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Q.1:- Define the term Educational Technology in the perspective of modern education?

Educational Technology:
Educational technology is the use of technology to improve education. It is a systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training used to improve performance. Educational technology is sometimes also known as instructional technology or learning technology.

According to International Technology Education Association : Teaches with technology (uses technology as a tool) Primarily concerned with the narrow spectrum of information and communication technologies Primary goal: To enhance the teaching and learning process. today's educators tend to think of educational or instructional technology as equipment particularly electronic equipment. In the view of most writers, researchers, and practitioners in the field, useful definitions of educational technology must focus both on the process of applying tools for educational purposes and the tools and materials used. As Muffoletto (1994) puts it, "Technology. . . is not a collection of machines and devices, but a way of acting"

Four Perspectives That Define Educational Technology

If educational technology is viewed as both processes and tools, it is important to begin by examining four different historical perspectives on these processes and tools, all of which have helped shape current practices in the field.
Educational technology as media and audiovisual communications :

This perspective grew out of the audiovisual (AV) movement in the 1930s, when higher education instructors proposed that media such as slides and films delivered information in more concrete, and therefore more effective, ways than lectures and books did. This movement produced audiovisual communications or the "branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages that control the learning process" The view of educational technology as media to deliver information continues to dominate areas of education and the communications industry. As late as 1986, the National

Task Force on Educational Technology equated educational technology with media, treating computers simply as another medium (Saettler, 1990).
Educational technology as instructional systems and instructional design

This view originated with post-World War II military and industrial trainers who were faced with the problem of preparing large numbers of personnel quickly. Based on efficiency studies and learning theories from educational psychology, they advocated using more planned, systematic approaches to developing uniform, effective materials and training procedures. Their view was based on the belief that both human (teachers) and nonhuman (media) resources could be part of an efficient system for addressing any instructional need. Therefore, they equated "educational technology" with "educational problem solutions." As these training personnel began to work with both university research and development projects and K-12 schools, they also influenced practices in both of these areas. Behaviorist theories initially dominated and cognitive theories later gained precedence. In the 1990s, popular learning theories criticized systems approaches as being too rigid to foster some kinds of learning, particularly higher order ones. Thus, the current view of educational technology as instructional systems is continually evolving.
Educational technology as vocational training:

Also known as technology education, this perspective originated with industry trainers and vocational educators in the 1980s. They believed that an important function of school learning is to prepare students for the world of work in which they will use technology and that vocational training can be a practical means of teaching all content areas such as math, science, and language. This view brought about a major paradigm shift in vocational training in K-12 schools away from industrial arts curricula centered in woodworking/metals and graphics/printing shops toward technology education courses taught in labs equipped with high-technology stations such as desktop publishing, computer-assisted design (CAD), and robotics systems.
Educational technology as computer systems:

As computers began to transform business and industry practices, both trainers and teachers began to see that computers also had the potential to aid instruction. From the time computers came into classrooms in the 1960s until about 1990, this perspective was known as educational computing and encompassed both instructional and administrative support applications. At first, programmers and systems analysts created all applications. But by the 1970s, many of the same educators involved with media, AV communications, and instructional systems

also were researching and developing computer applications. By the 1990s, educators began to see computers as part of a combination of technology resources, including media, instructional systems, and computer-based support systems. At that point, educational computing became known as educational technology.

Q.2 What are the important Learning strategies? How a willing learner strategy can be helpful in the learning process? Learning Strategies or Instructional Strategies
Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities, information presentation, learner activities, testing, and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles. (Ekwensi, Moranski, &Townsend-Sweet, 2006)

Instructional Strategy Selection Chart

Instructional Strategy

Cognitive Domain (Bloom, 1956)

Affective Domain Psychomotor (Krathwohl, Domain Bloom, & (Simpson, Masia, 1972) 1973)
1.Receiving phenomena 1. Perception 2. Set 3. Guided response 4. Mechanism

Lecture, reading, audio/visual, demonstration, or guided observations, question and answer period Discussions, multimedia CBT, Socratic didactic method, reflection. Activities such as surveys, role playing, case studies, fishbowls, etc. On-the-Job-Training (OJT), practice by doing (some direction or coaching is required), simulated job settings (to include CBT

1. Knowledge

2. Comprehension 3. Application

2.Responding to phenomena

4. Analysis

3. Valuing

5. Complex response

simulations) Use in real situations. Also may be trained by using several high level activities coupled with OJT. Normally developed on own (informal learning) through self-study or learning through mistakes, but mentoring and coaching can speed the process. 5. Synthesis 4. Organize values 6. Adaptation into priorities

6. Evaluation

5.Internalizing values

7. Origination

Q.3 Discuss the term Communication and highlight its elements? Communication:
The word communication comes from the Latin communis, meaning to share, is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior.

Elements of Communication
Source Message Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding


Source:- The Source idea is the process by which one formulates

an idea to communicate to another party. This process can be

influenced by external stimuli such as books or radio, or it can come about internally by thinking about a particular subject. The source idea is the basis for the communication. The Message is what will be communicated to another party. It is based on the source idea, but the message is crafted to meet the needs of the audience. For example, if the message is between two friends, the message will take a different form than if communicating with a superior.

Message :-


Encoding is how the message is transmitted to another party. The message is converted into a suitable form for transmission. The medium of transmission will determine the form of the communication. For example, the message will take a different form if the communication will be spoken or written.

Channel:- The Channel is the medium of the communication.

The channel must be able to transmit the message from one party to another without changing the content of the message. The channel can be a piece of paper, a communications medium such as radio, or it can be an email. The channel is the path of the communication from sender to receiver. An email can use the Internet as a channel.

Receiver :- The Receiver is the party receiving the

communication. The party uses the channel to get the communication from the transmitter. A receiver can be a television set, a computer, or a piece of paper depending on the channel used for the communication.


Decoding is the process where the message is interpreted for its content. It also means the receiver thinks about the message's content and internalizes the message. This step of the process is where the receiver compares the message to prior experiences or external stimuli.
Feedback:- Feedback is the final step in the communications process.

This step conveys to the transmitter that the message is understood by the receiver. The receiver formats an appropriate reply to the first communication based on the channel and sends it to the transmitter of the original message.

Q.4 Illustrate the role of media in instructional process. The Roles of Media in the Instructional Process Instruction:- The arrangement of information and the
facilitate learning.

environment to

Learning:- The development of new knowledge, skills, or attitudes. Media:- (singular - medium) - 1. A channel of communication. 2. A means of
communicating information or ideas. Referred to as "instructional media" when it carries information or messages with an instructional purpose. Media can serve many roles in the instructional process. Understanding the purpose of media, effective planning of instruction, and systematic evaluation of media will enable the teachers to make a careful selection of media to use for instruction. A media format is the physical form in which a message is incorporated and displayed. Media formats include, flip charts, slides, audio, video, and computer multimedia. Each has different strengths and limitations in terms of the types of messages that can be recorded and displayed. The purpose of the media selection process is to determine the best media for a given instructional situation. To determine the most appropriate media for their needs, instructors must evaluate the objectives, the content, and the learner. Many instructional programs may be combinations of the methods of communicating messages to learners. Since, media is only a distribution system for delivering various messages and representations to learners, each strategy mentioned below places the learner and teacher in a different role

Instructor-Directed Instruction
The role of media for instructor-directed instructional situations is for supplemental support of the live instructor in the classroom. In other words, media is used to enhance the live instruction. It is most effective when the instructor explains the media and relates them to instructional objectives. In this method an instructor relates and disseminates information to learners. This takes shape in the lecture format, educational television, and various computer formats. The concept of advanced organizers, has developed and is intended to create a mindset for reception of instruction. Advance organizers can help ensure that media play an appropriate role as a supplemental supporter of

instruction. However, media effectiveness still depends on the instructor competencies.

Instructor-Independent Instruction
In this method of instruction, objectives and guidance for achieving the objectives, materials, and self-evaluation are provided through packaged media, which is supposed to be self-sufficient. This type of media contains instructions, explanations, and/or guidance and should be well designed for a target audience. In informal educational settings, trainees at the worksite or at home can use media such as videocassettes and computer courseware. In some instances an instructor may be available for consultation via telephone.

Distance Education:The distinguishing characteristic of distance education is the separation of teacher and student during the learning process. The media may be primarily print, as in traditional courses, however it covers a wide set of applications and processes such as web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet, audio and videotape, satellite, and CD-ROM.

Q.5 What is the physical basis of learning? How educational technology can support learning? Physical Basis of learning:
Physical activity is an important part of human learning and supports our learning processes in different ways: Physical, social and psychological factors are stated. Each of them promotes creativity, and therefore innovation, in its own way. In innovation-intensive companies, immediate physical effects are mostly of interest, but also the psychological and social effects of activity must be taken into consideration. In practice, these factors are often forgotten. Not only do the processes during work influence the activity behavior, but also the organization of work, the design of workplaces and the architecture of buildings. These two last aspects are mostly neglected. Because of that, physical activity needs more attention when designing new buildings. The aspects of physical activity and chance encounters have to be taken into consideration when designing a new work environment. A sensory activating environment can increase concentration, the ability to learn and creativity. The result is higher work

efficiency. The design of workplaces and the architecture of buildings are important factors for improving the behavior of physical activity. A careful planning of working processes and workplaces is well worth the effort. Especially schools try to take these findings into account. They usually do so in awareness of the physical effects of activity. They implement movement projects in the daily schedule or use special didactic approaches where physical activity is an integral part. However, these projects are mainly aimed at the physical aspects of activity exercise. In industry, the awareness of the connection between physical activity and learning is still not known. Especially companies characterized by high innovation are not aware how effectively they could support creative work by putting more emphasis on physical activity.

Educational technology support learning:

Some of the first educational technologies were illustrations in 17th-century books and slate chalkboards in 18th-century classrooms. Educational technologies in the 20th century include lantern-slide and opaque projectors, later radio, and then motion pictures. During the 1950s, programmed instruction emerged as the first true educational technology, that is, the first technology developed specifically to meet educational needs. With every other technology, including computers, educators recognized its importance and debated how to apply each nascent commercial technology for educational purposes. Unfortunately, educators have almost always tried to use technologies to teach students in the same ways that teachers had always taught.
Later in the 1980s, educators began to perceive the importance of computers as productivity tools. The growing popularity of word processing, databases, spreadsheets, graphics programs, and desktop publishing was enabling businesses to become more productive. So students in classroom began word processing and using graphics packages and desktop publishing programs to write with. This tool conception pervaded computer use according to a 1993 study by Hadley and Sheingold that showed that well-informed teachers were extensively using text processing tools (word processors), analytic and information tools (especially databases and some spreadsheet use), and graphics tools (paint programs and desktop publishing) along with instructional software (including problem-solving programs along with drill and practice and tutorials). Our conception of educational computing and technology use, described next, does not conceive of technologies as teachers or repositories of information. Rather, we believe that, in order to learn, students should teach the computer or use the technology to represent what they know rather than memorizing what teachers and textbooks tell them. Technologies provide rich and flexible media for representing what students know and what they are learning. A great deal of research on computers and other technologies has shown that they are no more effective at teaching students than teachers, but if we begin to think about technologies as learning tools

that students learn with, not from, then the nature of student learning will change.