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A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by
M.Arthanareswaran K.Ashokkumar R.Hariprasanth R.Sriram
In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA In WIND RESOURCE ANALYSIS
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
PSG COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
COIMBATORE – 641 004
PSG COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY
COIMBATORE – 641 004
Certified that this project report “REPOWERING OF A WIND FARM AT EDAYARPALAYAM” is the bonafide work of “M.Arthanareswaran,
K.Ashokkumar, R.Hariprasanth and R.Sriram” who carried out the project work
under my supervision.
Dr R. VELAVAN Associate Professor and Project Supervisor Energy Engineering PSG College Of Technology Coimbatore – 641 004
Dr S. BALACHANDRAN Head of The Department Energy Engineering PSG College Of Technology Coimbatore – 641 004
Submitted for the final Viva-voce Examination held on 21.08.2012
ABSTRACT The main objective of the project is to assess the repowering potential of a wind farm using the wind atlas analysis and application program (WAsP). With repowering, the firstgeneration wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Edayarpalayam near Pappampatti is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990’s with a capacity of 11.58MW, which consists of 39 Wind Turbines. The intent of this project is to calculate the generation of the existing wind farm using WAsP and to compare with the actual generation. To carry out the micro-siting for the same wind farm with different wind turbines and to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering. Further, the energy yield ratio and repowering ratio of this repowering project also to be calculated. This will facilitate to develop a method to assess the repowering potential, since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines with lower energy output compared with new wind turbines.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 1.3 ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT 2 RE-POWERING OF WIND FARMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 NEED FOR REPOWERING 2.3 ADVANTAGES OF WIND REPOWERING 2.4 METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS REPOWERING POTENTIAL 2.5 SUMMARY 3. WIND ATLAS, ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION PROGRAM (WAsP) 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 WIND POWER PRODUCTION CALCULATION 3.3 SUMMARY 4. MICROSITING OF WIND TURBINES 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY 10 10 12 15 16 16 16 8 10 PAGE NO i ii iii iv 1 1 2 4 5 5 5 6
4.3 MICROSURVEY & MICROSITING 4.7 SUMMARY 5. CALCULATION OF EXISTING GENERATION USING WAsP 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 EXISTING INSTALLED CAPACITY AND RATING OF TURBINES 5.3 WAsP OUTPUT - EXISTING WIND FARM GENERATION 5.4 SUMMARY 6. ESTIMATION OF NEW INSTALLED CAPACITY AND GENERATION AFTER REPOWERING 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 INPUTS REQUIRED FOR WAsP
6.3 EXISTING WIND TURBINES 6.4 NEW TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR REPOWERING 6.5 AEP CALCULATION OF REPOWERED WIND FARM 6.6 CALCULATION OF AEP FROM WAsP FOR
18 18 23
23 23 23 33 39 42
6.7 CALCULATION OF AEP FROM WAsP FOR
CONFIGURATION II 6.8 SUMMARY
50 51 55 55
CO2 REDUCTION FOR THE REPOWERED WIND FARM
7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 CALCULATION OF CO2 REDUCTION FOR
7.3 CALCULATION OF CO2 REDUCTION FOR
CONFIGURATION II 7.4 SUMMARY 8. CONCLUSION
8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.2 PROJECT SUMMARY
58 59 61 61 61 63 67
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO. 5.1 6.1 8.1 TITLE Existing Installed Capacity and Rating of Turbines Summary of the verification for wind speed for each modelling Summary of the Work done PAGENO. 18 25 62
LIST OF FIGURES Fig No. 5.1 5.2
5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12
Existing Wind Farm Layout.
Google Synchronised 3D Image. AEP Calculation. Energy Losses Due to Wake Numerical Wind Atlas Wind atlas for Edayarpalayam. Vector Map Creating Vector Map in Surfer Change the Coordinate System to UTM Making Contour Map in DXF format Making WAsP Contour Map by Map Editor WAsP ASCII Map Power Curve for VESTAS ‘V39’ 500kW Power Curve for VESTAS ‘V27’ 225kW Power Curve for SUZLON ‘S33’ 350kW Power Curve for Pioneer Wincon 250kW
20 21 21 24 26 27 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 36
6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.30 6.31
Power Curve for Enercon ‘E30’ 200kW Power Curve for BONUS 300kW. Power Curve for SUZLON ‘S64’ 1250Kw Power Curve for GAMESA ‘G90’ 2.0MW. Power Curve for SUZLON ‘S88’ 2.1MW. Power Curve for GAMESA ‘G114’ 2.0 MW. Layout for Configuration I Vector Map Vector Map AEP for GAMESA G90 Wake Losses for GAMESA G90 AEP for SUZLON S88. Wake Losses for SUZLON S88. AEP for GAMESA G114. Wake Losses for GAMESA G114. AEP for GAMESA G90 Wake Losses for GAMESA G90 AEP for SUZLON S88. Wake Losses for SUZLON S88.
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 50 51 52
AEP for GAMESA G114. Wake Losses for GAMESA G114.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
WAsP AEP PLF CUF SRTM WTG PEI
: : : : : : :
WIND ATLAS ANALYSIS APPLICATION PROGRAM ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION PLANT LOAD FACTOR CAPACITY UTILIZATION FACTOR SHUTTLE RADAR TOPOGRAPHY MISSION WIND TURBINE GENERATOR PRIMARY ENERGY INPUT
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL India started with a unit size of 55 kW in 1986, when the first demonstration wind farms were built. Installation of 90 kW, 110 kW, and 150 kW unit sizes quickly followed. Thereafter, 200-kW wind-energy generators were used in the 20 MW demonstration windfarms built with assistance from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). When the private sector entered the wind market in the early 1990s, turbines of 225 kW to 300 kW unit sizes were the preferred choices. Today, 600 kW, 750 kW, 800 kW, 1250 kW, 2000 kW and 2500kW are popular unit sizes in India. The hub height of wind-turbines, which was 26 m to start with, has increased to about 90 m today. Also, the energy generation per kW rating of these WTGs or capacity factor was around 15-20%. In current scenario, much larger capacity WTGs are available with taller tower, higher rotor diameter and advanced design features. Consequently the CUF now available is almost double. Similarly, the rotor diameter has increased from 16 m to 100 m in the larger unit sizes now in operation. The pace has quickened now. The standard commercially available wind turbine size, which was150 kW, 15 Years ago and 500 kW, 10 Years ago, has now moved up to 2500 kW. In India, old wind turbines were placed at locations where the wind is often very good. Since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines with lower energy output compared with new wind turbines. Programs are started to replace the old turbines with new ones. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multimegawatt wind turbines. This study is essential for devising a method for assessing the repowering potential and to improve the energy output from the wind farms. Repowering seeks to efficiently harness the wind energy potential and subsequently increase energy generation per hectare of land area used. As a thumb rule re-powering is a process which, with half the infrastructure, will double the capacity and triple the energy. In addition repowering offers several technical, operational, financial and environmental advantages also. India has significant re-powering potential in some of its most wind rich states including Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Wind repowering in India is still at the demonstration stage and is expected to take off only by 2012. So an opportunity exists to repower the wind mill turbines, which are operational for more than 15 Years with the presently available high efficient high capacity turbines. This project evaluates the
repowering opportunities for wind farms using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT The objective of the project work is To calculate the gross and net generation of the existing wind farm using WAsP. To estimate the new installed capacity and gross and net generation after repowering using WAsP with different micro-siting and turbine spacing criteria and turbine rating selection and calculating energy yield ratio and re-powering ratio. 1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW A. Filgueira et al (2009) described the technical and economic aspects of the repowering process for the wind farms in Bustelo and S. Xoan, situated in the municipalities of Muras (Lugo) and As Pontes de Garcia Rodriguez (A Coruna), Galicia, North-Western Spain. This process was the result of a growing demand for renewable energies, facilitated by the great potential of wind energy for Galicia. Both farms were set up in 1998. The other factors they have in common - the same type of machinery, their location and a shared substation- mean they can be studied together and independently. L. M. Neto et al (2009) described the useful life of winding insulation. When retrofitting is undertaken an increase to a higher insulation class is recommendable. So the generator‘s capacity should be increased, and this will not just more than fully compensate for the investment made it will also result in a more efficient use of the raw materials used and thus contribute to sustainable development. Brazilian experience shows that retrofitting with repowering is successful. The objective of this study is to present two cases of repowering, in which the old insulating materials were replaced by other, modern ones. So, eight SG of a Power Plant in Cubatao, S.P and two SG of CEMIG, MG had its power increased up to 40%. Niels G. et al (2008) described the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). It is a software program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind data. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations. The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as forsiting of specific wind turbines. Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference.
Rajendra Kharul Sr. Fellow and Head, Centre for Wind Power, World Institute of Sustainable Energy, outlines the most important highlights of the wind-power market, including installations, geographical spread, and wind-turbine technology up gradation in India. Also explains the variations in capacities of wind-turbines installed in Tamil Nadu and in India. It further introduces the concept of re-powering and deliberates on various ways of re-powering, its need, its benefits, barriers and associated concerns in India. Also covered the criteria for selection of project; selection of Tamil Nadu for study and describes the different projects sites selected as samples in the state. It also provides details of each project chosen for the study, and the type of data collected from selected sites. It includes a detailed methodology to calculate repowering potential considering different technology and micrositing alternatives. Jacques Roeth (2010) presented industry-accepted guidelines for planning and conducting a wind resource assessment program. A comprehensive overview of the wind monitoring process, which involves the siting, installation, and operation of a meteorological towers, as well as advanced remote sensing technologies are discussed. Recommended best practices for the subsequent data collection and validation are provided. These analyses include extrapolating observed wind measurements to hub height, adjusting the measured data to the long-term historical norm, wind flow modelling and the assessing the uncertainty associated with resulting energy production estimates. Jacques Roeth (2009) investigated the influence of rugged terrain on the predictions by the wind analysis and application program (WAsP) using a case study of field measurements taken over 3 and. Years in rugged terrain. The parameters that could cause substantial errors in a prediction are identified and discussed. In particular, the effects from extreme orography are investigated. A suitable performance indicator is, developed which predicts the sign and approximate magnitude of such prediction error. This procedure allows the user to assess the consequences of using WAsP outside its operating envelope and could provide a means of correcting for rugged terrain effects. Infraline energy in its report (2011) ―Repowering of old wind farms: Opportunities and challenges‖ identifies the potential and opportunities available for the concerned stakeholders to take up the wind re-powering projects at different windy sites in the country. The report also discusses several advantages along with the cost estimates of repowering projects and different policy initiatives that are required to accelerate the repowering activities in India. MICRO-SITING Guidelines of C-WET explains Micro-siting techniques and procedures, level and complex terrain sites and micro-siting rules. It is the art of developing wind machines in a most optimal manner for achieving best wind farm
capacity. A number of wind turbines are installed in arrays and spacing between these arrays is generally 5Dx7D. (D is the rotor diameter). The factor by which the output of a wind farm would be less than what we should ideally get is known as ―array efficiency‖. Array efficiency is not affected in case of strong wind conditions, but is strongly affected in the case of low wind conditions. 1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT
The project is organized as follows: Chapter 2 Provides the concept of re-powering, need for repowering, methodology to assess repowering potential and advantages of wind repowering. Chapter 3 Describes about Wind Atlas, Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). Chapter 4 Deals with the wind resource assessment methodology micro survey & micro siting. Chapter 5 Deals with calculation of existing generation using WAsP and comparison between actual generation and WAsP output. Chapter 6 Deals with the estimation of new installed capacity and generation after repowering. Chapter 7 Provides the details of CO2 reduction for the repowered wind farm. Chapter 8 Review the entire works done in the course of the project.
CHAPTER 2 RE-POWERING OF WIND FARMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter throws light on the concept of Re-powering. Repowering refers to the refurbishment of older wind turbines, or to their removal and replacement with newer, more efficient turbines. Where older turbines have been removed and replaced with newer turbines, these have generally been accomplished by installing fewer, larger turbines. 2.2 NEED FOR REPOWERING In countries that started early with wind energy, old wind turbines were placed at locations where the wind is often very good. Since the best locations for wind in these countries are occupied by old wind turbines with lower energy output compared with new wind turbines, programs are started to replace the old turbines with new ones. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi megawatt wind turbines. In general, many factors speak in favour of repowering programs: More wind power from the same area of land: wind power generation is multiplied without the need for utilizing additional land. Fewer wind turbines: the number of turbines can be reduced while enhancing the natural landscape. The construction height can be raised. Higher efficiency, lower costs: modern turbines make better use of available wind energy. The cost of production is significantly lowered. Better appearance: modern turbines rotate at much lower speeds and are thus more visually pleasing than older, faster-rotating turbines. Better power grid integration: modern turbines offer much better grid integration, since they use a connection method similar to conventional power plants and also achieve a higher utilization degree. Wind speed and direction are known: at an existing wind turbine location wind speed and direction are already known, so it is easy to calculate the expected annual energy production for an existing location.
Additionally, it is often easier to get licenses to build a wind turbine (farm) on an existing location than on a new location. But also for government and local authorities, the results of repowering can be positive: Additional wind energy power will create a larger basis for wind energy; Although the wind turbines are higher after repowering, the quality of the landscape is often perceived as being improved, since the number of wind turbines is reduced; Replacement can be used to achieve national (or local) targets for renewable energy or for CO2 reduction. But there are also practical reasons for repowering; for example, in situations in which the manufacturer of the wind turbine no longer exists, and no other company can carry out the refurbishment of the wind turbine. 2.3 ADVANTAGES OF WIND REPOWERING Wind energy plants typically have a life span of approximately 20 Years. However, the rapid development of technology in the last two Years has made it economically justifiable to replace the older low capacity turbine by more efficient and larger turbine even before expiration of the technical life span. 2.3.1 TECHNICAL ADVANTAGE Repowering is the replacement of first –generation small capacity turbines of less than 500kW rating usually operating for more than 15 Years with the modern high capacity and more sophisticated wind-turbines .This results in the efficient utilisation of potential wind sites and producing high quantum of energy. In addition, the modern WTGs come with much higher efficiency, which improves the total Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF) significantly for the wind farm. The CUF for the old turbine was around 15-20 percentage, which would get doubled post repowering mainly because of improved design, taller tower and higher rotor diameter. 2.3.2 OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGE The re-powering of wind turbine results in the reduction of operation and maintenance (O&M) cost of the farm as the number of turbines operating in the farm reduces by more than half. Presently older turbines are fitted with critical and outdated component which causes
high failure rate and increased Mean Time between Failures (MTBF), lapses in O&M and increased machine down time and which in-turn reduces the total energy production. Additionally, for aging WTGs, wear and tear due to longer operating hours also increases O&M costs. In comparison, repowering would deploy more advanced and state-of-the-art technology wind turbines, which requires less maintenance and incur very low O&M cost as compared to the previously installed low rating small turbines. Modern wind turbines are fitted with modern power electronics converters which use similar connection method as used in conventional power plant. This offers much better integration of the wind farm with the grid, which results achieving a higher degree of utilization. 2.3.3 FINANCIAL ADVANTAGES Repowering results in more wind turbine capacity addition per unit of land area, which also increases total kWh of electricity produced because of the improved CUF. Further, wind speed and direction known for longer duration and a particular site makes it easy to estimate the expected annual energy production from the modern high capacity wind turbines. This helps in maximizing the revenue from the project, thus achieving better wind power economics. A prominent barrier faced by the wind power developers today is the availability of sites with sufficient wind velocity and its acquisition thereafter. Repowering of old turbines with larger turbines would result in significant reduction in land area/MW of wind farm. Further, increased electricity output post re-powering presents an opportunity for the states to achieve the Renewable Purchase Obligations (RPO) targets and national targets as set in the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).It also offers prospects to the developers to generate and sell Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), thus improving the return on investment and reducing the payback period. In addition to the clean development mechanism (CDM) benefits can be maximised by reducing more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the project. An additional foreign exchange can be generated from the project through the sale of certified emission reductions (CERs). 2.3.4 SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENT ADVANTAGE Repowering offers many social and environmental advantages over the old turbines. The modern turbines rotate at much lower speed and have much quite operation than the typical first and second generation design. A reduced density of wind turbines and their reduced speed would not only increase the visual appeal of the farm but would also ring
down the number of collision of birds and addresses the avian mortality issue to a great extent. The quality of the landscape also improves as the number of turbines are much less per unit area, which results in maximizing the benefits from ancillary land uses, such as access roads ,intercropping and transmission lines, right-of-ways etc., Presently, majority of the onshore wind power projects are located far from the public view and away from the residential locations. Repowering would enable the wind industry to rehabilitate to sites with modern, more aesthetically pleasing designs and less dense arrays causing less noise pollution .This would increase the visibility of wind plants and improve the public acceptance for the same. 2.4 METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS REPOWERING POTENTIAL To assess financial impacts and implications of re-powering wind power project, wind energy generation estimates are required. Establishing a methodology for calculation or repowering serves a two-fold purpose. It gives new wind power potential capacity and estimates of energy generation. To calculate the re-powering potential of any site or wind power project, the following important technical aspects need to be considered. 1. Wind resource at the site. 2. Existing installed capacity (MW), rating of turbines. 3. New technology selection (higher capacity turbine specifications). 4. Available land area and necessary set-off. 5. Estimation of new installed capacity after re-powering (with different micrositing or turbine-spacing criteria and turbine-rating selection, the estimation of new capacity will vary). 6. Estimation of gross and net energy generation (with different micrositing criteria). 7. Energy-yield ratio (ratio of new generation to old generation from same land area or same project location). Re-powering ratio (ratio of new wind power project capacity to old project capacity).
2.5 SUMMARY The concept of re-powering of wind farms, its methodology and its advantages are discussed briefly.
CHAPTER 3 WIND ATLAS, ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION PROGRAM (WAsP)
3.1 INTRODUCTION WAsP was developed and distributed by the Wind Energy Department at Risǿ DTU, Denmark. It is a PC program for predicting wind climate, wind resources and power production from wind turbine and wind farm- includes complex terrain flow model, roughness change model, and model for sheltering obstacles. Its predictions are based on wind data measured at 10 minute/hour intervals at stations in the same region for a Year, and site details such as contour map, turbine location, turbine characteristics, etc. 3.1.2 WHAT IS WASP? WAsP is a PC-program for the vertical and horizontal extrapolation of wind climate statistics. It contains several models to describe the wind flow over different terrains and close to sheltering obstacles. WAsP consists of five main calculation blocks: Analysis of raw data: This option enables an analysis of any time-series of wind measurements to provide a statistical summary of the observed, site-specific wind climate. This part is implemented in a separate tool, the Observed Wind Climate (OWC) Wizard. Generation of wind atlas data: Analysed wind data can be converted into a regional wind climate or wind atlas data set. In a wind atlas data set the wind observations have been 'cleaned' with respect to site-specific conditions. The wind atlas data sets are site independent and the wind distributions have been reduced to some standard conditions. Wind climate estimation: Using a wind atlas data set calculated by WAsP or one obtained from another source – e.g. the European Wind Atlas – the program can estimate the wind climate at any specific point by performing the inverse calculation as is used to generate a wind atlas. By introducing
descriptions of the terrain around the predicted site, the models can predict the actual, expected wind climate at this site. Estimation of wind power potential: The total energy content of the mean wind is calculated by WAsP. Furthermore, an estimate of the actual, annual mean energy production of a wind turbine can be obtained by providing WAsP with the power curve of the wind turbine in question. Calculation of Wind Farm Production: Given the thrust coefficient curve of the wind turbine and the wind farm layout, WAsP can finally estimate the wake losses for each turbine in a farm and thereby the net annual energy production of each wind turbine and of the entire farm, i.e. the gross production minus the wake losses. The program thus contains analysis and application parts, which may be summarised as follows: Analysis 1. Time-series of wind speed and direction —> observed wind climate (OWC). 2. Observed wind climate + met. station site description —> regional wind climate (RWC, wind atlas data sets) Application 1. Regional wind climate + turbine site description —> predicted wind climate (PWC). 2. Predicted wind climate + power curve —> annual energy production (AEP) of wind turbine Wind farm production 1. Predicted wind climates + WTG characteristics —> gross AEP of wind farm 2. Predicted wind climates + WTG characteristics + wind farm layout —> wind farm wake losses 3. Gross annual energy productions + wake losses —> net AEP of wind farm.
3.2 WIND POWER PRODUCTION CALCULATION We need to equip with the following to predict the wind power production of a wind farm: • A contour map of the area • The wind data from the airport • A simple description of the land use in the area • An annotated sketch of the buildings near the met. Station • A description of the power-generating characteristics of the turbine These data have been converted into digital files, as follows: • A digital map of elevations and roughness • A data file containing wind data • A data file describing the buildings at the site • A data file containing a power production curve for the turbine 3.2.1 METHODOLOGY From engineering data, we know how much power will be generated by the turbine at a given wind speed. If the plan was to erect the turbine at exactly the same place where the meteorological data had been collected, then it would be a really simple task to work out how much power to expect. However, just from looking at the map if the proposed turbine site is completely different from the meteorological station: the properties of the meteorological station itself will affect the wind data recorded there. In addition, the properties of the turbine site will have an effect on the way that the wind behaves near the turbine. It is also unlikely that the hub height of the turbine would be the same as the height of the anemometer. What we need is a way to take the wind climate recorded at the meteorological station, and use it to predict the wind climate at the turbine site. That is what WAsP does. Using WAsP, we can analyse the recorded wind data, correcting for the recording site effects to produce a site-independent
characterization of the local wind climate. This site independent characterization of the local wind climate is called a wind atlas data set or regional wind climate. We can also use WAsP to apply site effects to wind atlas data to produce a site-specific interpretation of the local wind climate. 18.104.22.168 Calculating the wind atlas Setting up a met. Station To Setting up a met. Station WAsP requires the following A description of the data-recording site A summary of the wind data recorded at the site
Adding Wind Observations Now we need to insert some wind data to the hierarchy. Select the met. Station and insert an Observed wind climate describing the site. Now WAsP needs to know about the site where the data were collected at the met. Station site, if buildings and shelterbelts of trees were found in the vicinity of the anemometer mast WAsP needs to know about these. The Atlas Calculation WAsP is now ready to calculate the wind atlas for WAsPdale. Now get WAsP to generate the wind atlas. In a wind atlas data set the wind observations have been 'cleaned' with respect to the site specific conditions. The wind atlas data sets are site-independent and the wind distributions have been reduced to some standard conditions; i.e. four standard roughness classes and five standard heights above ground level. 22.214.171.124 Estimating Wind Power Setting Up a Turbine Site Now the project contains a wind atlas with site-independent wind climate data, we can apply those data to the proposed turbine site. WAsP will adjust the data for the situation found at the turbine site, and will produce a prediction of the wind climate for the site itself.
WAsP now requires: The location of the site in the map A description of the type of wind turbine that you propose to use.
If there are no obstacles near the hilltop, so there is no need to add an obstacle list to this site. Locating the Turbine Site First, locate the turbine site in the map. Because the map and the turbine site are in the same project, WAsP automatically knows that the site lies in the area covered by the map. All that we need to do is provide the co-ordinates. Assigning the Power Curve In order to predict how much power will be produced by the turbine, WAsP needs to know the power production characteristics of the turbine. We provide this information to WAsP by associating a wind turbine generator hierarchy member with the turbine site. Predicting Wind Climate and AEP WAsP is now ready to predict the wind climate at the turbine site. We can now open the turbine site window to view the results. WAsP will estimate that about GWh per Year would be generated by erecting a turbine on the hilltop. This number is referred to as the Annual Energy Production (AEP). 126.96.36.199 Estimating wind farm production Setting up a wind farm WAsP now requires The locations of wind farm turbine sites in the map A description of the type of wind turbine that you propose to use
There are still no obstacles near the hilltop, so there is no need to add an obstacle list to this wind farm.
Locating the turbine sites First, locate the turbine site in the map. Because the map and the turbine site are in the same project, WAsP automatically knows that the site lies in the area covered by the map. All that we need to do is provide the co-ordinates. Assigning wind turbine generators In order to predict how much power will be produced by the wind farm, WAsP needs to know the power production and thrust curve characteristics of each turbine. If the turbines in your farm are all of the same type, you provide this information to WAsP by associating a wind turbine generator hierarchy member with the wind farm. If one or more turbines in a farm are different from the rest, we must provide a separate wind turbine generator hierarchy member for this or these turbines. Predicting wind farm production WAsP is now ready to predict the power production of the wind farm. 3.3 SUMMARY The concept and the working of WAsP are discussed in detail along with the procedure for the calculation of wind power production.
CHAPTER 4 MICROSITING OF WIND FARMS
4.1 INTRODUCTION This section describes the wind resource assessment methodology, micro-survey & micro-siting and location of the site selected to carry out the study on repowering and the wind resource at the site, the terrain description, orographic variations and orographic elements and the turbine characteristics of the existing wind turbines and the turbines chosen for repowering. 4.2 WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY Understanding the characteristics of the wind resource is critical to all aspects of wind energy utilization right from identification of suitable sites to economic viability of projects, design of turbines, etc. The presence or absence of certain essential factors will decide whether or not a particular site can become a potential wind farm. Thus, wind resource assessment is the first step in designing any wind power project. This activity includes the estimation and review of the existing wind resource data, nature of terrain, vegetation cover, accessibility and other features in the region of interest. The quality of a wind resource assessment program depends on sound siting, measurement techniques, quality equipment and data analysis techniques. The various steps involved in wind resource assessment process are, Large area screening & Field visit Validation (Data collection & Screening) Micro siting
Estimation of the wind resource ranges from overall estimates of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area called Regional assessment to the prediction of the average Yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine or wind farm at a specific location called Siting. If there is no on-site data available, modeling is commonly used to translate long-term reference station data to the site. Statistical dynamical downscaling method is one of the methods used to model the potential of a remote location from a bigger picture. Modeling can be accurate in many cases, but should not replace on-site measurements for more formal wind farm energy assessment. It is also possible to make
predictions of wind speeds at a site using numerical wind atlas methodology. MeasureCorrelate-Predict – is the method that involves comparing the wind speeds on the site with the wind speeds at the reference station and using the comparison to estimate the long-term wind speed on the site. 4.3 MICROSURVEY & MICROSITING (OPTIMIZATION) In a wind farm, turbines will typically be placed in rows perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Due to wake losses, wind shear, turbulence in wind and turbulence added by the turbines power generation from the turbines will reduce. Because If the wind striking a second row turbine before the wind speed has been restored from striking the first row turbine, then the energy production from the second row turbine will be reduced compare to the normal production. So proper distance should be maintained between turbines. If the space between the turbines is more, then each turbine will produce maximum power, but less number of turbines can only be installed and this could make the project activity uneconomical. So an optimum layout is required with optimum number of turbines and optimum amount of generation. This can be done with the help of micrositing. Micrositing can provide high quality estimate over the wind farm area so that each turbine can be placed for optimal energy yield. Energy estimates must be adjusted to reflect long term yield of the wind farm, generally for 20 Years. The micro siting process involves conducting surveys, monitoring and flow modeling at individual sites to quantify small scale variations in the wind resource over the area. Modeling requires three types of inputs essentially and they are, Topographical inputs (site characteristics) Climatological inputs ( wind characteristics) Wind turbine generator characteristics
4.4 SUMMARY The wind resource assessment methodology and micro-survey & micro-siting were discussed in this section.
CHAPTER 5 CALCULATION OF EXISTING GENERATION USING WAsP
5.1 INTRODUCTION This section outlines the input files calculated for WAsP and the calculation of Existing generation. Also the calculated the existing generation and actual generation were compared and conclusions were arrived. 5.2 EXISTING INSTALLED CAPACITY AND RATING OF TURBINES Existing farm consist of 39 turbines of total capacity 11.58MW of which 36 turbines ranging from 200kw to 500kw commissioned during the Year 1990-95 and three turbines of 1250kw was commissioned recently. MAKE CAPACITY 225kw VESTAS RRB 500kw 350kw SUZLON 1250kw BONUS PIONEER WINCON ENERCON 300kw 250kw 200kw 3 4 6 3 9 5 NOs 9
Table 5.1 Existing Installed Capacity and Rating of Turbines 5.3 WAsP OUTPUT - EXISTING WIND FARM GENERATION The created WAsP inputs are given to WAsP and the annual energy output of the wind farm are estimated. WAsP will give average wind speed of each machine and the Gross output and Net output of each machine. Then the Final output also calculated by considering the following parameters
5.3.1 Existing Wind Farm Layout
Fig.5.1 Existing Wind Farm Layout. 5.3.2 Google Synchronised 3D Image
Fig. 5.2 Google Synchronised 3D Image.
5.3.4 AEP Calculation
Fig. 5.3 AEP Calculation. AEP from WAsP⇒28.679GWh 5.3.5 Energy Losses Due To Wake
Fig. 5.4 Energy Losses Due To Wake
Then the Actual output is calculated by assuming the following parameters Machine availability 95 % Grid availability 90% Transmission Efficiency 95% WAsP prediction error 5% ⇒11.58MW ⇒ Farm Capacity×8760hrs ⇒101.4298GWh AEP from WAsP Actual Generation ⇒28.679GWh ⇒AEP from WAsP ×0.95×0.95×0.95×0.90 ⇒22.130GWh Plant Load Factor ⇒0.218
Then the total generation of the wind farm and the plant load factor is calculated. Existing Capacity Theoretical AEP
5.3.6 Observation from the results The actual generation of the wind farm is very low when compare to the WAsP predicted output One of the reason behind is, the efficiency of the machines is reducing due to the ageing of the machines The above can be eliminated by repowering with high capacity (megawatt) machines by accurate micrositing 5.4 SUMMARY Using WAsP the generation of the existing wind farm was calculated. For the calculation input files were created using the data collected during the field visit. Finally the existing generation was calculated and compared with the actual generation.
CHAPTER 6 ESTIMATION OF NEW INSTALLED CAPACITY AND GENERATION AFTER REPOWERING
6.1 INTRODUCTION Using WAsP the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering was predicted. Further, the energy yield ratio and repowering ratio of this repowering project also calculated. 6.2 INPUTS REQUIRED FOR WAsP 6.2.1 NUMERICAL WIND ATLAS CWET in association with Riso DTU, Denmark has developed Numerical wind atlas of India. Numerical wind atlas methodologies have been devised to solve the issue of insufficient wind measurements. One such methodology is the so-called KAMM/WAsP method developed at Risø National Laboratory, Denmark. In this methodology an approach called statistical-dynamical downscaling is used (Frey-Buness et al, 1995). The basis for the method is that there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large scale and meteorological situations at the small scale. Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) is used to model the mesoscale effects on the wind flow over India using modeling domains. KAMM calculates the mesoscale wind field using as input a description of the synoptic-scale climatology, as well as suitable orography and roughness maps. The climatology of the post-processed simulated wind fields and the local orography and roughnesses are subsequently used by WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme) to predict the local wind climate. Creating a numerical wind atlas demands a large computational effort, and this computation effort increases with the size of the region to be mapped. India‘s very large size means that it is not possible to perform the numerical wind atlas calculations at sufficient resolution for the whole country using a single modeling domain. Therefore it was decided to split the numerical wind atlas effort into twelve calculation domains (See Fig.6.1).
Fig. 6.1 Numerical Wind Atlas Figure.6.1 Map of India showing the 12 modeling domains used. A complete numerical wind atlas calculation is made for each domain. The .lib files with 5 km resolution generated by KAMM have been verified with the .lib file generated by WAsP with reference to the actual measurements at very limited location. Summary of the verification for wind speed for each modelling domain at 10/20m agl. Is given in table 6.1. (For more details please refer Indian Wind Atlas book published by CWET, Chennai) The output of KAMM wind atlas file (.lib file) can be used as an input file of WAsP for the further analysis after the validation of results with nearby sites. Figure 6.2 gives an example of wind atlas file (.lib). This can also be referred to get an idea of wind characteristics over the given area at different height levels with reference to the roughness.
Nos. of stations used for verification 5 5 5 4 4 1 3 4 4 5 1 2
Mean abs. error of wind speed at 10/20m (%) 10.77 13.32 12.45 7.68 10.17 6.64 17.05 18.7 33.69 51.30 6.92 30.95
ISA ISB ICA ICB ITE ITF ITB ITC ITD INU IIW IIE
Table 6.1 Summary of the Verification for Wind Speed for Each Modeling Domain .
Fig. 6.2 Wind atlas for edayarpalayam (long. 77.150E lat. 10.950N) obtained from CWET. 6.2.2 VECTOR MAP Vector maps are used to describe the elevation (orography) and land cover (surface roughness) of the area surrounding calculation sites such as meteorological stations, reference sites, turbine sites or the sites in a resource grid. WAsP uses vector maps, in which terrain surface elevation is represented by height contours and roughness lengths by roughness change lines. The map coordinate system must be Cartesian and the coordinates must be given in meters. It is not possible to create and edit maps from within the WAsP program itself; this must be done with the WAsP Map Editor which can be invoked from the Tools menu.
Furthermore, there is no direct link between WAsP and the Map Editor – they only communicate through the map file itself. When a map file has been changed in the Map Editor, it must be reloaded into WAsP in order to take effect.
Fig. 6.3 Vector Map 6.2.3 TRANSFORMING SRTM DATA TO WAsP MAPS SRTM coordinates are non-projected (latitude, longitude). Horizontal reference system (datum) is WGS84 and vertical reference is the EGM96 geoid. Transforming SRTM data to WAsP elevation maps therefore require the following: Transformation of geo. Coordinates to a metric system Transformation of grid point elevations to height contours
Transformation of WGS84 to another datum – if need be
The tools required for transforming SRTM data to vector map are: Surfer WAsP Map Editor WAsP Geo projection utility
Step 1: Download data from the SRTM data for the required site SRTM HGT format is supported by Surfer. Step 2: Convert the HGT file to GRD format using Surfer Unzip the downloaded ZIP file Rename the HGT file to DEM Create HDR and STX files (with the same file name) Insert upper left corner coordinates (signed) in the HDR file Start Surfer and choose Grid | Convert… Open the *.HDR file Save grid as *.GRD file (with the same file name)
Fig.6.4 Creating Vector Map in Surfer The result is a Surfer GRD file in geographical coordinates (WGS84). Inspect the grid for voids (undefined values) and spikes and wells using Surfer. Remove spikes and wells by inserting a sensible elevation value using the Surfer grid editor. Step 3: Change the coordinate system to UTM 1. First, convert the grid file to a list-of-points file in Surfer: 2. Choose Grid | Convert… 3. Open GRD file and save as ASCII XYZ (*.dat) Now, you can use the Geo-Projection Transformer utility program to make this transformation, using File | Transform XYZ-file.
Fig. 6.5 Change the Coordinate System to UTM The result in both cases should be an ASCII XYZ file in metric map coordinates (WGS84). Step 4: Make a metric GRD file In Surfer, choose Grid | Data… Open the XYZ file as ‗Golden Software Data‘ 1. Choose ‗Skip leading spaces‘ and ‗Treat consecutive delimiters as one‘ 2. Choose a name for ‗Output Grid File‘ 3. Invoke Filter data... if you want exclude e.g. certain high z-values in the data 4. Set values for ‗Grid Line Geometry‘, i.e. grid size and extents of modelling domain 5. The result is a Surfer GRD file in metric map coordinates (WGS84) covering the modelling domain. Surfer has made a complete grid without voids by interpolation (e.g. Kriging). Step 5: Make a contour map in DXF format 1. Create a new contour map in Surfer, using the GRD file as input 2. Choose the appropriate contour levels in the Properties | Levels window
3. Export the height contours to a 3-D AutoCAD DXF file from the Map | Contour map... menu
Fig. 6.6 Making Contour Map in DXF format Step 6: Make a WAsP contour map 1. Open the DXF file in the WAsP Map Editor 2. Add and Replace... to merge several maps 3. Check the map contours for spikes and wells 4. Transform to any other datum, if need be 5. Compare to a scanned background map 6. Check vertical datum‘s and compare elevations 7. Add spot heights and other details close to the site(s)
8. Add roughness change lines – including the coastline, if any 9. Save the map as WAsP ASCII map file (*.map)
Fig. 6.7 Making WAsP Contour Map by Map Editor The result is a WAsP ASCII map that can used for WAsP analysis and/or application
Fig. 6.8 WAsP ASCII Map
6.2.4 WIND TURBINE GENERATOR FILE Wind turbine generators are used to describe wind turbines. They can be associated with (be a child of) turbine sites, turbine site groups, wind farms and resource grids. If a wind turbine generator is inserted at the project level, it will be used for all sites and grids in the project. WAsP can also read wind turbine data in the standard WAsP *.pow format. Wind turbine generators contain information about how turbines transform wind energy into electrical power, and the hub height usual for the turbine when deployed. The wind turbine generator file also contains the rotor diameter, values of the thrust coefficient, Ct, and some general information relating to the wind turbine generator. Wind turbine generator files can contain several performance tables, each relating to a specific air density or noise level.
The power curve and other turbine characteristics of the turbine used are given below: 6.3 EXISTING WIND TURBINES 6.3.1 VESTAS ‘V39’ 500kW
Fig. 6.9 Power Curve for VESTAS ‗V39‘ 500kW
6.3.2 VESTAS ‘V27’ 225kW
Fig. 6.10 Power Curve for VESTAS ‗V27‘ 225kW
6.3.3 SUZLON ‘S33’ 350kW
Fig. 6.11 Power Curve for SUZLON ‗S33‘ 350kW
6.3.4 Pioneer Wincon 250kW
Fig. 6.12 Power Curve for Pioneer Wincon 250kW
6.3.5 Enercon ‘E30’ 200kW
Fig. 6.13 Power Curve for Enercon ‗E30‘ 200kW
6.3.6 Bonus 300kW
Fig. 6.14 Power Curve for BONUS 300kW.
6.3.7 SUZLON ‘S64’ 1250kW
Fig. 6.15 Power Curve for SUZLON ‗S64‘ 1250kW 6.4 NEW TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR REPOWERING For Repowering three different types of wind turbines were selected namely ‗GAMESA G90‘, ‗GAMESA G114 and ‗SUZLON S88. GAMESA G90 is doubly fed induction generator with rotor diameter of 90m and GAMESA G114 is also a doubly fed induction generator with rotor diameter of 114m.Both have a rated capacity of 2000kW.And SUZLON S88 is an asynchronous generator with rotor diameter of 88m rated capacity of 2100kW The wind turbine specifications and the power curve and thrust curves are shown below
6.4.1 GAMESA ‘G90’ 2.0MW
Fig. 6.16 Power Curve for GAMESA ‗G90‘ 2.0MW
6.4.2 SUZLON ‘S88’ 2.1MW
Fig. 6.17 Power Curve for SUZLON ‗S88‘ 2.1MW
6.4.3 GAMESA ‘G114’ 2.0 MW
Fig. 6.18 Power Curve for GAMESA ‗G114‘ 2.0 MW 6.5 AEP CALCULATION OF REPOWERED WIND FARM Repowering is carried out for 36 turbines on existing wind farm with capacity from
200kw to 500kw. Annual energy production is calculated for different turbine models and different spacing options. Then the energy yield ratio and repowering ratio are estimated. The various turbines model are selected for repowering are listed below SUZLON S88-2.1MW GAMESA G90-2MW GAMESA G114-2MW
6.5.1 MICROSITING FOR REPOWERING 188.8.131.52 Configuration I: This is the art of developing wind machines in a most optimal manner for achieving best wind farm capacity In this set up 15 turbines are used. The 15 turbines are installed in arrays. Spacing in these arrays are generally 5Dx7D. (D is the rotor diameter) The factor by which the output of a wind farm would be less than what we should ideally get is known as ―array efficiency‖ Array efficiency is not affected in case of strong wind conditions, but is strongly affected in the case of low wind conditions. In the same wind farm site and in the same land area new selected wind turbine were placed with 5D×7D spacing and the images are shown below Layout for configuration I:
Fig. 6.19 Layout for Configuration I
Vector Map for Configuration I
Fig. 6.20 Vector Map 184.108.40.206 Configuration II In this set up 9 turbines are used. In the wind rose shown in figure 6.2, 9th sector is having more wind speed for most of the times in a Year. The 9 turbines are placed in a manner according to the wind direction in order to reduce wake losses as shown in the figure 6.21.
Vector Map with Turbine Spacing for Configuration II
Fig. 6.21 Vector Map 6.6 CALCULATION OF AEP FROM WAsP FOR CONFIGURATION I 6.6.1 FOR GAMESA G90
Fig. 6.22 AEP for GAMESA G90
Fig. 6.23 Wake Losses for GAMESA G90 Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio ⇒ 33.75MW ⇒ 295.65GWh ⇒ 102.556GWh ⇒ 79.136GWh ⇒ 0.268 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm : Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:2.915 Energy yield ratio ⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:3.576
6.6.2 FOR SUZLON S88:
Fig. 6.24 AEP for SUZLON S88. Wake Losses
Fig. 6.25 Wake Losses for SUZLON S88.
Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio
⇒ 35.250MW ⇒ 308.790GWh ⇒ 90.074GWh ⇒ 69.504GWh ⇒ 0.225 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm: Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:3.044
Energy yield ratio
⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:3.141
6.6.3 FOR GAMESA G114:
Fig. 6.26 AEP for GAMESA G114.
Fig. 6.27 Wake Losses for GAMESA G114 Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio ⇒ 33.75MW ⇒ 295.65GWh ⇒ 162.195GWh ⇒ 125.156GWh ⇒ 0.423 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm: Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:2.915 Energy yield ratio ⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:5.655
6.7 CALCULATION OF AEP FROM WAsP FOR CONFIGURATION II 6.7.1 FOR GAMESA G90:
Fig. 6.28 AEP for GAMESA G90. Wake Losses
Fig. 6.29 Wake Losses for GAMESA G90
Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio
⇒ 21.75MW ⇒ 190.53GWh ⇒ 67.227GWh ⇒ 51.875GWh ⇒ 0.272 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm : Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:1.878
Energy yield ratio
⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:2.344
6.7.2 FOR SUZLON S88:
Fig. 6.30 AEP for SUZLON S88
Fig. 6.31 Wake Losses for SUZLON S88 Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio ⇒ 22.65MW ⇒ 198.414GWh ⇒ 63.628GWh ⇒ 49.098GWh ⇒ 0.247 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm : Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:1.956 Energy yield ratio ⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:2.219
6.7.3 FOR GAMESA G114
Fig. 6.32 AEP for GAMESA G114. Wake Losses
Fig. 6.33 Wake Losses for GAMESA G114.
Farm Capacity Theoretical AEP AEP Using WAsP Actual Generation Plant Load Factor Repowering ratio
⇒ 21.75MW ⇒ 190.53GWh ⇒ 101.103GWh ⇒ 78.015GWh ⇒ 0.409 ⇒ Capacity of the existing farm : Capacity of the repowered wind farm ⇒ 1:1.878
Energy yield ratio
⇒ Energy from the existing farm : Energy from the repowered farm ⇒ 1:3.525
CHAPTER 7 CO2 REDUCTION FOR THE REPOWERED WIND FARM
7.1 INTRODUCTION The power sector accounts for around 40% of global CO2 emissions, and it is clear that we cannot win the fight against climate change without a dramatic shift in the way we produce and consume electricity. With dramatic increases in global power demand, renewable energy technologies must be rolled out quickly to provide emissions-free renewable electricity for industrialised and developing countries alike. 7.2 HOW MUCH CO2 CAN WIND ENERGY SAVE? Wind energy does not emit any greenhouse gases, and has an extremely good energy balance. The calculations on just how much CO2 could be saved by wind energy is based on an assumption for the carbon intensity of the global electricity sector, i.e. the typical amount of CO2 emitted by producing one kWh of power. Individual countries emissions differ substantially, but here we use the IEA‘s estimate of 0.950/MWh as an average value for the carbon dioxide reduction to be obtained from wind generation. In India, wind energy is expected to generate up to 338 TWh of electricity in 2020, which would reduce CO2 emissions by 203 tons. Again based on a reduction of 15% from the business-as-usual scenario by 2020, India could achieve 46-74% of the emissions reductions required in the energy sector by wind energy only (depending on IEA model). 7.2 CALCULATION OF CO2 REDUCTION FOR CONFIGURATION I 7.2.1 FOR GAMESA G90 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production) 3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 26.8%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 79.136 GWh / Year/26.8%
⇒ (79.136 x 100) / 26.8 ⇒ 295.28 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1): ⇒ 79.136 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 79136000 kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 75179 tCO2 / Year 5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 295280000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 295280000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2project (Step2) ⇒ 75179 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 75179 tCO2 / Year 7.2.2 FOR SUZLON S88 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production) 3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 22.5%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 69.504 GWh / Year/ 22.5% ⇒ (69.504 x100) / 22.5 ⇒ 308.906 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1): ⇒ 69.504 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 69504000 kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 66028.8 tCO2 / Year
5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 308906000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 308906000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2project (Step2) ⇒ 66028.8 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 66028.8 tCO2 / Year 7.2.3 FOR GAMESA G114 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production) 3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 42.3%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 125.156 GWh / Year / 42.3% ⇒ (125.156 x100) / 42.3 ⇒ 295.877 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1): ⇒ 125.156 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 125156000 kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 118898.2 tCO2 / Year 5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 295877000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 295877000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2project (Step2) ⇒ 118898.2 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 118898.2 tCO2 / Year
7.3 CALCULATION OF CO2 REDUCTION FOR CONFIGURATION II 7.3.1 FOR GAMESA G90 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production) 3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 27.2%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 51.875GWh / Year / 27.2% ⇒ (51.875x100) / 27.2 ⇒ 190.716 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1): ⇒ 51.875 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 51875000kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 49281.25 tCO2 / Year 5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 190716000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 190716000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2project (Step2) ⇒ 49281.25 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 49281.25 tCO2 / Year 7.3.2 FOR SUZLON S88 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production)
3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 24.7%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 49.098 GWh / Year / 24.7% ⇒ (49.098x100) / 24.7 ⇒ 198.777 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1): ⇒ 49.098 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 49098000 kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 46643.1 tCO2 / Year 5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 198777000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 198777000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2 project (Step2) ⇒ 46643.1 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 46643.1 tCO2 / Year 7.3.3 FOR GAMESA G114 FARM 1. Determination of the Fossil Primary Energy Input (PEI) of the Project ⇒0 (only power from the wind turbine is used) 2. Determination of the Direct CO2 Emissions Produced by the Project ⇒0 (the wind turbine produces no CO2 emissions for electricity production) 3. The PEI Baseline The efficiency factor in the Farm is assumed with 40.9%. Thus, the PEI ⇒ 78.015 GWh / Year / 40.9% ⇒ (78.015 x100) / 40.9 ⇒ 190.745 GWh / Year 4. Calculation of the CO2 Emissions Baseline Take the electricity production and multiply it with the country´s emission factor in electricity production (Table A.1):
⇒ 78.015 GWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 78015000 kWh / Year x 0.000950 tCO2 / kWh ⇒ 74114.25 tCO2 / Year 5. Calculation of the Reduction in PEI and CO2 Emissions PEI: Baseline (Step 4) – PEI (Step 1) ⇒ 190745000 kWh / Year – 0 ⇒ 190745000 kWh CO2: Baseline (Step 5) – CO2project (Step 2) ⇒ 74114.25 tCO2 – 0 ⇒ 74114.25 tCO2 / Year 7.4 SUMMARY The importance of CO2 reduction and methodology of calculating CO2 reduction for the wind farm are discussed briefly.
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
8.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to review the significant results obtained during present work. In the larger interest of the nation, the repowering activities should be taken up on a priority basis which would significantly increase the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix. 8.2 SUMMARY OF THE WORKDONE This thesis aims at assessing the repowering potential of a wind farm. To carry out the study an old wind farm located at Edayarpalayam near Pappampatti, Tamilnadu was selected. The methodology to assess the repowering potential and the repowering potential of India and the various states are discussed. The Wind Atlas, Analysis and application program (WAsP) and its features and the methodology to calculate the annual energy productions are described. The input data for the WAsP were collected and converted into WAsP input files. Annual energy production of the Edayarpalayam wind farm was calculated and the annual energy output of the wind farm after repowering also predicted. The results of the WAsP for Existing generation and the output of the wind farm after repowering are analysed to understand the significance of repowering to overcome the energy crisis of the nation. The following are the observations and conclusions from the above study.
REPOWERING Configuration I G90 AEP in GWh / Year PLF in % Repowering Ratio Energy Yield Ratio Wake Losses in % 79.136 26.8 S88 69.504 22.5 G114 125.156 42.3 1:2.915 Configuration II G90 51.875 27.2 S88 49.098 24.7 G114 78.015 40.9 23.130 21.8 EXISTING
1:1.878 1:1.956 1:1.878
1:2.344 1:2.219 1:3.525
Table 8.1 Summary of the Work done 1. Configuration I is the most efficient in which G114 and G90 are the two dominant machines giving more energy yield, however G114 is not entered into the Indian wind industry, it‘s just preferred to show how the generation varies when the diameter and hub height increases. Hence G90 is opted in our project. 2. Plant load factor (PLF) is increased from 21.8 % to 26.8 % for GAMESA G90 3. Energy yield ratio is 1:3.576 for GAMESA G90. i.e. Generation of the wind farm is increased more than 3 times. 4. Repowering ratio for GAMESA G90 is 1:2.915 i.e. Capacity of the wind farm became triple.
Region/C ountry OECD USA Americas Canada (average) Mexico Chile OECD Austria Europe Belgium Czech Denmark Republic Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Luxembo Netherlan urg Norway ds Poland Portugal Slovak Spain Republic Sweden Switzerla Turkey nd United OECD Kingdom Australia Asia Japan Korea New NonZealand Albania OECD tCO2/ MWh 0.485 0.531 0.184 0.455 0.398 0.341 0.183 0.239 0.534 0.311 0.207 0.089 0.447 0.739 0.326 0.001 0.482 0.416 0.382 0.389 0.010 0.652 0.379 0.223 0.337 0.041 0.040 0.484 0.480 0.503 0.862 0.435 0.471 0.191 0.503 0.023 Region/Co untry Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus BosniaBulgaria Herzegovi Croatie na Estonia FYR of Georgia Macedoni Gibraltar a Kazakhsta Kyrgyzsta n L.atvia n Lithuania Malta Republico Romania fMoldova Russia Serbia Slovenia Tajikistan Turkmenis Ukraine tan Uzbekista Banglades n Brunei h China Darussala Chinese (mci. m Hong DPR of Taipei Kong) India Korea Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippine s tCO2/ MWh 0.145 0.462 0.300 0.908 0.492 0.337 0.735 0.753 0.127 0.756 0.485 0.087 0.160 0.116 0.904 0.513 0.436 0.322 0.662 0.337 0.031 0.810 0.373 0.462 0.575 0.738 0.765 0.647 0.483 0.950 0.757 0.638 0.249 0.004 0.447 0.471 Region/ Country Singapor Sri e Thailand Lanka Vietnam Other Middle Asia Bahrain East Cyprus Iraq Islamic Israel Rep. Of Jordan Iran Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Syria Arabia United Yemen Arab Africa Emirates Algeria Angola Benine Botswan Cameroo ae Congoe n Côte DR of dIvoire Egypt Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Kenya Libya
tCO2/ MWh 0.523 0.425 0.530 0.409 0.274 0.687 0.718 0.755 0.731 0.609 0.721 0.586 0.810 0.698 0.859 0.496 0.740 0.649 0.694 0.649 0.641 0.590 0.220 0.695 1.916 0.228 0.139 0.428 0.003 0.459 0.665 0.094 0.366 0.254 0.321 0.868
Region/Cou ntry Marocco Mozambiqu Namibiae e Nigeria Senegal South Sudan Africa Togo Tunisia United Rep. Zambia OfTanzani Zimbabwe Other America Africa Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Ecuador Republic El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Netherlands Nicaragua Antilles Panama Paraguay Peru Trinidad and Uruguay Tobago Venezuela Other Latin America
tCO2/M Wh 0.690 0.000 0.253 0.396 0.594 0.900 0.470 0.271 0.547 0.257 0.003 0.619 0.489 0.178 0.358 0.368 0.075 0.136 0.058 0.735 0.633 0.301 0.304 0.354 0.513 0.391 0.478 0.707 0.506 0.297 0.000 0.225 0.725 0.221 0.203 0.242
Table A.1 Electricity Emission Factors (EFel) For Different Countries (tCO2/MWh)
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