308

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VOL. SE-2, NO.4,

DECEMBER

1976

THOMAS

J. McCABE

Abstract- This paper describesa graph-theoretic complexity measure and illustrates how it can be usedto manageand control program complexity .The paper first explains how the graph-theory concepts apply and gives an intuitive explanation of the graph concepts in programming terms. The control graphs of severalactual Fortran programs are then presented to illustrate the conelation between intuitive complexity and the graph-theoretic complexity .Several properties of the graphtheoretic complexity are then proved which show, for example, that complexity is independent of physical size (adding or subtracting functional statements leaves complexity unchanged) and complexity dependsonly on the decision structure of a program. The issue of using nonstructured control flow )s also discussed. A characterization of nonstructured control graphs is given and a method of measuring the "structuredness" of a program is developed. The relationship between structure and reducibility is illustrated with several examples. The last section of this paper deals with a testing methodology used in conjunction with the complexity measure; a testing strategy is defined that dictates that a program can either admit of a certain minimal testing level or the program can be structurally reduced. Index Temls-Basis, complexity measure, control flow, decomposition, graph theory , independence,linear, modularization, programming, reduction, software, testing.

II. A COMPLEXITYMEASURE In this sl~ction a mathematical technique for program modularization will be developed. A few defmitions and theorems from graph theory will be needed, but several examples will be presented in order to illustrate the applications of the technique. The complexity measure approach we will take is to measure and control the number of paths through a program. This approach, however, immediately raises the following nasty problem: "Any program with a backward branch potentially has an infinite number of paths." Although it is possible to defme a set of algebraic expressionsthat give the total number of possible paths through a (structured) program,l using the total number of paths has been found to be impractical. Becauseof this the complexity measuredeveloped here is defmed in terms of basic paths-that when taken in combinatio~ will generateevery possible path. The following mathematical preliminaries will be needed, all of which can be found in Berge [I] . Definition 1: The cyclomatic number V(G) of a graph G with n vertices, e edges,and p connected components is v(G) = e -n + p.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

HERE is a critical questi?n facing software engineering today: How to modularlZe a software system so the resulting modules are both testable and maintainable? That the issues of testability and maintainability are important is borne out by the fact that we often spend half of the development time in testing [2] and can spend most of our dollars maintaining systems [3] .What is neededjs a mathematical technique that will provide a quantitative basis for modularization and allow us to identify software modules that will be difficult to test or maintain. This paper reports on an effort to develop such a mathematical technique which is based on program control flow. One currently used practice that attempts to ensure a reasonable modularization is to limit programs by physical size (e.g., IBM-50 lines, TRW-2 pages). This technique is not adequate, which can be demonstrated by imagining a 50 line program consisting of 25 consecutive "IF THEN" constructs. Such a program could have as many as 33.5 million distinct control paths, only a small percentage of which would probably e'ler be tested. Many such examples of live Fortran programs that are physically small but untestable have been identilled and analyzed by the tools described in this paper.
Manuscript received April 10, 1976. The author is with the Department of Defense, National Security Agency, Ft. Meade,MD 20755.

Theorem 1: In a strongly connected graph G, the cyclomatic number is equal to the maximum number of linearly independent circuits. The applications of the above theorem will be made as follows: Given a program we will associatewith it a directed graph that has unique entry and exit nodes. Each node in the graph corre,~ponds a block of code in the program where the to flow is sequential and the arcs correspond to branchestaken in the program. This graph is classically known as the program control graph (see Ledgard [6] ) and it is assumedthat each node can be reached by the entry node and each node can reach the e:dt node. For example, the following is a program / control graph with entry node "a" and exit node "f."

G:

-, I I , ,

1 See

the

Appendix

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Theorem 1 is applied to G in the following way. -Imagine that the exit node (f) branches back to the entry node (a). The control graph G is now strongly connected (there is a path joining any pair of arbitrary distinct vertices) so Theorem 1 applies. Therefore, the maximum number of linearly independent circuits in G is 9-6+2. For example, one could choose the following 5 independent circuits in G: Bl: (abefa), (beb), (abea), (acfa), (adcfa). It follows that Bl forms a basis for the set of all circuits in G and any path through G can be expressedas a linear combination of circuits from Bl. For instance, the path (abeabebebef) is expressable as (abea) +2(beb) + (abefa). To see how this works its necessaryto number the edgeson G as in

CYCtoMATIC COMPLEXITY *v = e -n + 2p v=1-2+2=1 v=4.4+2=2

Notice that the sequenceof an arbitrary number of nodes always has unit complexity and that cyclomatic complexity conforms to our intuitive notion of "minimum number of paths." Severalproperties of cyclomatic complexity are stated below: I) v(G)~l. 2) v(G) is the maximum number of linearly independent paths in G; it is the size of a basis set. 3) Inserting or deleting functional statements to G does not affect v(G). 4) G has only one path if and only if v(G) = I. 5) Inserting a new edgein G increasesv(G) by unity. 6) v(G) depends only on the decision structure of G. III. WORKINGEXPERIENCE WITH THE COMPLEXITYMEASURE In this section a system which automates the complexity measure will be described. The control structures of several PDP-1OFortran programs and their corresponding complexity measureswill be illustrated. To aid the author's researchinto control structure complexity a tool was built to run on a PDP.1O that analyzes the structure of Fortran programs. The tool, FLOW, was written in APL to input the source code from Fortran ftles on disk. FLOW would then break a Fortran job into distinct subroutines and analyze the control structure of each subroutine. It does this by breaking the Fortran subroutines into blocks that are delimited by statementsthat affect control flow: IF, GOTO , referenced LABELS, DO, etc. The flow between the blbCks is then represented in an n by n matrix (where n is the number of blocks), having a 1 in the i-jth position if block i can branch to block j in 1 step. FLOWalso produces the "blocked" listing of the original program, computes the cyclomatic complexity, and produces a reachability matrix (there is a 1 in the i-jth position if block i can branch to block j in any number of steps). An example of FLOW'S output is shown below.
IMPLICIT INTEGER(A-Z) COMMON I ALLOC I MEM(20..8),LM,LU,LV,LW,LX,LY,LQ,LWEX NCHARS,NWORDS DIMENSION MEMORY(20..8),INHEAD(..),ITRANS(128) TYPE 1 FORMATl'DOMOLKI STRUCTURE FIL:: NAME?' $) NAMDML=O ACCEPT 2,N...MDML FORMAT(AS ) CALL ALCHAII(ICHAN) CALL IFIL::(ICHAN,'DSK' ,NAMDML,'DAT',O,O) CALL READB(ICliAN,I!IHrAD,I~2,NREAD,$990,$99Q) NCHARS=INH£AIJ( li NWORDS=INHEAD(:)

Now for each member of the basis Bl follows: 12345 lOO 000 lOO 0 1 0 00 1 678910 lOO 0 1 0 1 lOO 00 100 000 0 0 1 0 00 00 1 1 00

associate a vector as

(abefa) (beb) (abea) (acfa) (adcfa)

1 0 0 1 1

The path (abea(be)3fa)

corresponds to the vector 2004200111

and the vector addition of (abefa), 2(beb), and (abea) yields the desired result. In using Theorem lone can choose a basis set of circuits that correspond to paths through the program. basis of program paths. B2: (abef), (abeabef), (abebef), (acf), (adcf). linear combination For example, of paths in B2 will also generate any path. The set B2 is a

(abea(be )3 f) = 2(abebef) -(abef) and (a(be)2abef) = (a(be)2f) + (abeabef) -(abef). of a

The overall strategy will be to measure the complexity

program by computing the number of linearly independent paths v(G), control the "size" of programs by setting an upper limit to v(G) (instead of using just physical size), and use the cyclomatic complexity as the basis for a testing methodology . A few simple examples may help to illustrate. Beloware the control graphs of the usual constructs used in structured programming and their respective complexities.

*The role of the variable p will be explained in Section IV .For examples assume p = 1.

these

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HTCT=(NCHAitS+7)-NWORj)S LTOT={NCHARS+5)"NWORDS IF(LTOT,GT,20'1B) 1 ' BLOCK 00. GO TO 900

CALLBlOCK 00. " P.EADB(ICHAH,MEHORY.LTOT,NREAD,$990,$9S0) 2 LH=O LU=HCHARS"""WORDS+LH LV=NWORDS+LU LW=NWORDS+LV LX=NWORDS+LW LY=NWORDS+LX LQ=HWORDS+LY LWEX=NWORDS+LQ *M Ki:HORY(LWEX+J)=(MEHORY(LW+I),OR,(MEHORY(LW+I)"2» B7~ 1~:,~WORD~ 700 ...*..*. CONTINUE BIOCKOO.

V(G).z

4

*...*

*..

.*..*..* 900 3

CALL EXTEXT(ITRANS) STOP BLOCK /(). S TYPE3,LTOT FORMAT

STRUCTURE , SEE COOPER' STOP *. BlOCK /(). 6 READ ERROR. COOPER' TOO

*..** LARGE I) *...*.**...* I!R STRUCTURE 1) FOR

* CORE;

**. ',19,' WORDS'

** 990 'I

**.. FlU ERROR; , 1

TYPE

$

FORMAT(' , SEE STOP END

V(G)=3

CONNECTIVITY

MATRIX

34567
1 0000010 °11°°°0

6001000

0001100 ! ° ° 0

1° ° I

°

~0000001 cP ° Q)oc ° ° °

.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL

CYCLOMATIC

COMPLEXITY

:

3

1

2

4

6

7

END

At this point a few of the control graphs that were found in live programs will be presented. The actual control graphs from FLOW appear on a DATA DISK CRT but they are hand drawn here for purposes of illustration. The graphs are presented in increasing order of complexity in order to suggest the correlation between the complexity numbers and our in. tuitive notion of control flow complexity.

MC CABE:

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V(G)=B

,

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MC CABE:

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313

One of the more interesting aspects of the automatic approach is that although FLOWcould be implemented much more efficiently in a compiler level language, it is still possible to go through a year's worth of a programmer's Fortran code in about 20 min. After seeing several of a programmer's control graphs on a CRT one can often recognize "style" by noting similar patterns in the graphs. For example, one programmer had an affinity for sequencingnumerous simple loops as in

V(G)=19

Q c

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It was later revealed that these programs were eventually to ruft on a CDC6600 and the "tight" loops were designedfo stay within the hardware stack. These results have been used in an operationalenvironrnent by advising project members to limit their software modules by cyclomatic complexity instead of physical size. The particular upper bound that has been used for cyclomatic complexity is 10 which seemslike a reasonable, but not magical, upper limit. Programmers have been required to calculate complexity as they create software modules. When the complexity exceeded10 they had to either recognizeand modularize subfunctions or redo the software. The intention was to keep the "size" of the modules manageableand allow for testing all the independent paths (which will be elaborated upon in Section VII.) The only situation in which this limit has seemed unreasonable is when a large number of independent cases followed a selection function (a large case statement), which was allowed. It has been interesting to note how individual programmer's style relates to the complexity measure. The author has been delighted to fmd several programmers who never had formal training in structured programming but consistently write code in the 3 to 7 complexity range which is quite well structured. On the other hand, FLOW has found several programmers who frequently wrote code in the 40 to 50 complexity range (and who claimed there was no other way to do it). On one occasion the author was given a DEC tape of 24 Fortran subroutines that were part of a large real-time graphics system. It was rather disquieting to fmd, in a system where reliability is critical, subroutines of the following complexity: 16, 17, 24, 24, 32, 34, 41, 54, 56, and 64. Mter confronting the project members with these results the author was told that the subroutines on the DEC tape were chosen because they were troublesome and indeed a close correlation was found between the ranking of subroutines by complexity and a ranking by reliability (performed by the project members).
IV. DECOMPOSITION The role of p in the complexity calculation v =e -n + 2p will now be explained. Recall in Definition 1 that p is the number of connected components. The way we defmed a program control graph (unique entry and exit nodes, all nodes reachable from -the entry , and the exit reachable from all nodes) would result in all control graphs having only one connected component. One could, however, imagine a main program M and two called subroutines A and B having a control structure shown below:

ponents2 as MUAUB, Now, sincep = 3 we calculate complexityas v(MUAUB)= e- ii+ 2p = 13- 13+ 2X3 = 6. This method with p*l can be used to calculate the complexity of a collection of programs, particularly a hierarchial nest of subroutines as shown above. Notice that v(MUAUB) = v(M) + v(A) + v(B) = 6. In general, the complexity of a collectionC of control graphswith k connected components is equal to the summation of their complexities. To see this let Cj, 1~i~ denote the k distinct connected components, and let ej and nj be the number of edges and nodes in the ith connected component. Then
v(C) = e -n k + 2p = L 1 k =2: 1 {eik ni+2)=2:v(CJ. 1 , ejk L 1 nj + 2k

v. Since the calculation

SIMPLIFICATION v =e -n + 2p can be quite tedious for

a programmer an effort has been made to simplify the complexity calculations (for single-component graphs). There are two results presented in this section-the first allows the complexity calculations to be done in terms of program syntactic constructs, the second permits an easier calculation from the graph form. In [7] Mills proves the following: if the number of function, predicate, and collecting nodes in a structured program is 8, 1T , and 'Y, respectively, and e is the number of edges, then e = 1 + 8 + 31T . Since for every predicate node there is exactly one collec~ing node and there are unique entry and exit nodes it follows that n = 8 + 21T+ 2. Assuming p = I and substituting v = (I + 8 + 31T)-(8 This proves that in v = e -n + 2 we get

+ 21T+ 2) + 2 = 1T I. + complexity of a structured

the cyclomatic

program equals the number of predicates plus one, for example in

0

G

A

M:

2 A graph is connected if for every pair of vertices there is a chain go-

Let us denote the total graph above with

3 connected com-

ing from one to the other. Given a vertex a, the set of vertices that can be connected to a, together with a itself is a connected component.

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complexity

v(G) = 11+ 1 = 3 + 1 = 4.

Notice how in this case

complexity can be computed by simply counting the number of predicates in the code and not having to deal with the control graph. In practice compound predicates such as IF "c I AND c2" since

THEN are treated as contributing two to complexity without the connective AND we would have IF c 1 THEN IF c2 THEN

which has two predicates. For this reason and for testing purposes it has been found to be more convenient to count conditions instead of predicates when calculating complexity .3 It has been proved that in general the complexity of any (unstructured) program is 11+ I. The second simplification of the calculation of e -n + 2p reduces the calculation of visual inspection of the control graph. We need Euler's formula which is as follows. If G is a connected plane graph with n vertices, e edges, and r regions, then n-e+r=2. Just changing the order of the terms we get r = e -n + 2 so the number of regions is equal to the cyclornatic complexity. Given a program with a plane control graph one can therefore calculate v by counting regions, as in

1r;-3 G

~/'
~ VI. NONSTRUCTURED PROGRAMMING

v(G)

=

5

The main thrust in the recent popularization of structured programming is to make programmers aware of a few syntactic constructs4 and tell them that a structured program is one

written with only these constructs. One of the difficulties with this approach is it does not defme for programmers what constructs they should not use, i.e., it does not tell them what a structured program is not. If the programming population had a notion of what constructs to avoid and they could see the inherent difficulty in these constructs, perhaps the notion of structuring programming would be more psychologically palatable. A clear defmition of the constructs that structured programming excludes would also sensitize programmers to their use while programs are being created, which (if we be. lieve in structured programming) would have a desirable effect. One of the reasons that the author thinks this is important is that as Knuth [4] points out-there is a time and a place when an unstructured goto is needed. The author has had a similar experience structuring Fortran jobs-there are a few very specific conditions when an unstructured construct works best. If it is the casethat unstructured constructs should only be allowed under special circumstances, one need then to dis. tinguish between the programmer that makes judicious use of a few unstructured goto's as compared to the programmer that is addicted to them. What would help is first the defmition of the unstructured components and second a measure of the structureness of a program as well as the complexity of a program. Rao Kasaraju [5] has a result which is related-a flow graph is reducibles to a structured program if and only if it does not contain a loop with two or more exits. This is a deep result but not, however, what we need since many programs that are reducible to structured programs are not structured programs. In order to have programmers explicitly identify and avoid unstructured code we need a theorem that is analogous to a theorem like Kuratowski's theorem in graph theory .Kuratow. ski's theorem states that any nonplanar graph must contain at least one of two specific nonplanar graphs that he describes. The proof of nonplanarity of a graph is then reducible to locating two specific subgraphs whereas showing nonplanarity without Kuratowski's result is, in general,much more difficult. The following four control structures were found to generate all nonstructured programs.

u

3For the CASE construct with N cases use N-1 for the number of conditions. Notice, once again, that a simulation of case with IF'S will have N-1 conditions. 4The usual ones used (sometimes called D-structures) are

A number of theorems and results will be stated below without proof. Result 1: A necessary and sufficient condition that a program6 is nonstructured (one that is not written with just

o

~O

v
Q~

sReducibility here means the same function is computed with the same actions and predicates although the control structure may differ. 6 Assuming the program does not contain unconditional GOTO's.

~

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D-structures) is thav it contains as a subgraph either a), b), or c). The reason why graph d) was slighted in Result I is that any 3 of the 4 graphs will generateall the unstructured programsthis will be illustrated later. It is convenient to verbalize the graphsa)-d), respectively, as follows: a) branching out of a loop; b)branching into a loop; c)branchinginto a decision; and d) branching out ofa decision. The following version of Result 2 may seemmore intuitively appealing. A structured program can be written by not "branching out of or into a loop, or out of or into a decision." The following result gives insight into why a nonstructured program's logic often becomesconvoluted and entwined. Result 2: A nonstructured program cannot be just a little nonstructured. That is any nonsiructured program must contain at least 2 of the graphs a)-d). Part of the proof of Result 2 will be shown here becauseit helps to illustrate how the control flow in a nonstructuredprogram becomes entangled. We show, for an example, how graph b) cannot occur alone. Assuming we have graph b):

is branched into. So in this case we have a c) graph along with the original b) graph. Case 2: E is "after" the loop. The control graph would appear as follows:

b)
a)

Notice how a type a) graph must appear. Case 3: E is independent of the loop. would look as follows:

The control graph

b)

\
The graph c) must now be present with b). If there is another path that can go to a node after the loop from E then a type d) graph is also generated. Things are often this bad, and in factmuch worse. Similar arguments can be made for each of the other nonstructured graphs to show that a)-d) cannot occur alone. If one generatesall the possible pairs from a)-d) it is interesting to note that they all reduce to 4 basic types:

b)

(a ,b)

(b,c)

" the entry node E occurs either before, after, or from a node independent of the loop. Each of these three cases will be treated separately. Case I: E is "before" the loop E is on a path from entry to the loop so the program must have a graph as follows:

which leads us the following result. Result 3: A necessary and sufficient condition for a pro. gram to be nonstructured is that it contains at least one of: (a, b), (a, d), (b, c), (c, d). Result 4 is now obvious. Result 4: The cyclomatic complexity if a nonstructured program is at least 3. It is interesting to notice that when the orientation is taken off the edges each of the 4 basic graphs a)-d) are isomorphic to the following nondirected graph.

c) b)

0

Notice how E is a split node at the beginning of a decision that

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Also if the graphs (a, b) through (c, d) have their directions taken off they are all isomorphic to :

Notice in the nonstructured graphs below, however, that such a reduction process is not possible.

Gl:

G2:

v=6

By examining the graphs (a, b) through (c, d) one can formulate a more elegant nonstructured characterization : Result 5: A structured program can be written by not branching out of loops or into decisions-a) and d) provide a basis. Result 6: A structured program c~ be written by not branching into loops or out of decisions-b) and d) provide a basis. A way to measure the lack of structure in a program or flow graph will be briefly commented upon. One of the.difficulties with the nonstructured graphs mentioned above is that there is no way they can be broken down into subgraphs with one entry and one exit. This is a severelimitation since one way in which program complexity can be controlled is to recognize when the cyclomatic complexity becomes too large-and then identify and remove subgraphs with unique entry and exit nodes. Result 7: A structured program is reducible7 to a program of unit complexity. The following example illustrates how a structurcd program can be reduced.

G3:

v=6

Let m be the number of proper subgraphs with unique entry and exit nodes. Notice in Gl, G2, and G3 m is equal to 0, 1, and 2, respectively. The following defmition of essentialcomplexity ev is used to reflect the lack of structure. Definition: ev = v -n. For the above graphs we have ev(Gl) = 6, ev(G2) = 5, and ev(G3) = 4. Notice how the essentialcomplexity indicates the

-

-

v = 4

v = 3

v = 2

v = 1

7Reduction is the process of removing subgraphs(subroutines) with unique entry and exit nodes.

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extent to which a graph can be reduced-Gl cannot be reduced at all since its complexity is equal to it~ essential complexity. G2 and G3, however, can be reduced as follows:

G:

G2':

Suppose that ac = 2 and the two tested paths are [E, al , b, C2, x] and [E,a2,b,cl,X]. Then given that paths [E,al,b,cl, x] and [E, a2, b, C2, x] cannot be executed we have ac<v so case 2 holds and G can be reduced by removing decision b as in

G3': Gl:

v(G3 ') =4

Notice how in G v = ac and the complexity of G 1 is less than
This last result is stated for completeness. Result 8: The essential complexity of a structured is one.

program

VII. A TESTINGMETHODOLOGY The complexity measure v is designed to conform to our intuitive notion of complexity and since we often spend as much as 50 percent of our time in test and debug mode the measure sho14dcorrelate closely with the amount of work required to test a program. In this section the relationship between testing and cyclomatic complexity will be defmed and a testing methodology will be developed. Let us assume that a program p has been written, its complexity v has been calculated, and the number of paths tested is ac (actual complexity). If ac is less than v then one of the following conditions must be true : I) there is more testing to be done (more paths to be tested); 2) the program flow graph can be reduced in complexity by v-ac (v-ac decisions can be taken out); and 3) portions of the program can be reduced to in line code (complexity has increased to conservespace). Up to this point the complexity issue has been considered purely in terms of the structure of the control flow. This testing issue, however, is closely related to the data flow because it is the data behavior that either precludes or makes realizable the execution of any particular control path. A few simple examples may help to illustrate. Assume we start with the foJlowing flow graph:

the complexity of G. In experience this approach is most helpful when programmers are required to document their flow graph and complexity and show explicitly the different paths tested. It is often the casewhen the actual number of paths tested is compared with the cyclomatic complexity that several additional paths are discovered that would normally be overlooked. It should be noted that v is only the minimal number of independent paths that should be tested. There are often additional paths to test. It should also be noted that this procedure (like any other testing method) will by no meansguarantee or prove the software-all it can do is surface more bugs and improve the quality of the software . Two more examples are presented without comment.

v=5 ac=S

MC CABE:

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~: acdfghik acefgijabk

0
~

v=2 ac=2

ApPENDiX perfonns a binary search for input parameter ITEM on a table A method of computing the number of possible paths in a T of length N. SEARCH sets F to 1 and J to ITEM'S index structured program will be briefly outlined. This method assowithin T if the search is successful-otherwise F is set to O inciates an algeb~aicexpression C with each of the structured dicating that ITEM is not in T . constructs and assumesthat the complexity of a basic functional or replacement statement is one. The various syntactic PROCZDURE SI:ARCI: (ITEH) IN~EGER ITI:M constructs used in structured programming and their control BEGIN flow and complexity expressionsare shown below. The symINTI:GER L. H; F'6- O ; bol a stands for the number of iterations in a loop. ~O;
H..N; CO:'1'RO!. FLO'; A,b ~ ~ -*J C (CO:.;;'.RliC'-') C(A) X C(,,) While If H> L and ~'[J < (lI+L) TliI:N If item THI:N II..J-l
"1iILE A DO "

The program SEARCH below is used to illustrate.

SEARCH

F .O DIV 2J T[J]

Do .item

IF

A

THEN i.L51;

!) C

C(A),,(C(E)+C(C)1

C(")+(C(.1\),,t:(~)la.;(;.; I:LSI: L4-J+l

C(h)X(C(j,)+.:(.;)+

+ C(~. ) J
END

ELSE F ..1

"-'1$ ~.-.

[C(,,)

x C(;')]G

The flow graph for SEARCH is

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[2] B. W. Boehm, ..Software and Its impact: A quantitative assessment," Datamation, vol.19, pp. 48-S9,May1973. [3] w. B. Cammack and H. J. Rogels, ..Imploving the plogramming pIOceSS," IBM Tech. Rep. TR 00.2483, Oct. 1973. [4] D. E. Knuth, «StructUIed plogramming with ooro statements," Computing Surveys, vol. 6, pp. 261-301, Dec. 1974. [5] R. Kosaraju, "Analysis of structUIed ploglams," J. Comput. Syst. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 232'-255, Dec. 1974; also, Dep. Elec. Eng., The Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimole, MD, Tech. Rep. 72-11,1972. [ 6] H. Legard and M. Marcotty, " A genelalogy of control structUIes," Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach., vol. 18, pp. 629-639, Nov. 1975. [7] H. D. Mi1ls, "Mathematical foundations fOI structuled programming," Federal System Division, IBM Corp., Gaithersburg, MD, FSC 72-6012,1972.

The algebraic complexity

C would be computed as + I} )a I }
Thomas J. McCabe was born in Central Falls, RI, on November 28, 1941. He received the A.B. degree in mathematics from Providence College, Providence, RI and the M.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Connecticut, Storrs, in 1964 and 1966, respectively. He has been employed since 1966 by the Department of Defense, National Security Agency, Ft. Meade, MD in various systems programming and programming management positions. He also, during a military leave, served as a Captain in the Army Security Agency engaged in large-scale compiler implementation and optimization. He has recently been active in software engineering and has developed and taught various software related courses for the Institute for Advanced Technology, the University of California, and Massachusetts State College System. MI. McCabe is a member of the American Mathematical Association.

C(SEARCH) = I I I { I + (I [1[1 +1} = { I + (3)a }.

Assuming I to be at least 4, the lower bound for the expression { I + 3a} is 4 whichiridicates there are at least 4 paths to be tested. The first test would be from the immediate exit from the WHILE loop which could be tested by choosing H less than L initially. The next three tests (the three ways through the body of the loop) correspond to cases where ITEM = T [J} , ITEM < T[I} , and ITEM > T[J}.
REFERENCES [1] C. Berge, Graphs and Hypergraphs. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:

North-Holland,1973.

Related Interests

STRUCTURE , SEE COOPER' STOP *. BlOCK /(). 6 READ ERROR. COOPER' TOO

*..** LARGE I) *...*.**...* I!R STRUCTURE 1) FOR

* CORE;

**. ',19,' WORDS'

** 990 'I

**.. FlU ERROR; , 1

TYPE

$

FORMAT(' , SEE STOP END

V(G)=3

CONNECTIVITY

MATRIX

34567
1 0000010 °11°°°0

6001000

0001100 ! ° ° 0

1° ° I

°

~0000001 cP ° Q)oc ° ° °

.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL.DL

CYCLOMATIC

COMPLEXITY

:

3

1

2

4

6

7

END

At this point a few of the control graphs that were found in live programs will be presented. The actual control graphs from FLOW appear on a DATA DISK CRT but they are hand drawn here for purposes of illustration. The graphs are presented in increasing order of complexity in order to suggest the correlation between the complexity numbers and our in. tuitive notion of control flow complexity.

MC CABE:

A COMPLEXITY

MEASURE

311

V(G)=B

,

312

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON SOFTWARE

ENGINEERING,

DECEMBER

1976

MC CABE:

A COMPLEXITY

MEASURE

313

One of the more interesting aspects of the automatic approach is that although FLOWcould be implemented much more efficiently in a compiler level language, it is still possible to go through a year's worth of a programmer's Fortran code in about 20 min. After seeing several of a programmer's control graphs on a CRT one can often recognize "style" by noting similar patterns in the graphs. For example, one programmer had an affinity for sequencingnumerous simple loops as in

V(G)=19

Q c

314

IEEE tRANSACTIONSON

SOFTWAREENGINEERING;nECEMBF.R 1976

It was later revealed that these programs were eventually to ruft on a CDC6600 and the "tight" loops were designedfo stay within the hardware stack. These results have been used in an operationalenvironrnent by advising project members to limit their software modules by cyclomatic complexity instead of physical size. The particular upper bound that has been used for cyclomatic complexity is 10 which seemslike a reasonable, but not magical, upper limit. Programmers have been required to calculate complexity as they create software modules. When the complexity exceeded10 they had to either recognizeand modularize subfunctions or redo the software. The intention was to keep the "size" of the modules manageableand allow for testing all the independent paths (which will be elaborated upon in Section VII.) The only situation in which this limit has seemed unreasonable is when a large number of independent cases followed a selection function (a large case statement), which was allowed. It has been interesting to note how individual programmer's style relates to the complexity measure. The author has been delighted to fmd several programmers who never had formal training in structured programming but consistently write code in the 3 to 7 complexity range which is quite well structured. On the other hand, FLOW has found several programmers who frequently wrote code in the 40 to 50 complexity range (and who claimed there was no other way to do it). On one occasion the author was given a DEC tape of 24 Fortran subroutines that were part of a large real-time graphics system. It was rather disquieting to fmd, in a system where reliability is critical, subroutines of the following complexity: 16, 17, 24, 24, 32, 34, 41, 54, 56, and 64. Mter confronting the project members with these results the author was told that the subroutines on the DEC tape were chosen because they were troublesome and indeed a close correlation was found between the ranking of subroutines by complexity and a ranking by reliability (performed by the project members).
IV. DECOMPOSITION The role of p in the complexity calculation v =e -n + 2p will now be explained. Recall in Definition 1 that p is the number of connected components. The way we defmed a program control graph (unique entry and exit nodes, all nodes reachable from -the entry , and the exit reachable from all nodes) would result in all control graphs having only one connected component. One could, however, imagine a main program M and two called subroutines A and B having a control structure shown below:

ponents2 as MUAUB, Now, sincep = 3 we calculate complexityas v(MUAUB)= e- ii+ 2p = 13- 13+ 2X3 = 6. This method with p*l can be used to calculate the complexity of a collection of programs, particularly a hierarchial nest of subroutines as shown above. Notice that v(MUAUB) = v(M) + v(A) + v(B) = 6. In general, the complexity of a collectionC of control graphswith k connected components is equal to the summation of their complexities. To see this let Cj, 1~i~ denote the k distinct connected components, and let ej and nj be the number of edges and nodes in the ith connected component. Then
v(C) = e -n k + 2p = L 1 k =2: 1 {eik ni+2)=2:v(CJ. 1 , ejk L 1 nj + 2k

v. Since the calculation

SIMPLIFICATION v =e -n + 2p can be quite tedious for

a programmer an effort has been made to simplify the complexity calculations (for single-component graphs). There are two results presented in this section-the first allows the complexity calculations to be done in terms of program syntactic constructs, the second permits an easier calculation from the graph form. In [7] Mills proves the following: if the number of function, predicate, and collecting nodes in a structured program is 8, 1T , and 'Y, respectively, and e is the number of edges, then e = 1 + 8 + 31T . Since for every predicate node there is exactly one collec~ing node and there are unique entry and exit nodes it follows that n = 8 + 21T+ 2. Assuming p = I and substituting v = (I + 8 + 31T)-(8 This proves that in v = e -n + 2 we get

+ 21T+ 2) + 2 = 1T I. + complexity of a structured

the cyclomatic

program equals the number of predicates plus one, for example in

0

G

A

M:

2 A graph is connected if for every pair of vertices there is a chain go-

Let us denote the total graph above with

3 connected com-

ing from one to the other. Given a vertex a, the set of vertices that can be connected to a, together with a itself is a connected component.

MC CABE:

A COMPLEXITY

MEASURE

315

complexity

v(G) = 11+ 1 = 3 + 1 = 4.

Notice how in this case

complexity can be computed by simply counting the number of predicates in the code and not having to deal with the control graph. In practice compound predicates such as IF "c I AND c2" since

THEN are treated as contributing two to complexity without the connective AND we would have IF c 1 THEN IF c2 THEN

which has two predicates. For this reason and for testing purposes it has been found to be more convenient to count conditions instead of predicates when calculating complexity .3 It has been proved that in general the complexity of any (unstructured) program is 11+ I. The second simplification of the calculation of e -n + 2p reduces the calculation of visual inspection of the control graph. We need Euler's formula which is as follows. If G is a connected plane graph with n vertices, e edges, and r regions, then n-e+r=2. Just changing the order of the terms we get r = e -n + 2 so the number of regions is equal to the cyclornatic complexity. Given a program with a plane control graph one can therefore calculate v by counting regions, as in

1r;-3 G

~/'
~ VI. NONSTRUCTURED PROGRAMMING

v(G)

=

5

The main thrust in the recent popularization of structured programming is to make programmers aware of a few syntactic constructs4 and tell them that a structured program is one

written with only these constructs. One of the difficulties with this approach is it does not defme for programmers what constructs they should not use, i.e., it does not tell them what a structured program is not. If the programming population had a notion of what constructs to avoid and they could see the inherent difficulty in these constructs, perhaps the notion of structuring programming would be more psychologically palatable. A clear defmition of the constructs that structured programming excludes would also sensitize programmers to their use while programs are being created, which (if we be. lieve in structured programming) would have a desirable effect. One of the reasons that the author thinks this is important is that as Knuth [4] points out-there is a time and a place when an unstructured goto is needed. The author has had a similar experience structuring Fortran jobs-there are a few very specific conditions when an unstructured construct works best. If it is the casethat unstructured constructs should only be allowed under special circumstances, one need then to dis. tinguish between the programmer that makes judicious use of a few unstructured goto's as compared to the programmer that is addicted to them. What would help is first the defmition of the unstructured components and second a measure of the structureness of a program as well as the complexity of a program. Rao Kasaraju [5] has a result which is related-a flow graph is reducibles to a structured program if and only if it does not contain a loop with two or more exits. This is a deep result but not, however, what we need since many programs that are reducible to structured programs are not structured programs. In order to have programmers explicitly identify and avoid unstructured code we need a theorem that is analogous to a theorem like Kuratowski's theorem in graph theory .Kuratow. ski's theorem states that any nonplanar graph must contain at least one of two specific nonplanar graphs that he describes. The proof of nonplanarity of a graph is then reducible to locating two specific subgraphs whereas showing nonplanarity without Kuratowski's result is, in general,much more difficult. The following four control structures were found to generate all nonstructured programs.

u

3For the CASE construct with N cases use N-1 for the number of conditions. Notice, once again, that a simulation of case with IF'S will have N-1 conditions. 4The usual ones used (sometimes called D-structures) are

A number of theorems and results will be stated below without proof. Result 1: A necessary and sufficient condition that a program6 is nonstructured (one that is not written with just

o

~O

v
Q~

sReducibility here means the same function is computed with the same actions and predicates although the control structure may differ. 6 Assuming the program does not contain unconditional GOTO's.

~

316

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON SOFTWARE

ENGINEERING,

DECEMBER 1976

D-structures) is thav it contains as a subgraph either a), b), or c). The reason why graph d) was slighted in Result I is that any 3 of the 4 graphs will generateall the unstructured programsthis will be illustrated later. It is convenient to verbalize the graphsa)-d), respectively, as follows: a) branching out of a loop; b)branching into a loop; c)branchinginto a decision; and d) branching out ofa decision. The following version of Result 2 may seemmore intuitively appealing. A structured program can be written by not "branching out of or into a loop, or out of or into a decision." The following result gives insight into why a nonstructured program's logic often becomesconvoluted and entwined. Result 2: A nonstructured program cannot be just a little nonstructured. That is any nonsiructured program must contain at least 2 of the graphs a)-d). Part of the proof of Result 2 will be shown here becauseit helps to illustrate how the control flow in a nonstructuredprogram becomes entangled. We show, for an example, how graph b) cannot occur alone. Assuming we have graph b):

is branched into. So in this case we have a c) graph along with the original b) graph. Case 2: E is "after" the loop. The control graph would appear as follows:

b)
a)

Notice how a type a) graph must appear. Case 3: E is independent of the loop. would look as follows:

The control graph

b)

\
The graph c) must now be present with b). If there is another path that can go to a node after the loop from E then a type d) graph is also generated. Things are often this bad, and in factmuch worse. Similar arguments can be made for each of the other nonstructured graphs to show that a)-d) cannot occur alone. If one generatesall the possible pairs from a)-d) it is interesting to note that they all reduce to 4 basic types:

b)

(a ,b)

(b,c)

" the entry node E occurs either before, after, or from a node independent of the loop. Each of these three cases will be treated separately. Case I: E is "before" the loop E is on a path from entry to the loop so the program must have a graph as follows:

which leads us the following result. Result 3: A necessary and sufficient condition for a pro. gram to be nonstructured is that it contains at least one of: (a, b), (a, d), (b, c), (c, d). Result 4 is now obvious. Result 4: The cyclomatic complexity if a nonstructured program is at least 3. It is interesting to notice that when the orientation is taken off the edges each of the 4 basic graphs a)-d) are isomorphic to the following nondirected graph.

c) b)

0

Notice how E is a split node at the beginning of a decision that

MC CASE:

A COMPLEXITY

MEASURE

317

Also if the graphs (a, b) through (c, d) have their directions taken off they are all isomorphic to :

Notice in the nonstructured graphs below, however, that such a reduction process is not possible.

Gl:

G2:

v=6

By examining the graphs (a, b) through (c, d) one can formulate a more elegant nonstructured characterization : Result 5: A structured program can be written by not branching out of loops or into decisions-a) and d) provide a basis. Result 6: A structured program c~ be written by not branching into loops or out of decisions-b) and d) provide a basis. A way to measure the lack of structure in a program or flow graph will be briefly commented upon. One of the.difficulties with the nonstructured graphs mentioned above is that there is no way they can be broken down into subgraphs with one entry and one exit. This is a severelimitation since one way in which program complexity can be controlled is to recognize when the cyclomatic complexity becomes too large-and then identify and remove subgraphs with unique entry and exit nodes. Result 7: A structured program is reducible7 to a program of unit complexity. The following example illustrates how a structurcd program can be reduced.

G3:

v=6

Let m be the number of proper subgraphs with unique entry and exit nodes. Notice in Gl, G2, and G3 m is equal to 0, 1, and 2, respectively. The following defmition of essentialcomplexity ev is used to reflect the lack of structure. Definition: ev = v -n. For the above graphs we have ev(Gl) = 6, ev(G2) = 5, and ev(G3) = 4. Notice how the essentialcomplexity indicates the

-

-

v = 4

v = 3

v = 2

v = 1

7Reduction is the process of removing subgraphs(subroutines) with unique entry and exit nodes.

318

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON SOFTWARE

ENGINEERING,

DECEMBER

1976

extent to which a graph can be reduced-Gl cannot be reduced at all since its complexity is equal to it~ essential complexity. G2 and G3, however, can be reduced as follows:

G:

G2':

Suppose that ac = 2 and the two tested paths are [E, al , b, C2, x] and [E,a2,b,cl,X]. Then given that paths [E,al,b,cl, x] and [E, a2, b, C2, x] cannot be executed we have ac<v so case 2 holds and G can be reduced by removing decision b as in

G3': Gl:

v(G3 ') =4

Notice how in G v = ac and the complexity of G 1 is less than
This last result is stated for completeness. Result 8: The essential complexity of a structured is one.

program

VII. A TESTINGMETHODOLOGY The complexity measure v is designed to conform to our intuitive notion of complexity and since we often spend as much as 50 percent of our time in test and debug mode the measure sho14dcorrelate closely with the amount of work required to test a program. In this section the relationship between testing and cyclomatic complexity will be defmed and a testing methodology will be developed. Let us assume that a program p has been written, its complexity v has been calculated, and the number of paths tested is ac (actual complexity). If ac is less than v then one of the following conditions must be true : I) there is more testing to be done (more paths to be tested); 2) the program flow graph can be reduced in complexity by v-ac (v-ac decisions can be taken out); and 3) portions of the program can be reduced to in line code (complexity has increased to conservespace). Up to this point the complexity issue has been considered purely in terms of the structure of the control flow. This testing issue, however, is closely related to the data flow because it is the data behavior that either precludes or makes realizable the execution of any particular control path. A few simple examples may help to illustrate. Assume we start with the foJlowing flow graph:

the complexity of G. In experience this approach is most helpful when programmers are required to document their flow graph and complexity and show explicitly the different paths tested. It is often the casewhen the actual number of paths tested is compared with the cyclomatic complexity that several additional paths are discovered that would normally be overlooked. It should be noted that v is only the minimal number of independent paths that should be tested. There are often additional paths to test. It should also be noted that this procedure (like any other testing method) will by no meansguarantee or prove the software-all it can do is surface more bugs and improve the quality of the software . Two more examples are presented without comment.

v=5 ac=S

MC CABE:

A COMPLEXITY

MEASURE

\.

~: acdfghik acefgijabk

0
~

v=2 ac=2

ApPENDiX perfonns a binary search for input parameter ITEM on a table A method of computing the number of possible paths in a T of length N. SEARCH sets F to 1 and J to ITEM'S index structured program will be briefly outlined. This method assowithin T if the search is successful-otherwise F is set to O inciates an algeb~aicexpression C with each of the structured dicating that ITEM is not in T . constructs and assumesthat the complexity of a basic functional or replacement statement is one. The various syntactic PROCZDURE SI:ARCI: (ITEH) IN~EGER ITI:M constructs used in structured programming and their control BEGIN flow and complexity expressionsare shown below. The symINTI:GER L. H; F'6- O ; bol a stands for the number of iterations in a loop. ~O;
H..N; CO:'1'RO!. FLO'; A,b ~ ~ -*J C (CO:.;;'.RliC'-') C(A) X C(,,) While If H> L and ~'[J < (lI+L) TliI:N If item THI:N II..J-l
"1iILE A DO "

The program SEARCH below is used to illustrate.

SEARCH

F .O DIV 2J T[J]

Do .item

IF

A

THEN i.L51;

!) C

C(A),,(C(E)+C(C)1

C(")+(C(.1\),,t:(~)la.;(;.; I:LSI: L4-J+l

C(h)X(C(j,)+.:(.;)+

+ C(~. ) J
END

ELSE F ..1

"-'1$ ~.-.

[C(,,)

x C(;')]G

The flow graph for SEARCH is

320

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON SOFTWARE

ENGINEERING,

DECEMBER

1976

[2] B. W. Boehm, ..Software and Its impact: A quantitative assessment," Datamation, vol.19, pp. 48-S9,May1973. [3] w. B. Cammack and H. J. Rogels, ..Imploving the plogramming pIOceSS," IBM Tech. Rep. TR 00.2483, Oct. 1973. [4] D. E. Knuth, «StructUIed plogramming with ooro statements," Computing Surveys, vol. 6, pp. 261-301, Dec. 1974. [5] R. Kosaraju, "Analysis of structUIed ploglams," J. Comput. Syst. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 232'-255, Dec. 1974; also, Dep. Elec. Eng., The Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimole, MD, Tech. Rep. 72-11,1972. [ 6] H. Legard and M. Marcotty, " A genelalogy of control structUIes," Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach., vol. 18, pp. 629-639, Nov. 1975. [7] H. D. Mi1ls, "Mathematical foundations fOI structuled programming," Federal System Division, IBM Corp., Gaithersburg, MD, FSC 72-6012,1972.

The algebraic complexity

C would be computed as + I} )a I }
Thomas J. McCabe was born in Central Falls, RI, on November 28, 1941. He received the A.B. degree in mathematics from Providence College, Providence, RI and the M.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Connecticut, Storrs, in 1964 and 1966, respectively. He has been employed since 1966 by the Department of Defense, National Security Agency, Ft. Meade, MD in various systems programming and programming management positions. He also, during a military leave, served as a Captain in the Army Security Agency engaged in large-scale compiler implementation and optimization. He has recently been active in software engineering and has developed and taught various software related courses for the Institute for Advanced Technology, the University of California, and Massachusetts State College System. MI. McCabe is a member of the American Mathematical Association.

C(SEARCH) = I I I { I + (I [1[1 +1} = { I + (3)a }.

Assuming I to be at least 4, the lower bound for the expression { I + 3a} is 4 whichiridicates there are at least 4 paths to be tested. The first test would be from the immediate exit from the WHILE loop which could be tested by choosing H less than L initially. The next three tests (the three ways through the body of the loop) correspond to cases where ITEM = T [J} , ITEM < T[I} , and ITEM > T[J}.
REFERENCES [1] C. Berge, Graphs and Hypergraphs. Amsterdam, The Netherlands:

North-Holland,1973.

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