Environmental Impact Assessment


Mt. Baker Highway Culvert Replacement
Addressing WSDOT-Identified Chronic Environmental Deficiencies

Prepared by

Krista Chavez Nate Lundgren Erin Smart Jake Sullivan

This report represents a class project that was carried out by the students of Western Washington University – Huxley College. It has not been undertaken at the request of any persons representing local government or private individuals. Nor does it necessarily represent the opinion or position of individuals from government or the private sector.

Table of Contents
DEAR CONCERNED CITIZEN LETTER…………………………………………….....3 FACT SHEET……………………………………………………………………………..4 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………...6 PROJECT AREA SITE MAP…………………………………………………………..…7 TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF PROJECT AREA…………………………………………....8 PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES…………………………………………9 EROSION MITIGATION……………………………………………………………….10 ENVIRONMENTAL MATRIX…………………………………………………………13 PLANS AND PROFILES…………………………………………………………..……14 SCOPING PROCESS……………………………………………………………………19 NATURAL ENVIRONMENT………………………………………………………..…20 Earth……………………………………………………………………………...20 Air……………………………………………………………………………..…22 Water…………………………………………………………………………..…23 Plants…………………………………………………………………………..…25 Animals………………………………………………………………………..…26 Environmental Health……………………………………………………………29 BUILT ENVIRONMENT………………………………………………………….……31 Aesthetics……………………………………………………………………...…31 Public Services and Utilities……………………………………………………..32 Transportation……………………………………………………………………33 LIST OF TECHNICAL TERMS…………………………………………………...……34 APPENDIX A: Fauna species list…………..………………………………………...…36 APPENDIX B: Flora species list………………………………………………………...37 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………..…38


March 5, 2008 ESCI 436 Mt. Baker Culvert Replacement Team Huxley College of the Environment Concerned Citizens Whatcom County, Washington Dear Concerned Citizen, The following Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was developed by students of Huxley College of the Environment at Western Washington University. Although official State studies were used in compiling the information, by no means is this an official document. An EIA is meant to emulate an Environmental Impact Statement; a document of research required by the state Environmental Policy Act to assess the impacts of a proposed measure. This EIA addresses the current work being done by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) in an effort to replace stream culverts on Mt. Baker Highway in Whatcom County, Washington. Our study focuses specifically on the present and proposed culverts over Bruce and Baptist Creek. We attempted to address all potential concerns regarding the public and environmental habitat fully. Included in this EIA are discussions on the proposed actions of WSDOT and possible alternatives that can improve upon both existing conditions and future environmental and social impacts. Our hope is that this document might clarify and expand upon the work being done by the WSDOT.


The Mt. Baker Highway Culvert Replacement Team Krista Chavez Nate Lundgren


Erin Smart Jake Sullivan

Fact Sheet
Project Name Mt. Baker Highway Culvert Replacement: Addressing WSDOT-identified Chronic Environmental Deficiencies Project Description This project includes road safety improvements, culvert replacement, and stream realignment at two separate locations on SR 542 in Whatcom County. Description of Location Location 1 includes Bruce Creek located 2.25 miles east of Maple Falls and extends from mile post (MP) 27.90 to MP 28.10. Location 2 includes Baptist Creek and located 3.00 miles east of Maple Falls and extends from MP 28.66 to MP 28.73. Proposer Washington State Department of Transportation – Northwest Region Lead Agency ESCI 436 Environmental Impact Assessment students of Huxley College at Western Washington University Permits Hydraulic Project Approval NPDES General Construction Permit Section 404 Permit Section 401 Water Quality Certification Clearing Permit Critical Areas Review 4 WA Dept. of Fish & Wildlife WA Dept. of Ecology US Army Corps of Engineers WA Dept. of Ecology Whatcom County Whatcom County

Contributors Krista Chavez: earth, aesthetics, mitigation efforts Nate Lundgren: water, animals, introduction Erin Smart: environmental health, air, traffic, photos, maps, editor Jake Sullivan: plants, public services and utilities

Public Hearing Held Community Food Co-op Community Building – 1220 N. Forest March 10, 2008 at 2:00 pm Special Thanks to Alan Soicher, contact person Maria Mayrhofer, Environmental Coordinator III, NWR Environmental Program WSDOT Leo Bodensteiner


Bruce Creek and Baptist Creek are small tributary streams to the North Fork of the Nooksack River in Whatcom County. Both of the creeks run underneath SR 542, a well used roadway with year-round access to recreation opportunities at the Mt. Baker Ski area and the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. The creeks are two of many that have been redirected through culverts since the road was built. At the time of construction, there were few environmental concerns regarding the diversion and manipulation of streams and rivers. With the science available today it is clear that there are serious impacts on the stream ecology and morphology due to such activities and these impacts were not considered when the culverts were put in place. Of particular importance today in Washington is the restoration of native salmon populations which includes reestablishment of the species to their historical range. Removal of migration barriers such as the culverts on Bruce Creek and Baptist Creek that restrict the movement of salmonids is part of the strategy to improve the overall health of salmon stocks in Washington. In 1991 Washington State Department of Transportation created the Fish Passage Barrier Removal Program with the goal of identifying and removing fish passage barriers throughout the state (WSDOT 2008a). The Baptist Creek culvert has been identified as such a barrier and is scheduled for replacement under the program. In 2004 another Department of Transportation program named the Chronic Environmental Deficiencies program was established. The purpose is to identify roadway structures along state highways where frequent maintenance of the structure has had harmful effects on fish habitat (WSDOT 2008b). Bruce Creek falls under this program as it requires frequent dredging to maintain proper flow through the culvert. Replacing these two culverts will improve the ecosystem health and restore proper morphological functions of the creeks and the Nooksack River watershed as a whole.


Project Area Site Map



Proposed Action and Alternatives
Proposed Action Bruce Creek The project will remove the existing culvert and replace it with a box culvert. The new box culvert will be placed in the historical alignment of Bruce Creek (80 feet west of existing culvert), before the current culvert was put in place. The box culvert that is to be put in place is approximately 65 feet in length and will result in 450 feet of stream being realigned. The realignment will result in an increased grade, allowing for more substrate to pass downstream without obstruction. The current culvert is at too low of a grade, and is placed below the existing creek grade. Repeated dredging is required to remove the bed load that accumulates from the bottleneck created by this culvert. The replacement has the potential to allow fish to access the habitat above SR 542 which is currently inaccessible. SR 542 will be realigned for approximately 900 feet to accommodate the new culvert. A six-foot shoulder on the westbound side and a ten-foot shoulder on the eastbound side will be constructed to upgrade the area for pedestrian use. Because 17,830 square feet of impervious surfaces are to be created from this project storm water treatment will be included. Best management practices for storm water treatment include biofiltration swales, ecology embankments and infiltration trenches, all of which will be used to treat the runoff from these impervious surfaces. Baptist Creek The culvert replacement on Baptist Creek will remove the existing concrete pipe and replace it with a box culvert. The current culvert is not a barrier to fish passage, but the box culvert that is to be put in its place will increase the amount of sediment allowed to pass, and will mitigate the increased peak flows created by the current 18 inch diameter pipe. One tributary of Baptist Creek runs along SR542 for about 250 feet, this section lacks riparian vegetation and receives untreated runoff from SR542. This section of stream is to be moved 40 feet to the north, within the private property of the Baptist Camp. No impervious surface is to be added during this project because the new culvert is in the same place as the existing one, and no road realignment will be necessary. Alternatives Alternative A: Bridge Alternative A would consist of replacing the culverts on Bruce Creek and Baptist Creek with bridges. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife prefers this approach as bridges generally have less of a detrimental effect on fish and the stream ecology in general. A bridge becomes a more reasonable option for wider streams or streams of a steeper gradient. Though a bridge is generally less deleterious for a given stream or river than a culvert is, installation of a bridge is not without environmental impacts and mitigation measures would still need to be taken. Of particular concern is the possibility that after a culvert is removed the upstream portion of the channel may be vulnerable to


erosion. Sediment and debris that have accumulated in front of the culvert over time can become unstable and give way, necessitating some type of grade control (WDFW 2003). Alternative B: No Action Alternative B would allow Bruce and Baptist Creek to persist in their present state. Both creeks could potentially perform important ecosystem functions that are not taking place at this time. Concern over salmonid fish is a major consideration regarding the direction of this project. Many salmonid populations in Western Washington are in jeopardy and three species are listed as threatened. Both creeks have historically provided suitable habitat for certain species of salmon and trout but currently Bruce Creek is impassable for fish and Baptist Creek is only partially fish passable (Maria Mayrhofer, WSDOT, pers. comm. 2008). As well as allowing the creeks ecological capabilities to remain unrealized, no action would also require that time and money continue to be spent dredging sediment from the stream beds to prevent the culverts from clogging during rainstorms (WSDOT 2007).

Erosion Mitigation
The construction practices involved in culvert replacement and road realignment require invasive activity within fragile ecosystem boundaries. All activities in these areas will create temporary to long term habitat deficiencies. According to a study on Maryland construction runoff, construction sites with no erosion or sediment controls have an increase of over 1000 times the rate of erosion compared to natural conditions (WSDOT Training Manual, 2005). It is necessary to address practices which will allow for the mitigation of adverse erosive impacts caused by construction. Various Best Management Practices have already been cited for use by WSDOT. Currently, the project plans regarding the proposal for Bruce Creek involves the addition of over 17,000 square feet of impervious surface to the area. Any action involving the addition of more than 2,000 square feet of impervious surface is subject to creating a Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control Plan (TESC). A TESC consists of twelve elements which can be seen in Table 1 and are to be followed throughout the duration of construction action. The following are various cited mitigation measures and brief explanations for the proposed actions involved in the culvert replacements on Bruce and Baptist Creek. They do not represent a complete or official TESC, but is to be used as an aid in understanding the processes and carefully thought out plans to carry out the proposals. In an effort to curb impacts from the movement of machinery to and from the construction site, WSDOT will practice stabilizing construction entrances (WSDOT, 2007). Stabilized entrances generally require the use of stones to provide stability at the loading, and unloading location. The rocks reduce the amount of contact between the machinery and the soil faces which benefits the environment in two key areas. First, by reducing the amount of soil on the machinery as it leaves the work site decreases the amount of soil transplanted on the highway surface thus reducing the amount of potential 10

sedimentation into the nearby stream (WSDOT Training Manual, 2005). The second key benefit to using stones at the construction entry way is the increased surface area of the soil particles in the topsoil and increased permeability will improve drainage—decreasing potential for rutting and saturation of the immediate topsoil (Schaetzle, 2005). The next measure of erosion mitigation proposed is the use of rock check dams. These dams are utilized to reduce the velocity of water flows that become concentrated in drainage ditches (Salt Lake County, 1999). During construction, flows become increasingly full of sediment due to excavations and soil exposure. By reducing the velocity and creating small pools in the stream, these check dams enable the sediment to successfully settle behind the dam, thus removing it from the drainage flow before it enters into fragile species habitat. Figure1, taken from an erosion training manual of the WSDOT, shows the design of a rock check dam. The dams would be created out of washed gravel. Unwashed gravel would only add sediment into the flow upon contact with the stream (WSDOT Training Manual, 2005). WSDOT also cites the use of a temporary bypass system in combination with a rock check dam to ensure that none of the water from Bruce or Baptist Creek would be entering into the work site during construction (WSDOT, 2007). The use of silt fences to protect the surrounding wetlands is a common measure to mitigate erosion and is one of the proposed practices to be used during construction (WSDOT, 2007). These fences are created out of a geotextile fabric which are highly permeable for water movement, but stop the movement of sediment from passing beyond the barrier (Rhul, et al. AEX-304-97). Silt fences are also very effective in reducing the velocity of water flow which decreases the potential for scouring or other degradations in the wetland (WSDOT Training Manual, 2005). Protecting exposed soils is one of the most important mitigation measures to be utilized in any project. These soils are completely unshielded to the erosive potential of rainfall, compaction, incoming surface runoff, and soil saturation. The placement of mulch or silt blankets is commonly used to negate harsh effects caused by the lack of cover and absence of the stability derived from roots within the soil. The Best Management Practice (BMP) to address the issue of exposed soils is to be a plastic blanket covering (WSDOT, 2007). The benefits from these coverings are two-fold. Placing a nonpermeable layer over the bare soils will prevent rainfall from falling and eroding away layers of the topsoil into the runoff. These coverings also channel the water into a different area with the use of berms so that the soil does not become saturated and prone to landslide events. The BMP did not clearly cite whether or not the plastic covering would a clear or a dark, opaque color. Due to the context to which this material will be placed, the benefits of a clear covering vastly outweigh the opaque covering. Following construction the area surrounding Bruce and Baptist Creeks will be replanted with native vegetation. Placing a clear covering onto the soil will not only allow the transfer of light into the covering, but provides a greenhouse-like effect which is conducive to the growth of seedlings (WSDOT Training Manual, 2005). Any seeds or plants currently beneath the soils during


construction will profit from the presence of this covering as it could increase growth rates and ultimately the stability of the soil. The BMP for Habitat Protection gives a timeline for the amount of time an area of soil can be exposed during wet and dry seasons. Construction done during the months of October to June is allowed only two days of exposure before soil is subject to an increased risk of erosion. During the dryer months, July through September, the soils may remain exposed for up to seven days (WSDOT, 2005). However, the projected timeline for our project is slated for anytime between March and August, meaning a variable exposure time. To simplify mitigation processes and reduce overall erosion we suggest a blanket timeframe of a two-day exposure limit during the duration of construction. Finally, the BMP have cited the use of straw mulch or wattles for stormwater filtration (WSDOT 2007). According to the Erosion Training Manual, wattles, which consist of various plant materials, can reduce erosion potentials by a factor of four (WSDOT Training Manual, 2007). As the water flows across the landscape it is intercepted by either a blanket of straw or a structure composed of straw which forces the water to flow through the organic material. As it flows though the suspended sediment is filtered out of the water, which reduces the amount of sediment which could potentially degrade a species habitat. The practice of using straw, specifically in the wattle formation, slows the velocity of water by breaking the slope into smaller subsections.
Table 1 Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control Plan Elements
WSDOT Training Manual, 2005

Element Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Description Mark Clearing Limits Establish Construction Access Control Flow Rates Install Sediment Controls Stabilize Soil Protect Slopes Protect Drain Inlets Stabilize Channels and Outlets Control Pollutants Control Dewatering Maintain Best Management Practices Manage the Project


Figure 1 Diagrams the profile and cross section of a rock check dam

(Used WSDOT Training Manual, 2005 as reference)

Environmental Matrix
Proposed Action
Habitat Quality Ground Water Water Quality Soil Stability Soil Movement Aesthetics Light Air Environmental Health Plants Fish Species Listed Mammals/Birds +Improved Maintained Maintained* Maintained* +Improved +Improved Maintained Maintained* Maintained* +Improved* +Improved* Maintained

Alternative A
+Improved Maintained Maintained* Maintained* +Improved +Improved Maintained Maintained* Maintained* +Improved* +Improved* Maintained

Alternative B
Maintained Maintained Maintained Maintained -Degraded -Degraded Maintained Maintained Maintained -Degraded -Degraded Maintained

* = temporarily degraded


Baptist Camp Creek and Bruce Creek Locations, Plans and Profiles
Bruce Creek

Baptist Creek






Scoping Process
Elements of the Environment
A) Natural Environment i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Earth Air Water Plants Animals and Their Habitat Environmental Health

B) Built Environment i) Aesthetics a) Aesthetics b) Light and Glare c) Historic and Cultural Preservation ii) iii) Public Services and Utilities Transportation


A) Natural Environment

i) EARTH Geology The area surrounding the Bruce Creek culvert and Baptist Creek culvert is composed of unconsolidated sediments, specifically quaternary alluvium and Pleistocene continental Drift (Schuster, 2005). The quaternary alluvium was deposited by streams or rivers that once passed through the area during the Pliocene epoch. Their presence along the Nooksack riparian area suggests that the ancient streams developed the river bed that the current stream travels though. The Pleistocene continental drift is from the last major advance and retreat of the Fraser glacier, which ended about 10,000 years ago (Easterbrook,1973). Soils The soil type surrounding the present Bruce Creek culvert is composed mainly of Winston Loam while the soil around the creek as it enters into the Nooksack is Snoqualmie gravelly loamy sand. Baptist Creek is composed of three small channels. The soil surrounding westernmost channel, which runs through the former Baptist Bible Camp, is Kline gravelly sandy loam. The soil surrounding the middle and easternmost channel and the culvert is Barneston very gravelly loam (USDA, 1992). Winston Loam is known for being very deep and well-drained, as with most loams. It is composed of volcanic ash and loess on top of glacial outwash. The hazard for water erosion in this soil is slight due to the moderate water capacity and moderate to rapid permeability. The Snoqualmie gravelly loamy sand that surrounds the Nooksack and immediate riparian area is characterized by its excessively drained soils. The potential for water erosion is characterized as severe due to slow runoff and the flooding and 20

channeling of the nearby Nooksack River. The water table is 3 to 5 feet in depth from November to April (USDA, 1992). Kline gravelly sandy loam is formed on alluvial fans and is characterized by mixed alluvium. This soil is moderately well-drained and is very deep. The upper 11inches are composed of extremely gravelly loamy sand. The lower 60 inches are composed of a very gravelly loamy sand and very gravelly sand. The large soil particle size characterized by the soils in both of these layers is very conducive to drainage due to decreased surface area and largely interconnectedness of interstitial pores. The high drainage abilities of the soil and low clay content means there is also a very low water capacity. As with the Snoqualmie soil, the water table for the Kline soil is placed at a depth of about 3 to 5 feet during January to March. The potential for water erosion is only slight because most of the soil is only subject to occasional and brief floods (USDA, 1992). Barneston very gravelly loam is formed in a mixture of loess and volcanic ash over glacial outwash typically found on outwash terraces or the slopes between the terraces. The soil is characterized by excessive-drainage capabilities. Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper portion, which is composed of very gravelly loam. The lower portion has very rapid permeability due to the composition of extremely gravelly sand (USDA, 1992). Sand is known for its excellent drainage capabilities due to the high porosity and permeability. Topography The slopes mapped around the Bruce Creek culvert are generally low, ranging from 0 to 3 percent. The slopes around Baptist Creek are up to 15 percent (WSDOT, 2007). The low gradient classifies these slopes as Class 1, indicating that they are stable under most natural conditions. Further North from Mt. Baker Highway the topography of the land is classified as Class 3, meaning the ground is marginally stable, but has the potential to slide along the inclined bedding. The South bank of the Nooksack, in the immediate vicinity of these two culverts, is a designated Class 4 area. Class 4 slopes are prone to landslides and are composed of slopes which have previously failed (Easterbrook, 1973). ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS The steep slopes on the South bank of the Nooksack suggests that any work done in the area involving tributary stream flow in the area could possibly have an affect on the erosive potential of the area in the riparian zone. However, the low stream flows for both of these creeks will not be enough input to create a hazard for a landslide. According to the USDA soil survey of the area, the soils in the immediate vicinity of the culvert replacement have a slight potential for erosion (USDA, 1992). Road construction is a very invasive process. Any soils exposed by a project for an extended period of time could be subject to erosive forces by rainfall action, which would increase the surface runoff. Heavy machinery could also increase this risk by compacting the soil beneath them. The removal of any vegetation during construction would also an immediate destabilizing effect due to the soil holding capacity of the plan roots. A reduction in vegetation will also influence the water capacity of the soil and could result in water erosion.


Many construction practices involving road alterations require the use of fill material. In the event of intense seismic activity, fill material can liquefy and cause a landslide event or a road failure. Road construction also commonly results in increased impervious surfaces. Impervious surfaces cause extreme stream-loading and surface runoff during storm events and could cause water erosion on the soils upslope of the Nooksack. 1) Proposed action The plans to realign Bruce Creek and Mt. Baker Highway will create obvious improvements compared to the current conditions. The size of the culvert and grade of the stream is sufficient to allow sediment transport downstream without creating a barrier to migrating fish species. However, rechanneling the creek greatly increases the potential for an erosive event. The plans to utilize the excavated material from the new stream bed as the fill for the old stream bed will ensure that no new, adverse infiltration effects happen 2) Alternative A: bridge This proposal is the best in terms of allowing the natural flow of alluvial sediments downstream. However, this project would also require more impervious surfaces and therefore more opportunities for runoff to erode the surrounding area. Building a bridge would also require more vegetation to be removed and could result in increased soil erosive potential. 3) Alternative B: no action Taking no action would cause the culvert areas to be continually filled with sediment and require scheduled dredging. The act of dredging could allow fine sediment to wash downstream and change the streambed properties. ii) AIR The site for this project is on a well traveled highway for commuters, workers, and recreationalists. The air on the highway has increased emissions due to this travel, but according to the EPA, Washington is at a ‘good’ level of principal pollutants, which are many fine particles. Construction projects occur often on SR 542, which add to these emissions. However, due to the remoteness of the site, the air quality is quite good, especially because of the mountains and river close by to increase air flow through the area. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed Action If the proposed action of the culverts were to occur, construction activities could temporarily increase dust particles due to ground disturbance and engine emission from construction equipment. However, there are no permanent air quality impacts anticipated as a result of this project. The contractor will be required to adhere to all applicable federal, state, and local air quality regulations. These regulations cover temporary construction conditions such as dust, smoke, and emissions.


2) Alternative A: bridge If a bridge were to be built, the construction activities could temporarily increase dust particles due to ground disturbance and engine emission from construction equipment. 3) Alternative B: no action If no action were to take place, the air quality would not be affected. iii) WATER Stream Characteristics Bruce Creek is an approximately 1.5 mile long, second order stream within the Nooksack River watershed. It is seasonal and is usually dry by late summer. It runs from north to south with the headwaters at an elevation of 2,000 feet on the southern side of Black Mountain. The creek flows through a culvert underneath Highway 542 and continues for about 0.25 miles before emptying in the Nooksack River at a 600 foot elevation. Near the headwaters of Bruce Creek the elevation change is very abrupt but becomes more gradually sloped towards the mouth. Baptist Creek consists of three small tributary streams that converge just north of Highway 542 before running through a culvert underneath the road. One of these tributary streams runs through the Baptist Camp and is connected to a small pond on the property. Once crossing the highway the creek continues for 0.25 miles to the Nooksack River. Habitat Quality Both of the creeks suffer from degraded riparian and instream habitat. Near the highway Bruce Creek is periodically dredged due to the accumulation of sediment and debris directly upstream of the culvert (WSDOT 2007). This action prevents the establishment of diverse habitat structures such as pools. The streambed substrate has been impaired by the introduction of fine sediments including silt and sand that have entered the watershed due to forestry activities (WSDOT 2007). Baptist Creek is noticeably lacking in habitat diversity. Just upstream of the culvert the creek is little more than a roadside ditch, running alongside the highway. Canopy cover is sparse or non-existent and the riparian zone is dominated by grasses and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus). Ground Water In Article V under the Whatcom County Critical Areas Ordinance, the watershed area around the lower reaches of Bruce and Baptist Creek are listed as being within a surficial aquifer of moderate and high susceptibility (WCPDS 2005). The main concern regarding degradation of groundwater in Whatcom County comes from farming practices which may introduce nitrates and other contaminants associated with agriculture into the aquifer (USGS 2006). Such construction projects as culvert replacement would not impact ground water, even within a sensitive aquifer.


Water Quality Most of the land within the Bruce and Baptist Creek watersheds is zoned by Whatcom County as either rural or commercial forestry (WCPDS 2008). Due to past forestry activities upstream of the creeks, the watersheds have been negatively impacted. Clearcut logging reduces the natural ability of the forest to dissipate precipitation and absorb moisture. This can lead to excess runoff carrying high levels of sediment into the creeks. Primitive logging roads in the area are also likely to contribute to this phenomenon as mass wasting occurs, washing soil and debris into the stream. It is likely that the water in Bruce and Baptist Creek both suffer from elevated turbidity, especially during times of heavy rain. Water quality degradation due to chemical contaminants has not been measured (WSDOT 2007). Because the creeks are located in areas away from human habitation typically responsible for chemical contamination, it is unlikely that Bruce Creek or Baptist Creek suffer from elevated levels of such contaminants. Culverts There are two culverts in place at the proposed project site, one on Baptist Creek and one on Bruce Creek. Culverts have the potential to degrade the instream habitat. The water passing through a culvert is restricted by the dimensions of the structure. This reduction in volume concentrates the flow of the stream and can greatly increase the force of the water leaving the culvert. This high velocity water has the potential to erode stream banks and scour the stream beds, carrying and depositing sediment downstream. Besides changing the stream morphology, these processes can harm aquatic organisms directly or disrupt their life cycles (WDFW 2003). ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed Action The construction activities involved in the proposed action are likely to temporarily degrade the water quality. The heavy equipment used may introduce some sediment into the creek. This would be mitigated by implementing best management practices (BMPs) during the process such as putting a temporary fence around the stream to keep workers and equipment out (Maria Mayrhofer, WSDOT, pers. comm. 2008). Habitat restoration in the riparian zone including planting of native vegetation and the addition of large woody debris and boulders will help to stabilize the stream banks and improve habitat for the future. In the long-term, water quality will likely be maintained at levels similar to pre-construction activities and the habitat quality will be improved. It is possible that a better designed culvert would lead to a slight improvement in the water quality, however most of the factors contributing to any decline in water quality of Bruce and Baptist Creek probably stem from activities associated with forestry practices further upstream and not at the site of the culverts at Highway 542. Any improvement could be the result of less scouring and bank erosion due to the introduction of a properly constructed and maintained culvert.


2) Alternative A: Bridge If a bridge were put in place rather than a culvert, it is probable that the temporary environmental deterioration associated with that construction process would be greater than in the culvert alternative. The amount of roadway involved in building a bridge would simply be greater than the amount used for a culvert. As with the culvert alternative, the water quality would eventually be restored and preserved at levels similar to pre-construction activities. A bridge however would have the added benefit of maintaining a higher quality of riparian habitat as the creeks run underneath the highway. 3) Alternative B: No Action No action would perpetuate the current conditions at the creeks. In the present state, both creeks are providing less than ideal habitat and habitat functions which could be improved by stream restoration and replacement of the culvert. iv) PLANTS

The project area is able to support tree species such as Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and grand fir (Abies grandis). These tree species are the dominant types and typical of the western hemlock vegetation zone. The understory species consist of but is not limited to salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), Indian plum (Oemleria cerasiformis), sword fern (Polystichum munitum), and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinun). Though these are typical plant species to find in a coniferous forest in the northwest, non-native plants like reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) have invaded the project site and the riparian zone of the streams. (WSDOT 2007)


The riparian zone surrounding these streams suffers from logging within the watershed that has taken place in the past. Reduced large woody debris recruitment and increased debris flooding are two major side effects of this. Bank erosion and increased sediment load result from these alluvial processes and have put the streamside vegetation at risk. The loss in bank stability and the increased peak flows have an amplified effect on riparian structure and function. With more vegetation loss and increased peak flows, more bank erosion and sediment loading will take place, and a positive feedback has been established. This loss of a structural habitat has negative effects on the stream itself, but also reduces the amount of habitat available for both plant and animal species. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed action The project will effect the riparian vegetation that is currently in the position of the new culvert for Bruce Creek. Estimated construction processes will affect no more than 20 riparian trees that are greater than 6 inches in diameter, and following the project native vegetation will be replanted in place of removed vegetation and in place of where the current culvert is. For Baptist Creek, the only area affected is an open grass field, which does not have the characteristics of a normal riparian zone, thus the impacts of changes this landscape are negligible. The replanting of native vegetation in this riparian zone will actually help restore the riparian area of Baptists Creek. 2) Alternative A: bridge – the construction process will likely cause more damage to the riparian zone. Sediment flow below the bridge will be re-established to historical levels, and no fish barrier will be present. Road construction and traffic diversion can be expected to take longer for the construction of a bridge. 3) Alternative B: no action – Substrate will continue to build up at the exit of the Bruce Creek culvert and repeated public services will be required to make sure that these substrate traps be removed and no barrier is present. No riparian functions will be restored and culvert grade will continue to be insufficient. ANIMALS


Unique Species: Salmonids All five species of Pacific salmon including Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta) are known to occur on the North Fork of the Nooksack River. In addition cutthroat trout (O. clarki), steelhead and resident rainbow trout (O. mykiss), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are found on the North Fork and the tributary streams in the area (WSR 2003). Of these, the Chinook, steelhead, and bull trout are listed as threatened species. All of the above are salmonid species that are either exclusively anadromous or may have anadromous forms. These fish complete their life cycles by migrating from the saltwater environment into the Nooksack watershed in order to lay eggs. Small tributary streams are often used as spawning grounds by fish returning to spawn. In addition to providing an area for developing eggs, tributary streams serve as important habitat for juvenile fish. They are often used as refuges to escape from fast-moving water in the main channel during times of high flow. Tributary streams are also nurseries for growing salmonids, providing shelter and food for young fish that may not be able to withstand the downstream environment. Aside from concerns regarding the movements of migratory salmon, nonanadromous fish such as resident rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout display patterns of movement within a given watershed (Gresswell and Hendricks 2007). When considering their life-history, it is clear that unrestricted access to all reaches of a given stream is important for these species. Listed Species Chinook salmon (Oncoryhnchus tshawytscha) On March 24, 1999 Puget Sound Chinook were listed as a threatened species under the endangered species act. The designated critical habitat listed for Chinook salmon does not include Bruce or Baptist Creek although the North Fork of the Nooksack is listed. Neither of the creeks provide suitable spawning habitat and although the creeks may be used by juvenile Chinook salmon this would occur during the high flows of winter and not during the time of construction (WSDOT 2007). Steelhead (Oncoryhnchus mykiss) The Puget Sound steelhead was listed as a threatened species on May 7, 2007. Critical habitat for the species is still being developed at this time. Bruce and Baptist creeks provide potential habitat for the species and it is presumed that the streams were used in the past (WSR 2003). The creeks would not be used as spawning habitat in their current state and it would be very unlikely that steelhead would be present during the construction phase. Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) Puget Sound bull trout received a threatened species listing on November 1, 1999. Critical habitat for the species does not include Bruce or Baptist creek (USFWS 2005). Presently, neither creek would provide adequate spawning habitat for bull trout nor it


would be likely that juvenile or adult trout would use the area during the time of construction. Gray wolf (Canis lupis) Gray wolves were listed as endangered in the lower 48 states on March 11, 1967. Although they are assumed to be very few in number, wolves are present in Washington. Confirmed sightings nearest to the project area include wolves in Ross Lake National Recreation Area and other isolated regions of the North Cascades (NPS 2004). Wolves prefer remote areas away from major roads and human activity so it is extremely unlikely that they would be in the area. Furthermore wolves are generally stationary during the summer months when construction will be taking place, decreasing the likelihood that wolves might be migrating through the area. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) Grizzly bears are listed as threatened in the lower 48 states as of July 28, 1975. Grizzly bears possibly present near the area may include individuals from the North Cascades Recovery Zone, a small population in north central Washington assumed to consist of less than 20 animals (USFWS 2007). Wild grizzlies are very sensitive to human activities and would likely be present only in the most remote regions within the North Cascades. Grizzly bears also readily avoid roads and would be very unlikely to venture within the vicinity of Highway 542. Marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus marmoratus) The marbled murrelet was listed as a threatened species on October 1, 1992. Critical habitat for the species was later assigned in 1996 with the closest habitat being about five miles from the project site. The birds prefer more mature forests with large coniferous trees as habitat. The land surrounding the project area has been logged relatively recently and the present forest would be unlikely to provide habitat for the species. Spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) On June 26, 1990 the spotted owl was listed as threatened. Critical habitat for the species was designated on January 15, 1992 and the closest such habitat is five miles from the site. Like the marbled murrelet, spotted owls need mature forests and the previously logged land surrounding the proposed construction site is not suitable for the species. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS For the listed bird and mammal species, the proposed project and the alternatives pose no significant effects on these animals. The habitat within the project area does not include any habitat suitable for the listed species. Other terrestrial species that may be present will not likely be displaced or disturbed by any of the construction activities at the site. State route 542 is a well-used highway and most animals would avoid the area in the first place. 1) Proposed Action A properly designed culvert can preserve some of the functions of a creek important for fish. When maintained and functioning properly, a culvert need not be a detriment to fish


species. The culvert can be placed in such a way that the downstream end is not perched above the creek. Providing adequate water depth through the structure is important in allowing fish to pass through. Installing a culvert in such a way that water velocities are not too high will also aid in fish passage. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has outlined culvert designs with criteria for proper fish passage (WDFW 2003). A new culvert adhering to these regulations would make the culvert replacement alternative a cost-effective and viable solution with regards to wildlife. Construction activities proposed by the Department of Transportation may have some effects on salmonid species. Bruce Creek is seasonal and at the time of construction it will most likely be dry and there will be no fish present. Similarly Baptist Creek will be experiencing low flows and the chances that salmonids would be present during the construction phase are slim. Consequently, the activities at the time of construction are not likely to disturb salmon or trout species that may use the habitat during specific times of the year. There is the potential that culvert replacement and stream realignment would temporarily add sediment to the streams which could diminish water quality for fish further downstream in the Nooksack River. This is being mitigated by limiting the construction activities to the low flow season and by using best management practices during construction such as erosion control and regulation of certain equipment types to reduce the sediment entering the streambed (Maria Mayrhofer, WSDOT, pers. comm. 2008). 2) Alternative A: Bridge In terms of fish and other aquatic species, the bridge alternative would be the most favored. A bridge would allow unrestricted access between the downstream and upstream creek sections separated by Highway 542. With a bridge there would be a stream bank performing important riparian functions. Large woody debris recruitment could continue, vegetation could grow and stabilize the bank, and the creeks would generally exhibit more habitat complexity. These characteristics are indicative of a healthy stream ecosystem and ideal fish habitat. 3) Alternative B: No action Conventional culverts present problems for fish. They are often times impassable for certain species and restrict their spatial distribution. This can lead to genetic isolation or eliminate fish from otherwise suitable habitat. Currently the Bruce Creek culvert is impassable for fish and the Baptist Creek culvert is only partially passable for fish (Maria Mayrhofer, WSDOT, pers. comm. 2008). The habitat upstream of the culverts has the potential to be utilized by fish, especially if stream restoration work is done to improve the riparian zone. A no action alternative would continue to negatively impact fish populations on both streams. vi) ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Hazards The risk for an environmental incident is always present during construction work, but the standard construction practices and safety measures will be used to minimize the risk


of anything happening. As far as emergency services, it will be the responsibility of the construction contractor. The contractor could require the assistance of the Washington Department of Ecology, Fish and Wildlife, or other agencies depending upon the severity of a spill, the risk to people, and the environment. In order to reduce hazards the contractor will be required to prepare an emergency Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan (SPCC). Standard construction practices, safety measures, and traffic control measures will be required of the contractor to minimize the risk of an incident. Discovered potentially hazardous waste will be handled in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Ecology, and local health regulations. Noise There is currently no noise in the area that might affect the project. Due to the nature of the project, construction will take place which might temporarily increase due to equipment and construction activities during regular daytime hours. Though on completion, noise will return to pre-project levels. In order to reduce noise, the contractor will be required to adhere to all federal, state and local noise regulations governing construction activities. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed action The proposed action would create the usual potential construction hazards to environmental health, but no unnecessary risks would be taken. The noise levels may be high during daytime hours, which could potentially disrupt the surrounding habitats throughout the construction. However, the construction would only take place along an existing highway where noise is already prevalent, so the environment may not be altered dramatically by the increase in noise. 2) Alternative A: bridge If the alternative of a bridge occurred, the usual potential construction hazards to environmental health, but no unnecessary risks would be taken. The noise levels may be high during daytime hours, which could potentially disrupt the surrounding habitats throughout the construction. However, the construction would only take place along an existing highway where noise is already prevalent, so the environment may not be altered dramatically by the increase in noise. 3) Alternative B: no action If no action were to be taken, the environmental health would not be put at risk. As well, noise levels would not be raised, which would leave the existing environment at it current level.


B. Built Environment

i) AESTHETICS a) Aesthetics The invasive nature of road construction would cause for a removal of natural vegetation which is aesthetically displeasing to passersby. Because culvert replacements take place beneath the existing roadway there are usually minimal effects to the aesthetics of the area. Passing traffic while be affected only temporarily while vegetation re-grows and construction is taking place. Because there are no residents in the general vicinity, there is less chance of affecting a large number of people. b) Light and Glare Aesthetically displeasing effects from light and glare caused by this project would only be temporary during the time of construction. Construction is usually done during the daytime to reduce effects on nearby habitats and therefore is not a problem for civilians using the roadway. c) Historical and Cultural Preservation Cultural resource surveys conducted by the Department of Transportation did not indicate any areas for preservation in the area. The work is being done on a scenic highway through rural forested area so there are not many, if any surrounding historic establishments. Baptist Creek runs through the former Baptist Bible Camp, a historic site of the Conservation Corps Camp, which sits on milepost 28.3. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed action The Proposed action would ultimately be an aesthetically pleasing project. As the native vegetation recovers from construction and stream realignment the area will return to a 31

more natural environment. Larger roadways near the Bruce Creek culvert would instill an increased sense of security to drivers and bikers along the Mt. Baker Highway. Due to the lack of detour options, the road will remain open during construction, allowing passing traffic to be visually affected by the work. This displeasing effect would only be temporary until work crews finish. The culvert replacement will not affect the integrity of the former Baptist Bible camp as construction will focus solely on the culvert beneath the highway. 2) Alternative A: bridge Building a bridge for the streams to flow under would increase construction time greatly. The construction practices would be more invasive to the surrounding area and would take longer to complete, therefore the surrounding community and those that utilize Mt. Baker Highway would be affected by the presence for an extended period of time. Building a bridge would also require the removal of more vegetation which could cause a negative aesthetic impact. 3) Alternative B: no action Those that utilize Mt. Baker Highway would not be affected by any large project during its time of construction and would not have to view and area returning to a more natural environment. However, not replacing the culverts would require continued presence of construction to dredge out the build-up of sediment. ii) PUBLIC SERVICES AND UTILITIES The public services and utilities around the project are minimal; the culvert replacements only address issues to travel along SR 542. The projects are presumed to only last 45 days, and traffic will be one lane at the time of construction. SR 542 is the only route to access two major recreational sites: the Snoqualmie-Mt. Baker national forest and the Mt. Baker ski area. Travel at the time of construction will be restricted and patrons utilizing these areas should expect delays. There is a Baptist camp which owns land functions as the riparian zone to tributaries of Baptist Creek. Part of the construction will be done on the private property of the Baptist camp. Maintenance crews are required to repeatedly dredge out substrate build up blocking off the outflow from the current culvert for Bruce Creek. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed Action This will affect the travel of police, fire trucks, and persons using the road to access recreational destinations such as the Mt. Baker ski area and the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. The maintenance required to remove sediment build at the exit of the current Bruce Creek will no longer be an issue. The new culvert will allow for much more sediment to pass without building up because of an increased slope on the new culvert.


2) Alternative A: bridge The amount of time required for a bridge construction is greater. Access for Police, Firemen, and persons using the recreational facilities will be more difficult if not restricted for bridge construction. The maintenance required on the Bruce Creek culvert will be alleviated and the natural stream bed characteristics will be restored. 3) Alternative B: no action No change in the public services will take place if no action is taken. Maintenance crews will still be required to repeatedly dredge out the build up on the outflow from the Bruce Creek culvert.

iii) TRANSPORTATION SR 542, also known as the Mount Baker Scenic Byway, is the only route serving the project area, and there is no public transit out to the site. This byway is a relatively short 57 miles, but the attractions and scenery found along the Mount Baker Highway are numerous. Mount Baker Highway begins just west of Bellingham and winds up to spectacular Artist Point, the end of the highway. The highway is home to whatever visitors are searching for from solitude and beauty, to fun and recreation, to the dazzling experience of all that Mount Baker has to offer. Unlike many byways, this road does not lead to another location or area. ENVIRNOMENTAL IMPACTS 1) Proposed Action If the proposed action occurs the SR 542 road section within the Bruce Creek project limits will be realigned as described in the project description. The project claims that it will not generate additional traffic to the area, but since there is no public transit, and construction workers will need to arrive on the job, some additional traffic should be expected. Along with that, there is no parking along the highway, so the contractor will have to find locations along the road that do not interfere with the surrounding environment. A traffic control plan would be implemented to minimize disruptions to traffic during construction activities. 2) Alternative A: bridge If bridges are built instead of new culverts then it too will create additional traffic with construction workers and machinery. Along with that, there is no parking along the highway, so the contractor will have to find locations along the road that do not interfere with the surrounding environment. A traffic control plan would be implemented to minimize disruptions to traffic during construction activities. 3) Alternative B: no action If no action occurs, then transportation will not be affected.


List of Technical Terms
Aesthetics Alluvium Anadromous Aquifer Barrier Chronic Environmental Deficiencies Coniferous Forest Culvert
The theory and perception of beauty on an individual level Sediment deposited by rivers or streams around the riparian zone In terms of fish, these are species which migrate from the sea to freshwater streams to spawn Subterranean layer of earth yielding groundwater A physical structure which prevents the migration of salmon species According to the WS Department of Transportation, these are the areas along the state's highway system which cause impact to fish habitat Cone-bearing trees, commonly referred to as 'Evergreen' trees A means of transporting water beneath a roadway system. These have historically been constructed using steel tubing and have been the subject of many stream restoration projects The biotic and abiotic factors of a specific area and their relationships with each other US environmental law to protect threatened and endangered species before they are subject to extinction The degradation of the land surface by natural or anthropogenic forces Animal life which is characteristic to a particular area In terms of soil particles, the fine fraction are composed of clays and silts. These particles are less than 2mm in size region of land adjacent to a river or stream that is periodically inundated with water during flood events Characteristic plant life of a particular area A graded change in a particular unit of measure Ground cover which prevents the infiltration of water. These surfaces are generally characterized by paved roads made of concrete, asphalt, stone, or bricks Pertaining to an area within the stream channel Void spaces between soil particles which commonly hold soil air or water Also known as 'course woody debris'. Large piece of tree which has a diameter greater or equal to 10 cm. These pieces protrude into streams and increase stream habitat complexity

Ecosystem Endangered Species Act Erosion Fauna Fine Fraction Floodplain Flora Gradient Impervious surfaces

Instream Interstitial pores Large woody debris


Loam Loess Mass wasting Permeability Porosity Riparian zone Salmonid Sedimentation Tributary Water Capacity Water quality Watershed

A soil texture which is characterized by an equal amount of sands, silts and clays Commonly silt-sized soil particles transported and deposited through wind erosion Erosional movement of the landscape down a slope through the force of gravity The measure of interconnectedness of pores, and the ease of water and air movement through the soil The volume of void spaces within the soil The zone of interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems typically characterized by rivers or streams fish of the salmonidae family including salmon, trout, char, and whitefishes An accumulation of fine particulate matter in streams which degrade salmon spawning habitat Any water body which flows into a larger stream or body of water The amount of water which can be held within the soil Physical, biological and chemical properties of a water system in relation to a set of predefined parameter limits The specific area that drains water into a river system framed by an elevational border


APPENDIX A: Fauna species list Common Name Bull trout Chinook Chum Coho Cutthroat Pink Rainbow trout (resident) Sockeye Steelhead trout Scientific Name Salmonid Species Salvelinus confluentus Oncorhynchus tshawytscha O. keta O. kisutch O. clarki O. gorbuscha O. mykiss O. nerka O. mykiss Terrestrial Species Gray wolf Grizzly bear Marbled murrelet Spotted owl Canis lupis Ursus arctos Brachyamphus marmoratus Strix occidentalis


APPENDIX B: Flora species list Common Name Species Name Dominant Tree Species Big Leaf Maple Black cottonwood Douglas fir Grand fir Red alder Western hemlock Western red cedar Acer macrophyllum Populus balsamifera Pseudotsuga menziesii Abies grandis Alnus rubra Tsuga heterophylla Thuja plicata Understory Species Bracken fern Indian plum Salmonberry Sword fern Thimbleberry Pteridium aquilinun Oemleria cerasiformis Rubus spectabilis Polystichum munitum Rubus parvifloris Invasive Species Himalayan blackberry Reed canarygrass Rubus armeniacus Phalaris arundinacea


References Best Management Practices for ESA & 4(d) Habitat Protection. March 2004. Washington State Department of Transportation – Maintenance and Operations Division. Construction Site Erosion and Sediment Control Training Manual. 2005. WS Department of Transportation Easterbrook, D.J. 1973. Environmental Geology of Western Whatcom County, WA. Department of Geology – Western Washington University Engineering Division of Salt Lake County.1999. BMP: Rock Check Dams -- Stormwater Discharge Management from Construction Activities. Environmental Checklist. June 2007. Washington State Department of Transportation – Northwest Region. Gresswell RE and Hendricks SR. January 2007. Population-scale movement of coastal cutthroat trout in a naturally isolated stream network. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136 (1): 238-253. Merril, B.R., Casaday, E. 2001. Best management Practices – Culvert Replacement. California State Parks – North Coast Redwoods District: Roads Trails and Resources Maintenance Section. National Park Service (NPS). March 30, 2004. Wolves in the North Cascades: Questions and Answers. http://www.nps.gov/archive/noca/wolf.htm. (2/29/08). Schaetzle, R., Anderson, S. 2005. Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. New York. Ruhl, S., Overmoyer, J., Barker, D., Brown, L.C. AEX-304-97. Using Geotextile Fabric in Livestock Operations. Ohio State University Fact Sheet: Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Accessed March 8, 2008 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/aexfact/0304.html Schuster, J.E. 2005. Geologic Map of Washington State. Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources. Map accessed March 8, 2008 from http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/dmt/docs/schuster07b.pdf Soil Survey of Whatcom County Area, Washington. 1992. US Department of Agriculture – Soil Conservation Service. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). September 26, 2005. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Bull Trout; Final Rule.


http://www.fws.gov/pacific/bulltrout/final/pdf/Bull%20Trout%20CH%20FR%20notice.p df. (2/27/08). United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Grizzly Bear Recovery. http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/mammals/grizzly/index.htm. (2/29/08). United States Geological Survey (USGS). January 5, 2006. Whatcom County Project Page. http://wa.water.usgs.gov/projects/whatcom/index.htm. (2/20/08). Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. http://wdfw.wa.gov/hab/engineer/cm/culvert_manual_final.pdf. (3/1/08). Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). March 2007. Biological Assessment: SR 542 Bruce Creek culvert replacement and realignment, and Baptist Creek culvert replacement and realignment. (Prepared by: Northwest Region Environmental Services Biology Program) WIN# A54230C Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2008a. Environment- Fish Passage: Fish Passage Facts. http://wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/Biology/FP/fishpassagefacts.htm. (3/4/08). Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2008b. Environment- Fish Passage: Chronic Environmental Deficiences. http://wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/Biology/FP/CEDretrofits.htm. (3/4/08). Whatcom County Planning and Development Services (WCPDS). February 25, 2008. Whatcom County- Title 20 Zoning Designations. http://www.co.whatcom.wa.us/pds/pdf/planning/gis/t20zon8.pdf. (2/21/08). Whatcom County Planning and Development Services (WCPDS). September 2005. Whatcom Critical Areas Ordinance- Critical Aquifer Recharge Areas. http://www.co.whatcom.wa.us/pds/planning/CAO_September/CAO_CARA.pdf. (2/20/08). Whatcom Salmon Recovery (WSR). 2003. Maps: Fish Presence. http://www.whatcomsalmon.wsu.edu/maps-fishpresence.html. (2/23/08). References for Figures, Tables Figure 1, and Table 1 (erosion mitigation) Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). 2005. Construction Site Erosion and Sediment Control Training Manual. References for Photos


Page 1: WSDOT Projects: SR 542, Wells Creek Road to Mount Baker Vicinity – Photos. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/SR542/WellsCreek_MtBaker/photos.htm Page 13: Erin Smart Page 20: http://www.photoseek.com/flora.html Page 25: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Pseudotsuga_menziesii_28236.JPG#file And http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salmonberry Page 26: http://wildernessclassroom.com/superior/2006/09/20/ Page 31: WSDOT Projects: SR 542, Wells Creek Road to Mount Baker Vicinity – Photos. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/SR542/WellsCreek_MtBaker/photos.htm