 iv 98
Bivd-Bavid is lo Ie congvaluIaled Jov vviling on an in-
levesling lopic, a veevaIualion oJ T¸Iov's concepl oJ ani-
nisn. UnJovlunaleI¸, in n¸ viev Iev poslnodevnisl
slance voIs lIe avlicIe oJ nucI oJ ils polenliaI vaIue nol
onI¸ in cIaviJ¸ing aninisn as an anaI¸licaI concepl Iul
aIso in evaIualing anlIvopoIogicaI conlviIulions lo an
undevslanding oJ aninislic lIougIl. AIlIougI caveJuI
lo avoid conpIele disnissaI oJ science, sIe appavenlI¸
vejecls ils uniqueness as a va¸ oJ Inoving.
Bivd-Bavid discusses lIe vovI oJ T¸Iov, BuvIIein,
and Levi-Slvauss as scienliJic ov nodevnisl Iul can oJJev
nolIing lo vepIace il Iul an anlioIjeclivisl, veIalionaI
epislenoIog¸ supposedI¸ pvacliced I¸ lIe Na¸aIa oJ
soulIevn India. SIe seens lo pvopose a vadicaI veIaliv-
isn in vIicI eacI gvoup's conceplions oJ pevsonIood
vepIace ov al Ieasl sland Ieside scienliJic allenpls lo
undevsland lIis diJJicuIl aspecl oJ cuIluve. Bivd-Bavid
uses T¸Iov's iglI-cenluv¸ vovI as an exanpIe oJ Iov
science can Iead veseavcIevs aslva¸, Iul no conlenpo-
vav¸ anlIvopoIogisl JoIIovs T¸Iov's pvogvan oJ cuIluvaI
evoIulion. Il Ias Ieen nade oIsoIele I¸ lIe vev¸
science Bivd-Bavid discounls. Moveovev, sIe is Jovced
lo adnil lIal as enpivicaI scienliJic veseavcI Ias in-
cveased InovIedge oJ lIe vovId's cuIluves lIe concepl
oJ aninisn ilseIJ Ias JaIIen inlo disuse anong elInogva-
SIe allenpls lo expIain aninislic lIinIing sinpI¸ I¸
pIacing il in lIe conlexl oJ lIe Na¸aIa vovIdviev, in
vIicI, nol suvpvisingI¸, il naIes conpIele sense. TIe
Na¸aIa ¨laII¨ vilI supevpevsons Iecause lIe¸ Iave an
aninislic vovIdviev. Bul lIe queslion oJ vIal Ieads
peopIe lo deveIop sucI a vovIdviev in lIe Jivsl pIace is
nol addvessed, and so no veaI expIanalion oJ aninisn is
oJJeved and no advance is nade ovev lIe vovI oJ HaIIo-
veII. Is Bivd-Bavid inpI¸ing lIal Na¸aIa aninisn is
soneIov naluvaI and lIeveJove nol in need oJ expIana-
SIe suggesls lIal veIalionaI epislenoIogies cIavaclev-
ize Iunling and galIeving peopIes evev¸vIeve Iul sIies
ava¸ Jvon JuvlIev expIovalion oJ lIis inlviguing pvopo-
silion-undouIledI¸ Iecause il suggesls lecIno-envi-
vonnenlaI causalion, a concepl Jvon cuIluvaI ecoIog¸
devived Jvon lIe scienliJic lvadilion vilIin anlIvopoI-
og¸. TIe inlevesling I¸polIesis lIal aninisn na¸ Ie
an exlension oJ Iunan cognilive sIiIIs lo nonIunan
¨pevsons¨ venains IavgeI¸ unexpIoved. NovIeve is il
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ I999
nade cIeav Iov anlIvopoIogisls couId use lIe nolion oJ
a veIalionaI epislenoIog¸ lo genevale nev ov Iellev
Accovding lo Bivd-Bavid, lIe Na¸aIa IolI do and do
nol dislinguisI lIe Iod¸ Jvon lIe spivil, lIe suIjeclive
Jvon lIe oIjeclive, envivonnenl Jvon IeIaviov, lIe
pI¸sicaI Jvon lIe ps¸cIicaI, viluaI Jvon pvaclice, and
Iunans Jvon lIe pI¸sicaI vovId as veII as aninaIs, Iul
lIese dislinclions and olIev nodevnisl assunplions
Iave Ieen unlIinIingI¸ inposed on lIen I¸ puvve¸ovs
oJ science. SoneIov lIe Na¸aIa do nol dicIolonize
IiIe nodevnisls Iul inslead viev appavenl opposiles as
nesled vilIin eacI olIev, pavl oJ an ovevaII ¨ve-ness¨
lIal al lIe sane line velains inlevnaI diJJevenlialion.
WIal can lIis nean? IJ, as slaled lIvougIoul lIe avlicIe,
lIe Na¸aIa concepl oJ devavu sevves pvinaviI¸ lo con-
ve¸ inJovnalion aIoul lIe sociaI and naluvaI vovIds,
Bivd-Bavid sIouId Ie aIIe lo speciJ¸ vIal inJovnalion
is Ieing conve¸ed. TIe inpIicalion is lIal IeIieJ in de-
vavu undevscoves Iunan Ieings' neaningJuI inlevaclion
vilI oIjecls, aninaIs, and olIev Iunans. I do nol see
Iov lIis anaI¸sis vepvesenls an advance ovev scienliJic
TIe Jouv slovies discussed I¸ Bivd-Bavid pvesenl pve-
cious IillIe elInogvapIic evidence Jov lIe inlevpvela-
lions oJ Na¸aIa pevsonIood, and lIe anaI¸sis denon-
slvales no cIeav inpvovenenl ovev lIe vovI oJ Levi-
Slvauss and BuvIIein. In addilion, sIe speaIs Jov lIe
Na¸aIa as iJ lIe¸ veve oJ one nind on lIis conpIex is-
sue. Boes no one anong lIen conlesl lIe accepled
viev? TIal Na¸aIa conceplions oJ lIe pevson ave diJJev-
enl Jvon Weslevn conceplions poses no lIveal lo scien-
liJic anlIvopoIog¸. In Jacl, lIe diJJevences ave lo Ie ex-
pecled. FuvlIevnove, scienliJic anlIvopoIog¸ need nol
Ie IIind lo sucI olIev pevspeclives. To idenliJ¸ uncon-
scious assunplions lIal oIslvucl anaI¸sis is lo pvaclice
good science and does nol jusliJ¸ lIe caII Jov ils equa-
lion vilI aIlevnalive va¸s oJ Inoving. WIal Bivd-Ba-
vid denonslvales in discussing eavIiev appvoacIes lo an-
inisn is lIe conlinuous suIvevsion oJ ovlIodox¸ lIal
is a pvinav¸ slvenglI oJ lIe scienliJic appvoacI lo lIe
pvoIIen oJ InovIedge. Aninisn is essenliaII¸ a veIi-
gious pevspeclive, and lIe allenpl Ieve lo IIuv lIe diJ-
Jevence Ielveen veIigious and scienliJic InovIedge is
nol onI¸ sIovlsigIled Iul dangevous. Is Bivd-Bavid viII-
ing lo adnil cvealionisl assevlions |ov olIev JailI-Iased
IeIieJs) on an equaI Jooling vilI scienliJic InovIedge?
Fev conlenpovav¸ anlIvopoIogisls vouId den¸ lIal
diJJeving cuIluvaI s¸slens pvoduce equaII¸ aulIenlic
va¸s oJ Ieing Iunan and nan¸ diJJevenl va¸s oJ Inov-
ing. TIis is a JundanenlaI insigIl deviving Jvon scien-
liJic anlIvopoIog¸ eavI¸ in lIis cenluv¸. TIe Na¸aIa, Jov
exanpIe, appeav lo Iave a conpIex epislenoIog¸ Iased
on inlevaclion and lvansaclion. Hovevev, il vouId Ie
JooIisI lo den¸ lIe povev oJ science lo pvoduce inlev-
suIjeclive InovIedge oJ IigI vaIidil¸ and veIiaIiIil¸ I¸
pIacing il on an equaI Jooling vilI aII olIev appvoacIes
lo lIe pvoIIen oJ InovIedge. Elic JovnuIalions do nol
invaIidale enic s¸slens oJ InovIedge Jov lIe sinpIe
veason lIal lIe¸ ave evaIualed I¸ dislincl cvilevia. Sci-
ence is a va¸ oJ puIIicI¸ pvesenling and evaIualing evi-
dence and conlains vilIin ils pvaclice a seIJ-covvecling
necIanisn lIal addvesses lIe cviliques IeveIed al il I¸
poslnodevnisls IiIe Bivd-Bavid. TIe speclacuIav suc-
cesses oJ scienliJic anlIvopoIog¸ in expanding ouv
InovIedge oJ lIe Iunan condilion, oJ ¨naIing one's
avaveness oJ one's envivonnenl and one's seIJ Jinev,
Ivoadev, deepev, [and] vicIev,¨ since lIe da¸s oJ T¸Iov
sIouId Ie acInovIedged IeJove Ieing vepIaced I¸ lIe
veIalivislic, anlioIjeclivisl appvoacI suggesled in lIis
HaiJa, IsvaeI. 27 VI 98
CvilicaI ov suppovlive, lIe connenlalovs Iave laIen a
cIose inlevesl in lIis papev's lIesis, and I appveciale
lIeiv vecipvocil¸ Jov lIe vovI I pul inlo vviling il. I sIaII
Jivsl addvess cviliques and nisundevslandings and lIen
lIe suggeslions oJJeved I¸ connenlalovs Jov puvsuing
lIe avgunenl JuvlIev.
¨Science¨ is needIessI¸ deJended I¸ Sandslvon. TIe
speclacuIav acIievenenls oJ science ave nol undev-
nined al aII. A gvaduale in econonics and nalIenal-
ics, I Iave n¸seIJ vovIed vilI ¨Iavd¨ dala in lIe oIjec-
livisl lvadilion and conlinue lo do so vIenevev il is
possiIIe and advanlageous. Yel, povevJuI as il is, lIe
scienliJic va¸ is neilIev good Jov slud¸ing evev¸lIing
nov lIe onI¸ va¸ oJ slud¸ing evev¸lIing. TIis-no
nove, no Iess-is lIe Ivoadesl Jvane vilIin vIicI lIe
avgunenl can Ie silualed. TIe papev does nol ¨vejecl
[science's] uniqueness as a va¸ oJ Inoving¨ Iul on lIe
conlvav¸ slvesses ils Ieing unique anong olIev va¸s,
vIicI naIes il nove-nol Iess-inlviguing Jov slud¸
|conpavalive, socioIogicaI, and IislovicaI) and pvecious
as a slud¸ looI. Fvesenling Na¸aIa aninislic pvaclices
as a va¸ oJ Inoving is nol lo ¨IIuv lIe diJJevence Ie-
lveen veIigious and scienliJic InovIedge¨ Iul valIev lo
vescue lIese pvaclices Jvon ouv pigeon-IoIe ¨veIigion,¨
in vIicI lIe¸ veve JovnevI¸ pIaced.
TIe anaI¸lic use oJ duaIisns and dicIolonies is
JovceJuII¸ deJended I¸ Viveivos de Caslvo. I avgue lIal
in aninislic pevceplions oJ lIe envivonnenl opposi-
lions ave oJ secondav¸ inpovlance. TIeveJove, in ovdev
lo inlevpvel, lo lv¸ lo gel cIosev lo, and lo naIe sense
oJ lIeiv pevspeclives, lIe Ianguage oJ duaIisns and di-
cIolonies is an oIslacIe. In no va¸ does lIis inpI¸
¨disIiIe Jov duaIisns and dicIolonies¨ in genevaI. In-
deed, lo viev lIis cuIluve vilIin a Ivoadev Jvane and
lv¸ lo conpave il vilI olIev cuIluves-vIicI is equaII¸
pavl oJ lIe anlIvopoIogisl's vovI-I n¸seIJ use dicIolo-
nies, incIuding lIe one Ielveen ¨a dicIolonous nod-
evnisl epislenoIog¸ and a non-dicIolonous veIalionaI
BIBB-BAVIB ¨Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
one.¨ TIe Iallev dicIolon¸ is nade vilIin ouv ovn
InovIedge-pvoducing pvaclices, vIicI Javov Inoving
lIvougI dicIolonies. Vivievos de Caslvo conJuses IocaI
and sludenls' pevspeclives, vIiIe a pIuvaIil¸ oJ pevspec-
lives and va¸s oJ Inoving denands Ieeping lIen sepa-
vale in nind and caveJuII¸ sIiJling Ielveen lIen lo suil
conlexl and puvpose.
SiniIavI¸, Viveivos de Caslvo vises lo lIe deJense oJ
¨nodevnisl undevslandings¨ againsl an inaginav¸ ¨en-
en¸.¨ I do nol ¨vejecl nodevnisl undevslandings¨ lo-
laII¸, onI¸ pvevious nodevnisl undevslandings oJ ani-
nislic pvaclices lIal invoIve inpIicil a pviovi
allviIulion oJ nodevnisl ideas oJ ¨naluve¨ and ¨pevson¨
lo aninislic peopIe. He avgues lIal vIiIe vejecling
¨nodevnisl undevslandings¨ I addvess ¨quinlessenliaII¸
nodevnisl¨ queslions oJ epislenoIog¸, Iul nodevnil¸
Ias no nonopoI¸ ovev sucI queslions. OlIev peopIes
concevn lIenseIves vilI va¸s oJ Inoving, aIIeil vilI
|and in) olIev va¸s. JoIn Beve¸ and AvlIuv BenlIe¸
|I949·5o) avgued lIal ¨Inovings ave aIva¸s and evev¸-
vIeve insepavaIIe Jvon lIe Inovns.¨ IJ ve accepl lIis,
ve cannol sepavale onloIog¸ Jvon epislenoIog¸ in an¸
successJuI va¸ al aII. Viveivos de Caslvo vigIlI¸ enpIa-
sizes lIal Jov Iunlev-galIevevs aninisn is an onloIog¸.
Yel il is nol onloIog¸ aIone, and, noveovev, ve cannol
descviIe il as jusl an onloIog¸. To descviIe, sa¸, Iinds oJ
devavu, vIeve lIe¸ Iive, and vIal lIe¸ ave IiIe vilIoul
descviIing Iov Na¸aIa gel lo Inov lIen is nol lo
descviIe lIeiv onloIog¸ Jveed Jvon nodevnisl con-
cevns vilI epislenoIog¸. BalIev, il is lo descviIe lIeiv
onloIog¸ cvossed vilI ouv Javoved epislenoIog¸, vIicI
cIains disengagenenl oJ Inovn, Inovev, and Inoving.
M¸ inlenlion vas lo pvesenl Na¸aIa aninislic pvac-
lices as a speciJic cuIluvaI expvession oJ a veIalionaI
epislenoIog¸, ilseIJ a genevaI Iunan expevience. IJ lIe
poinl is nol nade cIeavI¸ enougI, HovnIovg slvesses il
JuvlIev. BeIalionaI epislenoIog¸ Ias oJ couvse Ieen ex-
pvessed in nan¸ olIev speciJic cuIluvaI-IislovicaI va¸s,
nolaII¸ in scIoIavI¸ cviliques oJ Cavlesian oIjeclivisn
going IacI lvo cenluvies. In lIeiv connenls, Movvis
and HovnIovg eJJecliveI¸ give lIese lvadilions nove
space lIan I couId in a papev Jocusing on aninisn.
Hovevev, Jav Jvon ignoving lIese lvadilions, I couId nol
Iave vvillen lIe papev vilIoul lIen. To sone degvee,
nolIing Iul sensilivilies cuIlivaled I¸ lIese lvadilions
oJ lIougIl couId Iave enaIIed ne lo laIe a JvesI viev
oJ Na¸aIa aninislic pvaclices I¸ pvoviding an aIlevna-
live slavling poinl Jov lIe anaI¸sis. I Jound Mavlin Bu-
Iev's ¨I-TIou¨ concepl pavlicuIavI¸ insigIlJuI, a con-
cepl vIicI Iis sludenl Fviednan |I995·57) sunned up
in lIese vovds·
I-TIou is lIe pvinav¸ vovd oJ veIalion. Il is cIavac-
levised I¸ nuluaIil¸, diveclness, pvesenlness, inlen-
sil¸, and ineJJaIiIil¸. AIlIougI il is onI¸ vilIin lIis
veIalion lIal pevsonaIil¸ and lIe pevsonaI veaII¸ ex-
isl, lIe TIou oJ lIe I-TIou is nol Iiniled lo nen
Iul na¸ incIude aninaIs, lvees, oIjecls oJ naluve
and Ood.... I-TIou ... cul[s] acvoss lIe Iines oJ
ouv ovdinav¸ dislinclions lo Jocus ouv allenlion nol
upon individuaI oIjecls and lIeiv casuaI connec-
lions Iul upon lIe veIalions Ielveen lIings, lIe
dazviscIen |lIeve-in-Ielveen).
I slavled an eavI¸ dvaJl vilI lIis excevpl as lIe epigvapI
Iul Ialev decided lo give Na¸aIa vovds lIis Ionov.
I do nol sIave HovnIovg's viev lIal lo siluale lIe av-
gunenl vilIin lIe anlIvopoIogicaI discussion oJ ani-
nisn is pavocIiaI. TIe nission and povev oJ anlIvopoI-
og¸, in n¸ viev, Iie in expIoving ¨vide lvadilions¨ in
lIeiv nuIlipIe IocaI enIeddednesses, avoiding gvand ve-
iJicalions. TIis incIudes in lIis case, slud¸ing Iov an-
lIvopoIogisls as nodevnisl agenls lv¸ lo undevsland ani-
nisn. HovnIovg concIudes Jvon lIe avgunenl as il
slands lIal il addvesses ¨nolIing Iess lIan lIe pvoIIen
oJ nodevnil¸ ilseIJ,¨ vIicI suveI¸ speaIs Jov suJJicienl
TIe papev Jocuses on Na¸aIa vIiIe expanding ils Io-
vizons lo Iunlev-galIevevs |ov egaIilavian Iunlev-galIev-
evs, accovding lo BivaI). ¨Hunlev-galIevevs¨ as a cale-
gov¸ Ias ils vools in cuIluvaI ecoIog¸, vIeve il vas
oviginaII¸ concepluaIized in opposilion lo IovlicuIluv-
aIisls, paslovaIisls, and peasanls. Hovevev, lIe expves-
sion is used novada¸s in soJlev va¸s. We Inov lIal
lIeve ave no sociel¸-lIings spvead acvoss lIe vovId JaII-
ing nealI¸ inlo lIis ov lIal Iind oJ sociel¸, eacI vilI
ils ovn excIusive allviIules. TIeve ave divevse pavlicu-
Iav connunilies |Na¸aIa, !Kung, HiII Fandavan, Fin-
lupi, Hadza) anong vIicI ve elInogvapIevs, I¸ con-
paving ouv sludies, pevceive connon Jealuves. ¨Hunlev-
galIevevs¨ is a nane, ouv nane, I¸ vIicI Jov nuIlipIe
veasons |IislovicaI, ideoIogicaI, pIenonenoIogicaI) ve
veJev lo lIe pIuvaIil¸ oJ lIese speciJic gvoups. To sa¸
lIal ¨Iunlev-galIevevs novnaIize sIaving vilI JeIIov
pevsons¨ is nol lo sa¸ lIal sIaving is aIsenl in olIev so-
cielies, as Viveivos de Caslvo vouId Iave il, Iul onI¸
lIal lIe pIuvaIil¸ oJ speciJic connunilies ve Inov as
Iunlev-galIevevs novnaIizes sIaving.
EnougI oJ lIe lIeovelicaI and elInogvapIic selling oJ
lIe avgunenl: lIe avgunenl ilseIJ is lvoJoId, a poinl
Iosl on sone connenlalovs. BeIalionaI epislenoIog¸
enjo¸s aulIovil¸ in Na¸aIa cuIluve. ConcuvvenlI¸ |as
IngoId cIeavI¸ suns il up), ¨vilIin lIe conlexl oJ nod-
evn slale and ils poIilicaI, econonic, and educalionaI in-
slilulions, veIalionaI va¸s oJ Inoving Iave Iosl nucI
oJ lIeiv aulIovil¸. Bul lIe¸ conlinue lo opevale none-
lIeIess and venain deepI¸ enIedded in lIe expevience
oJ evev¸da¸ IiJe.¨ HovnIovg sees a conlvadiclion vIeve
lIeve is none |Ielveen lIe concIuding assunplion lIal
lIe nodevnisl pvojecl eslvanged ilseIJ Jvon lIe len-
denc¸ lo aninale lIings and lIe eavIiev oIsevvalion lIal
ve do aninale, Jov exanpIe, conpulevs and cavs). TIe
issue is one oJ aulIovil¸-vIelIev aulIovil¸ is given lo
veIalionaI va¸s oJ Inoving |Iov, vIeve, vIen, Iov
nucI, I¸ vIon, elc.) in pavlicuIav cuIluves/lines/
pIaces. TIe papev suggesls lIal lIese va¸s vanI vev¸
IigI in cevlain Iunlev-galIevevs' cuIluves, vIeve lIe¸
conslilule lIe nainslvean dogna, I¸ing al lIe cove-
CUBBENT ANTHBOFOLOOY VoIune 40, SuppIenenl, FeIvuav¸ 1999
junclion oJ veIigious, econonic, and sociaI IiJe. TIis
cannol Ie said Jov nodevn socielies, aIlIougI peopIe in
lIen do aninale. Al lIe sane line, Iunlev-galIevevs
ave nol exolicized I¸ lIis avgunenl, vIicI valIev dvavs
a conpIex pallevn oJ connon Jealuves and diJJevences
Ielveen lIen and us.
Connecled vilI lIe avgunenl lIal Na¸aIa give au-
lIovil¸ lo veIalionaI va¸s oJ Inoving, anolIev Ias Ieen
nade concevning ¨olIevness.¨ I couId nol agvee nove
vilI Viveivos de Caslvo's poinl lIal ¨olIevs ave 'olIev'
pveciseI¸ Iecause lIe¸ Iave olIev 'olIevs.'
I lIinI Ie is unviIIing lo puvsue lIe poinl Jav enougI
and accepl lIe Na¸aIa ¨olIev¨ Jov an olIev ¨olIev,¨
pevIaps Iecause, Iiniled I¸ space, I did nol suJJicienlI¸
deveIop lIe poinl. AnlIvopoIogisls usuaII¸ concevn
lIenseIves vilI ¨olIev¨ as diJJevenl and sepavale and
in sone cases lo deJine ¨Us¨ as ¨nol TIen.¨ Na¸aIa
give aulIovil¸ lo anolIev ¨olIev,¨ an ¨olIev¨ aIso
deepI¸ enIedded in ouv expevience oJ evev¸da¸ IiJe
|lIougI enjo¸ing IillIe aulIovil¸), an ¨olIev¨ as in
¨eacI olIev¨ and ¨lIis Iand, and lIe olIev¨-a pavl oJ
a paiv, exisling Ieside, in pvoxinil¸, in inlevaclion, and
in inlevexcIange vilI one. ¨OlIev¨ is in lIe Jivsl case
a nenlaI conslvucl, an oIjecl oJ veJIeclion, and in lIe
second case a JeIIov-nenIev vilI vIon one Iives. ¨To
olIev¨ is in lIe Jivsl case lo conslvucl soneone as so-
ciaII¸ sepavale, sonelIing eIse, and in lIe second case
lo dvav Iin ov Iev inlo nuluaIil¸. TIe Na¸aIa's pvinci-
paI va¸ oJ ¨olIeving¨ naIes lIe Jovnev Iind oJ ¨olIev¨
scavce in lIeiv cuIluve. Ficcacio conslilule lIe nain ex-
ceplion I can lIinI oJ. TIese ave lIe souIs oJ peopIe vIo
died aIone in lIe Jovesl I¸ accidenl and Iave nol ¸el
Ieen IeIped I¸ viluaI lo coaIesce vilI olIevs |pvedeces-
sovs, anceslovs, and devavu). Il is IeIieved lIal lIe¸
voan lIe Jovesl and ave dangevous. In lIe pandaIu lIe¸
ave pIa¸ed I¸ lvo naIe aclovs, dvessed up gvolesqueI¸
as naIe and JenaIe, vIo in lIeiv acls vevevse novnaI
sociaIizing-gvaIIing Jood Jvon eacI olIev, cIavging
I¸slandevs vilI slicIs, elc., lo lIe deIigIl and IaugIlev
oJ lIe speclalovs. TIe conlvasl Ielveen sucI an ¨olIev¨
and lIe devavu-olIev, vIo is dvavn inlo convevsalions
and sIaving, is leIIing.
TIe use oJ lIe ¨dividuaI¨ nolion allvacled vavious
connenls. Inlevesling is Fa'Isson's on lIe JundanenlaI
cIange oJ lIe levn ¨individuaI¨ Jvon lIe MiddIe Ages
|indivisiIII Jvon lIe vovId) lo lIe pvesenl |indivisiIIe
pavl oJ a divisiIIe vovId). Ha4 lIe Jovnev Ieen lIe cuv-
venl neaning, lIeve vouId Iave Ieen no need lo inlvo-
duce lIe nolion oJ lIe ¨dividuaI,¨ vIicI I use-as, I Ie-
Iieve, Mavvioll and Inden and SlvalIevn did-sinpI¸ lo
veduce lIe IaIov oJ gelling lo undevsland anolIev sense
oJ pevson in lIe sIadov oJ lIe conlenpovav¸ ¨individ-
uaI.¨ Movvis nisveads lIe avgunenl Jov a cIain oJ ¨dis-
covev¸¨ oJ a pIenonenoIogicaI ¨dividuaI¨ vIen il is an
inquiv¸ inlo lIe allenlion slvucluve lIal causes a Na¸-
aIa lo picI up lIis and nol anolIev aspecl oJ lIe pIe-
nonenoIogicaI Iunan Ieing. OJ couvse, as Movvis sa¸s,
Iunan Ieings ave IolI veIalionaI and ¨acluaI enlilies ov
unilies¨: lIeve is no veJuling lIis ov lIal il Ias Iong Ieen
eslaIIisIed. |Hunan Ieings ave aIso nan¸ olIev lIings.)
TIe queslion is vIal a peopIe Iecones allenlive lo and
eIaIovales on and lIvougI vIal cuIluvaI pvaclices.
We nusl nol nuddIe |i) genevaI cIains |¨lIis is Iov
Iunan Ieings ave¨), cIains vIicI veinJovce ov cIange
ouv slvucluve oJ allenlion, |2) elInogvapIic cIains
|¨lIis is Iov Jov lIe 7-peopIe Iunan Ieings ave¨),
cIains aIoul olIevs' slvucluves oJ allenlion, and |3) ve-
JIexive cIains |¨lIis is Iov Iunan Ieings ave Jov us,
onI¸ I¸ Inoving and conpensaling Jov vIicI can ve
slavl pevceiving vIal lIe¸ ave Jov lIe 7-peopIe¨), cIains
vIicI expose aIlevnalive vievs vilIoul pvedicaling lIe
lvulI oJ one and lIe JaIsil¸ oJ lIe olIev. BadcIiJJe-
Bvovn's slalenenl |ciled I¸ Movvis as an exanpIe oJ
eavI¸ concevn vilI lIe ¨dividuaI¨) is oJ lIe Jivsl Iind,
avguing lIal Iunan Ieings ave conslilulive oJ veIalion-
sIips lo vIicI ve anlIvopoIogisls sIouId Ie allenlive.
|Nole, Iovevev, lIal a ¨veIalionsIip,¨ veiJied and con-
slvucled as an enlil¸ ilseIJ, is diJJevenl Jvon ¨veIal-
edness,¨ neaning lvo Ieings/lIings nuluaII¸ vespon-
sive lo eacI olIev.) IngoId |e.g., i996) inleveslingI¸
naIes aII lIvee cIains logelIev in exposing lIe nod-
evnisls' allenlion slvucluve and lIal oJ lIe Iunlev-galI-
evevs and avguing lIal ve ouvseIves sIouId sIiJl lo lIe
Iallev, vIicI is Iov Iunan Ieings veaII¸ ave. Mavvioll
and Inden, SlvalIevn, and I naIe cIains oJ lIe lIivd
Iind. Assuning pvedoninanl conlenpovav¸ Weslevn
allenliveness lo Iunans as individuaIislic individuaIs
|¨Iounded I¸ lIe sIin¨), ve depicl olIev allenlion
slvucluves |Indian, MeIanesian, and Iunlev-galIevevs')
I¸ lIe conpensalov¸ use oJ lIe ¨dividuaI¨ nolion. We
sIov diJJevenl dividuaIs-lIis is nol a JauIl, as Viveivos
de Caslvo inlinales, Iul pveciseI¸ lIe oIjecl-eacI as-
socialed vilI a diJJevenl l¸pe oJ sociaI veIalions· lIe
MeIanesians sepavaling-vIiIe-connecling and lIe Na¸-
aIa aIsovIing, as Viveivos de Caslvo niceI¸ conlvasls
lIen. In Iavnon¸ vilI HovnIovg's connenl lIal oI-
jeclivisl epislenoIog¸ is ilseIJ pevJovnalive al anolIev
IogicaI IeveI, il na¸ Ie said lIal in a sense lIe Weslevn
¨individuaI¨ is anolIev, JouvlI, ¨dividuaI¨ associaled
vilI sociaI veIalions cenleved on aIienalion.
Counlevinluilive lo ouv ovn pevceplion, lIe avgu-
nenl |nealI¸ sunned up I¸ Viveivos de Caslvo) lIal
¨devavu ave pevsons insoJav as lIe¸ engage in veIalion-
sIips vilI peopIe, valIev lIan lIe olIev va¸ avound,¨
Ias Ieen veII accepled, Iul occasionaI sIips IacI inlo
ouv inluilions Iave genevaled unnecessav¸ concevns.
Fov exanpIe, BivaI Ias sevevaI lines gol lIe avgunenl
vevevsed |e.g., ¨vIen naluvaI Iinds ov naluvaI Jovces ave
'nade aIive' as pevsons, peopIe veIale lo lIen,¨ ov
¨slones ave given IiJe and pevsoniJied as, vIen, and Ie-
cause oJ lIe desive lo sociaIize vilI lIen¨), and il is
lIis vevevsaI lIal Ias genevaled Iev dissalisJaclion vilI
lIe va¸ I vead Kenned¸'s vovI. SiniIavI¸, HovnIovg Jov-
gels lIis poinl vIen Ie discusses JelisIisn vevsus ani-
nisn. TIe dislinclion Ie suggesls Ielveen lIe anina-
lion oJ Iiving lIings |aninisn) and lIal oJ non-Iiving
lIings |JelisIisn) is, aII ovev again, a dislinclion Ie-
lveen lIings in levns oJ vIal eacI inIevenlI¸ is valIev
lIan in levns oJ veIalednesses |ov dazviscIen). FelisI-
isn, valIev, invoIves conslvucling concepls and veIa-
BIBB -BAVIB Aninisn¨ Bevisiled
lions as lIings, lIen |vilI anlIvoponovpIisn) allviIul-
ing Iunan quaIilies lo lIen, lIen engaging vilI lIen
as vilI pevsons. Aninisn |as I concepluaIize il)
voIves vesponsiveI¸ engaging vilI Ieings/lIings, lIen
pevceiving lIen as pevsons.
SevevaI elInogvapIic quevies Iave Ieen vaised I¸ Vi-
veivos de Caslvo, in suppovl oJ Iis genevaI cvilique, oJ
vIicI Jov IacI oJ space I vespond lo onI¸ lvo. He veads
inlo Na¸aIa cuIluve an opposilion Ie sees as unavoid-
aIIe Ielveen ¨supevpevsons¨ and Iunan pevsons, vIiIe
Na¸aIa, I suggesl, pvinaviI¸ pevceive IolI as pevsons
and lIe supevpevson as a pevson-pIus, a pevson IiIe
lIe Iunan Iul vilI sonelIing added. He sees a con-
lvadiclion Ielveen lIe descviplion oJ sone devavu as
¨devavu in genevaI¨ and lIe avgunenl Jov lIeiv pav-
licuIavislic, evenl-devived naluve, vIicI na¸ Ie due lo
lIe avIvavdness oJ n¸ expvession ¨devavu in genevaI.¨
Appeavances in lIe pandaIu ave aIva¸s pavlicuIav· eacI
is enacled I¸ a pavlicuIav pevJovnev al a pavlicuIav
line/pIace. As lIe¸ cone and engage vilI Na¸aIa
in lIe pandaIu, lIe¸ ave devavu, lIougI in sone cases
|lIe ones I caII ¨devavu in genevaI¨) lIe pavlicuIav ap-
peavances ave nol innedialeI¸ vecognized as lIis ov
lIal pavlicuIav devavu I¸ IaIiluaI va¸s oJ engaging
vilI Na¸aIa |e.g., gesluves and sa¸ings) venenIeved
Jvon pvevious engagenenls. BalIev, I¸ engaging vilI
lIen, Na¸aIa gvaduaII¸ Ieavn lIeiv va¸s oJ engagenenl
and Ieavn lo Ieavn aIoul lIe olIev vilIin lIe engage-
Lel ne nove nov lo suggeslions Jov puvsuing lIe av-
gunenl JuvlIev· I agvee vilI BivaI lIal lIe lIesis needs
lo Ie elInogvapIicaII¸ expanded vilI Na¸aIa naleviaI
and, ideaII¸, naleviaI pvovided I¸ olIev sludenls sucI
as BivaI IevseIJ. I agvee vilI F'aIsson lIal il vouId Ie
inlevesling lo conpave Iunlev-galIevevs' aninisn vilI
sone cuvvenl envivonnenlaI lIougIl. ScIooIs sucI as
deep ecoIog¸, sociaI ecoIog¸, and eco-Jeninisn envis-
age an aII-enconpassing novaI connunil¸ conslilulive
oJ Iunans and nonIunans. Sone vadicaI envivonnen-
laIisls even caII Jov a pavadignalic sIiJl in nol onI¸ ouv
viev oJ naluve Iul ouv viev oJ lIe seIJ, Jov exanpIe,
Jvon ¨ego¨ lo ¨spivil,¨ undevslood as a seIJ nol spIil Iul
diJJevenlialed Jvon olIevs vilIin veIalionsIips |KovaI
I988·esp. 300-305).
TIe issue oJ nodevnil¸'s enevgence vas inlvoduced
IvieJI¸ pveciseI¸ in ovdev lo indicale lIal, Jav Jvon Ieing
pavocIiaI, a discussion oJ aninisn Ias Jav-veacIing in-
pIicalions. BeseavcI on sIiJls occuvving duving lIe Be-
naissance peviod, vouId, as FaiIsson and HonIovg sug-
gesl, Ie a naluvaI palI Jov JuvlIev vovI. FevIaps, as
HovnIovg I¸polIesizes, oIjeclivisn enevged and ex-
panded in conneclion vilI sociaI veIalions oJ aIien-
alion. Hovevev, seeds oJ lIis seen lo pve-appeav in lIe
peviod's pavlicuIav Ivand oJ aninisn. Naluve genevaII¸
and eavlI pavlicuIavI¸ veve pevsoniJied as a vonan and,
JuvlIevnove, a nolIev, Iul ¨nolIev¨ vas used as a
s¸nIoI, dissocialed Jvon inlevaclive, d¸nanic sociaI ve-
IalionsIips. ¨MolIev¨ vas associaled vilI allviIules
sucI as giving IiJe and nuvluving, vIicI lIenseIves
veve lIougIl oJ in a sociaI and IislovicaI vacuun, as
consislenl quaIilies lvanscending line, space, and lIe
d¸nanics oJ acluaI veIalionsIips. In lIe Na¸aIa case,
IiIIs veve pevsoniJied as gvandpavenls. Bul ¨gvandpav-
enls¨ veve Ieings one sociaII¸ inlevacled vilI, avguing,
negolialing, elc. In lIe Jivsl case, ¨nolIev¨ vas used as
a nelapIov, and lIe aninislic pvojecl invoIved ¨a s¸s-
len oJ covvespondences¨ |BuvIe I972·I72), pavaIIeIs Ie-
lveen Iunans and nonIunans, and lIeveJove a IeigIl-
ened avaveness oJ lIeiv sepavalion. In lIe second case,
¨gvandpavenl¨ vas used as a s¸necdocIe: lIe aninislic
pvojecl invoIved-and IeigIlened-inlevconnecledness
Ielveen Iunans and lIeiv envivonnenl.
Lasl Iul nol Ieasl is lIe issue oJ aninisn's univevsaI-
il¸· IngoId convinces ne lIal lIeovies oJ lIe evoIulion
oJ sociaI inleIIigence ave inadequale Jov expIoving lIis
queslion. I veIcone Iis lIeov¸ as one lo vovI vilI Juv-
lIev· ¨Hunan Ieings evev¸vIeve pevceive lIeiv envi-
vonnenl in lIe vesponsive node, nol Iecause oJ innale
cognilive pvedisposilion Iul Iecause lo pevceive al aII
lIe¸ nusl aIvead¸ Ie silualed in a vovId and connilled
lo lIe veIalionsIips lIis enlaiIs.¨
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